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ABSTRACTION IN ELT207

ADVANCE CREATIVE WRITING

PHRASE
A PHRASE is a group of related words used as a single part of speech. A phrase lacks a
subject, a predicate, or both. Consequently, a phrase cannot be a sentence.

KINDS of PHRASES

1. A Prepositional Phrase consists of a preposition, its object, and any modifier of that
object. In most prepositional phrases, the preposition precedes the object.

Uses of Prepositional Phrases


A. A prepositional phrase may be used as an adjective. (Adjective Phrase)

Examples: The girl IN RED is my cousin. (Modifies a noun)


Riza is someone WITH HUMOROUS PERSONALITY.
(Modifies a pronoun)
B. A prepositional phrase may be used as an adverb. (Adverb Phrase)

Examples: She is IN THE ROOM. (Modifies a verb)


She is skillful WITH THE NEW TYPEWRITER. (Modifies an
adjective)
They stay outside DURING AN ARGUMENT. (Modifies an
adverb)
C. A prepositional phrase may be used as a noun. (Noun Phrase)

Examples: AFTER STUDYING is the best time to relax. (Subject)


We advanced TO WITHIN A FEW STEPS FROM THE
ACCIDENT SITE. (Object of the Preposition)
The best time to nap is AFTER LUNCH. (Subjective
Complement)

2. An APPOSITIVE PHRASE is a noun or pronoun with modifiers that is tucked in beside


another noun or pronoun to identify or describe the person or thing it refers to.

Examples: Author William Shakespeare wrote over 30 plays. (Essential Appositive)


Isabel Roxas, MY BEST FRIEND, is an expert designer. (Non-essential Appositive)
3. A VERBAL PHRASE is formed when a modifier or complement is used with a verbal.
Verbals are form of verbs that can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

Kinds of Verbal Phrases


A. A Participial Phrase consists of its modifiers and complements. The entire participial
phrase functions as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun.

Examples: CREATING THE NOISE, the children teased their classmates.


The girl, BITTEN BY THE DOG, cried for help.

B. A Gerund Phrase, which consists of a gerund and its modifiers and complements, is
used as a noun. A gerund phrase may perform all the functions of a noun.

Examples: HER MOTHERS CONSTANT NAGGING irritates her father.


The committee proposed RAISING FUNDS.
He is admired for GIVING IMPORTANCE TO THE EDUCATION
OF THE CHILDREN.

C. An Infinitive Phrase consists of an infinitive and its modifiers and complements. It


can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Examples: I love TO TALK TO STRANGERS.


TO CONDEMN AN INNOCENT CHILD is not morally worth doing.
I want to borrow a book TO READ TONIGHT.
I raised my hand TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE APPLAUSE.

References:
Lopez, Merna G. et al. Everyday Grammar.
http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/sentences/verb-phrase.html
https://www.englishgrammar101.com/

Prepared by:
MERRY GRACE H. SALUDO
(MAed- ELT Student)