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Solution Manual

Chapter-1

Solution 1.28

3 9 10
5 4

8
7 7 5
2
6
3 8 5 6
6 3
3
9
9 7 1 4 8 11
2 11 5 6 4 10 7
4
1 2
12
2 1 1
1

(a) (b) (c)

(a) N = 7, L =3,

F = N - (2L +1) = 7 ( 2 X 3 + 1 ) = 0
P1 = N + (L -1) = 7 + (3 - 1 ) = 9

(b) N = 12, L =4,

F = N - (2L +1) = 12 ( 2 X 4 + 1 ) = 3
P1 = N + (L -1) = 12 + (4 - 1 ) = 15

(c) N = 11, L=5

F = N - (2L +1) = 11 (2 X 5+ 1 ) = 0
P1 = N + (L -1) = 11 + (5 - 1 ) = 15

Solution 1.29

(a) N= 11, L = 5

F = N-(2L +1) = 11 (2 X 5+ 1 ) = 0
There can be number of possible solutions and can be obtained as in Example 1.2.
(b N = 11, L = 5

F = N - (2L +1) = 11 ( 2 X 5+ 1 ) = 0

1
There can be number of possible solutions and can be obtained as in Example 1.2.
Solution 1.30

N = 14, L = 5
F = N-(2L +1) = 14 ( 2 X 5+ 1 ) = 3
P1 = N + (L -1) = 14+ (5- 1 ) = 18
As there are 4 excess joints, they can be formed by 8 ternary links.
Solution 1.31

4
7 7
6
6 5
6 8
3

5 4 8
(a) (b) (c)

(a) Length of the longest link = 7

Length of the shortest link = 3
Length of other links = 6 and 5
Since 7 + 3 < 6 + 5, it belongs to class-I mechanism. . In this case as the link adjacent
to the shortest link is fixed, it is a crank-rocker mechanism.
(b) Length of the longest link = 8
Length of the shortest link = 4
Length of other links = 7 and 6
Since 8+ 4< 7+6, it belongs to class-I mechanism. In this case as the shortest link is
fixed, it is a double-crank mechanism.
(c) Length of the longest link = 8
Length of the shortest link = 4
Length of other links =6 and 5
Since 8+ 4>5+6, it does not belong to class-I mechanism. Therefore, it is a double-
rocker mechanism.

Solution 1.32

2
49o

103o

92o 56o

228o

38.5o

Chapter-2

Solution 2.12

Solution 2.13
C

A D
c

e
6.55 m/s
f
1.45

a 7.2 m/s b

vb = r = 36 X 0.2 = 7.2 m/s

Velocities of the required points are shown in the figure.

Solution 2.14

3
C

E
B

A D F

0.99

0.83

f 0.81

0.628

2X 100
vb = r = X 0.06 = 0.628 m/s
60
Velocities of Points C, E and F are shown in the figure.
Angular velocities:
bc 0.65
BC = = = 5.4 rad/s
BC 0.12
cd 0.83
CDE = = = 8.3 rad/s
CD 0.1
ef 0.95
EF = = =6.33 rad/s
EF 0.15
Solution 2.15

4
D o

30o 0.38
1.88
300 d
O 1.78
60o 45o C a
150 B 0.57b
120 rpm 500 (mm) 2.1
A AB= 300 c
AC = 500

= 2X 120 / 60 = 12.57 rad / s

va = 12.57 X 0.15 = 1.88 m / s
vc = 2.1 m/s;
vd = 0.38 m/s
v 0.57
ac = ac = = 1.14 rad / s
AC 0 .5
v 1.78
bd = bd = = 5.93 rad / s
BD 0.3
Solution 2.16
a
A
15
250 d
C c 18
O 100 B 11.5
90o

b 15 o
AB = 700 250
AC = 400 (mm) (m/s)
D
Take pole point o, and take the velocity of slider B 15 m/s to some scale. Complete the
velocity diagram. Measure the length of the vector oa.

Velocity of D = od = 18 m/s
oa 15
Angular velocity of link OA = = = 60 rad/s
OA 0.25

ab 11.5
Angular velocity of link AB = = = 16.4 rad/s
AB 0.7

Solution 2.17

5
Q C
b
a
B
0.157
0.13

c
A o, q 0.106

Velocities of Points B and C are shown in the figure.

2X 50
va = r = X 0.03 = 0.157 m/s
60
Angular velocities of
ab 0.059
AB = = = 0.74 rad/s counter-clockwise
AB 0.08
bq 0.13
BQ = = = 1.3 rad/s counter-clockwise
BQ 0.1
bc 0.133
BC = = = 1.33 rad/s clockwise
BC 0.1
Solution 2.18
D

800
C b 2.34 o,q

A 4.87
d
1600 c 3.73 5

500 m/s
Q a
O 2000
300 B

(mm)

Velocity of B = ob = 2.34 m/s

Velocity of B = oc = 4.87 m/s
Velocity of B = od = 4.87 m/s
ab 3.73
Angular velocity of link AB = = = 1.87 rad/s
AB 2

6
qd 4.87
Angular velocity of link QD = = = 4.06 rad/s
QD 1.2

Solution 2.19
E

B e

o,f,d
c

b
O a
F D

va = r = 12 X 0.04 = 0.48 m/s

Assume the length of vector vef and complete the velocity diagram. In the end,
measure the length of the vector oa. Take it equal to 0.48 m/s and determine the scale for
velocity and with that find the velocity vector ab.
ab 0.19
Then angular velocity of link AB = = = 1.75 rad/s
AB 0.11

Solution 2.20

B
a

Q A O b o,q

vb = r = 60 X 0.02 = 1.2 m/s

ab 1.81
Angular velocity of link AB = = = 60.3 rad/s ccw
AB 0.03

Solution 2.21

7
B

1.257m/s

c
o, a
O d
0.32
C

A D

2X 80
vb = r = X 0.15 = 1.257 m/s
60

vd = 0.32 m/s

Solution 2.22
R

P on slider
240
Q on AR

O p
135o

q r
A

o,a s
0.975 m/s

2X 100
vp = r = X 0.09 = 0.94 m/s
60
Velocity of slider = 0.975 m/s
l 480
Maximum velocity during cutting = rX = 0.94 X = 1.16 m/s
c+r 300 + 90
l 480
Maximum velocity during return = rX = 0.94 X = 2.15 m/s
cr 300 90
Maximum velocity of slider = 2.15 m/s

Solution 2.23

8
I

C C
150 150
D
75o
A
250 A
250
100
B 100
B

Fig. 2.22
vb = 6 X 0.1 = 0.6m / s
vb 0.6
bc = = = 1.3 rad / s
IB 0.435
vc = bc XIC = 1.3 X 0.354 = 0.46 m / s
vc 0.46
cd = = = 3.07 rad / s
CD 0.15

Solution 2.24
13

Q 14 56 C
6

B 5
4 1 2

34,35,45

6 3
3 15

46
5 4
24
A 26
23 16
2
12 O

2X 50
vc = 2 X (12-26) = X0.0206 = 5.23 X .0206 = 0.108 m/s
60

To find angular velocity of AB (link 3):

Velocity of A = 3 X (13-23) = 2 (12-23)
or 3 X 0.21 = 5.23 X 0.03
3 = 0.74 rad/s

Velocity of B = 3 X (13- B) = 0.74 X 0.177 = 0.13 m/s

9
To find angular velocity of BQ (link 4):
Velocity of B = 4 X QB = 0.13
or 4 X 0.1 = 0.13
4 = 1.3 rad/s

To find angular velocity of BC (link 5):

Velocity of B = 5 X (15- B) = 1.3
or 5 X 0.098 = 0.133
5 = 1.33 rad/s

Solution 2.25

24 1 2

6 3

23 B 4
3 5

34

2
26
4
36

12 O 16
46 C
45 5
13 1

56
14 6
D

2X 80
= = 8.38 rad/s
60
Velocity of D = 2 (12 - 26) = 8.32 X 0.038 = 0.32 m/s

Solution 2.26

10
23 14
2

3 6 1 2
12 46
4
34
16 6 3

5 4
13 35 5 15

2X 200
va = 2 X OA = X 0.03 = 20.94 X .3 = 6.28 m/s
60
To find angular velocity of AC (link 3):
Velocity of A = 3 X (13-23) = 6.28
or 3 X 1.3 = 6.28
3 = 4.8 rad/s

To find angular velocity of BD (link 4):

Velocity of B = 4 X (14-34) = 3 X (13-34)
or 4 X 1.13 = 4.8 X 1.02
4 = 4.33 rad/s
Velocity of C,
vc = 3 X (13- 35) = 4.8 X 1.1 = 5.28 m/s
Velocity of D,
vd = 4 X (14- 46) = 4.33 X 0.35 = 1.52 m/s

Solution 2.27

12

23
26 2
1 2
16

25
6 3

6
13 3 K
5 4

4 5 56

34 35

15

Locate the I-centres 13, 15, 25 and then 26.

Angular velocity of link 2 = 12.6 rad/s

11
Velocity of I-centre 26 = 12.6 X ( 12-26) = 12.6 X 73 = 920 mm/s

Angular velocity of link 6, = Velocity of I-centre 26/(16-26)

920
= = 1.59 rad/s
580
Velocity of K = X MK = 1.59 X 0.280 = 0.445 m/s
Horizontal component = 0.445 X (240/280) = 0.381 m/s

Chapter-3

Solution 3.11

E
C

A D

a1, d1
f1 161
b 166

15.7 c1 cd
7.4
330

c
11.5
a,d
ab e1

b1
bc

vb = 20.94 X 0.75 = 15.7 m/s

bc 7.4
bc = = = 5.92 rad/s
BC 1.25

12
cd 11.5
cd = = = 11.5 rad/s
CD 1

c
f ba =2 X r = (20.94)2 X 0.75 = 328.8 m/s2
t
f ba = X r = 280 X 0.75 = 210 m/s2
c
f =
(bc )2 = (7.4)2 = = 43.8 m/s2
bc
BC 1.25
c
f cd =
(dc ) = (11.5)2 = = 132.3 m/s2
2

DC 1

Linear accelerations are shown in the figure.

b c 28.6
bc = c 1 = = 229 rad/s2
BC 1.25
c c 100
cd = d 1 = = 100 rad/s2
CD 1

Solution 3.12

O
S
B

a qb
b1
1.047 bs
0.759 s1 o1, q1

s o, q
0.29
0.925 as a1
b

13
2X 200
va = X 0.05 =20.94 X 0.5 = 1.047 m/s
60
c
f ao = 2 X r = (20.94)2 X 0.05 = 21.92 m/s2
c
f as =
(as )2 = (0.759)2 = 2.88 m/s2
AS 0.2
c
f bs =
(bs ) = (0.29)2 = 1.68 m/s2
2

BS 0.5
c
f qb =
(qb ) (0.925)
2
=
2
= 8.56 m/s2
QB 0.1

Linear acceleration of S = o1s1 = 14.5 m/s2

b q 11.4
bq = 1 b = = 114 rad/s2
BQ 0.1

Solution 3.13

A
G

O B

a
b1 o1

g 3.14
2.29 80
2.7
b o g1
2.65 98.6

ba
a1
13.1
2X 300
va = X 0.1 =31.4 X 0.1 = 3.14 m/s
60

ab 2.29
ab = = = 5.7 rad/s
AB 0.4
c
f ao = 2 X r = (31.4)2 X 0.1 = 98.6 m/s2
c
f =
(ab )2 = (2.29)2 = = 13.1 m/s2
ab
AB 0.4

ba b1 69
ab = = = 173 rad/s2
AB 0.4

14
1 2 1 2
KE = mv + I
2 2
1 2 1
= mv + mk 2 2
2 2
1 1
= X 50 X 2.7 2 + X 50 X 0.12 2 X 5.7 2
2 2
= 194 N.m

Solution 3.14

o1,c1 cb
e1
A
d1,ed

O
ab

b1
a1
B
C
a
2.49
b

E D

1.58 2.85

d
o, c, g e
0.51

2X 160
va = X 0.17 =16.76 X 0.17 = 2.85 m/s
60

c
f ao = 2 X r = (16.76)2 X 0.17 = 47.8 m/s2
c
f ab =
(ab )2 = (2.5)2 = 9.47 m/s2
AB 0.66
c
f bc =
(bc ) (1.58)
2
=
2
= 4.89 m/s2
BC 0.51
c
f de =
(de) = (0.13)2 = 0.02 m/s2
2

DE 0.83

Acceleration of E = c1e1 = 9.25 m/s2

15
b1cb 31
bc = = = 60.8 rad/s2
BC 0.51
e1ed 4.25
de = = = 5.12 rad/s2
DE 0.83

Solution 3.15

2X 120
va = X 0.04 = 4 X 0.04 = 0.5 m/s
60

16
120
OA = 40
AB = 90 A
45o
40
O
90

100

135 B 120
D

Q
(mm)

d 0.17 o,q

0.25
0.255
0.5

0.46
(m/s)
a
d1 0.83 o1,q1
0.54
bq

6.32

ab

bd
2.35 b10.46

(m/s2)

a1

c
f ao = 2 X r = (4 )2 X 0.04 = 6.32 m/s2
c
f =
(ab )2 = (0.46)2 = 2.35 m/s2
ab
AB 0.09
c
fbq =
(bq ) = (0.255)2 = 0.54 m/s2
2

BQ 0.12

17
c
f db =
(db )2 = (0.25)2 = 0.46 m/s2
DB 0.135
Velocity of slider at D = 0.17 m/s
Acceleration of slider at D = 0.83 m/s2

Solution 3.16

R p

P on slider
Q on AR 0.438
O 0.628

q r
0.576 0.179

o, a s
0.64

o1, a1 s1
1.55
q1
r1
sr
qa 3.94

p1

pq

2 60
vpo = .OP = X 0.1 = 0.628 m/s
60
Velocity of S = 0.64 m/s

c
f po =
(op )2 = (0.628)2 = = 3.94 m/s2
OP 0.1
c
f ar =
(ar ) (0.576 )
2
=
2
= = 0.83 m/s2
AR 0.4

18
f rsc =
(rs )2 = (0.179)2 = = 0.21 m/s2
RS 0.15

ar 0.576
cr
f pq = 2. ar v pq = 2. . Xv pq = 2 X X 0.438 = 1.26 m/s2
AR 0.4

Acceleration of S = 1.55 m/s2

Solution 3.17

o,q

R A on slider
B on QR 2.55
6
b
5.4
O Q
o1,q1
a
bq

a1

ba

b1

c
f ao = 2 X r = (20)2 X 0.3 = 120 m/s2
c
f =
(qb )2 = (2.55)2 = = 14.1 m/s2
bq
QB 0.46
bq 2.55
cr
f ba = 2. bq vba = 2. . X 5.4 = 2 X X 5.4 = 5.54 = 4.89 m/s2
BQ 0.46

b1bq 165
qr = = = 358 rad/s2
BQ 0.461

Solution 3.18

19
A o1, q1
ba

Q
O c1
o, q
cd
0.475 d1
c 1.57
1.5

b
1.51
a

ca a1

ab
b1

2 300
vpa = .OA = X 0.05 = 31.4 X 0.05 = 1.57 m/s
60
Velocity of piston relative to walls = ab = 1.51 m/s
vbq 0.475
Angular velocities of rod AC and cylinder = = = 2.06 rad/s
BQ 0.23
c
f ao = 2 X r = (31.4)2 X 0.05 = 47.8 m/s2
c
f bq =
(bq )2 = (0.475)2 = = 0.98 m/s2
BQ 0.23
bq 0.475
cr
f ab = 2. rq vab = 2. . Xvab = 2 X X 1.51 = 6.24 m/s2
BQ 0.23

Sliding acceleration of piston relative to cylinder walls = b1 ab = 16 m/s2

Absolute velocity of piston = oc = 1.5 m/s
c1ca 35.8
Angular acceleration of piston rod BC = = = 239 rad/s2
CA 0.15
Solution 3.19

20
o1

D b

0.72
B c
0.92

C
a
A
0.94 d1
o b1
45o
60o 60o
0.31 0.93 c1 oa
O a1
d
ab cd

2X 60
va = X 0.15 = 2 X 0.15 = 0.94 m/s
60
c
f ao = 2 X r = (2 )2 X 0.15 = 5.92 m/s2
t
f ao = X r = 8 X 0.15 = 1.2 m/s2
c
f ab =
(ab )2 = (0.72)2 =
1.73 m/s2
AB 0.3
c
f cd =
(cd ) (0.93)
2
=
2
= 1.92 m/s2
CD 0.45
Velocity of slider at B = ob = 0.92 m/s
Velocity of slider at D = od = 0.31 m/s
Acceleration of slider at B = o1b1 = 5.55 m/s2
Acceleration of slider at D = o1d1 = 5.49 m/s2
Angular velocity of link CD = cd/CD = 0.93/0.45 = 2.07 rad/s
Angular acceleration of link CD = cdd1/CD = 2.94/0.45 = 6.53 rad/s2

Solution 3.20

E
C

B
P A1
A2

J Q'
I
Collineation
E' axis-II
Collineation
axis-I
Q A D

Distance I.E = 156 mm

Chapter-4

21
Solution 4.6
a = - 8 rad/s ; a = - 12 rad/s2
e a sin 15 50 sin 45o
= sin 1 = sin 1 = -7.3o
b 160

& a a sin( ) 50 X 8 X sin( 7.3o 45)

d= = =320 mm/s
cos cos(7.3o )
a cos 50 X 8 X cos 45o
b = a = = -1.78 rad/s
b cos 160 X cos 7.3o

&d& = a a sin ( ) a a cos ( ) b b

2 2

cos

=
( ) ( )
50 X 12 X sin 7.3o 45 o 50 X 8 2 cos 7.3o 45 o 160 X 1.78 2
cos (7.3o )
600 X (0.79) 3200 X 0.61 506.9
=
0.992
2
= 1981 mm/s

a a cos a a2 sin b b2 sin

b =
b cos
50 X (12) cos 45o 50 X 82 sin 45o 160 X 1.782 sin (7.3o )
=
160 cos (7.3o )
424.3 2263 + 64.4
=
158.7

Chapter-5

Solution 5.17

k1cos30 + k2 cos 25+ k3 = cos (25- 30)

k1cos40 + k2 cos 35+ k3 = cos (35- 40)
k1cos60 + k2 cos 50+ k3 = cos (50- 60)
Now,

cos 30o cos 25o 1

= cos 40 o cos 35o 1
cos 60 o cos 50 o 1

22
cos(25 o 30 o ) cos 25 o 1
1 = cos(35 o 40 o ) cos 35 o 1
cos(50 o 60 o ) cos 50 o 1

cos 30 o cos(25 o 30 o ) 1
2 = cos 40 o cos(35 o 40 o ) 1
cos 60 o cos(50 o 60 o ) 1

cos 30 o cos 25o cos(25o 30 o )

3 = cos 40 o cos 35o cos(35o 40 o )
cos 60 o cos 50 o cos(50 o 60 o )

= cos30(cos 35- cos 50o) + cos25(cos60 cos40)

+ (cos40 X cos50 - cos60 X cos35)
= - 0.005554
Similarly, 1= - 0.000992
2= 0.001138
3= - 0.005705

Assuming d = 1,
0.000992 1
k1 = 1 = = or a = 5.6
0.005554 a

1 0.001138 1
k2 = = = or c = 4.88
0.005554 c
0.005705 5.6 2 b 2 + 4.88 2 + 12
k3 = 1 = = or b = 0.17
0.005554 2 X 5.6 X 4.88

Thus a, b, c and d are 5.60, 0.17, 4.88 and 1.00 are respectively.

Solution 5.18

Position x y
1 2 8 40 60
2 3 18 80 90
3 4 32 120 132
1 (18 8)
when is 40 + 80 = 80, is 60 + (132 o 60) = 90
2 (32 8)

= - 0.059566
1= - 0.034337

23
2= 0.033518
3= - 0.064482

On solving,
a = 1.73, b = 0.7, c = 1.78, d =1.0

Chapter-6

Solution 6.23
The triangles OAC and OBD as well as OEC and OFD are similar for all
positions. Thus if c traces any path , D describes a similar path.

Solution 6.26

B C'

C
B'

1.3 BC

D
A

P
Make the following construction:
Draw the configuration in any other position.
Produce AB and DC to meet at point O.
Draw a vertical through O to the central arm at P.
P is found to be approximately at a length 1.3 BC below BC.

Solution 6.27

PA QB
=
PB OA
Let PB = x, then PA = 175 x
175 x 200
or =
x 120
or 320 x = 21 000
or x = 65.7 mm
or PA = 175 65.7 = 109.3 mm

24
Solution 6.28

Let PB = x, then PA = 60+x

60 + x 90
or =
x 45
or 45 x = 2700
or x = 60 mm
or PA = 60 + 60 = 120 mm

Solution 6.29

w 1.35
Tan = = = 0.281 or = 15.7o
2l 2 X 2.4

Solution 6.30

(a) 2/1 is maximum at = 0 and 180

(b) 2/1 is minimum at = 90 and 270
(c) 2/1 is unity when tan = cos = cos 15
= 0.9828
or = 44.5o, 135.5, 224.5, and 315.5o

(i) Acceleration of driven shaft is maximum or minimum when

2 sin 2 2 sin 2 15
cos 2 0.0693
2 sin 2 2 sin 2 15
or 43, 137o, 223 and 317

Maximum acceleration will be at 137 and 317 and minimum acceleration ( -ve)
will be at 43 and 223.

Solution 6.31

1 cos 2
= 0.16
cos
or 1- cos2 = 0.16 cos
or cos2 + 0.16 cos =1

25
or cos2 + 0.16 cos + 0.0064=1 +0.0064
(cos + 0.08)2 = 1.0032
cos = 0.923
= 22.6o

Solution 6.32

2 1000
1 = = 104.7 rad/s
60

Maximum torque on the driven shaft will be when the acceleration is maximum,
i.e. when
2 sin 2 2 sin 2 20
cos 2 0.1242
2 sin 2 2 sin 2 20
or
2 = 82.86o or 277.14
12 cos sin 2 sin 2
Maximum acceleration =
(1 sin 2
cos 2 )
2

(104.7 ) cos 20 sin 2 20 sin 277.14 o

2
=
(1 sin 2
20 cos 2 138.57)
2

1195.6
=
0.8728
Maximum torque = mk2. = 30 X 0.12X 1370 = 411 N.m
Solution 6.33
500
Maximum velocity = = 515.5 rpm
cos 2 10 o

Minimum velocity = 500 cos2 10o = 484.9 rpm

515.5 484.9
Coefficient of fluctuation of speed = = 0.06
500

26
Chapter-7

Solution 7.14
2N 2 60
= = = 2 rad/s
60 60
h 0.04 2
v max = = = 0.25 m/s
2 a 2
90 X
180
2

h 0.040 2
2

f max = = = 3.155 m/s2

2 a 2 90

180

Solution 7.15

2h
vmax =
a
2 1500
where = = 157.1 rad/s
60
2 0.03 157.1
vmax = = 3 m/s
180 / 180
2h 2
f max =
a2
2 0.03 (157.1)
2
f max = = 471.2 m/s2
(180 / 180)2

Solution 7.16
2N 2 180
= = = 6 rad/s
60 60
During ascent:
6
vmax = 2h = 2 0.045 = 1.62 m/s
a 60 X / 180

27
4h 2 4 0.045 (6 )
2
f uniform = = = 58.3 m/s2
a2
2

60
180
During descent:
h 0.045 6
v max = = = 1.02 m/s
2 a 2
75 X
180
2

h 0.045 6
2

f max = = = 46.05 m/s2

2 a 2 75

180
Solution 7.20

2 630
= = 66 rad/s
60
During ascent: During ascent, it is simple harmonic motion. The variation of velocity is
h
give by, v= sin [Eq. (7.2)]
2 d a
Maximum value is at = a / 2 ,
h 0.035 66
vmax = = = 2.31 mm/s
2 a 2 90 / 180
2
h
The acceleration variation is given by, f = cos [Eq. (7.4)]
2
2 2
h 0.035 66
It is maximum at = 0 i.e. f max = = = 304.92 m/s
2
2 d 2 90 / 180

During descent:
During the descent period, the acceleration and the deceleration are uniform.
Thus, the velocity is linear during the period and is given by
4h
v = . [Eq. (7.7a)]
a
The maximum velocity is at the end of the acceleration period i.e. when = / 2 .

28
66
vmax = 2h = 2 0.035 = 5.544 m/s
a 150 / 180

4h 2
funiform = [Eq. (7.6a)]
a2
4 0.035 662
or funiform = = 878.17 m/s2
(150 / 180)2

Solution 7.21
rc = 40 mm rn = 10 mm
rr = 16 mm N = 315 rpm

2 315
= = 33 rad/s
60
Refer Fig.7.36,
= (180 - 45 - 90) = 45
OA = OP + PA
= OQ cos + QK
rc = r cos + rn
40 = r cos 45o + 10
r = 42.4 mm.

BC PQ
tan = =
OB OB
r sin
=
rc + rr
42.4 sin 45
=
40 + 16
= 0.535
= 28.2

29
(i) Acceleration when the roller just leaves the straight flank,
2 (rc + rr )(2 cos2 )
f=
cos3
(33) (0.04 + 0.016 )(2 cos 2 28.2)
2
=
cos3 28.2
2
= (33) X 0.054 X 1.787
= 105.1 m/s2
(ii) Acceleration when the roller is at the outer end of its lift i.e. at the top of the nose,
=
r 3 sin 2 2( ) r cos 2( )
f = r cos( )
2

[
4 l 2 r 2 sin 2 ( ) ]
3/ 2
l 2 r 2 sin 2 ( )

r
= 2 r 1
l
0.0424
= (33) 2 X 0.0424 1 (l = rr + rn = 16 + 10 = 26 mm)
0.026
= 799.1 m/s2

Solution 7.22
rc = 40 mm h = 20 mm
rr = 22 mm N = 360 rpm
(i) Refer Fig.7.35,
r + rn + rr = rc + rr + h
r + rn = rc + x = 40 + 20 = 60 (i)
Also, OP + rn = rc
or r cos 60 + rn = 40
or 0.5 r + rn = 40 (ii)
Subtracting (ii) from (i),
r = 40 mm
rn = 20 mm
r sin
tan =
rc + rr
40 sin 60
=
40 + 22
= 0.558

30
= 29.2
(ii) Acceleration of the follower
2 360
= = 37.7 rad/s
60
(a) At the beginning of Lift, i.e. roller centre at B, = 0.

2 (rc + rr )(2 cos 2 )

f=
cos 3

=
(37.7 )2 (0.04 + 0.022)(2 cos 2 0)
cos 3 0
= 88.12 m/s2

(b) The roller just touches the nose ( = ), i.e. the roller centre at C.

When the contact is with straight flank, = 29.2 =

f=
(37.7 )2 (0.04 + 0.022)(2 cos 2 29.2) =164 m/s2
cos 3 29.2

When the contact is on the circular nose,

l = rn + rr = 20 + 22 = 42 mm

r 3 sin 2 2( ) r cos 2 ( )
f = r cos ( )
2

[
4 I 2 r 2 sin 2 ( )
3/ 2
] l 2 r 2 sin 2 ( )

cos (60 29 . 2 )
(0.04)3 sin 2 2 (60 29.2)

= (37.7 ) (0.04 )
2 [
4 (0.042 ) (0.04 ) sin 2 (60 29.2)
2 2 3
]/ 2

(0.04) cos 2 (60 29.2)

(0.042)2 (0.04)2 sin 2 (60 29.2)
= 56.85 (-0.859 0.251 0.519)
= 92.6 m/s2
(c) When the roller is at the apex of the circular nose, i.e. at D, =

31
and
r 0.04
f = 2 r 1 = (37.7 ) 0.04 1 2
2
= -111 m/s
1 0.042

Solution 7.23

rc = 62.5 mm h = 25 mm
2 = 150 N = 1250 rpm
= 75
Refer Fig. 7.36,
During the lifting of the follower, the acceleration takes place when the follower
is on the radial flank and the deceleration when the follower is on the nose. When the
follower just touches the nose, the follower position will be as shown in Fig. 7.36. OC
and PQE are parallel and the angles = 25 and = 50 so that is 50% of .
(i) Apply sine rule to POQ,
OP PQ OQ
= =
sin sin (180 ) sin
r f rc r f rn
r
= =
sin 50 sin 105 sin 25
But r + rn = rc + h
or r = rc + h - rn
= 62.5 + 25 - rn
= 87.5 - rn
r f 62.5 r f rn 87.5 rn
= =
sin 50 sin 105 sin 25
From first and last terms,
0.423 rf 26.4 = 67 0.766 rn
or rf = 22 1.81rn (i)
From second and last terms,
0.423 rf 0.423 rn =84.5 0.966 rn
rf = 199.8 1.284 rn (ii)
From (i) and (ii),
22 1.81rn = 199.8 1.284 rn
rn = 40.3 mm

32
r f = 148 mm

r = 87.5 40.3 = 47.2 mm

(ii) Accelerations
(a) At the beginning of contact, = 0,
f = 2 (rf rc) cos 0
2
2 1250
or f = (148 62.5)
60
= 1465 000 mm/s2 or 1465 m/s2

(b) Contact at the apex of nose, = = 80,

2X 1250
60
f = -2r cos (75 - 75) = - 130.92 47.2
= - 808 800 mm/s2 or 808.8 m/s2

Maximum acceleration is when the contact is just made with the circular flank; it
is 1465 m/s2 and the maximum retardation is at the end of the lifting period, i.e. when the
contact is at the apex of the nose; it is 808.8 m/s2.

Solution 7.24

Crank rotation during of the exhaust valve = 180 -5 + 53 = 228

In four-stroke engines, the camshaft speed is half that of the crankshaft.
228
Angle of action of the camshaft, 2 = = 114
2
114
= = 57
2
Refer to Fig.7.37,
r + rn = r c + h
or r = 18 + 8 3 = 23 mm
(PQ)2 = (OP)2 + (OQ)2 2(OP)(OQ) cos POQ
(rf 3)2 = (rf 18)2 + (23)2 2(rf 18)(23) cos (180 -57)
r f2 + 9 6r f = r f2 + 324 36r f + 529 + 25.1r f 451

rf = 80.2 mm

33
Applying sine rule to OPQ,
OQ PQ
=
(
sin sin 180 57 o )
r r f rn
or =
sin sin 123
23 80.2 3
or =
sin sin 123
sin = 0.25
= 14.47
Velocity is maximum when the contact is on the point where the circular flank
meets the circular nose.
vmax = (rf rc) sin
2 800
= (80.2 18) sin 14.47
60
= 1300 mm/s or 1.3 m/s

The same result is obtained if relation of Eq. (7.28) is used, i.e.

vmax = r sin ( - )
= 83.77 X 0.023 X sin (57o 14.47o)
= 1.3 m/s
Maximum acceleration is when = 0,
fmax = 2 (rf rc) = (83.77)2 (80.2 18)
= 433 700 mm/s2 or 433.7 m/s2
Maximum retardation is when - = 0,
fmax = 2r = (83.77)2 23 = 161 400 mm/s2 or 161.4 m/s2

Spring force is needed to maintain contact during the retardation of the follower.
Minimum force, F = m f = 0.25 161.4 = 40.35 N

Solution 7.25
rc = 50 mm N = 210 rpm
h = 30 mm rn = 12 mm
= 80o

34
2 210
= = 22 rad/s
60
Refer to Fig.7.37.
r + rn = r c + h
or r = 50 + 30 12 = 68 mm

(PQ)2 = (OP)2 + (OQ)2 2(OP)(OQ) cos POQ

(rf 12)2 = (rf 50)2 + (68)2 2(rf 50)(68) cos (180 -80)
rf2 + 144 24rf = rf2 + 2500 100rf + 4624 + 23.6rf 1180.8

52.4 rf = 5799
rf = 110.7 mm
OP = 110.7 - 50 = 60.7 mm
PQ = 110.7 - 12 = 98.7 mm
Applying sine rule to OPQ,
OQ PQ
=
sin sin (180 )

r r r
or = f n
sin sin 100
68 110.7 12
or =
sin sin 100
sin = 0.678
= 42.7
Acceleration when the follower is on the circular flank, f = 2 (r f rc )cos

(i) At the beginning of lift, = 0o,

f = 2 (r f rc )= 222 (110.7 50) = 29379 mm/s2 = 29.379 m/s2

(ii) At the end of contact with the circular flank,

f = 2 (r f rc )cos = 222 (110.7 50)cos 35.9o = 23798 mm/s2 = 23.798 m/s2

(iii) At the beginning of contact with the nose

f = 2 r cos( ) =- 222 X 68 X cos (80o 42.7o)= 26181 mm/s2 = 26.181 m/s2

35
(iv) At the apex of the nose, =

f = 2 r =- 222 X 68 = 32912 mm/s2 = 32.912 m/s2

Solution 7.26

e = 30 mm m = 2.5 kg
s = 4 N/mm = 4 000 N/m
P = 50 N + mg = (50 +2.5 X 9.81) N
Consider the rotation of the cam through angle (Refer Fig. 7.43),

Now, x = 3030 e cos = 30(1-cos )

dx dx d
x& = = = 30 sin
dt d dt
dv dv d
&x& = = = 30 2 cos
dt d dt
which is the required expression for acceleration of the cam follower system.
To find the speed at which the follower begins to lift from the cam surface or the
jump speed,
2 se + P
= (Eq. 7.38)
me
2 X 4000 X 0.03 + 50 + 2.5 X 9.81
=
2.5 X 0.03
= 4193.7
2N
or = 64.76
60
or N = 618.4 rpm

Chapter-8

Solution 8.22
Rn Rn
240 N 280 N
25o 25o

F' F'

W W
(a) (b)
Fig. 8.2
(a) consider the pull (Fig. 8.2a),

36
Resolving the forces horizontally,
F = 240 cos 25o or Rn= 217.5 or Rn = 217.5/

Resolving the forces vertically,

Rn + 240 sin 25o = W
217.5 217.5
or + 101.4 = W or = (i)
W 101.4

Similarly, consider the push (Fig. 8.2b),

Resolving the forces horizontally,
F = 270 cos 25o or Rn= 244.7 or Rn = 244.7/

Resolving the forces vertically,

Rn = W + 270 sin 25o
244.7 244.7
or = W + 114.1 or = (ii)
W + 114.1
Equating (i) and (ii),
217.5 244.7
= or 217.5(W+114.1) = 244.7(W-101.4)
W 101.4 W + 114.1
Or 27.2 W = 49629.3 or W = 1825 N
Or = 0.126

Solution 8.23
When the force applied is parallel to the plane surface,
F = W (sin + cos )
2400 = W(sin 8o + cos 8o) (i)
and 3000 = W(sin 12o + cos 12o)
Dividing (ii) by (i),
3000 W (sin 12o + cos 12o )
=
2400 W (sin 8o + cos 8o )
or (sin 8o + cos 8o ) =0.8 (sin 12o + cos 12o )
or (cos8o-0.8cos12o) = 0.8 sin12o sin 8o
or 0.2077 = 0.02716
= 0.1307
From (i) 2400 = W(sin 8o + cos 8o)
W =8935 N or 8.935 kN

Solution 8.24

The mean diameter of the threaded bolt = 48 - (8/2) = 44 mm

p 8
Now, tan = = = 0.0579, = 3.31o
d X 44
tan = 0.1 , = 5.71o

37
T = Fr = W tan ( + ) r
= 80 000 tan (3.31o + 5.71o) X (44/2)
= 279386 N.mm = 279.386 N.m
As the threaded screw advances a distance equal to one pitch in one revolution,
The cuting speed = pX N
or 6 =8XN
or N = 0.75 rps
Power required to operate the nut = T X =279.386 X 2X 0.75
= 1316.6 W
Solution 8.25
Figure 8.8 shows the outline of a turn buckle.
p = 10 mm = 0.14
d = 48 mm W = 3000 N
P 10
tan = = = 0.0663 or = 3.79
d 48
= tan = 0.14 or = 7.97

Torque on each rod = F.r = W tan ( + ) r

= 3000 tan (3.79 + 7.97) 0.024
= 14.99 N.m

Total torque on the coupling nut = 2 14.99 = 29.98 N.m

In one complete revolution of the rod, each coach is moved through a distance
equal to pitch.
Number of turns required to move the coaches through a distance of 160 mm
= 160/(2 8) = 10

Work done, W = T. = 29.98 2 10 = 1884 N.m

For increase in load from 3 kN to 8 kN,
1883.7(8000 3000)
Additional work done, W = =3139.5 N.m
3000

Solution 8.26
p 10
tan = = = 0.08, = 4.55o
d X 40
= tan = 0.14 , = 7.97o

T = Fr = W tan ( + ) r
= 12 000 tan (4.55o + 7.97o) X (40/2)
= 53 295 N.mm

Torque due to friction between nut and bearing surface = ( W) r

38
= 0.16 X 12 000X 40
= 76 800 N.m
Total friction torque required = 53 295 + 76800 = 130 095 N.mm or 130.095 N.m
If d is the diameter of the hand wheel,
Torque applied to hand wheel = 2 X 120 X d/2 =120 d
120d = 130 095 or d = 1084 mm or 1.084 m

Solution 8.27

= 0.2 , tan = 0.2 ; =11.31o

tan = p/ d = 24/( X72) = 0.1061 or = 6.056o
T = F.r = W.tan ( + ).r = 5X9810 tan (11.31o +6.056o) X0.036
= 5X9810 X0.3127 X0.036
= 552.2 N
Efficiency = tan 6.056/tan(11.31 +6.056)= 0.339

Solution 8.28

= 0.18 , tan = 0.18 ; =10.2o

10
tan = = 0.579 or = 3.312o
X (50 + 5)
Let W be the load in N.
Torque to raise the load = W.tan ( + ).r = W tan (10.2o +3.312o) X0.0275
= 0.0066 W
Torque due to collar friction = .W.r =0.15 X W X 0.05 =0.0075 W

W = 7800 N

F = T/r = 7800 X 0.0141/0.0275 = 3999 N

W 7800
Efficiency = tan = X 0.0579 =0.1129
F 3999

Solution 8.29

cos ' tan (x + z ) sin ( + )
= cos ( + )
sin( + 2 ' ) b
a +
2
o
= tan = 0.15 ; = 8.53
tan = 0.2 ; = 11.31o

= 20o; b = 0.05 ; y = 0.12m ; x = 0.045 m

39
a and z can be calculated as given below,
yz
tan = =
a+b
z = y - a - b
z
In OGH , tan = = or z = a
a
y a b = a
or 2a = y - b
y b y b 0.12 0.05
a= = = = 0.375
2 2 2 2 X 0.15 2
z = a. = 0.375 X 0.15 = 0.05625

=
o
cos 11.31 tan 20 o
cos (20 o + 11.31o )
(0.045 + 0.05625) sin (20 + 11.31 )
o o

sin( 20 + 2 X 11.31 )
o o
0.05
0 . 375 +
2
= 0.527 X (0.854 0.1315)
= 0.38

Solution 8.30

2 Ro3 Ri3 2 (0.24) 3o (0.14) i3

T= F 2 2
= X 10 X 9810 2
Ro Ri 3 (0.24) o (0.14) i
2
3
= 19069
P=T
2X 200
8000 = 19069 X
60
= 0.02

Solution 8.31

2 Ro3 Ri3 2 (0.24) 3o (0.14) i3

T= F 2 2
= X 0.06 X 12 X 9810 2
= 1073.6 N.m
Ro Ri 3 (0.24) o (0.14) i
2
3

2X 120
P = T = 1073.6 X =13 490 W
60
Load each collar can take = 400 (0.182 -0.122) = 22.629 kN
12 X 9.81X 1000
Number of collars = = 5.2 or 6 collars
22.619

Solution 8.32

F = 2 piRi (Ro Ri) n

40
= 2 100X1000 Ri (1.3Ri Ri)
= 188500 Ri2
F 2
T= (Ro + Ri ) n = 0.25 X 188500 Ri (1.3Ri + Ri ) 2
2 2
3
120= 108390 Ri
Ri = 0.1035 m Di = 207 mm
Do = 207X1.3 = 269 mm
Solution 8.33

P = 80 kW = 0.25
N = 1800 rpm ; Ro = 1.2 Ri
R + Ri 1.2 Ri + Ri
Rm = o = = 1.1Ri
2 2
In case of power transmission through a clutch, it is safer to use the expressions
obtained by uniform wear theory. In that case maximum pressure is at the inner radius,
i.e. pi = 80 kN/m2
As maximum rating of the torque of the engine is given, power and rpm of the
engine are the superfluous data.

F
(i) T= (Ro + Ri ) n (n = number of surfaces)
2

= [2 pi Ri (Ro Ri )](Ro + Ri ) 2
2
= [2 X 80000 XRi (1.2 Ri Ri )](1.2 Ri + Ri )
= 0.25 X 2 XX 80000 X 0.44 Ri3
550 = 55292 Ri3
Ri = 0.215 m
Ro = 1.2 X 0.215 = 0.258 m
Total stiffness of springs = 6X 50 =300 N/mm
Axial force required to engage the clutch, F = [2 pi Ri (Ro Ri )]
= 2 X80000X0.215 X (0.258-0.215) = 4647 N
Initial compression in the springs = 4647/ 300 = 15.49 mm

Solution 8.34

P=T
2X 400
20000 = T X
60
T = 477.5 N.m

41
F
T= (Ro + Ri ) n
2
0 .3 F
477.5 = (0.09 + 0.12) 6
2

F = 2526.3 N
F = 2 piRi (Ro Ri)
2526.3 = 2 pi X0.09 (0.12 0.09)
p = 148900 N/m2 or 148.9 kN/m2

Solution 8.35

P=T
2X 750
25000 = T X
60
T = 318.31 N.m

T = FnRm
318.31= 0.25 Fn 0.2
Fn = 6366 N
F = Fn (sin10o + cos 10o)= 6366 (sin10o + cos 10o) = 2672 N
Fn = 2 pm Rmb
6366 = 2 60 103 0.2 b
b = 0.0844 m or 84.4 mm

Solution 8.36

F
p=
(R Ri2 )2
0

F
150000 p =
(0.12 0.08 2 )
2

F = 3770 N

T=
(
2 F Ro3 Ri3 )
=
(
2 X 0.3 X 3770 0.12 3 0.083 )
=442.81 N.m
(
3 sin Ro2 Ri2 ) (
3 sin 15o 0.12 2 0.08 2 )
P=T
2X 800
= 442.81 X =37 097 W
60

Solution 8.37

Refer to Fig. 8.23a.

42
AB = 1m = 45
OA = 0.25m p = 350 kN/m2
d = 200 mm

Neglecting Friction

T = Fc x OC = Fc x OA sin ( + )

Piston at B is in equilibrium under the forces, F, Fc and R (reaction of guides).

d2 p
F
Fc cos = F or Fc = = 4
cos cos

sin( + )
Thus T = d 2 p OA
4 cos

is given by

AL OA sin
= sin = sin
AB AB
0.25 sin 45o
= sin
1
= 10.18o

sin( 45o + 10.18o )

T = (0.2) 2 350 10 3 0.3
4 cos 10.18o

= 2292.7 N.m

Friction Considered Refer to Fig. 8.23b.

0.18
Radius of friction circle at O (crankshaft), ro = r = 0.06
2
= 0.0054 m
0.14
Radius of friction circle at A (crankpin), ra = 0.06 = 0.0042 m
2
0.10
Radius of friction circle at B (crosshead), rb = 0.06 = 0.003 m
2
OB = OA cos + AB cos = 0.25 cos 45 + 1 cos 10.18

43
= 1.161 m
Inclination of the friction axis with OB,
r +r
= = sin a b
AB
0.0042 + 0.003
= 10.18o sin
1
= 10.18 - 0.4125
= 9.767

The piston at B is in equilibrium under the action of forces F, Fc and R.

= tan 1 0.079 = 4.517 o

Fc F
=
sin(90 + ) sin(90 + )
o o

10996 sin(90 o + 4.517 o )

or Fc = = 11016 N
sin(90 o + 10.18o 4.517 o )

T = Fc X x = 11016 0.2028 = 2234 N.m

Reduction in the torque available = T T = 2292.7 2234 = 58.7 N.m

Chapter-9

Solution 9.19

Solution 9.20

N 2 D1 + t 100 S 90 255 100 3.96

= or =
N1 D2 + t 100 150 D2 + 5 100
D2 = 403.2 mm

Solution 9.21

44
R+r 400 + 300
= sin = sin
o
= 5.02 or 0.0876 rad
C 800
L = ( + 2X 0.0876) (0.4 +0.3) + 2 X 8 X cos 5.02o = 18.2603

For open belt, L = (R + r ) +

(R r )2 + 2C = X 0.7 + 0.12 + 2 X 8 =18.2003 m
C 8

Difference = 0.06 m

Solution 9.22

(a) For First Step:

R1 n1 R 160
= or 1 = orR1 = 200mm
r1 N1 75 60
or diameters = 150 mm and 400 mm
(b) For Second Step:
R2 n2 160
= = or R2 = 1.778 r2
r2 N2 90
Also R2 + r2 = R1 + r1
1.778 r2 + r2 = 200 + 75
r2 = 99 mm
R2 = 99 1.778 = 176 mm
or diameters = 198 mm and 352 mm
(c) For third Step:
R3 160
= or R3 = 1.334 r3
r3 120
Also
R3 + r3 = R1 + r1
1.334 r3 + r3 = 200 + 75
r3 = 118mm
R3 = 118 1.334 = 157 mm
or Diameters = 236 mm and 314 mm

Solution 9.23

(b) For Second Step:

R2 n2 300
= = or R2 = 1.667 r2
r2 N 2 180

45
(R2 + r2 )+ ( R2 r2 )
2

= (R1 + r1 ) +
( R1 r1 )
2

C C

( )
1.667 r2 + r2 +
(1.667 r2 r2 )
2
( )
= 0.321 + 0.15 +
(0.321 0.15)
2

5 5
8.38r2 + 0.089r2 = 1.4855
2

r22 + 94.16 r2 = 16.69

r2 = 0.177 m
R2 = 0.177 X 1.667 = 0.295 m
Diameters = 354 mm and 590 mm

(c) For Third Step

R3 300
= or R3 = 1.364 r3
r3 220

(1.364 r3 + r )+
(1.364 r3 r3 )
2
= 1.4855
3

7.427 r3 + 0.0265r32 = 1.4855

r32 + 280.3r3 = 56.06
r3 = 0.2 m

d3 = 400mm
d2 = 400X1.364 =545 mm

Solution 9.24

R2= 240X(100/240) = 100 mm

Rr
= 2 = 2 sin 1
C
240 100
= 2 sin 1
2000
= - 8.028
= - 0.1401 ( is to be in radians)
T1
= e 0.3 X 3.0015 = 2.46 or T1 = 2.46 T2
T2
2 XX 100 X 0.24
P = (T1 T2) v = 1.46 T2 X =3000
60
T2 = 817.6 N
T1 = 2011 N
B = 2011/15 = 134 mm

46
Solution 9.25

T1 100 X 9.81
= e or = e 0.3 X 2 X 2 X = 43.38
T2 T2
T2 = 226.1 N

P = T. = FXr X2 X N Xr/60= 100 X 9.81X2 X 24X0.15/60= 3698 W

P = (T1 T2) v= (9810-226)X 2 X 24X0.15/60
= 3613 W

Solution 9.26

v = X 0.35 X600/60 =11 m/s

P = (T1 T2) v
10000 = 11(T1 T2)
(T1 T2) = 909.1

d = (660/180) X 350 = 1167 mm or r = 583.5 mm

Rr
= 2 = 2 sin 1
C
583.5 175
= 2 sin 1
4000
= - 11.72
= - 0.2045 ( is to be in radians)

T1
= e = e 0.25 X 2.937 = 2.084
T2
(2.084T2 T2) = 909.1
T2 = 838.6N
T1 = 1747.7N
Tc = mv2 = 11 b X 112 = 1331 b
Maximum tension = 2.5 X 106 X 0.01 b
1747.7 + 1331 b = 2.5 X 106 X 0.01 b
b = 0.0738 m

Solution 9.27
v = X 500X180/60 =4712 mm/s

L = (R + r ) +
( R + r)
2
+ 2C = (250 + 120) +
(250 + 120)
2

+ 2 X 2000 = 5231 mm
C 2000
Angle of contact
R+r 0.25 + 0.12
= sin = sin

= sin 0.185
C 2

47
= 10.7
= 180 + 2 X10.7 = 201.4o = 3.515 rad
T1
= e = e0.283.515 = 2.676 or T1 = 2.676T2 or T2 = 900 / 2.676 = 336 N
T2
P = (900-336) X4.712 = 2658 W

Solution 9.28

Mass /m length = 0.3 X 0.012 X 1000 X 0.0011 = 3960 g = 3.96 kg

Maximum tension = 300 X 12 X2 = 7200 N
Tc = mv2
7200/3 = 3.96 x v2
v = 24.62 m/s
T1 = (2/3) X 7200 = 4800 N
T2 = 4800/2.2 = 2182 N
P = (T1 T2) v = 24.62 X(4800-2182) = 64 460 W

Solution 9.29

Tc = mv2 = 1.6 X 202 = 640 N

Maximum safe stress = 9.5X750 = 7125 N
0.12 165
T1 X X
=e sin 20o 180
= e1.01 = 2.747
T2
T1 = 7125 -640 = 6485 N
T2 = 6485/2.747 = 2361 N
P = (6485 2361) = 82 485 W

Solution 9.30
Calculation of T1,
P = (T1 - T2)v
t 2 N t
where v = R1 + = R1 +
2 60 2
2X 200 8
= 550 + = 12357 mm/s or 12.357 m/s
60 2
8000 = (T1 - T2) X 12.357
or T1 - T2 = 647.4
T
Also 1 = e where = 160o = 2.793rad
T2

T1
= e0.252.793 = 2.01 or T1 = 2.01T2 (ii)
T2

48
From (i) and (ii),
2.01 T2 T2 = 647.4
T2 = 641 N
T1= 1288 N

Calculation of Tc

Tc = mv2
= mass per unit length v2
= volume per unit length density v2
= (x- sectional area length density) v2
= (width thickness length density) v2
= b 0.008 1 1000 (12.357)2
= (1221.6b) N (b in m)

T = T1 + Tc = ft (b t)
1288 + 1221.6b = 2.2 106 b 0.008
16378 b = 1288
b = 0.0786 m

Solution 9.31

v = X 0.3 X120/60 =1.885 m/s

Power per rope = (T1 T2) v
10000/15 = (T1 T2) X 1.885
(T1 T2) = 1.415
0.25 165
T1 X X
=e sin 20o 180
= e 2.105 = 8.207
T2
T2 = 196 N
T1 = 196 X 8.0207 = 1611 N
To = (1611+196)/2 = 903.5 N

Tc = mv2 = (50X10-6) G2 X(1.885)2

T1 = 0.14 G2 - (50X10-6) G2 X(1.885)2 = 1611
0.1398 G2 = 1611
G2 = 11524
G = 107.3
D = 107.3
D = 34.2 mm

Solution 9.32
XX 0.44 X 480
v= = 11.058 m/s
60

49
T1 + T2
Initial tension, 1800 = or T1 + T2 = 3600
2

T1
= e0.3155 / 180 = 2.25
T2
2.25 T2 + T2 = 3600
T2 = 1108 N
T1= 2492 N
P = (2492-1108) X 11.058= 15304 W

Solution 9.33
For maximum power transmitted,
T 870 XX 3.2 XN
v= = = 13.46 m/s; or 13.46 = or N = 80.3 rpm
3m 3 X 1.6 60

Tc = T/3 = 870/3 = 290 N

T1= 870-290 = 580 N

165 1
T1 0.3
Also = e / sin = e 180 sin 20 = 12.5 ; T2= 580/12.5 = 46.4 N
T2
Power per rope = (580 46.4)X 13.46 = 7182 W
Total power transmitted = 7.182 X 12 =86.184 kW

Solution 9.34

T1
= e
T2
380 X 9.81
= e 0.22 X
200
18.64 = e 0.22 X
X 0.22 = 2.925
= 13.29rad = 13.29 / 2
= 2.1 turns

Solution 9.35
N 2 T1
=
N1 T2
N1 240
or T2 = T1 = 22 X = 48
N2 110

50
180 180o
(ii) p = 2r sin or = 2 X 0.24 X sin = 0.0314 m or 31.4 mm
T 48
k = C/p = 0.540/0.0314 = 17.197
180 180
2

cosec cosec
T +t T t
L= p + + 2k
2 4k

180 180
2

cosec cosec
48 + 22 48 22
= 0.0314 + + 2 X 17.197
2 4 X 17.197

= 0.0314 X (35 + 0.993 + 34.394)
= 2.21 m

Chapter-10

Solution 10.28
P P 90000
T= = = = 1432.4 N.m
2N / 60 2X 600 / 60
Ft = T / r = 1432.4 / 0.09 = 15.915 N
Maximum force, Fn = Ft / cos = 15.915 / cos 20o = 16.937 kN

Solution 10.29

C = r1 + r2 = 75 mm
0.4 r2 +r2 = 75 (VR= 0.4 = r1/r2)
r2 = 53.57, r1 = 21.43

m = d1/T1, 1.2 = 42.86/ T1, T1 = 35.7 or 36

T1/T2 = 0.4, T2 = T2 = 90

2N mt 2X 800 1.2 X 36
V= X = X =1810 mm/s
60 2 60 2
N2 = 0.4 X 800 = 320 rpm

Solution 10.30

P = m = X 1.4 = 4.4 mm

51
2N mt 2X 360 1.4 X 30
v = .r = X = X = 791.7 mm/s
60 2 60 2

Solution 10.31

Dp = mt = 4 X 40 = 160 mm, rp = 80 mm

C = rp + r g
220 = 220 + rg or rg = 140 mm

rdp = 80 cos 20o = 75.175 mm
rdg = 140 cos 20o = 131.56 mm

Centre distance with 22o pressure angle:

rdp rdg 75.175 131.56
C = rp + rg = o
+ o
= + = 222 mm
cos 22 cos 22 cos 22 o cos 22 o

Solution 10.32

= 20; T = 64; t = 24, m = 10 mm;

mT 10 64
R= = = 320 mm ; Ra = 320 + 8 = 328 mm
2 2
mt 10 24
r= = = 120 mm , ra = 120 + 8 = 128 mm
2 2

Path of approach = Ra2 (R cos ) R sin = 3282 (320 cos 20) 320 sin 20
2 2

= 131- 109.45=21.55 mm

Path of recess = ra2 (r cos ) r sin = 1282 (120 cos 20) 120 sin 20
2 2

= 60.57- 41.04= 19.53 mm

Path of contact = 21.55+19.53= 41.08 mm
Arc of contact = 41.08/cos20o = 43.72 mm
Arc of contact 43.72
Contact ratio = = = 1.39
m X 10

Solution 10.33

addendum = 1 m = 10 mm

52
mT 10 52
R= = = 260 mm
2 2
Ra = R + m = 260 + 10 = 270 mm
mt 10 X 20
r= = = 100 mm
2 2
ra = r + m = 100 + 10 = 110 mm
Are of contact
(i) n=
Circular pitch

Path of contact 1
=
cos m
Path of contact + Path of reccess
=
cos m

=
[R 2
a ] [r
R 2 cos 2 R sin + a
2
r 2 cos 2 r sin ]
cos m

+ (110 ) (100 ) cos 2 25 100 sin 25

2 2

=
cos 25 10
21.93 + 20.096
=
cos 25 10
1
= 46.34
10
= 1.475
(ii) Angle of action = Angle traversed by the arc of contact
360
p = Arc of contact
2 r
360
= 46.34
2 100
= 26.56 or 2636
360
g = 46.34 X
2 260
= 10.21 or 1013

53
Sliding velocity ( p + g ) Path of approach
(iii) (a) =
Rolling velocity Pitch line velocity (= p r )

20
p + p 21.93
52
=
p 100
= 0.304

(b)
Sliding velocity
=
( p + g ) 0 = 0
Rolling velocity Pitch line velocity

20
p + p Path of recess
Sliding velocity 52
(c) =
Rolling velocity p r

23
1 + 20.096
57
=
100
= 0.278

Solution 10.34

: Let 1 be the gear wheel and 2 the pinion.

mT 6 X 30
R= = = 90 mm
2 2
Ra = 90 + 6 = 96 mm
mt 6 X 18
r= = = 54 mm
2 2
ra = 54+ 6 =60 mm
t 18
Ng = N p = 400 = 240 rpm
T 30
Let pinion (gear 2) be the driver.
The tip of the driving wheel is in contact with a tooth of the driven wheel at the
end of engagement. Thus, it is required to find the path of recess which is
obtained from the dimensions of the driving wheel.

54
Path of recess = ra2 (r cos ) r sin
2

= (60)2 (54 cos 20)2 54 sin 20

= 13.548 mm
Velocity of sliding =(p + g) Path of recess
= 2 (Np +Ng) 13.548
= 2 (400 +240) 13.548
= 54480 mm/min
= 908 mm/s

Ra2 (R cos ) R sin

2
Path of approach =

= (96)2 (90 cos 20)2 90 sin 20

= 14.644 mm
This is also the path of recess if the wheel becomes the driver
Maximum velocity of sliding = (p + g) Maximum path
= 2 (400 + 240) 14.644
= 58887 mm/min
= 981.5 mm/s

Solution 10.35

R = 6 X36/2 = 108 mm
Ra = 108+6 =114 mm
r = 6X16/2 = 48 mm
ra = 48+6 = 54 mm

Ra2 (R cos ) R sin

2
Path of approach =

= (114)2 (108 cos 20)2 108 sin 20

= 14.989 mm
Maximum length of path of approach = r sin 20o = 48 sin 20o = 16.417 mm

Thus no interference is there.

55
When number of teeth on pinion is 14

r = 6X14/2 = 42 mm
ra = 42+6 = 48 mm

Thus interference occurs.

Solution 10.36
mT 12 48 mt 12 24
R= = = 288 mm ; r= = = 144 mm
2 2 2 2

Maximum possible length of path of approach = r sin

Actual length of path of approach = 0.5 r sin
Similarly, actual length of path of recess = 0.5 R sin
Thus, we have

2

2

Ra2 73241 = 15160

Ra2 = 88401
Ra = 297.3 mm
Addendum of the wheel = 297.3 288 = 9.3 mm

2
Also,

2

ra2 18310 = 9702.6

ra2 = 28013
ra = 167.4 mm
Addendum of the pinion = 167.4 144 = 23.4 mm

Path of contact
Arc of contact =
cos

56
rsin + R sin sin 20
= 0.5 = 0.5 (288 + 144) = 78.6 mm
cos cos 20
Contact ratio = 78.6/( X12) = 2.08
Solution 10.37

mT 8 52
R= = = 208 mm
2 2
mT 8 20
r= = = 80 mm
2 2
Refer Fig. 10.24 and let pinion be the driver.
Maximum possible length of path of approach = r sin
Actual length of path of approach = 0.5 r sin
Similarly, actual length of path of recess = 0.5 R sin
Thus, we have

2

0.5 X 80 sin 20 o = Ra2 (208 cos 20) 208 sin 20

2

Ra = 213.067 mm
Addendum of the wheel = 213.067 208 = 5.067 mm
Also,

0.5 X 208 sin 20 o = Ra2 (80 cos 20) 80 sin 20

2

ra = 98.04 mm
Addendum of the pinion = 98.04 80 = 18.04 mm
Path of contact
Arc of contact =
cos

r sin + R sin
= 0.5
cos
sin 20
= 0.5 (208 + 80)
cos 20
=52.4 mm

57
Solution 10.38

Cos = 0.94 or = 20o

(a) G =1,

2a w 2 X 0.88
T = = 10.84 or 11
11 1 1
1 + + 2 sin 2 1 1 + + 2 sin 2 20 o 1
G G 1 1

R = r = mt/2 = 11Xm/2 =5.5 m

Ra = ra =5.5 m + 0.88 m = 6.38 m
Path of contact = [R 2
a ] [r
R 2 cos 2 R sin + a
2
r 2 cos 2 r sin ]
= 2 (6.38m ) (5.5m ) cos 2 20 5.5m sin 20
2 2

= 3.72 m
3.72
Arc of contact = = 3.96 m
cos 20
(b) G =3,

2 X 0.88
T = 39.55 or 42 (divisible by 3)
11
1 + + 2 sin 2 20 o 1
33
or Tp = 14

R = r = mt/2 = 14Xm/2 =7 m
Ra = ra = 5.5 m + 0.88 m = 6.38 m
Arc of contact= m (14 / 2 + 0.88) (14 / 2 ) cos 2 20 (14 / 2)m sin 20
2 2

+ m (42 / 2 + 0.88) (42 / 2 ) cos 2 20 (42 / 2)m sin 20
2 2

o
cos 20
= 4.484 m

(c) With a rack

2 X 0.88
t= = 15.05 or 16
sin 2 20 o

58
m (16 / 2 + 0.88)2 (16 / 2 )2 cos 2 20 (16 / 2)m sin 20

Arc of contact= o
cos 20
= 4.24 m

Solution 10.39

2a w 2 1.23
(i) T= =
11 2 1 1
1+ + 2 sin 1 1+ + 2 sin 2 20 1
G G 2 .5 2 .5
= 45
45
T = 45 and t= = 18
2.5
(ii) Number of pairs of teeth in contact,
Arc of contact Path of contact 1
n= =
Circular pitch cos m
or

Ra2 R 2 cos 2 R sin + ra2 r 2 cos 2 r sin

n=
cos m
mT 4 45
R= = = 90 mm
2 2
Ra = 90 + 1.23X4 = 94.92 mm
mt 4 18
r= = = 36 mm
2 2
ra = 36 +1.23 X4 = 40.92 mm

+ (40.92)2 (36 cos 20)2 36 sin 20

cos 20 4
43.097 30.78 + 23.023 12.013
=
cos 20 4
= 1.95

59
Solution 10.40

Maximum arc of approach= Maximum path of approach/cos

= r sin /cos = r tan
In the limit, p = r tan
Number of teeth = 2 r/ p = 2 r/r tan = 2 /tan = 17.26 or 18

Solution 10.41
= 20; m = 4 mm; t = 30; T = 48; N = 800 rpm, G = 48/30 = 1.6
mT 4 X 48 4 X 30
R= = = 96 mm; r = = 60 mm
2 2 2
Maximum addendum of the wheel,
11
aw max = R 1 + + 2 sin 2 1
G G

1 1
= 96 1 + + 2 sin 2 20o 1 = 8.8 mm
1.6 1.6
Maximum addendum of the pinion,

[ ] [ ]
a p max = r 1 + G (G + 2 ) sin 2 1 = 60 1 + 1.6(1.6 + 2 ) sin 2 20o 1 = 17.6 mm

Path of contact
= maximum length of path of approach + maximum length of Path of recess
= rsin + R sin = 60 sin 20o + 96 sin 20o = 20.52 + 32.83 = 53.35 mm
2X 840 88
p = = 88 rad/s; g = = 55 rad/s
60 1.6
Velocity of sliding on one side=(p + g) Path of approach
= (88+55) 20.52 = 2934 mm/s or 2.934 m/s
Velocity of sliding on other side=(p + g) Path of recess
= (88+55) 32.83 = 4695 mm/s or 4.695 m/s
Path of contact 53.35
Contact ratio = = =53.35/( X12) = 4.52
mX cos X 4 X cos 20o

Solution 10.42

t = 32; r = 70 mm

60
Refer Fig. 10.27,
To avoid interference, the maximum value of addendum = GE= 6 mm
or 6 = r sin 2 = 40 sin 2 or = 17.02o
Addendum radius of the pinion = 70 + 6 = 76 mm
Maximum path of contact to avoid interference = DE
2
(
= ra2 (r cos ) = 762 70 cos17.02o )2
= 38.07 mm

Number of pairs of teeth in contact

Arc of contact Path of contact 1
n= =
Circular pitch cos m
38.07 1
= o
= 2.11
cos17.02 X 6
Thus 2 pair of teeth will always remain in contact whereas for 11% of time 3 pairs
of teeth will be in contact.

Solution 10.43

Let the gear with smaller number of teeth be the driver.

T2
G= = 2orT2 = 2T1
T1

pn T1 T2 p
C= + mn = n
2 cos 1 cos 2
10 T1 2T1
150 = + =
2 cos 35 cos 25
or T1 = 27.5
Take T2 = 28
Then T2 = 2 27 = 56
10 28 56
Cexact = + = 152.7 mm
2 cos 35 cos 25
cos( 2 + ) cos 1 cos(25 + 4) cos 35
= =
cos( 1 ) cos 2 cos(35 4) cos 25
= 0.922

61
Solution 10.44

mn T1 T2
C= +
2 cos 1 cos(70 1 )

4 50 20
167 = +
2 cos 1 cos(70 1 )

By trial and error, 1 = 28, 2 = 42

Solution 10.45

+
1` = For maximum efficiency
2

90 + 6
=
2

= 48

2 = 90 - 48 = 42

pn T1 T2
(a) C= +
2 cos 1 cos 2

6 T1 3T1
200 = +
2 cos 48 cos 42

or T1 = 50

T2 = 2 T1 = 100

6 50 100
(b) Cexact = + = 199.85 mm
2 cos 48 cos 42

P1T1 pn T1 6 50
(c) d1 = = = = 142.7 mm
cos 1 cos 48

6 100
d2 = = 257 mm
cos 42

62
cos( + ) + 1 cos(90 + 6) + 1
(d) max = = = 0.81
cos( ) + 1 cos(90 6) + 1

Solution 10.46

= 2.8624 (= tan-1 0.05)

Unwrap one thread of the worm,
tan 1 = = (for two-start worm)
Pitch circumferece d1
3 20
or tan 1 = = 0.2387
80
1 = 13.43
Helix angle 1 = 90 - 1 =76.57o
N 2 T1
=
N 1 T2
3
N2 = 600 = 45 rpm
40
m2
(iii) C= (T1 cot 1 + T2 ) = p 2 (T1 cot 1 + T2 )
2 2
20
= (3 cot 13.43 + 40)
2
= 167.3 mm

tan 1
(v) =
tan (1 + )
tan 13.43
=
tan (13.43 + 2.86)
= 0.817
1 sin 1 sin 2.86
(vi) max = = = 0.905
1 + sin 1 + sin 2.86
Solution 10.47
As the velocity ratio is more than 1, the gear is the driver,

63
sin sin 48
tan g = = = 0.684
g 1
+ cos + cos 48
p 2.4

g = 34.39
sin sin 48
tan p = = = 0.242
p 2.4 + cos 48
+ cos
g

p =13.61
As a check, g + p = 34.39+ 13.61= 48

Chapter-11

Solution 11.13

Action A S P A
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 40 40 TP 10
=
TP TP 84 21
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x 10 x 10 x

21 21
All given y revs. Y y+x 10 x 10 x
y y
21 21

From given conditions,

(i) Na = y = 100
10 x
NA = y =0
21
or x = 210
Ns = y +x = 100 + 210 = 310 rpm

(ii) Ns = y +x = 0 or x = -100

10 x 10 X (100)
NA = y = 100 =147.6 rpm
21 21

Solution 11.14

TA = Pitch circle diameter of A/module = 324/6 = 54

64
Action Arm a S P A
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 TS TS TP T
= S
TP TP T A TA
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x TS T
x S x
TP TA
All given y rev. (add Y y+x TS TS
y) y x y x
TP TA

From given conditions,

Na = y = 1
NS = y + x = 5
x=4

TS
Also NA = 1 X4= 0 or Ts = 13.5
54
Thus Ts can be 13 or 14.
If Ts = 13, TA = 52 and thus TP = (52-13)/2 = 19.5, impracticable
If Ts = 14, TA = 56 and thus TP = (56-14)/2 = 21

TSNS = TaNa
Ta = 30 X 5 = 150 N.m
Fixing torque = 150 30 = 120 N.m

Solution 11.15

Refer Fig. 11.3,

There can be many combinations to obtain N1/N4 = 12. One may be
T1 = 12, T2 = 48, T3 = 15, T2 = 45
N T T
Thus 4 = 1 3 =1/12
N1 T2 T4

Solution 11.16

Refer Fig. 11.8

T 15
TA = 2 S + TP = 2 + 20 = 55
2 2
T T T 15 20 15
TD = 2 S + P + C = 2 + + = 50
2 2 2 2 2 2

Action A S P/C A D
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 15 15 20 15 15

20 20 55 20 50

65
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x 3x 3x 9x

4 11 40
Add y Y y+x 3x 3x 9x
y y y
4 11 40
From given conditions,
3x
NA = y =0
11
y + x = 1000

which gives y = 214 and x = 786

9x 9 X 786
Thus ND = y = 214 = 37.15 rpm
40 40

Solution 11.17

Action Arm a S P A
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 TS TS TP 1
=
TP TP TA 4
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x TS 1
x x
TP 4
All given y rev. (add Y y+x TS 1
y) y x y x
TP 4

From given conditions,

1
(i) NA = y
x = -600/4 = -150
4
NS = y + x = 400
y = =-40 and x = 440
Na = 40 rpm opposite to that of S
(ii) Na = 40 or y = 40
NS = y + x = 400 or x = 360
1
NA = y x = 40 360/4 = - 50 rpm
4
Thus speed of B = 50X4 = 200 rpm in the same direction as of S

Solution 11.18

Action Arm a 1 2 3
a` fixed, 1 + 1 rev. 0 1 80 80
81 79

66
a` fixed, 1 + x rev. 0 x 80 80
x x
81 79
All given y rev. (add y y+x 80 80
y) y+ x y+ x
81 79

1 is fixed, y+x = 0 ,
a is given 1 revolution, y =1
x = -1
80 80
Revolution of 2 = y+ x= 1+ (-1)= 1/81 in the same sense as 1.
81 81
80 80
Revolution of 3 = y+ x=1 + (-1) = -1/79 in the opposite sense of 1.
79 79

Solution 11.19

Action Arm a S P A
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 T TS TP T
S = S
TP TP T A TA
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x TS T
x S x
TP TA
All given y rev. (add Y y+x TS TS
y) y x y x
TP TA

y +x = -150
40
y x = 400
80
on solving, y = 216.7 rpm

Solution 11.20

Action Arm a A B/C D

a` fixed, A + 1 rev. 0 1 30 30 70 7
X =
50 50 90 15
a` fixed, A + x rev. 0 x 3 7
x x
5 15
All given y rev. (add y y+x 3 7
y) y+ x y- x
5 15

A rotates at 500 rpm,

y + x = 500
7
D at 80 rpm, y- x = -80
15

67
On solving, y = 104.5
Thus S2 rotates at 104.5 rpm in the same direction as S1.

Solution 11.21

Action B C/S1 D/S2 E/F

B fixed, C + 1 rev. 0 1 -1 TC
TE
B fixed, C + x rev. 0 x -x TC
x
TE
Add y y y+x yx TC
x+ y
TE
(i)
revolution of S1 or C = 1 or y +x =1
revolution of S2 = revolution of S1 = 1 or y-x =1
on solving, y =1, x =0
Thus revolution of B = y = 1
Revolution of S or A = 1 X (2/1) = 2
(ii) y +x =1
y x = -1
Thus y = 0
Revolution of S = 0

(iii) y+x =48

y x =0
y = 24
revolution of S = 24 X 2 = 48
(iv) y +x = 48
y x = 24
y = 36
revolution of S = 36 X2 = 72

Solution 11.22

Action a B/G C/D E/H F

a fixed , B+1 rev. 0 1 TB T T TB TC
B. D .
Tc TC TE TC TF
a fixed , B+ x rev. 0 x TB T T T
x B. Dx B x
Tc TC TE TF
Add y y y+x T T T T
y+ B x y B . D x y B x
Tc TC TE TF

Let B is rotated through 1 revolution.

68
y + x =1
TB
Gear F is stationary, y x= 0
TF
TF TB
Solving, x= and y=
TB + TF TB + TF

TB TD TB T T TF
Speed of E = y . x= B. D
TC TE TB + TF TC TE TB + TF
TB TD TF
= 1 .
TB + TF TC TE

TD TF
If . <1, speed of E is positive or E rotates in the same direction as B
TC TE
T T
i.e. if C > . F
TD TE
T T
If D . F >1, speed of E is negative or E rotates in the opposite direction to B
TC TE
T T
i.e. if C < . F
TD TE

Solution 11.23

Action Arm a S P A
a` fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1 T TS TP T
S = S
TP TP T A TA
a` fixed, S + x rev. 0 x TS T
x S x
TP TA
All given y rev. (add Y y+x TS TS
y) y x y x
TP TA

y+x=0
y = 100
x = -100
T
y S x = 130
TA
TS T
100 - (100) =130 or 100 1 + S =130
TA TA
Ts = 0.3 TA

69
or 60 = 0.3 TA
TA = 200
T
TA = 2 S + TP
2
60
200 = = 2 + TP
2
TP = 70

Solution 11.24

First Gear (Fig. 11.29)

The transmission is from A to B and from G to H.
mTa mTb mTg mTh
As two shafts are parallel, ra + rb = rg + rh = + = + = 98
2 2 2 2
98 X 2
Ta + Tb = Tg + Th = = 49 (i)
4
T T 1
The train value = a . g =
Tb Th 4
To achieve this train value, ratio of number of teeth between A and B, and G and H may
be assumed approximately same, Let
Thus Tb = 2 Ta and Th = 2 Tg. (ii)
From (i) and (ii), 3 Ta = 49 or Ta = 16, Tb = 49-16 = 33
and let Tg = 17, Th = 32

Tb Th 33 32
Speed ratio = . = . = 3.88
Ta Tg 16 17

Second Gear
The transmission is from A to B and from E to F.
Te + Tf = Ta + Tb = 49 (iii)
T T 1 16 Te 1 T
The train value = a . e = or . = or e = 0.86 (iv)
Tb T f 2.4 33 T f 2.4 Tf
From (iii) and (iv), 1.86 Tf = 49 or Tf = 26.3 say 26
and Te = 23
T T 33 26
Speed ratio = b . f = . = 2.33
Ta Te 16 23
Third Gear
The transmission is from A to B and from C to D.
Tc + Td = Ta + Tb = 49 (v)
T T 1 16 Tc 1 T
The train value = a . c = or . = or c = 1.47 (vi)
Tb Td 1.4 33 Td 1.4 Td
From (v) and (vi), 2.47 Td = 49 or Td = 19.8 say 20 teeth

70
and Tc = 49- 20 = 29
T T 33 20
Speed ratio = b . d = . = 1.42
Ta Tc 16 29
Top Gear : Gear D is engaged directly with gear A through a dog clutch to obtain a
speed ratio of 1. This way the power is transmitted directly to the driven shaft and the
driven shaft runs at the same speed as the driving shaft.

Solution 11.25
When the first gear is engaged,

N S 1TS1 640 24
N a1 = = = 147.7
TA1 + TS 1 80 + 24
or N F = 147.7 rpm

When the second gear is engaged,

N T 640 24
Na 2 = S 2 S 2 = = 147.7
TA 2 + TS 2 80 + 24

N A1TA1 + N S1TS1 N a 2TA1 + N S1TS 1

N a1 = =
TA1 + TS 1 TA1 + TS1
147.7 80 + 640 24
=
80 + 24
or N F = N a1 = 261.3 rpm
When the third gear is engaged,
N T 68 N A3 68 N A3
N a 3 = A3 S 3 = =
TA3 + TS 3 68 + 21 89
89 N a 3
or N A3 =
68
N A 2 T A 2 + N S 2 TS 2
N a2 =
T A 2 + TS 2
N T + N S 2 TS 2
= a3 A2 ( N A2 = N a 3 )
T A 2 + TS 2
68 N A3
TA2 + N S 2TS 2
= 89
TA2 + TS 2
68 N a 2
TA2 + N S 2TS 2
= 89 ( N a 2 = N A3 )
TA2 + TS 2

71
68 N a 2
80 + 640 24
= 89
80 + 24

or 104 Na2 = 61.12 Na2 +15 360

or 38.68 Na2 = 17 600
or Na2 = 358 = NA1
N T + N S1TS 1 358 80 + 640 24
N a1 = A1 A1 =
TA1 + TS1 104
or N F = N a1 = 423 rpm
When the fourth gear is engaged,
N F = N E = 640 rpm
In the reverse gear,
N S 4 TS 4
N a4 = (NA4=0)
T A 4 + TS 4
41N S 4 41N S 4
or Na 4 = =
90 + 41 131
N A1 80 + 640 24
N a1 =
104
But
Na4 = Na1 and NS4 = NA1
41N S 4 80 N S 4 + 15360
=
131 104

or 0.456 NS4 = -147.7

or NS4 = - 323.9
41 323.9
NF = Na4 = = 101.4 rpm
131

Solution 11.26
TB 24
Speed of the gear B = NA X = 800 X = 150 rpm
TA 128
Thus y = 150
Prepare the table as in the above section.
Speed of S2 = y x = 220
or 150 x = 175
or x = -25
Speed of S1 = y + x = 150 -25 = 125 rpm

72
Chapter-12

Solution 12.7

E 100 N

3 C

4
B

2
150 N

1
A D

F32
235
100 N

F43

100

(a)

4 290
150 F14
loa F14

F34

150 N
(b)

(a) With only 100 N force,

T = F32 X 0.235 = 99 X 0.235 = 23.3 N.m clockwise
(b) With only 150 N force,
T = F32 X 0.29 = 64.5X 0.29 = 18.7 N.m counter-clockwise
Required input torque = 23.3 18.7 = 4.6 N.m clockwise

Solution 12.8

73
3
2

1500 N
1
F32

F34
1580

35 1500

F12

Solution 12.9

C F 30
25.3

650 450

700 700
210o

A D
300
T
450 (mm) A
T
B 450

305

T = F32 X 0.142 = 25.3 X 0.305= 8.85 N.m

Solution 12.10
Solution is similar to example 12.6.

74
C
D
C
D 400
200 N

300 700
30o
B
A
30o B
A

300 (mm)
338
AB =125 T
90 O
O

D
200 N 338

203
203
200

Solution 12.11

500 N 500 N

C C
A 3 A

2 4
B
B

O 1
F43
142 500 N
F32
F23

Solution 12.12

75
5
3
6

4
loa F16
2

F56

1 F16

loa F54 F

loa F34
F34 F32

124

4 F14
loa 14
F54

Solution 12.13

200

700 150 N

A 700 D
150 N B
30 N.m
(mm)
400 C
BC = 400
200 139
A
C
(a)
139 150

(b)

351 85.5
D 190 B
30 N.m

85.5 N A
C
(c)

T = F32 X 0.2 = 139 X 0.2 = 27.8 N.m clockwise

T = F32 X 0.19 = 85.5 X 0.19 = 16.2 N.m clockwise
Total torque = 27.8 + 16.2 = 44 N.m

Solution 12.14

76
3000 N

3000 N C
4 1000 N
C D 1000 N
6 D 6

loa F14 3 loa F16

loa F34 5 loa F56
1
O
A 2
B

O
3000 N
1000 N
3040 N 46.5 1013 N B
O F56 35.5 F
F34 A F16 52
F32
F14

(a) With only 1000 N force,

T = F52 X 0.355 = 1013 X 0.355 = 36 N.m counter-clockwise
(b) With only 3000 N force,
T = F32 X 0.0465 = 3046X 0.0465 = 142 N.m clockwise
Required input torque = 142 -36 = 106 N.m clockwise

Chapter-13

Solution 13.14

77
C 4.4
a h c
B F
G' H
E G'' 8
G
5.7

f
A D e

a1,d1

g''1 b

c1

g1

g'1

b1

vb = 10 X 0.8 = 8 m/s
c
fba = 2 X r = 102 X 0.8 = 80 m/s2
c
f =
(bc )2 = (5.7 )2 = 32.5 m/s2
bc
BC 1
c
f cd =
(cd ) = (4.4)2 = 24.2 m/s2
2

CD 0.8

a1g1 = 80.2/2 = 40.1 m/s2

a1g2 = 79 m/s2
d1g3 = 91/2 = 45.5 m/s2

Mass of the links

m2 = 0.8 X 4 = 3.2 kg
m3 = 1 4 = 4 kg
m4 = 0.8 4 = 3.2 kg
F2 = m2fg2 = 3.2 X 40.1 = 128.3 N
F3 = m3fg3 = 4 X 79 = 316 N
F4 = m4fg4 = 3.2 X 45.5 = 145.6 N
2 = 25 rad/s2
f cbt 66.8
3 = = = 66.8 rad/s2
CB 1

78
f cdt 88.1
4 = = = 110 rad/s2
CD 0.8
All links have uniform cross-sections,
l 2 800 2
k 22 = = = 53 333 mm2
12 12
l 2 1000 2
k 32 = = = 83 333 mm2
12 12
l 2 800 2
k 42 = = = 53 333 mm2
12 12
k 2 53333 25
and h2 = = = 33.25 mm
fg2 40 100

83333 66.8
h3 = = 70.46 mm
79 000

53333 110
h4 = = 128.94 mm
45500

Also,
33.25
r2 = 400 + = 507.6 mm
sin 18

70.46
r3 = 500 = 315.1 mm
sin 22.4

128.94
r4 = 400 + = 532.8 mm
sin 76.2o

T = 82.2 N.m

Solution 13.15

79
C

B
G'

A D

a1,d1

c
2.66
a,d 70.8 135.4
g'1
2.34

2.85 69.6
c1 g1
27.2 b1
27.4

vb = 47.5 X 0.06 = 2.85 m/s

c
fba = 2 X r = 47.52 X 0.0.06 = 135.4 m/s2
c
f bc =
(bc )2 = (2.34)2 =
27.4 m/s2
BC 0.2
c
f cd =
(cd ) (2.66)
2
=
2
= 70.8 m/s2
CD 0.1
a1g1 = 119 m/s2
d1g1 = 49.8 m/s2
F3 = m3fg3 = 0.4 X 119 = 47.6 N
F4 = m4fg4 = 0.6 X 49.8 = 29.9 N
f cbt 27.2
3 = = = 136 rad/s2 ccw
CB 0.2
f cdt 69.6
4 = = = 696 rad/s2 cw
CD 0.1
All links have uniform cross-sections,
I 1600
k32 = = = 4000 mm2
m 0.4
400
k 42 = = 666.7 mm2
0.6
k 2 4000 136
h3 = = = 4.57 mm
f g3 119 000

80
666.7 696
h4 = = 9.32 mm
49800

Also,

4.57
r3 = 200 = 195 mm
sin 65.5

9.32
r4 = 100 + = 113.4 mm
sin 44.2 o
T X 47.5 = 47.6 X 0.88 + 29.6 X 1.74
T = 1.96 N.m cw

Solution 13.16
2X 300
= = 10 rad/s
60

Effective force on the piston = 200 X 103 X X (0.8) 2 = 100 531 N
4

cos 2
Inertia force, Fb = mf = mr 2 cos +
n
2 cos 80
= 250 0.3 (10 ) cos 40 +
4
= 59 918 N
As it is a vertical engine, the weight of the reciprocating parts also acts downwards.
Effective driving force = 100 531 + 250 X9.81 59 918
= 43 066 N

sin 2
T = Fr sin +

2 n 2 sin 2
sin 80 o
= 43066 X 0.3 sin 40 o +

2 4 2 sin 2 40 o
= 9916 N.m

Solution 13.17
(a)

81
I Q

P
Ft
P
Fr
Fi
H D
D A
Fb G d1
B
W L O
(mg)
b1 g1

(a)

2X 300
= = 10 rad/s
60
GD = k2/BG = 1802/335 = 96.7 mm

fa = 2r = (10 )2 0.1125 = 110 m/s2

Locate points b1 and g1 in the acceleration diagram to find the accelerations of points B
and G. Measure b1O and g1O. As length OA in the diagram represents the acceleration of
A relative to O.
fg = (10 )2 Og1= (10 )2 0.11= 108.56 rad/s2
Fi= m fg = 80 108.56 = 8685 N
Complete the diagram. Taking moments about I,
Ft 590 = 8685 X 152.4 + 80X 9.81 X 335
Ft = 2687 N.m
T = Ft r = 2687 X 0.1125 = 302.3 N.m
(b)

82
E

Ft

D A
G d1

B g1

L b1
O
Fi

Fr W
(mg)

I Q

Locate points b1 and g1 in the acceleration diagram to find the accelerations of points B
and G. Measure b1O and g1O. As length OA in the diagram represents the acceleration of
A relative to O.
fg = (10 )2 Og1= (10 )2 0.0975= 96.23 rad/s2
Fi= m fg = 80 96.23 = 7698 N
Complete the diagram. Taking moments about I,
Ft 682.5 = 7698 X 145 + 80X 9.81 X 330
Ft = 2015 N.m
T = Ft r = 2015 X 0.1125 = 226.7 N.m

Solution 13.18

83
I
Q

Fr

P
Fi
Ft

A
D
G g1

W
Fb
b1
B L O

2X 1000
= = 104.7 rad/s
60

Force due to gas pressure = X 0.1152 X 2 X 10 6 = 20 774 N
4

fa = 2r = (104.7)2 0.15 = 1644 m/s2

Locate points b1 and g1 in the acceleration diagram to find the accelerations of
points B and G. Measure b1O and g1O. As length OA in the diagram represents the
acceleration of A relative to O.
fb = (104.7)2 Ob1= (104.7)2 0.125 = 1370 rad/s2
Similarly, fg = (104.7)2 Og1= (104.7)2 0.137 = 1502 rad/s2

Fb= mb fb = 2.5 1370 = 3425 N

Net force on the piston = 20774 3425 = 17 349 N
Fi= m fg = 2 1502 = 3004 N
Complete the diagram. Taking moments about I,

84
Ft 0.576 = 17 349 X 0.47 - 3004 X 0.163 - 2X 9.81 X 0.29
Ft = 13 296 N.m
T = Ft r = 13 296 X 0.15 = 1994 N.m

Solution 13.19

Fb
P W
I B Q

Fi

G
L
O
D
b1
g1 A

2X 1500
= = 157.1 rad/s
60

L 45 L
t = 2 or = 2
g 30 9.81
or L = 0.56 mm
k2
0.4 + = 0.56
0.4
k2 = 0.064
or k = 0.253 m
GD = k2/BD = 0.064/ 0.4 =0.16 m

fa = 2r = (157.1)2 0.125 = 3085 m/s2

Locate points b1 and g1 in the acceleration diagram to find the accelerations of
points B and G. Measure b1O and g1O. As length OA in the diagram represents the
acceleration of A relative to O.

85
fb = (157.1)2 OB1= (157.1)2 0.088 = 2172 m/s2
Similarly, fg = (157.1)2 OG1= (157.1)2 0.108 = 2665 m/s2

Fb= mb fb = 1.2 2172 = 2606 N

Fi= m fg = 3 2665.4 = 7996 N
Complete the diagram. Taking moments about I,
Ft 79 = 7996 X 14 + 2606 X 44+ X 9.81 X 49.2 + 1.2 X 44 X 9.81
Ft = 2893.3N.m
T = Ft r = 2893.3 X 0.125 = 361.7 N.m

Solution 13.20

b c d e f a
a

0o 180o

Let flywheel KE at a = E
at b = E + 305
at c = E +305 710 = E - 405
at d = E - 405 355 = E - 705
at e = E - 705 + 980 = E + 275
at f = E + 275 275 = E

Maximum energy = E + 305 (at b)

Minimum energy = E 705 (at d)
Maximum fluctuation of energy,
emax = (E + 305) (E 705) Hor. scale Vert. scale

= 1010 1 6
180
= 105.8 N.m

86
e e
K= =
I 2
mk 2 2
105.8
K= 2
2 2 1500
40(0.14)
60
K = 0.00547 or 0.55%

Solution 13.21

2X 460 2X 435
1 = = 48.17 rad/s and 2 == 45.55 rad/s
60 60
1
(1
)
Additional energy stored = I 12 22 = mk 2 12 22
2 2
( )
1
( )
= X 2000 X 1.22 48.17 2 45.552 = 353590 N.m or 353.59 kJ
2

Solution 13.22
2
2
1
2
1
2
(
Additional energy stored, 18 000 = I 12 22 = mk 2 .
60
)
100 98
2 2
( ) (i)

2
1 2 1 2
Kinetic energy at 250 rpm, E = I = mk 2 . X 140
2
(ii)
2 2 60
2
E 140
Dividing (ii) by (i), =
18 000 1002 982
or E = 890 900 N.m or 890.9 kJ

Solution 13.23

The turning moment diagram for each cylinder is shown in Fig. 13.23a and the resultant
turning moment diagram for the three cylinders combine is shown in Fig. 13.23b.

(a)Work done/cycle = Area of three triangles

= 3 X (100 X /2) = 150
Work done /cycle 150
Mean torque = = = 75 N.m
Angle turned 2
2 540
P = T = 75 = 4240 W or 4.24 kW
60
(b) As the area above or below the mean torque line is the maximum fluctuation of
energy,

87
60 X 1
emax = X (100 75) X = 13.1 N.m
180 2
e e
K= =
I 2 mk 2 2
13.1
= 2
2 2 540
7.5 X 0.065
60
= 0.129 or 12.9%
(c) Coefficient of fluctuation of energy,
Maximum fluctuation of energy
Ke =
work done/cycle
13.1
=
150
= 0.0278
(d) Maximum fluctuation of torque= 100 - 75 = 25 N.m
T = 25 N.m
or I = mk2 = 25
or 7.5 (0.065)2 = 25
or = 789 rad/s2

Solution 13.24

T = 1500 +250 sin 2 - (1500 +200 sin )

= 250 sin 2 - 200 sin
It is zero when
250 sin 2 - 200 sin = 0
or sin 2 - 0.8 sin =0
or 2 sin cos - 0.8 sin =0
or sin cos - 0.4 sin =0
or sin (cos - 0.4) =0
Either sin = 0 , = 0 or 180o
o

or cos = 0.4 or = 66.4o or 293.6o

The turning moment diagram is shown in the figure. Maximum fluctuation of
energy lies between C and D.

88
A
B C D E

0o 66.4o 180o 293.6o 360o

293.6o

(a)
E = (250 sin 2 200 sin )d
180o

= [ 125 cos 2 + 200 cos ]180o

293.6o

= 490 N.m

e
(b) K=
mk 2 2
490
= 2
2 200
300 (0.2 )
2

60
= 0.093 or 9.3%
Acceleration or deceleration is produced by excess or deficit torque than the mean value
at any instant.
For Tmax and Tmin,
d
(T ) = d (250 sin 2 200 sin ) = 0
d d
or (500 sin 2 200 sin ) = 0
5cos 2 - 2 cos = 0
5(2 cos2 -1) 2 cos = 0
10 cos2 2 cos -5 = 0
On solving, cos = 0.814 or -0.614
or = 35.5o or 127.9o
Tmax = 250 sin 71o - 200 sin 35o = 120.2 N.m
T = mk2 = 583.1
or 120.2= 300 (0.2)2
or = 10.02 rad/s2 at 35.5o

89
Tmin = 250 sin 255.8o - 200 sin 127.9o = -400 N.m
or 400= 300 (0.2)2
or = 33.35 rad/s2 at 127.9o

Solution 13.25

Time required to punch one hole = 1 s

Energy required/hole = 10 000 N.m
Energy supplied by the motor in 1 seconds = 2500 N.m
Energy supplied by the flywheel
e = Energy required/hole - Energy supplied by the motor in 1 s
= 10 000 2500 = 7500 N.m
Thus energy stored in the flywheel = 7500 N
7500
Thus time required to store this much energy in the flywheel = =3 s
2500
Total tome required by the motor to produce 10 000 N.m of energy or punch one hole
=1+3 =4s
Number of holes/hr = 3600/4 = 900

1 2 1 2
e= I1 I 2
2 2
1
(
= mk 2 12 22
2
)
1
(
7500 = X 125 X 0.7 2 25.12 22
2
)
2 = 19.62 rad/s or 187.3 rpm
Reduction in speed = 240 187.3 = 52.7 rpm

Solution 13.26

I = mk 2 = 200X 0.42 = 32kg.m2;

2X 400 2X 250
1 = = 41.9rad / s ; 2 = = 26.2rad / s
60 60
Fluctuation of energy,
1
( )
e = I 12 22 =
2
1
2
( )
X 32 X 41.92 26.22 = 17.1 kJ

As 5 operations are performed in one minute, time required to punch one hole is 12 s.

90
However, actual operation takes 8 s which means that during the rest 4s, 17.1 kJ of
energy is supplied to the flywheel to increase its speed from 250 rpm to 400 rpm..
Energy supplied by the motor in 4 seconds = 17.1 kJ
Energy supplied by the motor in 1 seconds = 17.1/4 = 4.28 kJ
Thus minimum power of motor = 4.28 kW
Energy required per operation
= Energy supplied by the motor in 8 s + Energy supplied by flywheel
= 4.28 X 8 + 17.1 = 51.3 kJ
Solution 13.27

2X 130
1 = = 13.6rad / s ; 2 = 13.6 X 0.8 = 11.57 rad / s
60
1
(
Fluctuation of energy, e = I 12 22 =
2
) 1
2
( )
XmX 0.92 X 13.62 11.57 2 = 20.69 m N.m
This is equal to work done in cutting, 20.69 m = 37500 or m = 1812.5 kg
1 = 2 + t or 13.6 = 11.57 + X 3.3t or = 0.615 rad/s
T = I = 1812.5 X 0.92 X 0.615 = 902.9 N.m

Chapter-14

Solution 14.14

(90 cos 30 + 80 cos 120 + 50 cos 270)2

1/ 2

mc rc =
+ (90 sin 30 + 80 sin 120 + 50 sin 270)
2

or mc 75 = [(37.94)2 + (64.28)2]1/2
= 74.64 kg.mm
or mc = 74.64 / 35 = 2.13 kg

64.28
tan c = = 1.694
37.94
c = 239.45o

Solution 14.15

91
3

C2(RP)

700

500
2

350
200
1 C1(RP)
100

lc2 = 350 mm
l2 = 200 mm
l3 = 500 mm

m1r1 = 3 30 = 90
m2r2l2 = 4 20 200 = 16 000 m2r2 = 4 20 = 80
m3r3l3 = 2 25 500 = 25 000 m3r3 = 2 25 = 50

(16 000 cos 120 + 25 000 cos 270)2

1/ 2

mc 2 rc 2lc 2 =
+ (16 000 sin 120 + 25 000 sin 270)
2

= [(-8000)2 + (-11144)2]1/2
or mc2 20 350 = 13718
mc 2 = 1.96 kg

11144
tan c 2 = = 1.393
8000
c 2 = 54.32

mc2 X rc2 = 1.96 X20 = 39.2

( )
1/ 2
90 cos 30 o + 80 cos 120 + 50 cos 270 + 39.2 cos 54.32 0 2
mc1rc1 =
(
+ 90 sin 30 o + 80 sin 120 + 50 sin 270 + 39.2 sin 54.32 0 2 )
= [(60.8)2 + (98.12)2]1/2
or mc1 20 = 113.74
mc1 = 3.25 kg

92
98.12
tan c 2 = = 1.62
60.8
c 2 = 238.2

Solution 14.16

C2(RP)

3
480

360

240

2
0
80 8

C1(RP)

m1r1l1 = 9 100 (-80) = -72 000

m2r2l2 = 7 120 80 = 67 200
m3r3l3 = 8 140 240 = 268 800
m4r4l4 = 6 120 480 = 345 600
( )
1/ 2
72000 cos 0 + 67200 cos 60 + 268800 cos 135o + 345600 cos 270 2
mc 2 rc 2lc 2 =
( )
+ 72000 sin 0 + 67200 sin 60 + 268800 sin 135o + 345600 sin 270 2
= [(-228 470)2 + (-97 333)2]1/2
or mc2 100 360 = 248 339
mc 2 = 6.898 kg

97333
tan c 2 = = 0.426
228470
c 2 = 23.07 o

m1r1 = 9X100 = 900

m2r2 = 7 120 = 840
m3r3 = 8 140 = 1120
m4r4 = 6 120 = 720
mc2rc2 = 6.898 100 = 689.8

93
( )
1/ 2
900 cos 0 + 840 cos 60 + 1120 cos 135o + 720 cos 270 + 6.89.8 cos 23.07 o 2

mc 2 rc 2 =
(
+ 900 sin 0 + 840 sin 60 + 1120 sin 135o + 720 sin 270 + 6.89.8 sin 23.07 o )
2

= [(1162.5)2 + (1070)2]1/2
or mc2 100 = 1580
mc 2 = 15.8 kg

1070
tan c 2 = = 0.9204
1162.5
c 2 = 222.6 o

Solution 14.17
mbrb = 15 480 = 7200
mcrc = 25 240 = 6000
mdrd = 20 300 = 6000

mdrdld

mdrd
236o
mcrc marala
mara mcrclc

mbrb

ma.ra = 3600
ma =3600/360 = 10 kg at 236o

mcrclc = 25 240 300 = 1.8 X 106

mdrdld = 2.27X106
ld = 2.27X106 /6000=378 mm towards left as the direction is opposite.
la = 3.545X106 /3600=985 mm towards right.

Solution 14.18

94
2 60
= = 2 rad/s
60
320
r= = 160 mm
2
(i) Mass to be balanced at the crankpin = cm + mp
= (2/3) 60 + 40
= 80 kg
mcrc = mr
mc 350 = 80 160
mc = 36.57 kg
(ii) Unbalanced force (at = 45)
= [(1 c )mr 2
cos ] + (cmr
2 2
sin )
2

=
[(1 .667) 60 0.16 (2 ) cos 50] 2 2

+ [0.333 60 0.16 (2 ) sin 50]

2 2

= [(81.204)2 + (193.55)2]1/2
or = 209.9 N
Solution 14.19

1.2
0.96

2.16
3

1.92
0.96
1.2

2 RF
0.24
1

m1 = m5 = 390X0.4 = 156 kg
m3 = 450X 0.4 = 180 kg
m1r1l1 = 156 0.25 (- 0.24) = - 9.36

95
m3r3l3 = 180 0.25 0.96 = 43.2
m5r5l5 = 156 0.25 3.16 = 84.24
On measurement,
m4r4l4 = 82.77 or m4 = 82.77/(0.5X1.92) = 86.2 kg at 24o
m1r1 = 156 0.25 = 39
m3r3 = 180 0.25 = 45
m4r4 = 86.2 X 0.5 = 43.1
m5r5 = 156 0.25 = 39

m2r2 = 86.2 kg at 216o

2
2X 350
Hammer blow = mr 2 = 86.2 X 0.5 X =57 900 N
60
Solution 14.20
Refer Example 14.14. It is exactly a similar problem.
Solution 14.21
m1 cos 142 cos 50 o
As = , since = = 0.71
m2 cos 200 cos 25o
Primary forces are balanced.
l1 tan 1.28 tan 50 o
As = , since = =2.56
l2 tan 0.5 tan 25o
Primary couples are balanced.
2X 200
= = 20.94 rad/s
60
2 r 2
Secondary forces = [m1 cos 2 + m2 cos 2 ]
n

=
2 X 0.4 X (20.94) 2
4
[
142 cos 50 o + 200 cos 100 o ]
= 4959 N
2 r 2
Secondary couples = [m1l1 sin 2 + m2l2 sin 2 ]
n

=
2 X 0.4 X (20.94) 2
4
[
142 X 1.28 sin 50 o + 200 X 0.5 sin 100 o ]
= 20 847 N.m

96
Solution 14.22
2N 2X 900
= = = 94.2 rad/s
60 60
300
n= =5
60
Primary force
Total primary force along x-axis = 2mr2 cos2 cos (Eq. 14.29)
Centrifugal force due to rotating mass along x-axis = Mr2 cos
Centrifugal force due to balancing mass along x-axis = -mr2 cos
Total unbalanced force along x-axis
= 2mr2 cos2 cos + Mr2 cos - mr2 cos
= 2 cos (2mr cos2 + Mr - mr)
= 94.22 X cos (2 x 1X 0.06 cos2 20o + 1.5 X 0.06 1.8 X 0.08)
= 94.22 X cos (0.106 + 0.09 0.144)
= 461.4 cos N
Total primary force along y-axis = 2mr2 sin2 sin (Eq. 14.30)
Centrifugal force due to rotating mass along y-axis = Mr2 sin
Centrifugal force due to balancing mass along y-axis = mr2 sin
Total unbalanced force along y-axis
= 2mr2 sin2 sin + Mr2 sin - mr2 sin
= 2 sin (2mr sin2 + Mr - mr)
= 94.22 X sin (2 x 1X 0.06 sin2 20o + 1.5 X 0.06 1.8 X 0.08)
= 94.22 X sin (0.014 + 0.09 0.144)
= - 354.9 sin N

Resultant primary force = 461.4 2 cos 2 + (354.9) 2 sin 2

This is maximum when cos =1 and minimum when cos = 0
or maximum primary force = 461.4 N
And minimum primary force = 354.9 N

Secondary force
The rotating masses do not affect the secondary forces as they are only due to
second harmonics of the piston acceleration.

97
Resultant secondary force
2mr 2
= (cos cos 2 cos 2 )2 + (sin sin 2 sin 2 )2 (Eq. 14.38)
n

=
2 X 1X 0.06 X 94.2 2
5
(cos 20 o
cos 2 cos 40 o ) + (sin 20
2 o
sin 2 sin 40 o )
2

2 2

This is maximum when is 0o and minimum when = 90o

Maximum primary force = 213 X 0.72 = 153.4 N
Minimum primary force = 213 X 0.22 = 46.9 N
Solution 14.23

0o 1 0o 1
1
450 mm 162o
2
2 4
3
750 mm 134o
3 o
314 3
1
600 mm Couple polygon
o o 3
120 4 120
4
2 162o

4
Force polygon

0o
1 1
324o
2 2

268o 3
3

240o
4

(b) Secondary cranks

Force polygon

2X 240
= = 8 rad/s
60

n = 1200/300 = 4

98
Taking 2 as the reference plane,
Primary couples about the RF,
m1r1l1 = 400 X 0.3 X 0.45 = 54
m2r2l2 = 0
m3r3l3 = m2 X 0.3 X (-0.75) = - 0.225 m2
m4r4l4 = 400 X 0.3 X (-1.35) = - 162
The couple polygon is drawn in Fig. 14.24.
m3r3l3 of crank 3 from the diagram = 196.6 at 134o
m3r3l3 = m3 X 0.225 = 197.5 or m3 = 878 kg
As its direction is to be negative, its direction is (134o + 180o) or 314o.

Primary force (mr) along each of outer cranks = 400 X0.3 = 120
Primary force (mr) along crank 3 = 878X 0.3 =263.4
The force polygon is drawn in Fig. 14.24.
m2r2 of crank 2 from the diagram = 256 At 162o
m2r2 = m2 X 0.3 = 256 or m2 = 853 kg
Its angular position is 162o.
Figure (b) represents the relative position of the cylinders and the cranks.

From secondary unbalanced force polygon, mr = 570

2 (8 ) 2
Maximum unbalanced force = 570 X = 570 X = 90 000 N
n 4

Solution 14.24

4
300

3
600

300

99
Taking plane 3 as the reference plane and 1 = 0o
l1 = - 600 mm
l2 = - 300 mm
l4 = 300 mm

m1r1l1 = 100 r (-0.6) = -60 r m1r1 = 100 r

m2r2l2 = 120 r (- 0.3) = -36 r m2r2 = 120 r
m4r4l4 = 100 X r X 0.3 = 30 r m4r4 = 100 r

mrl + mc2rc2 lc2 = 0

or 60 cos 0 36 cos 2 + 30 cos 4 = 0
or 60 36 cos 2 + 30 cos 4 = 0

or cos 4 = 1.2 cos 2 + 2 (i)

and 60 sin 0 36 sin 2 + 30 sin 4 = 0
or sin 4 = 1.2 sin 2 (ii)
Squaring and adding (i) and (ii),
1.44 cos 2 2 + 4 + 4.8 cos 2 + 1.44 sin 2 2 = 1
or 1.44 + 4 + 4.8 cos 2 = 1
cos 2 =-0.925
or 2 = 157.7o or 202.3o
Selecting the first value,
sin 4 = 1.2 sin 157.7 o =0.455

4 = 27.1o or 152.9o
Now,
mr + mc1rc1 + mc2rc2 = 0
or 100 cos 0 + 120 cos 157.7 + m3 cos 3 + 100 cos 27.1 = 0

m3 cos 3 = 78

and 100 sin 0 + 120 sin 157.7 + m3 sin 3 + 100 sin 27.1 = 0

or m3 sin 3 = 91.2
m3 = 120 kg

100
91.2
tan 3 = = 1.169
78
or 3 = 229.5o
Solution 14.25
The position of three cylinders is shown in Fig. 14.36.
Primary cranks
The primary direct and reverse crank positions are shown in Fig. 14.37 a and b
respectively.

For cylinder 1: From the line of stroke as = 0o, the direct and the reverse cranks
coincide with the common crank i.e. along OA.
For cylinder 2: From the line of stroke as = 120o, the direct crank is 120o clockwise
(along OA) and the reverse crank 120o counter-clockwise (along OC).
For cylinder 3: From the line of stroke as = 240o, the direct crank is 240o clockwise
(along OA) and the reverse crank 240o counter-clockwise (along OB).
In the tabular form:

Cylinder Crank angle Angle of Position of direct Position of reverse

(counter- rotation of the crank on clockwise crank on counter-
clockwise) crank rotation clockwise rotation
1 0o 0o OA OA
2 120o 120o OA OC
3 240o 240o OA OB

Fig. 14.37 b indicates that the primary reverse cranks form a balanced system and
therefore, unbalanced primary force is due to direct cranks only and is given by
2
m 1.8 2X 1200
Maximum primary force = 3 r2 = 3 X X0.06 X
2 2 60
= 3X0.054X15791
= 2558.1 N
Secondary cranks
The secondary direct and reverse crank positions are shown in Fig. 14.38a and b
respectively.

Cylinder Crank angle Angle of Position of direct Position of reverse

(counter- rotation of the crank on clockwise crank on counter-
clockwise) crank rotation clockwise rotation
1 0o 0o OA OA
2 120o 240o OC OA
3 240o 480o or 120o OB OA

101
Fig. 14.38a indicates that the primary direct cranks form a balanced system and
therefore, unbalanced secondary force is due to reverse only cranks and is given by
2
mr 2 1.8 X 0.06 2X 1200
Maximum secondary force = 3 =3X X
2n 2X 3 60
= 3X0.018X15791
= 852.7 N
Solution 14.26
Proceed as in example 14.24.
1
mc r 2 = X 9mr 2
2
mc= 4.5 m = 4.5 X2.4 = 10.8 kg
Solution 14.27
For simplicity sake, the multiplier 10-3 in the vectors A, A1, A2 and B, B1, B2 have been
omitted which does not affect the end result.
Writing the vectors in the polar mode and using the complex mode of the
calculator,

A = 3 25o ; A1 = 4.5 110o ; A2 = 4 60o

B = 5 70o ; B1 = 3.8 135o ; B2 = 3.2 215o
A1- A = 5.186 145.2o ; A2 A = 2.311 108.1o ;
B1 - B = 4.835 -155.4o ; B2 B = 7.839 -123.5o

B(A 2 - A) - A(B 2 - B)
Now, = [Eq. 14.42]
(A1 - A)(B2 - B) - (A 2 - A)(B1 - B)

o
24.97ei (108.8 )
= o
i ( 37.5 )
= 0.65571.3o
38.1

A(B1 - B) - B(A1 - A)
Similarly, = [Eq. 14.43)]
(A1 - A)(B2 - B) - (A 2 - A)(B1 - B)

o
12.42ei (18.3 )
= i ( 37.5 o )
= 0.326 19.2o
38.1

Thus,
The balance mass in plane A = 0.655X3 = 1.96 kg
Angular position = 71.3o counter-clockwise with the direction of trial mass in plane A.
Similarly,
The balance mass in plane B = 0.326X3= 0.97 Kg
Angular position = 340.8o counter-clockwise with the direction of trial mass in plane B.

Chapter-15

102
Solution 15.11

4 sin 30
= 0.3 = 0.3136
60 + sin 60

180
Taking moments about the pivot,
400 X 0.45 Rn X 0.2 0.3136 Rn X 0.02 = 0
Rn = 872.6 N
TB = 0.3136 X 872.6 X 0.08
= 21.9 N.m

Solution 15.12

120 300
O
T1 T2

100 N

150o

110

(mm)

m = 300 kg = 0.3
k = 280 mm r = 110 mm
N = 240 rpm a = 120 mm
= 150 l = 300 mm
(i) = 360 - 150 = 210

or = 210 = 3.665 rad
180
T1
= e = e0.33.665 = 3
T2
Taking moments about O,
F l T1 a = 0

T1 = 250 N

103
250
T2 = = 83.3 N
3

TB = (250 83.3) 0.11 = 18.34 N.m

2
1 2 1 2N
(ii) KE of the flywheel = I = mk 2
2 2 60

2
1 2 2 240
= 300 (0.28)
2 60

= 7428 N.m

Let the KE be used to overcome the work done by the braking torque in n
revolutions. Then
TB Angular displacement = KE of flywheel
18.34 2 n = 7428

n = 64.5 revolutions

(iii) For uniform retardation, average speed = 240/2 = 120 rpm

n 64.5 64.5
Time taken = = min . = = 16.13 s.
N 240 240 / 60

Solution 15.13

4 sin ( / 2) 4 sin 48
= = 0.3 = 0.39
+ sin (96 X / 180) + sin 96
For the left-hand side block, taking moments about O1,
3000 0.5 Rn1 0.2 + 0.39 Rn1 (0.2 0.03) = 0
Rn1 = 11 219 N
For the right-hand side block, taking moments about O2,
3000 0.5 - Rn2 0.2 - 0.39 Rn2 0.17 = 0
Rn2 = 5633 N

104
Maximum braking torque, TB = (Rn1 + Rn2) r
= 0.39 (11 219 + 5633) 0.2
= 1314 N.m
Solution 15.14

m = 120 kg d = 0.9 m
14000
v= = 3.888 m/s Fr = 110 N = Rn
3600
= 0.05

Let s = distance covered by the bicycle before it comes to rest.

Work done against friction = KE of the bicycle and the rider
1
Rn s = mv 2
2
1
0.05 110 s = 120 (3.888)2
2
s = 164.9 m

dn=s
or 0.9 n = 164.9
n = 58.3 revolutions
Solution 15.15

Turn
Lever
buckle 600
220

Brake
drum
220

280 (mm)

105
Assume the rotation of the drum to be clockwise. The various forces on the two blocks
are shown in Fig.
For the screw and nut, tan = = =0.477 or = 25.5o
d X 30
= 0.15 or tan =0.15 or = 8.53o
120 X 600
Torque shared by each side of the spindle = = 36 000 N.mm
2
If F be the force applied on each block along the screw axis,
T = F tan( + ).r or 36 000 = F tan(25.5o + 8.53o ) X (30 / 2) or F = 3554 N

4 sin ( / 2 ) 4 sin 45
= = 0.4 = 0.44
+ sin ( / 2) + sin 90
For the left-hand side block, taking moments about O1,
F 0.44 Rn1 0.22 = 0
or 3554 0.44 - Rn1 0.22 = 0 or Rn1 = 7108 N
For the right-hand side block, taking moments about O2,
F 0.44 Rn2 0.22 = 0 or Rn2 = Rn1 = 7108 N
Maximum braking torque, TB = (Rn1 + Rn2) r = 0.44 (2X 7108) 0.14 = 875.7 N.m

Solution 15.16

T1 0.25195
= e = e 180
=2.342
T2
100X340 + 2.342 T2 X40 T2 X100 = 0
T2 = 5380 N
T1 = 12599 N
TB = (T1-T2) X r = (12599 5380) X 0.11 = 794 N.m
2
1 1 2N
KE of the flywheel = I 2 = mk 2
2 2 60

2
1 2 340
300 (0.4)
2
=
2 60

= 30 425 N.m

Let the KE be used to overcome the work done by the braking torque in n
revolutions. Then
TB Angular displacement = KE of flywheel

106
794 2 n = 30 425

n = 6.1 rev.

Solution 15.17

T1 0.22300
= e = e 180
= 3.164
T2

2.164 T2 = 6937

T2 = 3205.6 N

T1 = 10143 N

F X 800 = 10143 X 150

F = 1901.8 N

Solution 15.18

n 12
T12 1 + tan 1 + 0.35 tan 7.5
= = = 2.515
T0 1 tan 1 0.35 tan 7.5

P = TB X
2X 280
250 000 = TB X
60
TB = 8526 N.m
Maximum braking torque, 8526 = (T12 T0 ) 0.42
8526 = (2.515T0 T0 ) 0.42
To = 13400 N
T10 = 33701 N
Taking moments about the fulcrum,
F l T0 a + T12 b = 0

107
F = 4440 N

Solution 15.19

For the leading shoe,

2 2
Fa Rnl c sin + Rnl (r c cos ) = 0
1 1

0.16 0.125 0.03 80 000 2 145 2 15
F 0.22 180 180
4
sin 290 + sin 30

+ =0
4 cos 290)

F = 175.7 N

For the trailing shoe,

175.7 X 0.22 0.00015 XPnt (5.9775) 0.000384 XPnt (1.0769) = 0

Pnt = 29507 N/m2

( )
Braking torque, TB = r 2 w Pnl + Pnt (cos 1 cos 2 )

= (0.16)2 0.32 0.03 (80000 + 29507)(cos 15 - cos 145)

= 48.04 N.m

Solution 15.20

40 000
u = 40 km/hr = = 11.111 m/s
3600
(i) On up plane:
tan = 1/16 ; = 3.576o ; cos = 0.9981
x
f = g cos + tan
l h
0.4 X 1.3 1
= 9.81X 0.9981 +
2.8 0.4 X 1 16

108
= 2.733 m/s2
u2 11.1112
s= = = 22.5 m
2 f 2 X 2.733

(i) On down plane:

tan = 1/16 ; = 3.576o ; cos = 0.9981
x
f = g cos tan
l h
0.4 X 1.3 1
= 9.81X 0.9981
2.8 0.4 X 1 16
2
= 1.5095 m/s
u2 11.1112
s= = = 40.89 m
2 f 2 X 1.5095

(ii) On a level road:

x 0.4 X 1.3
f =g = 9.81X = 2.1255 m/s2
l h 2.8 0.4 X 1
u2 11.1112
s= = = 29.04 m
2 f 2 X 2.1255

Solution 15.21

2N 2X 180
P = ( Mg s )r = (50 X 9.81 120) X (0.5 + 0.005)
60 60

= 3527 W

Solution 15.22

Mgl Mgl 2N
P = (T1 T2 )v = r = r
2a 2a 60
M 9.81 1.2 2 500
20000 = 0.18 or M = 144.2 kg
2 0.4 60

Chapter-16

Solution 16.18
Height of governor in 1st case = 640 cos 30o = 554.3 mm
Height of governor in 2nd case = 480 cos 30o + 80/tan 30o = 554.3 mm

109
Height of governor in 3rd case = 800 cos 30o - 80/tan 30o = 554.3 mm
As the height of governor in each case is the same, the speed of rotation of the
governor is the same.
(i) h = 554.3 50 = 504.3 mm

h 554.3
= = = 1.0484
h 504.3
Increase in speed = (1.0484- 1.0) 100 = 4.84%

(ii)
80

49.6o

480
h'
365.7

415.7
50

60o

= 49.6o

sin = (480 sin 60o 50)/480 =0.762; = 49.63o

h = 480 sin 49.63o + 80 tan 49.63o = 459.8 mm
h 554.3
= = = 1.098
h 459.8
Increase in speed = (1.098- 1.0) 100 = 9.8%
(iii)

110
80

800

692.8
642.8
h'

= 53.5o

50
60o

sin = (800 sin 60o 50)/800 =0.8035; = 53.5o

h = 800 sin 53.5o - 80 tan 53.5o = 534.8 mm

h 554.3
= = = 1.018
h 534.8
Increase in speed = (1.018- 1.0) 100 = 1.8%

Solution 16.19
(i) When r = 200 mm
r r 200
tan = = = = 0.894
h (OA)2 r 2 (300)2 (200)2
k =1
18 9.81
6 0.2 2 = 0.8946 9.81 + (1 + 1)
2
2N
= = 13.244
60
N = 126.4 rpm
(ii) When r = 250 mm,
250
tan = = 1.508
(300)2 (250)2

6 0.25 2 = 1.5086 9.81 +
18 X 9.81
(1 + 1)
2

111
2N
= = 15.38
60
N = 146.8 rpm
Also, range of speed = 146.8 126.4 = 20.4 rpm
Solution 16.20

At minimum speed, h = 1752 1052 = 140 mm

895 mg + (Mg f ) 895 5 X 9.81 + (20 X 9.81 15)
At minimum speed, N2 = =
h mg 0.14 5 X 9.81
= 30009 or N = 173.2 rpm
At maximum speed, h = 1752 1402 = 105 mm (Fig. 16.5b)
895 mg + (Mg + f ) 895 5 X 9.81 + (20 X 9.81 + 15)
At maximum speed, N2 = =
h mg 0.105 5 X 9.81
= 45226 or N = 212.7 rpm
Range of speed = 212.7 173.2 = 39.5 rpm

Solution 16.21
(i) When r = 260 mm
r r 260
tan = = = = 0.855
h (OA)2 r 2 (400)2 (260)2
h = 260 40 = 220 mm

a= ( AB )2 (b )2 = (400)2 (220)2 = 334.1 mm

220 / 334.1
k= = 0.77
0.855

50 9.81
6 0.26 2 = 0.8556 9.81 + (1 + 0.77 )
2
2N
= = 16.437
60
N = 157 rpm
(ii) When r = 300 mm,
300
tan = = 1.134
(400)2 (300)2

112
h = 300 40 = 260 mm

a= ( AB )2 (b )2 = (400)2 (260)2 = 304 mm

260 / 304
k= = 0.754
1.134

6 0.3 2 = 1.1346 9.81 +
50 X 9.81
(1 + 0.754)
2
2N
= = 17.552
60
N = 167.6 rpm
Also, range of speed = 167.6 157 = 10.6 rpm
Solution 16.22

895 a m + M
N2 = .
h e m
895 0.18 3 + 20
1502 = .
0.18 e 3
e = 0.305 m
Therefore, length of the extension links = e a = 305 180 = 125 mm
Let T be the tension in the upper arms.
Considering the vertical components of the forces on the lower link,
Mg
T cos = mg +
2
0.18
cos = = 0.818
0.22
20 X 9.81
T X 0.818 = 3 X 9.81 +
2
T = 155.9 N
Solution 16.23

2X 160 2X 175
1 = = 16.76 rad/s ; 2 = = 18.33 rad/s
60 60
F1 = mr11 = 2 X 0.06 X 16.762 = 33.7 N and F2 = mr22 = 2 X 0.08 X 18.332 = 53.8 N
2 2

2
a F F 2 53.8 33.7
Spring constant, s = 2 2 1 = 2(1) = 2.01 N/mm
b r2 r1 80 60
1 F
We have, F1a = (Mg + FS1 + f )b or F1 = S1 (M = 0, f = 0, a = b)
2 2

113
or Fs1 = 2 X 33.7 = 67.4 N
67.4
Initial compression = = 33.5 mm
2.01
Solution 16.24
2 275
1 = = 28.8 rad/s
60
a2 F2 F1
s = 2
b2 r2 r1

0.12 1.5 X 0.11X 28.82 1.5 X 0.07 X 27.232

=2
0.04 2 0.11 0.07
=18.75 X 903.4
= 18 440 N/m or 18.44 N/mm
When radius is 80 mm

a2 F2 F1
s = 2
b2 r2 r1

100 2 1.5 X 0.11X 28.8 2 1.5 X 0.08 X 2

18 440 = 2
40 2 0.11 0.08

=
18.75
0.03
(
91.24 0.08 2 )
= 27.779
N = 27.779 X30/ = 265.3 rpm

Solution 16.25
2
F2 F1 S b y
= 4s + a
r2 r1 2 a x
When r2 = 160 mm, N1 = 220 rpm
220 2
2 = = 23.04 rad/s
60
F2 = mr2 22 = 2.5 0.16 (23.04)2 = 212.3 N
210 2
1 = = 22 rad/s
60
F1 = mr112 = 2.5 0.12 (22)2 = 145.2 N
Combined stiffness = 300 N/m

114
Stiffness of each spring = 300/2 = 150 N/m
2
169.87 116.6 S 120 y
= 4 X 150 + a
0.16 0.12 2 160 x
2
y
1678 = 600 + 0.28125 S a
x
2
y
S a = 3833 N/m or 3.838 N/mm (Refer Eq. (16.9)]
x
Sa = 11 219 N/m or 11.219 N/mm

Solution 16.26
m = 0.02 kg b = 0.004 m
e = 0.006 m t = 0.0001 mm
h =0.5 mm l = 40 mm
E = 205 X 109 N/m2

bt 3 0.004 X 0.00013
I= = = 0.3333 X 10 15 m 4
12 12

2
Lift of the sleeve, h = 2.4
l
2
or 0.5 = 2.4
40
or =2.887 mm = 0.002887 m
Now,
Fl 3 m(e + ) 2l 3
= =
192 EI 192 EI

0.02(0.006 + 0.002887) 2 X 0.043

0.002887=
192 X 205 X 109 X 0.3333 X 1015

2 = 3329.4
or = 57.7 rad/s
57.7 X 60
= = 551 rpm
2
551
Therefore, speed of the turn table = = 68.9 rpm
8

Solution 16.27

115
2 220
1 = = 23.04 rad/s
60
(i) For initial (neutral) position, taking moments about B, the I-centre
(Fig.16.14b),
Mg + FS 1
mr1 12 a1 = mg b1 + b1
2
where FS1 is the spring load on the sleeve. The total sleeve load (Mg + FS1)
acts on the levers through the fulcrums A A.
Thus,

[1.4 0.045 (23.04) ] 0.09 = 1.4 9.81 + 7.5 9.281 + F

2 S1
0.04

Initial thrust, FS1 = 49.46 N
(ii) When sleeve rises through 9 mm, radius is increased by c2 (Fig.16.14c),
90
c2 = 8 = 18 mm
40

or r2 = 45 +18 = 63 mm

b2 = (40)2 (8)2 = 39.19 mm

Since point A can move vertically and point B horizontally, the I-centre of the
lever BAC will be at l. Taking moments about this point,
Mg + FS 2
(mr )a
2
2
2 2 = mg (b2 + c 2 ) +
2
b2

1.4 0.063 (24.42)2 0.08818 = 1.4 9.81 X(0.03919 + 0.018) +

7.5 9.81 + FS 2
0.03919
2

FS2 = 123 N

FS 2 FS 1 123 49.46
Stiffness of spring = = = 9.19 N/mm
h2 8

116
Solution 16.28
(ii) When r = 150 mm
r r 150
tan = = = = 0.8006
h (OA)2
r 2
(240 )2 (150)2
k =1
5 0.15 2 = 0.8006[5 9.81 + 18 X 9.81]
2N
= = 15.52
60
N = 148.2 rpm
(ii) When r = 200 mm,
200
tan = = 1.508
(240)2 (200 )2
5 0.2 2 = 1.508[5 9.81 + 18 X 9.81]
2N
= = 18.446
60
N = 176.1 rpm
Also, range of speed = 176.1 148.2 = 27.9 rpm
f 10
Coefficient of insensitiveness = = = 0.044
(m + M ) g (5 + 18) X 9.81

Solution 16.29

h1 = 0.252 0.2 2 = 0.15 m

895 m + M 895 5 + 25
N12 = = = 26 850
h1 m 0.2 5
N1 = 164 rpm
895 5 + 25
And N 22 = = 35 800 or N2 = 189 rpm
0.15 5
(i) Range of speed = 189 - 164 = 25 rpm
(ii) Lift of sleeve = 2 (h1 h2) = 2(0.2-0.15) = 0.1 m

117
(iii) Effort = (m + M )cg
where cN = 25 or c = 25/164 =0.152
or Effort = (5+25) X 0.152X 9.81 = 44.73 N
(iv) Power = Effort X Displacement = 44.73 X 0.1 = 4.473 N.m
When friction is considered

895 mg + (Mg f )
N12 =
h1 mg
895 5 X 9.81 + (25 X 9.81 10 )
==
0.2 5 X 9.81
= 25 939
N1 = 161.1 rpm
895 mg + (Mg + f )
N22 =
h2 mg
895 5 X 9.81 + (25 X 9.81 + 10)
=
0.15 5 X 9.81
= 37 015
N2 = 192.4 rpm
(iv) Range of speed = 192.4 161.1 = 31.3 rpm
(v) Lift of sleeve = Same as before =0.1 m
Effort = (mg + Mg + f )c

where c = 31.3/161.1 =0.194

or Effort = (5X9.81 + 25X9.81+10) X 0.194 = 57.3 N
(iv) Power = Effort X Displacement = 57.3 X 0.1 = 5.73 N.m
Solution 16.30
The controlling force curve of a spring-controlling governor is a straight line and thus can
be expressed as
F = ar + b
where r = 200 mm and F = 1500 N
1500 = 0.2 a + b
When r = 130 mm, F = 887.5 N (i)
887.5 = 0.13 a + b (ii)
From (i) and (ii),

118
a = 8750 and b = -250
F = mr2 = ar + b
= 8750 X 0.15 + (-250) = 1063 N
When r = 150 mm
8 0.15 2 = 8750 0.15 + (-250)
2 = 885.4
2N
= = 29.76
60
N = 284 rpm
(i) To make the governor isochronous, the controlling force line must pass
through the origin, i.e. b is to be zero. This is possible only if the initial
tension is increased by 250 N (Refer to Fig.16.26).
(ii) F = mr2 = ar + b
8 r 2 = 8750 r + 0

2 = 1093.8

2N
= = 33.07
60

N = 316 rpm

Chapter-17

Solution 17.10
I = mk2 = 20 (0.3)2 = 1.8 kg.m2
2 500
= = 52.36 rad/s
60
C = I p
Mgl = I p
20 9.81 0.25 = 1.8 52.36 p
p = 0.52 rad/s
Solution 17.11
I = mk2 = 80 (0.3)2 = 7.2 kg.m2

119
b

o a

300 450

C = I p
Mgl = I p
80 9.81 0.3 = 7.2 100 p
p = 0.327 rad/s
When the cord supporting the right hand cord breaks, the weight due to 80 kg
mass of the disc applies a clockwise torque about an horizontal axis perpendicular to the
shaft axis (y-axis). Assuming that the disc precesses counter-clockwise about z-axis when
viewed from top, the vector oa rotates to the position ob horizontally. This provides the
active gyroscopic couple or applied torque clockwise about the y-axis which is true.
Thus when the cord breaks, the shaft precesses counter-clockwise when viewed from top.

Solution 17.12
2 1000
= = 104.7rad / s
60
200 1000
p = = 0.37rad / s
3600 X 150
C = I p
= 20 104.7 0.37 = 775.5 N.m

The tail is raised and the nose is depressed.

Solution 17.13

120
2 3000
= = 314.2 rad/s
60
T = 16 s

2
0 = = 0.393 rad / s
16

C = I p = 750 314.2 0.0393 = 9261 N.m

For the effect as the bow dips refer to Fig. 17.7 (c) right figure.

Solution 17.14
I = mk2 = 950 (0.3)2 = 85.5 kg.m2
2 1200
= = 125.7 rad/s
60
p = 1.2 rad/s

C = I p = 85.5 125.7 1.2 = 12890 N.m

When the bow rises, the ship turns right as shown in Fig. 17.7 (c) (left figure).

Solution 17.15

18 1860
v= = 9.3 m/s
3600
I = mk2 = 6000 ( 0.45)2 =1215 kg.m2
2 2400
= = 251.3 rad/s
60

(i) R = 60 m
v 9.3
p = = = 0.155 rad/s
R 60

C = 1215 251.3 0.155

= 47 330 N.m

121
The bow is raised (Fig. 17.7 b) (upper figure).

(ii) = 7.5 = 7.5 = 0.1309 rad
180
T = 18 s

2
0 = = 0.349 rad / s
18

max = 02 = 0.1309 (0.349 )2 = 0.016 rad/s2

Solution 17.16
Reaction due to weight

mg 2050 9.81
Rw = = = 5027.6 N (upwards)
4 4

(ii) Reaction due to gyroscopic couple

v2 v2
Cw = 4I w = 4 2.2 = 0.2444v 2
rR 0.3 120

v2
Ce = I e G w p = 1.25 3.2 = 0.1111v 2
0.3 120

CG = Cw + Ce = 0.2444 v2 + 0.1111 v2 = 0.3555 v2

CG 0.3555v 2
Reaction on each outer wheel, RGo = = = 0.1111v 2 (upwards)
2w 2 1.6

Reaction on each inner wheel, RGi = 0.1111 v2 (downwards)

122
(iii) Reaction due to centrifugal couple
mv 2 2050 v 2
Cc = h= 0.52 = 8.883v 2
R 120

Ce 8.883v 2
Reaction on each outer wheel, Rco = = = 2.776v 2 (upwards)
2w 2 1.6

Rw = RGi + Rci

5027.6 = (0.1111+ 2.776) v2

v2 = 1741.4

v = 41.73 m/s

41.73 3600
or v= = 150.2 km/h
1000

Solution 17.17

v 100 1000
= = = 30.86 rad/s
r 3600 X (1.8 / 2)

= Amplitude/Distance between wheel centres = 0.0025/1.6 rad

0.0025 2
p = 0 = X =0.0818 rad/s
1.6 0.12

C = I p = 200 30.86 0.0818 = 505 N.m

505
Reaction between wheels and rail = = 315.6 N
1.6

Solution 17.18

v2
Gyroscopic couple, CG = (2 I w + GI e ) cos
rR

123
= (2 1.1 + 4.5 0.18)
(20)2 cos
0.3 35
= 114.67 cos
v2
Centrifugal couple, Cc = m h cos
R

= 220
(20 )
2
0.62 cos
35
= 1558.86 cos
Total overturning couple = (114.67 + 1558.86) cos = 1673.5 cos
Rightening couple = mg h sin
= 220 9.81 0.62 sin
= 1338 sin
1338 sin = 1673.5 cos
1673.5
or tan = = 0.8
1338
= 38.6
Chapter-18

Solution 18.30

T T
a l-a
2 x
1

Vertical component of tension T = T cos 1 +T cos 2

x x
= T +T
a la
1 1
= Tx +
a l a

124
l
=T x
a(l a)
1 2
KE = mx&
2
PE = Mean force X displacement
1 l
= T x .x
2 a(l a )
Tl
= x2
2a(l a)
d
Now, ( KE + PE ) = 0
dt
Tl
mx&&x& + xx& =0
a(l a)
Tl
&x& + x =0
m(l a)a
1 Tl
Thus fn =
2 m(l a )a

Solution 18.31
1 s
As fn =
2 m
If frequency is to be halved, the stiffness must be reduced to one fourth.
Let the stiffness of the second spring be x times s.
The combined stiffness s will be

1 1 1
= +
s ' s xs
1 s ( x + 1)
=
s/4 xs 2
x +1
4=
x
x =1/3

Solution 18.32

1 s 1 s
3.56 = and 2.9 =
2 m 2 m+5

3.56 m+5
=
2 .9 m

125
m+5
1.5 =
m
m = 10 kg
1 s
3.56 = or s = 5000 N/mm
2 10

Solution 18.33
c
= = 0.3
cc
d = 1 2n
where
s 20 000
n = = = 31.62 rad/s
m 20

d = 1 (0.3) 2 31.62 =30.2 rad/s

2 2 0.3
= = = 1.976
1 2 1 (0.3)
2

Xn
= e = e1.976 = 7.21
X n+1

Solution 18.34
We know
X0
= e n NT d
XN
where
s 50 103
n = = = 18.9 rad/s
m 140
80 = e 0.25 X 18.9 NTd
or
Total time NTd = 0.927 s

2 2
Td = = = 0.343 s
1 n 2 1 (0.25)2 18.9

0.927
Number of oscillations completed = = 2.7
0.343

126
Solution 18.35
24
fn = = 1.2 Hz
20
n = 2 fn = 2 X 1.2 = 7.54 rad/s
s
(i) n =
m

s
7.54 =
4
s = 227 N/m
1/ 4 1/ 4
X0 X0 1
(ii) = = = 1.351
X
1 4 X 0.3

X
= ln 0 = ln 1.351 = 0.3
X5
2
(iii) = 0.3
1 2

or

1 2 = 20.94

1 - 2 = 438.62
= 0.0477
(iv) c = 2 m n = 2 4 7.54 0.0477 =2.88 N/m/s
Solution 18.36
1 2 1 2
mv = sx
2 2
1 1
X 300 Xv 2 = X 250 000 X 0.8 2
2 2
v = 23.1 m/s

s 25000
n = = = 28.87 rad/s
m 300
Cc = 2 X 300 X 28.87 = 17 322 N/m/s

Solution 18.37

127
F0 / s
A= when = 1
2 n
or
F0 / s
0.012 =
2
F0 / s
0.008 =
[1 (0.8) ] + (2X 0.8)
2 2 2

Dividing,

0.012
=
[1 (0.8) ] + (2X 0.8)
2 2 2

0.008 2
0.1296 + 2.56 2
1.5 =
2
0.1296 + 2.56 2
2.25 =
4 2
= 0.142

Solution 18.38
g 9.81
n = = = 35 rad/s
0.008
1 = 2 X1500/60 = 157.1 rad/s
2 = 2 X2500/60 = 261.1 rad/s

1
= 2
= 0.0522
157.1
1
35

1
= 2
= 1.82
261.8
1
35

Solution 18.39

2 2
T= or 0.2 = or n = 31.4 rad/s
n n
s s
n = or 31.4 = or s = 3454 N/m
m 3.5

128
F0 / s 40 / 3054
A= or 0.18 = or = 0.322
2 2
c = 2X 3.5 X31.4 X0.322 = 70.77 N/m/s

Solution 18.40

2N 2X 750
= = = 78.54 rad/s
60 60
In the absence of damping,
1
= 2

1
n
or
1 1
=
22 78.54 2
1
n
n = 16.377 rad/s
or
s
= 16.377
120
Combined stiffness, s = 3218 N/m
= 32.18 N/mm

2 x 1
(i) = ln 1 = ln
1 2 x2 1 0.25

2
= 0.002096
1 2
= 0.0457

1 + (2 / n )
2

=
[1 + (2 / ) ]
2
+ (2 / n )
2 2
n

2
78.54
1 + 2 0.0457
16.377
=
2
78.54 2 78.54
2

1 + 2 0.0457
16.377 16.377

129
= 0.0496
The maximum unbalanced force on the machine due to the reciprocating parts,
F = mr2 = 2.5 0.045 (78.54)2 = 694 N
Ft
=
F
or
Ft
0.0496 =
694
or
Ft = 34.42 N

(ii) At resonance, =1
n

(1 + (2 )2 1 + (2 0.0457 )
2

= = = 10.987
2 2 0.0457
Maximum unbalanced force on the machine due to reciprocating parts at
resonance, i.e. when = n,
F = 2.5 0.045 (16.377)2 = 30.173 N
Ft = F = 10.987 30.173 = 332.87 N
Force transmitted at resonance
(iii) Amplitude =
Stiffness
332.87
=
32.184
= 10.34

Solution 18.41

bd 3 0.022 X 0.0453
(i) I= = = 0.167 X 10 6 mm4
12 12

180 X 9.81X 0.83

1 = = 0.000451 m
48 X 250 X 109 X 0.167 X 10 6
0.4985
f n1 = = 23.5 Hz
0.000451

(ii) Due to central load, fn1 = 23.5 Hz

130
due to distributed load,
5 X 180 X 9.81X 0.83
s = = 0.000282 m
384 X 250 X 109 X 0.167 X 10 6

0.5614
f n1 = = 33.44 Hz
0.000282

By Dunkerleys equation,
1 1 1
2
= 2 + 2
fn f n1 f ns
f n21 f n22 23.52 X 33.44 2
f = 2
n
2
= = 19.2 Hz
f n1 + f n21 23.5 2 + 33.44 2

Solution 18.42

I=
64
(D4 d 4 ) =
64
( )
0.084 0.054 = 1.704 10 6 m4
We have,
0.4985
fn =
s
1 + 2 + 3 + .... +
1.27

mga 2 b 2
1 =
3EIl
Here m = 60 kg, a = 0.9 m and b = 0.9 m.

60 9.81 (0.9)
4
1 = = 0.0002 m
3 210 109 1.704 10 6 1.8
For 2, m = 60 kg, a = 1.35 m, b = 0.45 m

60 9.81 (1.35) (0.45)

2 2
1 = = 0.0001126 m
3 210 109 1.704 10 6 1.8

5 22.97 9.81 (1.8)

4
5mgl 4
s = = = 0.000086 m
384 El 384 210 10 9 1.704 10 6

131
0.4985
fn = = 25.56 Hz
0.000086
0.0002 + 0.0001126 +
1.27
Thus whirling seed = 25.56X60 = 1534 rpm
Solution 18.43
r g
fn =
2 lk 2
s 1 0.8 1
where r = o
= = 0.462 m
2 cos 30 2 cos 30 o
l=2m
s 0.8
and k= = = 0.231m
12 12

r g 0.462 9.81
fn = = =0.704 Hz
2 lk 2
2 2 X 0.2312
T= 1/fn = 1/0.704 =1.42 s

Solution 18.44

Replacing the three equal rotors of the cylinders by a single rotor at the centre of their
combined mass,
Distance of this rotor from the engine flywheel = (500 + 400) = 900 mm and the
moment of inertia 25 X 3 = 75 kg.m2.
Assuming the whole shaft to be replaced by a torsionally equivalent shaft of 150
mm diameter,
1 GJ
f n1 =
2 I a la

1
84 109 (0.15)4
50 = 32
2 75 Xla
la = 0.564 m
Ia la = Ib lb
75 X 0.564= 120 lb or lb = 0.353 m
Also,

132
1 1 1 1
= +
I a la I c l1 la l2 la

1 1 1 1
= +
75 X 0.564 600 0.9 0.564 l2 0.353

1
14.18 = 2.98 +
l2 0.353
or l2 = 0.442 m
4
0.15
0.6 = 0.442
d
d = 0.162 m or 162 mm

Solution 18.45
Length of equivalent 45 mm diameter,
4
45
le = 600 + 600 = 790 mm
60

1 GJ
f n1 =
2 I a la

1
84 109 (0.045)4
= 32
2 200 X 0.6 2 X 0.79
= 3.88 Hz

Solution 18.46
4 4 4
150 150 150
l = 300 + 400 + 100 + 260
100 190 130
= 2824.7 mm
Ia la = Ib lb = Ib (l - la)
75 X la = 50 ( 2824.7 - la)
la = 1130 mm

1 GJ
f n1 =
2 I a la

1
85 109 (0.15)4
= 32
2 75 X 1.13

133
= 35.5 Hz
Solution 18.47
I 1500
I b = b2 = 2 = 166.7 kg.m2
Gr 3
Length of equivalent shaft
4
d
l = l1 + G l a
2
r 2

db
4
50
200 + 3 X 500
2
= 481 mm
100
Ia la = Ib lb = Ib (l - la)
450 X la = 166.7 ( 0.481 - la)
la = 0.13 m

Polar moment of inertia of equivalent shaft = X (0.05) 4 =0.61 X 106
32
1 GJ
f n1 =
2 I a la
1 85 10 9 0.61X 10 6
=
2 450 X 0.13
= 4.74 Hz

134