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University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun

Tutorial Sheet

Course: B. Tech.

Jacobians

Subject: Mathematics I

 1. . If x=rcos , y=rsin , find  (x,y) ) (r,   and   ) (x,y) (r,  . Ans:  (x,y) (x,y,z) (r, ) =r,     ) (x,y) (r,  1 = r 2. If x=rsin cos , y= rsin sin , z=rcos , show that  = r 2 sin  (r, )  , and find (x,y,z) (r, , )   1  .Ans: r 2 sin 3. If  x 2 x 3  x 1 x 3  x 1 x 2 ; then show that  (y ,y 1 2 ,y 3 ) =4. y 1 x 1 , y 2 2 + y x 2 ,y 3 x 3 2 2 + ,w=x+y+z, find  (x,y,z)  (x ,x 1 2 ,x 3  1 ) 4. If u=xyz,v= 5. x z Ans: 2(x  = u 2  (u,v,w) (x,y,z)  If x + y+ z=u, y+ z=vu and z=uvw, show that y)(y v .  z)(z  x)  (u,v,w)

1

y

2

r

2

+

z

2

1 2 and w=z 1

r

then show that

(x a)

3

2

1

2

,

6. If u=x 1

r

where

r

2

2

=

2

x

,v=y 1

2

+

(u,v,w)

(x,y,z)

(x b)

3

7. If u,v,w are the roots of the equation

Ans:

  (u,v,w)  2(a  b)(b  c)(c  a)  (a,b,c) = (u  v)(v  w)(w  u)

3

=

1

r

2

(x c)

5

2

.

=0,then find

(u,v,w)

.

(a,b,c)

8.

x y , v= y z , w=

z

x

If u=

between them.

y(x y z) then show that u, v, w are dependent and find the relation

xz

Ans: uv =w+1

9. Define the Jacobian J(u,v) of the two functions u(x,y) and v(x,y) .If J be the Jacobian of u & v with

respect to x & y and J’ be the Jacobian of x & y with regard to u & v, then prove that JJ’=1.

10. Prove by using Jacobians that the following are not independent:

v=x-y +z, w=

x

2

y

2

z

2

-2yz. Find the relation between u and v.

u=x + y - z,

Ans: u v 2w

2

2

11.

If

u

3

=xyz,

1

v

1

= x

1

+ y

+ z 1

and

(u,v,w)

(x,y,z)

=

v(x

y)(y

z)(z

x)(x

 

y

z)

2

3u w(xy

yz

zx)

w

2

=

x

2

y

2

z

2

,

then

prove

1

that

Maxima and Minima

1. Find the extreme values of function

x

3

y

Ans:

Extreme points (0, 0), (a,a);Min. Value:

3

-3axy.

a

3

; Max. Value:

a

3

2. Test the function f(x, y) = x y (6 x y) for maxima and minima for points not at origin.

 

3

2

Ans: Max Value at (3,2)

3. Examine for minimum and maximum values: sinx + siny + sin(x+y)  
3
,
3 .
Ans:
Max. Value at
 3
3
 
=
2
2
 y
2
e 
x
2
y
2
4. Test the function f(x, y) =  x

for maxima and minima for points not on the circle x 2
 y
2
=1.
5. Find
the
1
semi
2
Ans: tan

Ans: Min. Value at (0, 0) =0.

vertical

angle

of

the

cone

of

maximum

volume

and

given

slant

height.

6. Show that the rectangular solid of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a given sphere is a cube.

7. Find the maximum and minimum value of the function x y (1 x y) .

3

2

 

1

Ans: Max. Value = 430

at

   2 1

1

,

3

  

.

Maxima and Minima (Lagrange’s Method)

1. The sum of three positive numbers is constant. Prove that their product is maximum when they are equal.

2. Show that the rectangular solid of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a given sphere is a cube.

3. Find the volume of the largest parallelepiped that can be inscribed in the

ellipsoid

x a 2 2

y

2

b

2

z

2

c

2

1

.

8abc

Ans: 3 3

4. Find the maximum and minimum distances of the point (3, 4, 12) from the

spherex

2

y

2

z

2

1

. Ans: Min distance =12, Max. distance=14

5. Find the maximum and minimum distances from the origin to the curve x

2

Ans: Max distance= 245 35

41 =21.65, Min. distance= 245 35

41 =4.57

4xy

6. Find the minimum value of

x

2

y

2

z

2

,given that ax+by+cz=p .

7. Find the maximum and minimum values of ax+by when xy=

Ans:

Min value=2c ab , Max value = -2c ab

c

2

.

Ans:

u

min

2

6y

2

p

2

140

.

a

2

b

2

c

2

8. Find the maximum and minimum value of

x

m

y

n

z

p

subject to the condition ax+ by + cz =p +q+ r.

Ans

m

m

n

n

p

p

a

m

b

n

c

p

p

m

q

 

r

n

 

p

9. Find the minimum value of

m

 

n

p

x

2

y

2

subject to the condition ax by c 0 .

3