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Dr. Zana Lita, Ana Turani Dr. Lisa Morgan

Dr. Zana Lita, Ana Turani Dr. Lisa Morgan Teacher’s Guide Up the Ladder A TEACHER TAKES
Dr. Zana Lita, Ana Turani Dr. Lisa Morgan Teacher’s Guide Up the Ladder A TEACHER TAKES
Dr. Zana Lita, Ana Turani Dr. Lisa Morgan Teacher’s Guide Up the Ladder A TEACHER TAKES

Teacher’s Guide

Up the Ladder

A TEACHER TAKES A HAND (MËSUESI TË JEP DORËN) OPENS A MIND, (TË HAP HORIZONT) TOUCHES A HEART. (TË PREK ZEMRËN)

A TEACHER TAKES A HAND (MËSUESI TË JEP DORËN) OPENS A MIND, (TË HAP HORIZONT) TOUCHES
A TEACHER TAKES A HAND (MËSUESI TË JEP DORËN) OPENS A MIND, (TË HAP HORIZONT) TOUCHES
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CONTENTS

CONTENTS I. ABOUT THE UP THE LADDER COURSE 1. Introduction – For you, teachers 2. About
CONTENTS I. ABOUT THE UP THE LADDER COURSE 1. Introduction – For you, teachers 2. About
CONTENTS I. ABOUT THE UP THE LADDER COURSE 1. Introduction – For you, teachers 2. About

I. ABOUT THE UP THE LADDER COURSE

1. Introduction – For you, teachers

2. About the Up the Ladder course - Why this title?

3. Why teach English to young learners?

4. Understanding young learners

5. Basic principles of Up the Ladder

6. Features in Up the Ladder

7. General principles for teachers

8. The peaceable classroom, the IRE model

9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom

10. Activities and games

11. Classroom ethics

12. Effective Teaching

13. Four important notes for teachers

14. Introducing new vocabulary

15. Lesson Planning

16. The lesson planning format

17. Stages of the lesson

II. UP THE LADDER 3 – COURSE STRUCTURE

1. Educational and didactic objectives

2. Overall objectives – Language competences

3. Objectives by chapter

4. Analytical structure of the course

5. Oral Course

6. New items

7. Test models

III. UP THE LADDER 4 – COURSE STRUCTURE

1. Aims of the course

2. Overall objectives

3. Objectives by chapter

4. Analytical structure of the course

5. Model Lesson Plan

6. Test model

2. Overall objectives 3. Objectives by chapter 4. Analytical structure of the course 5. Model Lesson

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2. Overall objectives 3. Objectives by chapter 4. Analytical structure of the course 5. Model Lesson

For you, teachers

For you, teachers Nowadays Albania is open to the World and it is being integrated into
For you, teachers Nowadays Albania is open to the World and it is being integrated into
For you, teachers Nowadays Albania is open to the World and it is being integrated into

Nowadays Albania is open to the World and it is being integrated into the Eu- ropean community. Therefore the English language is becoming more and more an important vehicle to foster links and cooperation with the European commu- nity.

Now our children travel to other countries, make new friends, discuss with them about their culture and learn from the cultures of their peers in other countries. English is the key to promoting these contacts and exchanges. Given the importance of the English language the Ministry of Education and Science has undertaken a major effort to respond to these new developments by developing a new English language curriculum and introducing the textbook reform called Altertext. Learning English at a young age is important. But it is just as important for the teachers to motivate children in learning the English language.

Up the Ladder makes English language learning an enjoyable experience for young learners. It is up to you to make the learning environment conducive to learning for your students. It’s YOU who give life to the textbook and the entire teaching process.

The Albanian government is supporting your efforts to make a difference in Al- banian education by increasing your pay and changing your working conditions in order for you to carry out your lo�y mission. With your work YOU ARE MAK- ING HISTORY. You need to know that you are at the heart of the CHANGE process which is tak- ing place in Albania. Albania is changing very quickly.

In order to help you in this process, we provide you with a modest Teacher’s Guide. Regardless of our endeavour to improve the quality of teaching by writing this modest Teacher’s Guide, it is not our intention to tell you “This is the only way!”. On the contrary, your daily teaching experience is priceless. This is the reason why we call it a Teacher’s Guide and would like you to consider it as complimen- tary to your own knowledge and curriculum materials. In this Teacher’s Guide

like you to consider it as complimen- tary to your own knowledge and curriculum materials. In

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like you to consider it as complimen- tary to your own knowledge and curriculum materials. In

you will find a variety of activities and model lessons that will make your life easier in teaching young learners. Together, we will hopefully achieve the ultimate objective:

TO HELP OUR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH WELL

ultimate objective: TO HELP OUR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH WELL The Teacher’s Guide is in English and
ultimate objective: TO HELP OUR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH WELL The Teacher’s Guide is in English and
ultimate objective: TO HELP OUR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH WELL The Teacher’s Guide is in English and

The Teacher’s Guide is in English and we believe this will give you an additional opportunity to read and use the English language.

We would gladly welcome your constructive feedback in order to improve the quality of the textbook UP THE LADDER.

We look forward to hearing your comments.

Dr Zana Lita, Ana Turani, Dr Lisa Morgan

of the textbook UP THE LADDER. We look forward to hearing your comments. Dr Zana Lita,

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of the textbook UP THE LADDER. We look forward to hearing your comments. Dr Zana Lita,

1. About the UP THE LADDER course

Why this title?

1. About the UP THE LADDER course Why this title? The learning process is like climbing
1. About the UP THE LADDER course Why this title? The learning process is like climbing
1. About the UP THE LADDER course Why this title? The learning process is like climbing

The learning process is like climbing a ladder. You have to go up various steps in order to reach a certain learning goal. Therefore, through the Up the Ladder course we would like to encourage the students to climb this ladder and to be able to see the world.

Compared to the past, modern thinking on English teaching at the primary level places greater emphasis on communication. This implies the use of English for a meaningful purpose. This new emphasis is fully reflected in Up the Ladder! However, this is not to say that the teaching of language structures should be neglected. Up the Ladder 3 is based both on language items and communicative functions.

In the Up the Ladder Course for beginners the focus is on vocabulary and gram- mar. The reading text is used as a means to use the new language material. In Up the Ladder, in addition to vocabulary and grammar, a variety of activities are provided to enable the students to understand and interpret the text by using the language they already know.

The teacher’s expectation is to have a perfect textbook. There is no perfect text- book for every student and for every teacher. In this regard the teacher has a very important role to play: to use the course material (the textbook) in a way that suits the students he/she is teaching. The paramount task for the teacher in this process is to motivate his students. In this connection, Raymond Robertson, an education specialist has said “Schools need to look broadly at how they motivate pupils. They need to provide clear positive incentives for good social behaviour”

(1997).

The aim of this course is to prepare and encourage pupils to achieve a good stan- dard of English in the first year of learning at primary level. Up the Ladder de- velops the pupils’ ability to understand and use Basic English through the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is based on the fact that children learn most effectively when the language and activities are motivating, stimulat- ing and linked to their own world and experience.

when the language and activities are motivating, stimulat- ing and linked to their own world and

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when the language and activities are motivating, stimulat- ing and linked to their own world and

Up the Ladder comprises:

The Pupil’s Book

The Activity Book

The audiocasse�e/CD (Listening tape)

The Teacher’s Guide

The features of the Up the Ladder course are:

Guide The features of the Up the Ladder course are: • It focuses on the Albanian
Guide The features of the Up the Ladder course are: • It focuses on the Albanian
Guide The features of the Up the Ladder course are: • It focuses on the Albanian

• It focuses on the Albanian culture and context;

• It integrates the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writ- ing;

• It includes cross curricular topics which intend to broaden your knowledge, to enable you to understand other cultures, and discuss with your peers in other countries about issues of common interest;

• It aims at making language learning an encouraging experience for you and your future.

• It teaches values in order to help you become be�er people. Each lesson gives a message.

3. Why teach English to young learners?

Why is it important to teach English to children at this age?

Teaching English to children at this age has the following advantages:

1. The voice and sound production organs are still flexible;

2. Children at this age have very sound listening skills, which enhances listen- ing skills;

3. Children at this age have outstanding imitating skills and use a lot of mim- ics;

4. At this age students are less shy, which is a characteristic for adults. This allows them to feel free to communicate with the teacher and the other stu- dents in class.

5. At this age children want to learn anything that is new; this explains their active participation in the learning of foreign language;

6. This age is the most intensive period in the life of a child; it is the most convenient to involve them in new challenges as is the learning of a foreign language, which helps them develop intellectual skills.

7. By pu�ing the children at the same start at a young age, the inequality which exists as a result of cultural or family differences in the se�ings where children live, can be avoided.

8. At this age it is easier to enhance students’ future interests regarding the English language and culture.

9. At this age children are curious to know what they are going to learn in this subject ma�er. They want to entertain themselves by learning a foreign language; at the same time they look forward to know how well they are

to entertain themselves by learning a foreign language; at the same time they look forward to

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to entertain themselves by learning a foreign language; at the same time they look forward to

doing in this subject area. They want to be able to speak English right a�er the class, thus imitating the adults when they speak English.

class, thus imitating the adults when they speak English. It is for these reasons that many
class, thus imitating the adults when they speak English. It is for these reasons that many
class, thus imitating the adults when they speak English. It is for these reasons that many

It is for these reasons that many countries such as Austria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and many others, has introduced the teaching of foreign language, pri- marily English in the first grade. The English course at this stage is meant simply to raise the awareness of the students about the importance of English and to set the background for the future steps of English language learning.

students about the importance of English and to set the background for the future steps of

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students about the importance of English and to set the background for the future steps of
4. Understanding young learners For the teacher of young children, English cannot be thought of
4. Understanding young learners For the teacher of young children, English cannot be thought of
4. Understanding young learners For the teacher of young children, English cannot be thought of

4. Understanding young learners

For the teacher of young children, English cannot be thought of in isolation from the holistic development of the child. To develop successfully the child needs to be satisfied mentally, socially, physically, linguistically as well as emotionally. Children want to be mentally challenged; they want to take part in activities which give them opportunities to move and develop their motor skills; they want to use English in purposeful activities, which allow them to socialize in the same way as they do when using their first language; and they want to measure their own linguistic progress. The emotional needs of the children need to be taken seriously into account for the child’s development. Therefore, English Language Teaching, particularly for this age SHOULD BE FUN. You need to know that language is NOT important at this stage. Motivation is much more important. This stage of learning will determine whether a child will be motivated to learn or will ever learn English. Now children travel abroad and meet children from other countries and they may have real opportunities for con- tacts with other people through English.

4. Basic principles of UP THE LADDER

The authors of Up the Ladder have taken into account the following principles:

• National dimension by enabling students to talk about their identity

when communicating with their peers from other countries;

• European and regional (Balkan) dimension by providing students with lan- guage and cultural information relevant to the student’s knowledge at this level;

• Linguistic progression so that the language material starts from easy to the more difficult one;

• An encouraging and enjoyable textbook for the students;

• Acquaintance of students with other cultures given the level of knowledge of this age groups;

• Consideration of students’ knowledge in the Albanian language;

• Teaching of values such as love of the homeland, respect for other people by way of cultured communication, etc.);

• Involvement of students in the learning process by way of pair and group work activities;

• Enhancing independent work of students. With regard to this the teacher should make use of the exercises given in both the Student’s Book and the Activity Book;

regard to this the teacher should make use of the exercises given in both the Student’s

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regard to this the teacher should make use of the exercises given in both the Student’s

• Creating a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom by placing emphasis on the MAIN teaching principle for this age group: TEACHING SHOULD BE FUN. CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN WHILE PLAYING.

6. Features in Up the Ladder

SHOULD LEARN WHILE PLAYING. 6. Features in Up the Ladder The Up the Ladder course books
SHOULD LEARN WHILE PLAYING. 6. Features in Up the Ladder The Up the Ladder course books
SHOULD LEARN WHILE PLAYING. 6. Features in Up the Ladder The Up the Ladder course books

The Up the Ladder course books for grades 3, 4 and 5 comprise:

1. Pupils’ Book

The colour Pupils’ Book presents the main teaching material. It contains twenty five items, eight oral course lessons and five revision lessons. The Pupils’ Book contains short stories, short dialogues, some language puzzles, oral exercises, games, rhymes and songs. The new words are given at the end of each item. Each item consists of two hours. A�er every three items there is a revision lesson. A summary of all new words is given at the back of the Pupils’ Book.

Every new item includes the following features

Read (this section includes the reading passage and is supported by an au- diocasse�e.)

You and Me (this section aims to involve the pupils in practicing the lan- guage in a dialogue. It is also supported by the audiocasse�e.)

Language puzzle/Game (vocabulary, grammar, or spelling exercise ),

Rhyme/ song.

New words (this section includes new vocabulary with an Albanian transla- tion.)

“What’s your mark? /Where are you on the Ladder? (This feature is placed at the end of each review lesson and gives pupils an opportunity to assess their own progress.)

2.

Activity Book

The colour Activity Book contains writing exercises and activities, puzzles and

games designed to extend and practice language from the Pupils’ Book.

A variety of exercises are provided in the Activity Book to help pupils practice the new language items through all four skills. Listening exercises are included on the recording. In order to help the teacher with the recorded material if he/she for some reason fails to get the audiocasse�e, the text of the audiocasse�e is pro- vided at the end of the Teacher’s Guide 4 and 5. The reading and writing exercises can be done as homework. It is be�er do the homework exercises orally in class before they write them at home. In this way, pupils can achieve good results which will add to motivation from an early stage.

3. Cassette

The cassette contains recordings of the text, dialogues, listening exercises and songs.

an early stage. 3. Cassette The cassette contains recordings of the text, dialogues, listening exercises and

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an early stage. 3. Cassette The cassette contains recordings of the text, dialogues, listening exercises and
7. General principles for teachers You should keep the following principles in mind when teaching
7. General principles for teachers You should keep the following principles in mind when teaching
7. General principles for teachers You should keep the following principles in mind when teaching

7. General principles for teachers

You should keep the following principles in mind when teaching young learners:

• Listening and speaking come before reading and writing. The pupils should be given plenty of opportunities to listen to correct English before being asked to speak.

• Lessons should be enjoyable and stimulating so that pupils want to take part.

• Pupils must be given every opportunity to use language for a real purpose, so that the language is meaningful. In this way real communication takes place. This is the aim of the activities.

• Don’t progress too fast. Go at the pace the pupils can manage, and give ad- ditional practice where necessary.

• Do not present too many language items at once: one new pa�ern or about four or five words is enough for one lesson. Pupils should need to use the pa�ern or word for a real purpose.

• Constant revision is essential. Revision has been built into this course every three new items, but you should provide additional revision of anything known to give difficulty. A few minutes revision at the beginning of each lesson is o�en very valuable.

• Grammar should not be explained. The aim is to teach pupils to use lan- guage, not to learn about it.

• Do not translate words or explain them unless it is unavoidable. Show the pupils the meaning of words.

• Be encouraging. Do not discourage or scold. Smile and give praise for try- ing. Learning a new language can be stressful.

• Speak clearly but naturally, and at a normal speed. Do not slow down. Do not pause between words unnecessarily.

• Make sure that all pupils are taking part.

• Do not talk too much. The more English used by the pupils, the more suc- cessful the lesson.

• Do not continue an activity too long. Young children can quickly lose inter- est.

• Prepare your lesson. This will take only a few minutes using the brief teach- ing notes. An unprepared lesson is seldom successful.

• Give pronunciation guidance when it is needed – and it usually is!

• Do not ask pupils to “spell out” words. They learn words by using them orally, and then reading and writing them.

• Remember that teaching and testing are two different things.

• Vary the activities to avoid boredom.

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them. • Remember that teaching and testing are two different things. • Vary the activities to
them. • Remember that teaching and testing are two different things. • Vary the activities to

• Try to include some physical movement, e.g. children coming to the front, following instructions and pointing. Young children, especially, do not like to sit still.

• Try to make your lessons interesting and enjoyable. The children will learn more in a shorter time.

enjoyable. The children will learn more in a shorter time. 8. The peaceable classroom - the
enjoyable. The children will learn more in a shorter time. 8. The peaceable classroom - the
enjoyable. The children will learn more in a shorter time. 8. The peaceable classroom - the

8. The peaceable classroom - the IRE Model

Teachers at all levels report that with each passing year there seems to be more bicker- ing, fighting, teasing, name-calling, and other acts of unkindness among children. But surveys show that children overwhelmingly prefer to be in a classroom that is caring and cooperative, where they are safe physically and emotionally. So it is important to create a classroom where the kids are nice to one another. How can you establish what a peaceable classroom, a community based on cooperation, communication, emotional expression, appreciation for diversity, and nonviolent con- flict resolution? It’s an achievable goal if you follow the three steps below and try some of the activities adaptable to the grade you teach.

Step 1 – INVOLVE Actively encourage students to assume some of the responsibility for establishing a car- ing community. Set Standards Engage students in establishing classroom standards by discussing: How would you like to be treated in this classroom? How will you treat your classmates? Explain the word “peaceable” and that it mans “peaceful”. Ask students what would a peaceable classroom be like? How would students treat one another in a peaceable classroom? Have students draw pictures illustrating life in a peaceable classroom.

Step 2 - RESOLVE As a class, get specific about the types of behaviors that contribute to a peaceable class-

room. Complete T-charts T-charts (a chart that looks like the T letter) are widely used in cooperative learning to help children identify and learn social skills.” Create a class compact Create a class compact is different from setting up classroom rules and consequences, because the compact is a set of guidelines for how class members should treat one an- other. (You can use the compact as a starting point for rule-setting, however, by asking the class, “What rules would help us maintain our class compact?”)

Don’t call each other names.

Call other students what they want to be called.

Step 3 - EVOLVE Establishing a caring classroom parent community is an ongoing process that you can keep alive by helping the children assess how they’re doing.

parent community is an ongoing process that you can keep alive by helping the children assess

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parent community is an ongoing process that you can keep alive by helping the children assess
9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom These are mostly suited for
9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom These are mostly suited for
9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom These are mostly suited for

9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom

These are mostly suited for the younger students but can be adapted for older classes.

• Classroom Rules Work with students to come up with a set of classroom rules and conse- quences.

• Colour Cards Have a pocket chart with all students’ names on it. Beside each name have a pocket where either a red, yellow, or green card will be display. Red=some sort of consequence decided and explained earlier. Yellow = Warning Green = You’re doing great.

• Punch Out Card Each child receives a pad of paper. Whenever they are performing well,

, dents reach a certain number of punches, they can pick from a box of priz- es.

helping out, etc

give them a punch with a one hole puncher. When stu-

• Class Points Display a tally system of points on the blackboard. Every time students are performing well, give them a point. When the class earns a certain number of points by the end of the week, they get to do a class fun activity at the end of the week.

• Marble jar If the class is doing well add a marble to the marble jar. When the jar is filled, they get to do a class fun activity. Count the marbles regularly as a regular math activity.

• Positive Popsicle Sticks Write out positive comments on popsicle sticks like “great helper”, “super effort”, etc., and hand them out accordingly. When each student receives a certain number of Popsicle sticks they can get a reward.

• Good Behavior Chart

As a class, come up with a list of good behaviors. At the end of the day, go through each one and ask the class how each was demonstrated in the classroom during the day. Then, as a class thank the student who accomplished it.

how each was demonstrated in the classroom during the day. Then, as a class thank the

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how each was demonstrated in the classroom during the day. Then, as a class thank the

10. Activities and games

10. Activities and games You can use the following activities to revise the vocabulary and story
10. Activities and games You can use the following activities to revise the vocabulary and story
10. Activities and games You can use the following activities to revise the vocabulary and story

You can use the following activities to revise the vocabulary and story language from the given texts.

A.

• Pupils play in group of four. One group against the other one.

• Each group makes one 10 by 10 grid. The pupils of one group may use dif- ferent coloured pencils.

• Each group writes any word they know in their grid horizontally or vertically. They score a point for each le�er.

• The grids are exchanged. Each group must write another word in the grid, using a le�er from the existing word. They score a point for each le�er.

• When no more words can be entered the game is over. The pair with the most points wins.

B.

• Divide the class into groups of two or four. Assign each group a unit from the Pupils’ book.

• Pupils copy the story from that unit onto stripes of card. They create one card for each topic.

• Pupils then shuffle the cards and put them in an envelope. They exchange their envelope with that of another group.

• Each group puts the cards they have received in order. When they have finished, they check the order with the story in the Pupils’ Book.

Food vocabulary

C.

• Pupils brainstorm all the food and drink they know. You make a word web on the board.

• Divide the board into categories: Meat, fruit, vegetables, milk products, drinks

• Pupils write the words in the web under the categories. Pupils work in

fruit, vegetables, milk products, drinks • Pupils write the words in the web under the categories.

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fruit, vegetables, milk products, drinks • Pupils write the words in the web under the categories.

groups.

groups. • Each group then produces a poster of the categories. They may illustrate it with
groups. • Each group then produces a poster of the categories. They may illustrate it with
groups. • Each group then produces a poster of the categories. They may illustrate it with

• Each group then produces a poster of the categories. They may illustrate it with pictures cut from magazines and drawings.

To revise CAN Pupils stand in pairs. The pupils nearest you face the back wall of the class- room; the pupils furthest from you stand facing you.

• Mime an action or sport and say I can … The pupils facing you copy the mime. Their partner watches them and finishes the sentence the action that they see.

Invite a pupil to take your place.

To revise descriptions of faces

• Divide the class into groups. Stick a magazine picture on the board for each group.

• Think of a sentence describing each face. Write it in jumble order under the picture. Each group must unjumble the description.

• The first group to give you a correct wri�en version is the winner.

To revise question forms.

• In pairs, pupils create a class questionnaire, using questions like:

How old are you? How many brothers have you got? etc.

• They interview all the pupils in the class and make a poster presentation of the results.

To revise short sentences and expressions from the lessons.

• Divide the class into two or three groups. Groups line up in a single file.

• Whisper a short sentence or expression to the first pupil in each group. Say GO! The pupil whispers the sentence to the pupil behind, and so on. The last pupil in the group either calls out the sentence, or runs to the board and writes it.

• The first group to finish with the correct sentence is the winner.

To revise he/she’s wearing, clothes, possessive‘s

• The pupils sit in the large circle. Three pupils stand in the middle and the pupils look at what they are wearing for sixty seconds.

• The three pupils leave the room and exchange one item of clothing each, including glasses, watches etc. They then return to the circle.

• Ask: What’s different? Pupils put up their hands. Choose individuals to answer. e.g.: Ben is wearing Enid’s sweater.

• The first three pupils to guess correctly and say the sentence correctly will go out of the room in the next round.

The first three pupils to guess correctly and say the sentence correctly will go out of

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The first three pupils to guess correctly and say the sentence correctly will go out of

To revise prepositions and there is/are.

To revise prepositions and there is/are. • Draw to empty rooms, with a table in the
To revise prepositions and there is/are. • Draw to empty rooms, with a table in the
To revise prepositions and there is/are. • Draw to empty rooms, with a table in the

• Draw to empty rooms, with a table in the middle of each. Label these pic-

tures

‘A’ and ‘B’. Make a photocopy for each pupil.

• In pairs, each completes one drawing of the room with named items (other furniture and animals, or any other vocabulary group you want to revise). Pupil a draws on picture A, and pupil B draws on picture B.

• Pupil A says where things are in picture A. Pupil B listens and draws the items. Then they change roles for picture B.

• Pupils compare their pictures.

To revise Past Simple

1.

• You will need cardboard in two different colours, scissors, bu�erfly clips and a dice for each group of four pupils. It would also help to make a wheel before the class to show the pupils.

• Demonstrate how to make the wheel step-by-step with the pupils.

• With a pupil, demonstrate how to play the game. Throw the dice. Your

partner moves his/her wheel so that the number you have thrown appear on the outer rim.

• He/ She must make a sentence with the verb in the past simple, e.g.: P: See:

I

saw my friend yesterday.

• Other pupils in the group must agree that the sentence is correct. If it is, the pupil scores the points indicated in the centre of the wheel. This pupil then throws the dice and the next in the group moves the wheel.

• A pupil may not repeat the sentence. They must ask you if they are not sure whether a sentence is correct. The pupil with the most points at the end of

the

game is the winner.

2.

• Write a list of known verbs in the present tense on the board.

• Elicit the simple past form and write it next to each verb.

• Pupils make a set of cards each; one card for each verb in the present tense

and

one card for the same card in the past tense.

• Pupils work in pairs. Each pupil shuffles their two sets of cards. They take it

in

turns to place a card face up between them, then they say the word. If a

pupil

places a matching card on the pile (in the past or present tense), he or she

shouts

then they say the word. If a pupil places a matching card on the pile (in

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then they say the word. If a pupil places a matching card on the pile (in

Snap! and picks up all the cards.

Snap! and picks up all the cards. • The game continues until one pupil has all
Snap! and picks up all the cards. • The game continues until one pupil has all
Snap! and picks up all the cards. • The game continues until one pupil has all

• The game continues until one pupil has all the cards.

To revise he/she’s got and parts of the body.

• You will need a sheet of A4 paper per pupil. Pupils play in groups of three. The aim is to draw a monster between them, each drawing a different part.

• The first pupils in each group draw a head and neck, fold the paper pass it on. The second pupils in each group draw the body, arms and hands on the pa-

per they receive, then fold it and pass it on. The third pupils draw the legs

and feet on the paper they receive

opens up the paper and describes the monster: He’s got a big head. He’s got four arms, etc.

pass it on. One pupil from each group

To revise must and must not (road safety)

• Ask pupils to tell you in their own language, what they know about road safety. Then explain that they are going to learn the English for the rules of cross- ing the road.

• Revise quickly and slowly by demonstration. Revise look and listen, then teach look carefully, listen carefully.

• Teach Look le�/right. Look again, by demonstration.

• Teach corner and cross (the road) using some pictures.

• Read the rules to the pupils: You must stop at the corner. You …. etc.

• Ask a pupil to come to the front and mime the actions as you repeat the rules. Repeat with another pupil.

To learn new adjectives

• Use objects, pictures and mime to teach new adjectives in opposite pairs.

• Make sure the pupils understand that people and animals are old or young, but objects are old and new.

• Ask questions using the pa�ern: Is my bag old or new/ is Andy a good or a bad boy?

To learn comparison of adjectives

1.

• Introduce taller and shorter.

• Call two pupils to the front and say: Mimi is tall, but Sue is taller. Point to the correct pupil as you speak.

• Repeat several times then ask the class to guess the meaning of taller.

• Prompt them to repeat the sentence.

• Repeat with other pairs to tall pupils and several pairs to short pupils and thin pupils.

2.

• Call two tall pupils to the front.

pairs to tall pupils and several pairs to short pupils and thin pupils. 2 . •

17

pairs to tall pupils and several pairs to short pupils and thin pupils. 2 . •

• They should stand at opposite sides of the classroom.

• Ask the class: Who is taller, Ann or Tom?

• Let the pupils guess, using the pa�ern. Tom is taller.

• Then say Tom, stand next to Ann and ask the class again Who is taller, Ann or Tom? Repeat with short or thin.

• Repeat again, this time with the pairs of pupils si�ing in their seats until the others have guessed.

• Choose pupils to come to the front and ask the class the questions.

3.

to come to the front and ask the class the questions. 3. • Introduce This is
to come to the front and ask the class the questions. 3. • Introduce This is
to come to the front and ask the class the questions. 3. • Introduce This is

• Introduce This is old, but this is older, using two objects, one old, one very old. Repeat several times, and then prompt the class to repeat.

• Call out pupils to hold the objects and say the sentence.

• Repeat with short and shorter pencils, long and longer ruler, interesting and more interesting book etc.

• Demonstrate sad sadder, beautiful/more beautiful, etc. by asking pairs of pupils to mime.

4.

• Write a word on the board in bad writing, and the class Is this good or bad?

• Write the same word again, this time in very, very bad writing.

• Point to the words in turn, saying This one is bad, but this one is worse.

• Repeat with good and be�er.

• Repeat again, this time with drawings.

• Call out pupils to point to the pairs of words and drawings on the board and make sentences about them.

drawings. • Call out pupils to point to the pairs of words and drawings on the

18

drawings. • Call out pupils to point to the pairs of words and drawings on the

11. Classroom ethics

11. Classroom ethics The following are some expressions you can you to encourage your students when
11. Classroom ethics The following are some expressions you can you to encourage your students when
11. Classroom ethics The following are some expressions you can you to encourage your students when

The following are some expressions you can you to encourage your students when they are doing well.

Fantastic!/ I like that/ You’re right. / That’s it. / Excellent! / Great! / Good for you! / Wow! / That’s be�er. / That’s good. / Perfect! / Fine. / Wonderful.

Teach your students not to be afraid to say:

I made a mistake. / I need help. / I am sorry. / I don’t know.

Teachers, don’t forget

Every time you use sarcasm with your children, you have created a VICTIM!

12. Effective Teaching

The standards or components of effective teaching look at the common be- haviors that promote effectiveness in the classroom. The components of effective teaching are based on comprehensive research which identifies the characteris- tics that effective teachers share. There are six major areas for which to evaluate teachers.

1. The qualities that an educator brings with him to the classroom which in-

clude: a) the skills the teacher has developed, b) the amount of education, c) depth of their knowledge base, d) certification, and e) experience.

2. Teacher as a Person – The teacher demonstrates caring through listening and

understanding, showing respect to the students, demonstrating fairness, and re- spect through social interactions with the students, and being reflective in his/her practice. Teachers need to be enthusiastic about what they teach; this in turn mo- tivates the students.

3. Classroom Management and Organization – Effective teachers are well-pre-

this in turn mo- tivates the students. 3. Classroom Management and Organization – Effective teachers are

19

this in turn mo- tivates the students. 3. Classroom Management and Organization – Effective teachers are

pared and well aware of their teaching and learning environment. They are con- sistent when managing student behavior and can do multi task. Effective teach- ers have materials prepared in advance for lessons and are consistent with the practical procedures.

lessons and are consistent with the practical procedures. 4. Organizing for Instruction – The teacher plans
lessons and are consistent with the practical procedures. 4. Organizing for Instruction – The teacher plans
lessons and are consistent with the practical procedures. 4. Organizing for Instruction – The teacher plans

4. Organizing for Instruction – The teacher plans and prepares for lesson. This

includes following a consistent schedule, yet he remains flexible for unseen oc-

currences, maintains momentum within and across lessons, and clearly explains objectives in achievement and responsibility to the students.

5. Implementing Instruction – The teacher uses several different teaching strate-

gies, makes connections to real world situations in their instruction, and is sup- portive. The teacher uses hands on learning, a variety of questionings strategies, and tries to have the students demonstrate the skills they have learned.

6. Monitoring Student Progress and Potential – It is important that the teacher

monitors students and assesses their development and progress. Effective teach- ers give homework that is clearly explained and relevant to the content that is being studied in the classroom. Teachers monitor the students during work time to make sure that they are on task and that they understand the objectives of the lesson. The teacher is supportive and encourages his students. Effective teachers are responsible, caring, and professional.

13. Four important notes for teachers

Always remember that the lesson notes are intended to be helpful, not to tell you what you must do. You may follow them in detail if you wish, but you may prefer to modify them to suit your own situation, or you may wish to teach a topic in a different way altogether, using your own ideas. You can be such an innovator in your teaching! You should be aware of the needs of your pupils and go more slowly or quickly, or provide additional material or practice when required. Sometimes materials and activities may not be practicable for a particular class at a particular time. If a model is to be made, for example, it may not be possible for you to supply enough materials for all the class to make one. One alternative would be for the class to work in groups. When this too is not possible, you alone can make the model or carry out the activity, with the class watching and joining in. Where even this is not possible, it will be necessary to fall back on the pictures in the book. Some teachers may feel that certain kinds of games may be unsuitable for some classes. For instance in some schools of Albania, mainly in villages teachers have to teach in adverse conditions: classes in bad conditions, no teaching aids, and parents not being able to support the school. Rather, in some areas, mainly in vil- lages it is not easy for a teacher to carry out activities in the class which involve both boys and girls. For some parents with major prejudices this might cause more trouble than good. In such a situation the teacher should consider the cul- tural context and tailor his teaching to the needs and cultural requirements of

the teacher should consider the cul- tural context and tailor his teaching to the needs and

20

the teacher should consider the cul- tural context and tailor his teaching to the needs and

that particular context.

that particular context. The teaching notes give detailed advice on using the Pupil’s book and the
that particular context. The teaching notes give detailed advice on using the Pupil’s book and the
that particular context. The teaching notes give detailed advice on using the Pupil’s book and the

The teaching notes give detailed advice on using the Pupil’s book and the Activ- ity Book. They can o�en be used for homework, however. The instructions are usually quite clear, but if necessary a few minutes of class time may be spent in making sure that the pupils know what to do.

14. Introducing new vocabulary

Learning words can be difficult and the pupils can forget them quickly. New words are taught for a purpose, for the pupils to use in the game or activity that follows, to act a play, to work out puzzles, to talk about themselves. You should try to make the learning of new words enjoyable, and should provide plenty of opportunity to listen to the words and practice them. An audiocasse�e would be an ideal tool for this because a) it guarantees proper pronunciation if recorded from a native speaker, and b) it less tiring for the teacher. The following are some guidelines and suggestions that you may follow:

1. When introducing new words, always use real objects if possible, pictures of the object, or the pictures in the book.

2. Teach only three or four words at a time. When these have been practiced then add some more words.

3. It is important that the pupils have ample opportunity to listen to words without being made to speak. They cannot be expected to produce sounds until they can hear them correctly. They should not be asked to speak too soon. For this reason, several listening discrimination activities are included below.

4. Remember that it is difficult to remember new words. They have to be used several times before the pupils can be expected to remember. They should also be revised frequently in other lessons.

5. The vocabulary should be used, and not simply repeated or chanted.

Methodology

1. Introduce three or four of the objects only. Hold up, for example, a pencil

and say

pupils to repeat. Do not insist on perfect pronunciation at this stage. Teach the other two/three/four objects in the same way. If real objects are not available, use pictures or the pictures in the Pupil’s Book. Hold up the Pu- pil’s Book so that the class can see it, point to the picture, and tell the pupils to point to it in their own books.

a pencil several times. Get the class to repeat it and individual

2. Give instructions, e.g. Give me a pencil, please, Genci. Show me a book. Sarah draw a pear. Use the words that are being taught. You can ask the pupils to come to the front. Remember to say Thank you, Ilir.

3. Hold up the objects in random, and the class says the correct name. Point to individual pupils, who say the name. Then repeat the word yourself, so that they hear the correct pronunciation.

4. Go round the class. Hold up one object at a time and in turn. Then repeat

that they hear the correct pronunciation. 4. Go round the class. Hold up one object at

21

that they hear the correct pronunciation. 4. Go round the class. Hold up one object at

step 4 using all the objects.

step 4 using all the objects. 5. Teach the next three or four words, using steps
step 4 using all the objects. 5. Teach the next three or four words, using steps
step 4 using all the objects. 5. Teach the next three or four words, using steps

5. Teach the next three or four words, using steps 1-3. Then repeat step 4 us- ing all the objects.

6. Use one or more of the listening discrimination activities. Then use one of the game described in the games section to practise using the words.

Listening discrimination activities

1. Each group has a pack of cards with le�ers, numbers, pictures or words. Alternatively they can have a selection of objects on their desks. The teacher gives instructions: Show me B. Show me a bag. The first group to hold up the correct item wins a point.

2. Each group has a selection of objects. This time the groups can have dif- ferent objects. Alternatively, a set of objects is placed on the teacher’s desk. Give instructions to a member of one group at a time: Give me a pen, Jona. Show me a lion, please. If the pupil is correct he wins a point for his team.

3. The teacher gives instructions to members of one team at a time. Stand up, please, Bob. Tim, please draw an apple. Come here please, Ina. Go to Anne. If the pupil is correct he wins a point for his team. This game can be used to revise all the instructions learnt.

4. Name one member of each team. If there are four teams, place four pieces of chalk by the blackboard. Give an instruction: Draw a car. The four chil- dren come to the board and draw. The first to draw the correct object wins a point. (A point can also be given to the best drawing.)

Use of coloured pencils The teacher uses coloured pencils to explain grammar such as: plural of nouns, plural endings are coloured so that students can tell the difference.

Use of music and songs in the classroom Songs and music are helpful tools to make learning a pleasant experience for the students. It also stimulates the right part of the brain to learn. Some scholars, in a research carried out six years ago have found that a�er listening to Moxart, people score be�er in the Intelligence test. Music helps to relieve from stress. We should bear in mind that children, too, have their on stresses, therefore using music in the classroom is very useful.

Use of drawings Drawing plays a very important role in maximizing English language learning. In preparing the didactic materials the teacher can make use of his own artistic skills or can use students, even their parents thus involving them in the teaching process. The teacher can use simple sketches carrying certain meanings.

Sketching on the board in class is something that most teachers do. As the saying goes, “a picture paints a thousand words”. This is especially true in a language learning situation, where a quick sketch can help students focus and generate language related to the sketches.

22

learning situation, where a quick sketch can help students focus and generate language related to the
learning situation, where a quick sketch can help students focus and generate language related to the
The key to drawing quickly is the fact that humans usually fill in the missing
The key to drawing quickly is the fact that humans usually fill in the missing
The key to drawing quickly is the fact that humans usually fill in the missing

The key to drawing quickly is the fact that humans usually fill in the missing information. The difference between “happy” and “sad” is one simple stroke - the smile or frown. There are basically seven expressions which can be quickly expressed in a few strokes of the marker or piece of chalk and cover quite a wide range of situations.

Teaching the new rhyme When using poems and rhymes you can give your students not only an increased awareness and understanding of English speaking cultures, but also great sen- sual, emotional and intellectual pleasure.

Use of games in English language learning Whenever possible, the pupils should use English because they need to in order to communicate. Language learning then becomes much more effective. The ef- fectiveness is increased if the situation is enjoyable, or at least interesting. Lan- guage teaching games can o�en provide this kind of situation.

Interest can be increased by making the game a contest between teams. This re- quires a li�le organization at first, for example, the class will need to be divid- ed into groups of different sizes for different purposes, and each group given a name, but this need only be done once, and the effort will prove well worthwhile. The following is a selection of language teaching games which may be used with younger children.

1.

Guessing objects in a bag. The pupils can be allowed to feel the object, or the teacher can put it in a hand and say What am I touching?

2.

Guessing an object while blindfolded. Pupils like this but it tends to be a li�le slow since changing the blindfold from one pupil to another takes time.

3.

Guessing an object behind one’s back. This is quick and easily organized. A pupil stands with his/her back to the class. The teacher, or another pupil, puts an object into his hand behind his back. He has to guess what it is. Everyone enjoys the game and all the pupils watching learn as much as the child doing the guessing.

4.

Guessing a wrapped object. This has to be prepared by the teacher before the lesson.

5.

Guessing an object hidden on the teacher’s desk. This is useful in the early stages. The teacher has some objects in her desk and she puts one on her desk, hidden behind something, perhaps a large book. The pupil have to

guess which one. This is pure guessing because there are no clues. Children like the game and it involves continual repetition of vocabulary and

structures ranging in difficulty from It’s a

to There is a …

Draw and guess. You or a pupil draws an object step by step. At any point a pupil can guess what the object is. If he is right, he takes over and draws something else. If he is wrong, the first pupil continues drawing. This involves a conversa- tion between two people which could be quite simple:

23

the first pupil continues drawing. This involves a conversa- tion between two people which could be
the first pupil continues drawing. This involves a conversa- tion between two people which could be

It is a It is a

? No

?

Yes

It is a It is a ? No ? Yes 6. Draw and guess with circles,
It is a It is a ? No ? Yes 6. Draw and guess with circles,
It is a It is a ? No ? Yes 6. Draw and guess with circles,

6.

Draw and guess with circles, straight lines, etc. This is similar to the last game but the person doing the drawing has certain restrictions. He may be asked to use circles only, or straight lines, or to start with a circle and add the rest of the drawing. This o�en adds interest to the game and in fact helps those who are not good at drawing.

7.

Team drawing. This is a very popular game but it needs a certain amount of space and may not be possible in some classrooms. The pupils are divid- ed into two or more groups. One child from each group goes to the teacher who whispers the name of the object. The child returns to his group and, without speaking, begins to draw the object while the group watches and tries to guess. The person doing the drawing can only say Yes or No. When someone has guessed correctly, that pupil goes to the teacher for the name of the next object.

8.

I spy. This is an old favourite. The teacher or a pupil chooses an object and says I can see a B. Either a le�er or a sound can be used. The pupils have to guess the object: Is it a …….? Yes, it is./No, it isn’t.

9.

Think of something. One pupil goes outside and the class decides on an object. It may be something in the classroom or it may be any kind of word already taught, e.g. something we wear, what we do in the holidays, a food, a means of transport, etc. The pupil outside returns and tries to guess what the class has chosen. Clues may be given. Several different forms of dia- logue may be used.

10.

Memory game. The aim it to remember as many things as possible that have been drawn on the board and then cleaned off, or covered by cloth af- ter being seen for a short time, or moved from one position to another. The language used can range from simply naming the object to conversations like:

What’s on the desk? There was a

and two

?

The book was on the table. Now it’s on the floor. (Per kohen e shkuar)

11.

Number games. Game 11 can also be used to practise numbers. How many

s

were there on the desk/board? Other number games are:

a.

Desk tapping or hand clapping – How many did you hear?

b.

Guessing the number of small objects such as coins, beans, etc. which then are counted to see who is nearest.

c.

Guessing someone’s height, or the measurement of an object, which are then measured to see who is nearest.

d.

Team arithmetic, in which a member of one team supplies a calculation, e.g.

measured to see who is nearest. d. Team arithmetic , in which a member of one

24

measured to see who is nearest. d. Team arithmetic , in which a member of one

four and two, five sevens, or a hundred take away seventy-five, and then calls upon a member of the other team, by name, to give the answer. The first pupil then says whether the answer is correct or not and points are awarded.

whether the answer is correct or not and points are awarded. e. Find a number. Various
whether the answer is correct or not and points are awarded. e. Find a number. Various
whether the answer is correct or not and points are awarded. e. Find a number. Various

e.

Find a number. Various numbers are wri�en on the board and when called upon pupils have to go to the board and draw a circle around a chosen number. This can also be a team contest.

f.

Finger counting. Two pupils raise any number of fingers at the same time guessing the total number of fingers for both children. When one is correct, he wins a point. This can be played for numbers 1-10, 1-20 or 10 – 20.

12.

Remembering lists. This is a different kind of memory game, very good for

consolidating new vocabulary. Each pupil repeats that the previous pupil has said, and adds one more word. Examples: This is my head. This is my head and this is my face. This is my head and this is my face and this is my nose. This is my …

13. Miming (acting without speaking). This can be used to practise such vo- cabulary as occupation, animals, some objects, e.g. bus, train, plane, and actions. The teacher whispers the word, or the pupil chooses it for himself, and the pupil mimes it until someone guesses the word. This can be played as a team contest. This kind of activity is useful for practicing the present continuous tense: Is he speaking? No, he isn’t . Also adverbs: How is he speaking? He is speaking quickly.

14. Tom says. This is another old favourite useful for practicing commands and requests. Various structures may be used. The teacher, or a pupil, gives or- ders that begin with Peter says, “Stand up. Sit down” The class must obey only those orders that begin with Tom says. … Anyone who obeys another order is out of the game. The last one is the winner.

A variation is for children to obey only those orders tat begin with, or con-

tain the word please.

15. What’s the time Mr. Lion? This is really a playground game. One pupil

is the lion. He walks away, the others follow, asking What’s the time, Mr.

Lion? He replies with various times: Four o’clock. Half past three. A quarter to six until he decides to say Time to eat you! He then turns and chases the children who run away. The first one caught becomes the lion.

16. Whose is this? Objects belonging to the children are collected and placed in a bag or basket. The children have to identify them. They might be asked to say to whom the article belongs or they might have to identify their own objects in order to get them back. The activity can be used to practise the names of objects and such structures as: Whose is this? Is this your ? Is it his or hers? That’s mine/his/yours/hers. May i have that one, please? It’s mine. It isn’t yours.

your ? Is it his or hers? That’s mine/his/yours/hers. May i have that one, please? It’s

25

your ? Is it his or hers? That’s mine/his/yours/hers. May i have that one, please? It’s

17.

Colours. This is another memory game used for practicing the use of co- lours. A pupil is blindfolded or stands with his back to the class. He is then asked questions about the colour of classroom objects. What is the colour of the door/window/etc?

objects. What is the colour of the door/window/etc? 18. Who’s got it? A row of children
objects. What is the colour of the door/window/etc? 18. Who’s got it? A row of children
objects. What is the colour of the door/window/etc? 18. Who’s got it? A row of children

18. Who’s got it? A row of children in front of the class are given various ob- jects, or pictures of things. They hold them up for the class to see briefly and then put them behind their backs. The class has to try to remember who has what: Who’s got the car? John has got the cat. I think Mary has got the apple.

This can become a guessing game if the pupils in the row exchange the objects among each other without le�ing the class see.

Note: You should always be on the look out for games and activities that could be used for language learning. Party games are o�en useful. One example is the well-known game Passing the Parcel. When the music stops the person who has the parcel begins to unwrap it. Music may not be possible in the classroom, but the teacher could set a time limit, perhaps two minutes. The class is then told that the parcel must not be passed until the right conversa- tional exchange has been completed. This might be:

May I have it now, please? Certainly. Here you are. Thank you very much. Not at all.

This could of course be much simpler. The person holding the parcel at the end of the two minutes unwraps it (and perhaps keeps the prize)

Other games And activities can be adapted in the same way for the use of what- ever language the teacher decides.

15. Lesson Planning

There is a syllabus in place, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, which guide teachers in drawing up their plans of work for each academic year, indicating the work to be done each week. Each item is a small part in the build- ing of a greater whole. The following are some basic questions that the teacher needs to answer when developing his/her lessons plan.

Question one: What is lesson planning? Lesson planning means taking into consideration what to do with the students during the time they are in the classroom, enabling them during this time to do

what to do with the students during the time they are in the classroom, enabling them

26

what to do with the students during the time they are in the classroom, enabling them

something new with the language. This planning is presented in wri�en form as lessons notes.

planning is presented in wri�en form as lessons notes. Question two: Is this exercise (i.e. lesson
planning is presented in wri�en form as lessons notes. Question two: Is this exercise (i.e. lesson
planning is presented in wri�en form as lessons notes. Question two: Is this exercise (i.e. lesson

Question two: Is this exercise (i.e. lesson planning) necessary? It is necessary because it helps the teacher to carefully pre-shape ahead of time what he is going to teach and how he is going to teach during the given time pe- riod. This preparation serves as a guide and reference for the teacher, reminding him a) what to do, b) how to do it, and c) for how long. Serious consideration is given to: a) who the learners are, b) the class, c) the number of students, d) the age range, e) their knowledge in the mother tongue. It is important to know the learners for whom the lesson plan is prepared, for this will help identify the ap- propriate level of difficulty of the exercises and also the types and duration of the activities. The class and a�ainment level help the teacher to know, in general, the type of work the student can do in English, while the number of students will help in the organization of group work or working in pairs.

can do in English, while the number of students will help in the organization of group

27

can do in English, while the number of students will help in the organization of group

16. The lesson planning format

16. The lesson planning format The content of the lesson plan includes the following: - It
16. The lesson planning format The content of the lesson plan includes the following: - It
16. The lesson planning format The content of the lesson plan includes the following: - It

The content of the lesson plan includes the following:

- It indicates what the teacher is going to teach;

- It shows what she and the students will do in class;

- It describes the different stages of the lesson;

The lesson plan has to have a format which is built up by providing answers to the following questions:

- What item in the new lesson do the students already know?

- What is the aim of the lesson?

- What new items of English are to be taught?

- What visual aids, activities, and organization will be used for maximum participation by the students?

- How does the teacher measure the learner’s achievement

In answer to the above five questions, the format for writing lesson notes will be as follows:

The lesson topic: The topic of the lesson must be clearly stated. The topic guides the teacher as to what he has to teach.

The aim: The aim or objective of the lesson comes next. There has to be a reason for teaching each lesson. The aim is student centered because it is meant to bring about an expected change in the student’s performance by the end of the lesson, and such change can be measured or evaluated by the teacher.

You must ask yourself what new skills or knowledge the students should dem- onstrate by the end of the lesson. For example, students should be able to iden- tify, list, discriminate between, or explain whatever they were expected to do. When the aim or objective is clearly stated, it will serve as a guide that will help the teacher to choose useful activities, appropriate techniques, and the materials needed to achieve the objective within the time available.

The Introduction: It may also be referred to as Previous knowledge. An important principle of learning is to go from the known to the unknown. This means that the teacher introduces the lesson by connecting it with what he knows and what the students already know that has to do with the new lesson. This can take the form of simple questions related to the new lesson, about things children know,

28

with the new lesson. This can take the form of simple questions related to the new
with the new lesson. This can take the form of simple questions related to the new
or it might take the form of a review of the previous lesson, if this
or it might take the form of a review of the previous lesson, if this
or it might take the form of a review of the previous lesson, if this

or it might take the form of a review of the previous lesson, if this has a clear and logical connection with the lesson to be taught.

The Presentation: This takes into consideration the content to be taught and the method to be used, involving visual aids, organization, etc. The presentation is usually done in stages, going from the simple to the more complex, so that one stage leads to the next logically or scientifically. There are as many stages as the teacher wishes – three, four, five, or more if need be.

Evaluation: The evaluation stage states how the teacher is going to find out wheth- er the students have understood what they have been taught during the lesson. The evaluation is a test for both the teacher and the student. If the students fail to show the expected behaviour change at the end of the lesson when tested, the teacher is made aware of the fact that something is wrong somewhere, and the lesson has to be taught again, in order to get the desired response from the stu- dents.

Note: The above format for lesson planning is merely a suggestion. There are different methods of writing headings, but the above format, if followed enables the teacher to prepare his lesson properly, taking into consideration all the details concerning what the teacher wants to teach, why and how to teach it, and how to test what has been taught.

17. Stages of the lesson

Warm-ups Begin lessons with a warm-up activity. At the very beginning it can be a rhyme or song. Later it can be something taught in the previous lesson. Warm up activities are motivational activities that add an element of enjoyment and personal involvement. They can be used at various points during the lesson, especially when students need a change of pace, or where they might need to re- lease their energies. When choosing a warm up, you strongly recommend select- ing a game, a song, a puzzle, or physical activity whose theme is closely related to the content topic and teaching objectives. This step is essential in preparing learners for the lesson – creating a positive feel- ing toward language learning, thereby awaking interest in learning.

Presentation This stage of the lesson provides a suggestion for presenting the new language structure or vocabulary in a context which will a�ract the children’s a�ention and involve their active participation just from the beginning of the lesson. The active presentation is an important stage in the lesson. It encourages children to make sense of new language in an authentic and fun language-learning environment.

the lesson. It encourages children to make sense of new language in an authentic and fun

29

the lesson. It encourages children to make sense of new language in an authentic and fun
Role play Role play can be used as a follow-up activity to the main text.
Role play Role play can be used as a follow-up activity to the main text.
Role play Role play can be used as a follow-up activity to the main text.

Role play Role play can be used as a follow-up activity to the main text. Role play supports the pupils’ enjoyment and allows them to practice new language items in a mean- ingful way. Procedure for role play could be as follows

1. Divide the class into small groups and fix the role of each pupil to each group.

2. Play the recording and ask the pupils or the groups to repeat the dialogue (You and Me) in chorus.

3. Invite one or two groups to perform the dialogue for the class, either from memory or using role cards. They may want simple props.

Pair work Pair work activities frequently appear in the second lesson of each item. These activities may be organized in different ways:

a. The teacher may take role A and the whole class provides the response as B.

b. The teacher may take role A and an individual pupil may take role B.

c. A pair of pupil may perform the activity in front of the class. ( A & B )

The teacher may use one or a variety of the above suggestions. When pupils are working in pairs, pay a�ention to their pronunciation and intonation. Ensure

that all the pupils are involved and give them lots of encouragement.

Organizing pair work It’s very important to organize the pupils in pairs, since the very beginning. Tell them that they are going to work in those pairs until the end of this item. It’s bet- ter to use a random way of creating pairs. There are many ways of creating pairs. For example, you can divide the class into two equal groups. Write the names of all the pupils in one group, in small pieces of paper, and then ask the pupils of the other group to pick up one paper. The pupil whose name they have picked is their partner. Alternatively you may write numbers, colours, and flowers and so on.

Songs The songs or rhyme in each Pupil’s Book item can be used at any stage of the les- son, for example, at the beginning to mark the change from the previous subject

to English; in the middle of the lesson as a break from another; or at the end, to round a lesson off. Songs and rhymes are an essential part of language learning for young learners. Children really enjoy learning and singing songs. Rhyme is like a song without

music.

Some songs are good for singing, others for doing actions to the music, and the best ones are good for both. You can use songs and rhymes to teach children the sounds and rhythm of English to reinforce structures and vocabulary, but above

all to have fun. Some possible approaches to using songs:

of English to reinforce structures and vocabulary, but above all to have fun. Some possible approaches

30

of English to reinforce structures and vocabulary, but above all to have fun. Some possible approaches

a. First familiarize yourself with the words of the song.

b. When playing a song for the first time, let the pupils simply listen. Encour- age them to clap hands and demonstrate the actions as they listen.

c. Play the song again and encourage the pupils to join in with the actions and singing.

the pupils to join in with the actions and singing. Games There are also many games
the pupils to join in with the actions and singing. Games There are also many games
the pupils to join in with the actions and singing. Games There are also many games

Games There are also many games in the Pupils’ Book, which can be played in pairs or small groups. Games in the language classroom help children to see learning English as enjoyable and rewarding. Playing games in the classroom develops the ability to co-operate with each other without being aggressive, and to follow some given rules. It’s important to make different teams each time you play, thus the children will get used to working with all other classmates. Some of the games involve quite a lot of preparation, but once you have made the materials, you can use them again and again.

The activity book The activity book provides additional practice regarding language use for each lesson. It is useful for the consolidation and extension in class, for giving tasks to ‘quicker” students while others finish an easier activity. The activity book con- tains many fun activities in order to make English language learning for children a fun experience for them.

It’s valuable for the pupils to create their own individual notebook. In this note- book they can write notes they have learnt, vocabulary, exercises, and drawings, stick pictures, make up their own versions, puzzles and so on. In the notebook,

pupils make the language they are learning their own. Encourage them to record facts and information as it relates to them and their lives, their families, friends, pets, etc. The notebook’s notes could be organized alphabetically or thematically. For ev- ery new word, pupils can write the translation, draw a picture or write a simple

definition.

The notebook can also be used for homework.

Classroom display Pupils like to see their work on show. So, it’s very important to have a place in the classroom, where the materials which pupils write can be easily displayed. Displaying Pupils’ work gives it status and creates an atmosphere of positive learning. Be sure to ask the pupils to sign their work. It will give them a sense of pride.

Classroom language

While teaching young learners it is necessary to use simple English structures. Pupils will develop a passive understanding initially, and will be able to use

to use simple English structures. Pupils will develop a passive understanding initially, and will be able

31

to use simple English structures. Pupils will develop a passive understanding initially, and will be able

many of them themselves at the end of the first year. There is no need to teach these expressions, pupils will gradually assimilate them if the teachers use them on a regular basis.

assimilate them if the teachers use them on a regular basis. Greetings: Good morning. / Good
assimilate them if the teachers use them on a regular basis. Greetings: Good morning. / Good
assimilate them if the teachers use them on a regular basis. Greetings: Good morning. / Good

Greetings: Good morning. / Good a�ernoon / Good bye / Hello, (boys/girls)

Starting /during /ending the lesson Is everybody here? / Who is absent today? / Let’s start. / Get your books/pencils/ pens out Put down your pencils, please. / Sit down/ stand up. / Put your hands up/down, please. Give it to me. / Hold up your picture. / Let’s read the text. / Hurry up. / Come in. Wait a minute, please. / Open your books at page… / Look at number … Write in your notebook. / Say it a�er me. / Can you repeat that? / All together. Can you read this? / This group … Who knows the answer? / Let’s check the homework. Who wants to write on the chalkboard? / How do you spell it? / Is that right? Please stop talking now. / Well done!.

Who wants to write on the chalkboard? / How do you spell it? / Is that

32

Who wants to write on the chalkboard? / How do you spell it? / Is that

II. UP THE LADDER 3

1. Educational and didactic objectives

II. UP THE LADDER 3 1. Educational and didactic objectives The aims of the Teaching English
II. UP THE LADDER 3 1. Educational and didactic objectives The aims of the Teaching English
II. UP THE LADDER 3 1. Educational and didactic objectives The aims of the Teaching English

The aims of the Teaching English to children of this age group

1. To provide the student with the basics of foreign language learning and to feel the importance of language as a means of communication and use it in discourse.

2. To help in the overall development of the student regarding cognitive, lin- guistic and emotional aspect.

3. To empower the student to listen reproduce, understand and create new and simple elements of foreign language learning.

4. To encourage the student to ask and answer questions, to describe the ob- jects around, to understand the language spoken by the teacher in class.

AIMS

English language teaching for this age group aims:

• To transmit to children a beginning foundation of a foreign language, giv- ing them a “feel” for language as a means of communication

• To contribute to the multiple ways in which children are developing intel- lectual, physical, emotional and linguistic skills

• To enable students to listen and understand, reproduce and create some simple u�ers in the foreign language

• To create an environment in which students are eager to listen to the teacher’s English and respond appropriately, ask and answer questions and describe objectives in their immediate environment.

English and respond appropriately, ask and answer questions and describe objectives in their immediate environment. 33

33

English and respond appropriately, ask and answer questions and describe objectives in their immediate environment. 33

2. Overall objectives

Language competences

• Listening

2. Overall objectives Language competences • Listening - The student reacts through physical actions towards the
2. Overall objectives Language competences • Listening - The student reacts through physical actions towards the
2. Overall objectives Language competences • Listening - The student reacts through physical actions towards the

- The student reacts through physical actions towards the instructions and actions of the teacher;

- The students understand short texts illustrated through pictures, draw- ings or gestures of the teacher.

- The student listens and understands simple sentences, stated slowly and clearly.

- The student identifies various objects when their names are articulated.

• Speaking

- The student articulates simple words or word groups while being sup- ported by audiovisual aids;

- The asks simple questions and gives simple answers to what he/she

hears or sees, while expressing his own wishes, feelings and preferences.

• Reading

- The student understands short texts which include words and expres-

sions familiar to the student;

- The student indicates that he/she understands short dialogues composed of simple vocabulary.

• Writing

- The student copies words and expressions which he/she is familiar with;

- The student labels objects around him/her

- The student is able to discern and choose the suitable word or words in a list to fill in the blanks in a sentence.

The teacher uses the competencies to assess student’s knowledge. He/she will use his findings to tailor the teaching process based on the students’ needs.

student’s knowledge. He/she will use his findings to tailor the teaching process based on the students’

34

student’s knowledge. He/she will use his findings to tailor the teaching process based on the students’

3. Objectives by chapters

Chapter 1

By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary. (28 words)

- To greet each other, ask about name and health

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 2

By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(32 words)

- To ask & answer about name and age

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 3

By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

3 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and
3 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and
3 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(27 words)

- To ask & answer about professions and countries

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 4 By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(34 words)

- To speak about school things, about their classroom, and the clothes.

- To practice and use this-that

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

and write short simple sentences. - To take part in brief, prepared dialogues. - To do

35

and write short simple sentences. - To take part in brief, prepared dialogues. - To do

Chapter 5

By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

5 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and
5 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and
5 By the end of this chapter the students will be able: - To read and

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(32 words)

- To speak about colours, animals, and the clothes.

- To practice and use There is/ there are/ how many

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 6 By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(29 words)

- To speak about their bedroom

- To practice and use the questions “Where is/are?

- To practice and use the prepositions “in, on, under, next to”

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 7 By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(43 words)

- To speak about numbers, their body, fruits & vegetables

- To practice and use Yes/No questions

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 8

By the end of this chapter the students will be able:

- To read and comprehend the texts.

- To learn and use vocabulary.(29words)

- To speak about their close friend

- To practice and use Have/Has got & Can I have a…?

- To copy and write short simple sentences.

- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

- To do exercises in the activity book.

and write short simple sentences. - To take part in brief, prepared dialogues. - To do

36

and write short simple sentences. - To take part in brief, prepared dialogues. - To do
4. Analytical structure of the course STRUCTURE : 35 weeks x 2 hours = 70
4. Analytical structure of the course STRUCTURE : 35 weeks x 2 hours = 70
4. Analytical structure of the course STRUCTURE : 35 weeks x 2 hours = 70

4. Analytical structure of the course

STRUCTURE: 35 weeks x 2 hours = 70 hours

1

2

3

4

5

Oral Course Communication and culture education Grammar education Wri�en tests Free classes

hours

8

30

28

2

2

hours

hours

hours

hours

 

No

Chapter

Objectives for

Topic

Resource

Visual aids

each chapter

material

     

The pupil should be

     

1

I

able to:

-

To learn the

English alphabet.

-

To learn how to

articulate simple

words or word groups.

 

1

Oral course

 

The English Alphabet

The book

table

 

2

Oral course

 

Imperatives

The book

Some

pictures

 

3

Oral course

 

This\ that. Classroom objects

The book

Some

pictures

 

4

Oral course

 

Numbers 1-10

The book

Some

pictures

 

5

Oral course

 

Colours

The book

Some

pictures

 

6

Oral course

 

Parts of the body

The book

Some

pictures

 

7

Oral course

 

Clothes

The book

Some

pictures

 

8

Oral course

   

The book

Some

pictures

Clothes The book Some pictures   8 Oral course     The book Some pictures 37

37

Clothes The book Some pictures   8 Oral course     The book Some pictures 37
     

-

Read &

     

comprehend the

text.

2

II

-

Learn & use

vocabulary (28 words)

-

Greet each other,

ask about name & health

-

copy & write short simple Sentences.

Take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

-

-

Do exercises in the AB

 

9

Item one

 

Greetings

SB & AB

Pictures

 

10

Item one

 

Read/Rhyme/Exercise

SB & AB

Some

pictures

 

11

Item two

 

What’s your\his\her

SB & AB

Pictures

name?

 

12

Item two

 

Lang.

SB & AB

Some

puzzle/Read/Song.

pictures

Exercise

 

13

Item three

 

How are you?

SB & AB

Pictures

 

14

Item three

 

Lang. puzzle/Read/

SB &

Some

 

Rhyme/ Exercise

AB

pictures

 

15

Revision

 

Exercises

SB &

Different

1

AB

pictures

   

Read & comprehend the text.

-

     

-

Learn & use vocabulary (32

3

 

III

words)

 
 

-

Ask & answer about name

and age

 

Copy & write short simple sentences.

-

-Take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

-

Do exercises in the AB

 

16

Item four

 

Who are you?

SB &

Pictures

 

AB

 

17

Item four

 

Lang. puzzle/Practice /Rhyme/ Ex.

SB &

Some

 

AB

pictures

 

18

Item five

 

How old are you?

SB &

Pictures

 

AB

 

19

Item five

 

Lang. puzzle/Ex

SB &

Some

 

/Read/Song/

AB

pictures

 

20

Item six

 

Who is he \she?

SB &

Pictures

 

AB

 

21

Item six

 

Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ Ex.

SB &

Some

 

AB

pictures

 

22

Item

 

How old is he\she?

SB &

Pictures

seven

AB

 

23

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ Ex.

SB &

Some

seven

AB

pictures

 

24

Revision

 

Exercises

SB &

Different

2

AB

pictures

seven AB pictures   24 Revision   Exercises SB & Different 2 AB pictures 38

38

seven AB pictures   24 Revision   Exercises SB & Different 2 AB pictures 38
seven AB pictures   24 Revision   Exercises SB & Different 2 AB pictures 38
seven AB pictures   24 Revision   Exercises SB & Different 2 AB pictures 38
seven AB pictures   24 Revision   Exercises SB & Different 2 AB pictures 38
     

Read & comprehend the text.

-

       
 

-

Learn & use vocabulary (27

IV

words)

 

4

 

-

Ask & answer about

professions and countries

 

-

Copy & write short simple sentences.

-

Take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

 

-

Do exercises in the AB

 

25

Item eight

 

What are you?

SB &

Pictures

AB

 

26

Item eight

 

Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ Ex.

SB &

Some

AB

pictures

 

27

Item nine

 

What is he\she?

SB &

Pictures

AB

 

28

Item nine

 

Lang. puzzle/

SB &

Some

Practice/Ex.

AB

pictures

 

29

Item ten

 

Where are you from?

SB &

Pictures

AB

 

30

Item ten

 

The flag game/Rhyme/ Exercises

SB &

Some

AB

pictures

 

31

Revision 3

 

Exercises

SB &

Different

AB

pictures

 

32

Written test

       

1

     

-

Read & comprehend the

     

text.

V

-

Learn & use vocabulary

5

(34 words)

Speak about school things, about classroom, and

-

clothes.

-Practice and use this-that

-

Copy & write short simple

sentences.

Take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

-

-

Do exercises in the AB

 

33

Item

 

What is this?

SB &

Pictures

eleven

AB

 

34

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Game/

SB &

Some

eleven

Exercises.

AB

pictures

 

35

Item

 

This is my classroom

SB &

Pictures

twelve

AB

 

36

Item

 

Lang. puzzle. Exercises

SB &

Some

twelve

AB

pictures

 

37

Item

 

What is that?

SB &

Pictures

thirteen

AB

 

38

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Read/Rhyme/ Ex.

SB &

Some

thirteen

AB

pictures

 

39

Revision 4

 

Exercises

SB &

Different

AB

pictures

thirteen AB pictures   39 Revision 4   Exercises SB & Different AB pictures 39

39

thirteen AB pictures   39 Revision 4   Exercises SB & Different AB pictures 39
thirteen AB pictures   39 Revision 4   Exercises SB & Different AB pictures 39
thirteen AB pictures   39 Revision 4   Exercises SB & Different AB pictures 39
thirteen AB pictures   39 Revision 4   Exercises SB & Different AB pictures 39
     

-

Read & comprehend the

     

text.

VI

-

Learn & use vocabulary

6

(29

words)

-

Speak about colours, and

clothes, -Practice and use there is a/an….Is there a/an…?

-Practice there are

/

are

there

? How many…?

-

Copy & write short

simple sentences.

-

Take part in brief,

prepared dialogues.

- Do exercises in the AB

 

40

Item

 

What colour is it?

   

SB &

Pictures

fourteen

 

AB

 

41

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/ Chain game /Song/ Exercices

   

SB &

Some

fourteen

AB

pictures

 

42

Item

 

There is…

   

SB &

Some

fifteen

 

AB

pictures

 

43

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/In the zoo//Rhyme/Ex

   

SB &

Pictures

fifteen

AB

 

44

Item sixteen

 

There are…

   

SB &

Some

 

AB

pictures

 

45

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Picture

 

SB &

Different

sixteen

game/Song/

 

AB

pictures

 

46

Revision 5

 

Exercises

   

SB

Pictures

     

- Read & comprehend the

     

text.

-

Learn & use vocabulary

VII

(29

7

words)

Speak about the bedroom.

-

Practice and use Where is/are?

-

-

Practice and use the

preposition “ in, on, under, next to”.

Copy & write short simple sentences.

-

Take part in brief, prepared dialogues.

-

-

Do exercises in the AB

 

47

Item

 

Where is …?

SB & AB

 

Pictures

seventeen

 
 

48

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Rhyme/ Exercises.

SB & AB

 

Some pictures

seventeen

 
 

49

Item

 

Where are the…?

SB & AB

 

Pictures

eighteen

 
    49 Item   Where are the…? SB & AB   Pictures eighteen   40

40

    49 Item   Where are the…? SB & AB   Pictures eighteen   40
    49 Item   Where are the…? SB & AB   Pictures eighteen   40
    49 Item   Where are the…? SB & AB   Pictures eighteen   40
    49 Item   Where are the…? SB & AB   Pictures eighteen   40
 

50

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Song/

SB & AB

Some pictures

eighteen

Exercises

 

51

Item

 

My bedroom

SB & AB

Pictures

nineteen

 

52

Item

 

Lang.

SB & AB

Some pictures

nineteen

puzzle/Read/Rhyme/

Ex.

 

53

Revision 6

 

Exercises

SB & AB

Different

pictures

     

-

Read &

     

comprehend the

text.

-

Learn & use

VIII

vocabulary (43

words)

8

-

Speak about

numbers/ body/ fruits & vegetables.

Practice and use Yes / No questions.

-

-

Copy & write

short simple sentences.

-

Take part in brief,

prepared dialogues.

Do exercises in the AB

-

 

54

Item

 

Numbers 11-20

SB & AB

Pictures

twenty

 

55

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Guess

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty

game/Rhyme

 

56

Item

 

Face and body

SB & AB

Pictures

twenty one

 

57

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Song/

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty one

Exercises

 

58

Item

 

Fruits and vegetables

SB & AB

Pictures

twenty two

 

59

Item

 

Lang. puzzle/Rhyme

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty two

 

60

Revision 7

 

Exercises

SB & AB

Different

pictures

     

-

Read &

 

comprehend the

IX

text.

9

-

Learn & use

vocabulary (29

words)

-

Speak about

close friends

-

Practice and use

the questions Have / Has Got & Can I have a…?

Copy & write short simple sentences.

-

-

Take part in

brief, prepared dialogues.

Do exercises in the AB

-

write short simple sentences. - - Take part in brief, prepared dialogues. Do exercises in the

41

write short simple sentences. - - Take part in brief, prepared dialogues. Do exercises in the
write short simple sentences. - - Take part in brief, prepared dialogues. Do exercises in the
write short simple sentences. - - Take part in brief, prepared dialogues. Do exercises in the
write short simple sentences. - - Take part in brief, prepared dialogues. Do exercises in the

61

Item

Have got\Has got

SB & AB

Pictures

twenty

three

62

Item

Lang.

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty

puzzle/Game/Rhyme/

three

Ex.

63

Item

My friend

SB & AB

Pictures, photos

twenty

four

 

64

Item

Lang. puzzle/Song/

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty

Exercises

four

65

Item

Can I have a…?

SB & AB

Pictures,

twenty

flashcards

five

66

Item

Lang. puzzle/Rhyme/ Exercises.

SB & AB

Some pictures

twenty

five

   

67

Revision 8

Exercises

SB & AB

Different

pictures

68

Written

     

test 2

69

Free class

Making puppets (craft activity)

Young

Coloured pencils, scissors, paper, pens

learners’

 

book

70

Free class

School activity

   
pencils, scissors, paper, pens learners’   book 70 Free class School activity     42

42

pencils, scissors, paper, pens learners’   book 70 Free class School activity     42
pencils, scissors, paper, pens learners’   book 70 Free class School activity     42
pencils, scissors, paper, pens learners’   book 70 Free class School activity     42
pencils, scissors, paper, pens learners’   book 70 Free class School activity     42
5. Oral Course During the oral course (8 periods) the students will learn: 1. English
5. Oral Course During the oral course (8 periods) the students will learn: 1. English
5. Oral Course During the oral course (8 periods) the students will learn: 1. English

5. Oral Course

During the oral course (8 periods) the students will learn:

1. English alphabet

2. Imperatives

3. This/that classroom objects

4. Numbers 1-10

5. Colours

6. Parts of the body

7. Clothes

8. Toys.

Introducing yourself and teaching children to introduce themselves

Begin the lesson by saying Hello! to different pupils. Get them to reply Good morning. Point to pairs of pupils. They say Hello! to each other.

Point to yourself and say “I’m

If a puppet is available, make is say Hello! to different pupils. They reply

Say Hello! I’m

(using your name).

to pupils. Prompt them to reply Hello! I’m

If using a puppet give it a name and make it say Hello I’m ferent pupils. They reply.

Get pairs of pupils to come out and say Hello! I’m hands. Point to yourself and say I’m a teacher.

to the dif-

to each other, and shake

Class 1 – The English alphabet

• Once you enter the classroom you first introduce yourself in Albanian and English. Say “Une jam mesuesja e gjuhes anglaze. (I’m your English teach-

er). Une quhem

/My name is

• Ask students whether they know any English word. ”A dini ndonje �ale ne gjuhen angleze?” If students don’t know any English word ask them “Po ne ndonje gjuhe tjeter te huaj?” How about words in some other foreign lan- guage?” If they do write words on the chalkboard using chalk with differ- ent colours. Children this age like colours.

If they do write words on the chalkboard using chalk with differ- ent colours. Children this

43

If they do write words on the chalkboard using chalk with differ- ent colours. Children this
• Then continue showing students the British, American, Canadian flags or a map of these
• Then continue showing students the British, American, Canadian flags or a map of these
• Then continue showing students the British, American, Canadian flags or a map of these

• Then continue showing students the British, American, Canadian flags or a map of these countries and ask: “A e dini cilat jane disa nga vendet ku flitet gjuha angleze? If students are not able to answer, then use the objects and gives the answer himself both in English and in Albanian. “ Angli-England etc.” in order to encourage them about English language learning.

• Ask all students or individual students “Pse te pelqen ty te mesosh gjuhen angleze? – Why do you like to learn English? Listen to the answers a�en- tively and encourage them by using the words “Bukur - Great; Shume mire - Very good; Te lumte - Well done, etc.

This activity is carried out in no more than 7 minutes with all students participat- ing in the discussion.

Then introduce the textbook Up the Ladder. In Albanian, explain in about three minutes the meaning of the title while pointing to the cover of the book. Then, briefly talk about the course and that they will first start with the oral course.

Introduce the topic for the day and writes the word Alfabeti – The Alphabet on the chalkboard. Then asks students: “Sa shkronja ka alfabeti i gjuhes shqipe?” and instruct them to look at the English alphabet in the book. Allow the students for two to three minutes and then ask them: “Sa shkronja ka alfabeti i gjuhes an- gleze? Wait for the students’ answer and write the accurate answer on the chalk- board.

Read the alphabet in English slowly. Then read a bit more quickly. Then, read the first le�er and the students repeat a�er you. Then, ask the students to split up in groups and to articulate the first le�er of the alphabet. Then ask the student to practice the le�ers in pairs. Pay a�ention to the pronouncation.

Monitor the activity by walking closely to the groups and pairs and helping them out if they have any difficulty with the pronouncation of the le�ers of the alpha- bet.

Play the alphabet game to reinforce. Divide students in groups. Each group called „the Rabbit group“ having the le�ers A, B, C, D, E, F. The second group is „The flower Group“ having the le�ers H, I, J, K, L, M, etc. Ask the flower group members and they will each start pronouncing their let- ters. Sing the alphabet song. Children learn songs very quickly.

and they will each start pronouncing their let- ters. Sing the alphabet song. Children learn songs

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and they will each start pronouncing their let- ters. Sing the alphabet song. Children learn songs

Class 2 - Imperatives

Class 2 - Imperatives Students must learn and remember two words draw and write and be
Class 2 - Imperatives Students must learn and remember two words draw and write and be
Class 2 - Imperatives Students must learn and remember two words draw and write and be

Students must learn and remember two words draw and write and be able to dis- criminate between them. They must also understand and follow instructions you use during your lesson. Use English in the classroom as o�en as possible. Use simpler classroom instructions consistently, and the pupils will soon become fa- miliar with them. Teach one or two new instructions each time. Usually gestures, or repeated use in context, will make the meaning clear. Here are some classroom language expressions that you may use:

Stand up. / Sit down. / Come here, please. / Go to your seat. / Open your books./ Close your books. / Listen. / Repeat. / Good. / Very good. / Good boy/girl. You say it. / Quiet, please. / Pencils down. / Hands up. / Hands down. / Read./ Write.

Draw. / Go to

Together / Everyone. / Hello. / Goodbye. / Thank you. / Come in. / Go out. / Open/Shut the door/window, please. / Hold this, please. Children must also learn the verb give matched with the word me and with their friend’s names. Also the MAGIC words PLEASE and THANK YOU MUST be

learned. This helps introduce a good communication ethics among students and with their teacher in the classroom.

/ Give me

/ Show me

/ Point to

Example:

Se�ing: On the table there are a number of objects, different colours and differ- ent quantity) Teacher: Alba, give me two red apples. (Alba selects the two red apples and gives them to the teacher.) Teacher: Thank you, Alba. Then you have children interact in the following way:

Teacher: Alba, give Migena four green apples. (Alba selects four green apples and gives them to Migena who says “Thank you” You should insist on the use of words “Please” and “Thank you”.

Note to the teacher: This approach is also slightly grammar based as it gives im- plicit rules about the plurals and position of adjectives, while using them in a natural way.

based as it gives im- plicit rules about the plurals and position of adjectives, while using

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based as it gives im- plicit rules about the plurals and position of adjectives, while using

Class 3 – This/That - Classroom objects

Class 3 – This/That - Classroom objects Put some objects (a book, a pen, a pencil,
Class 3 – This/That - Classroom objects Put some objects (a book, a pen, a pencil,
Class 3 – This/That - Classroom objects Put some objects (a book, a pen, a pencil,

Put some objects (a book, a pen, a pencil, a bag, a ruler, a rubber etc.) on the table. Ask pupils to look at the objects and teach each word saying THIS / THAT IS A

Ask individual pupils to repeat the word and the sentence, using the objects as prompts. You may divide the class into four or six groups. Distribute objects to each group. Each pupil in the group has a personal item and takes turns to say THIS IS A … Other pupils of the other group say: YES, THAT IS A …

Or Point to classroom objects that are near you and say “This is a/an …” Repeat the language structure several times. Let the students repeat them a�er you. When you understand that the students feel comfortable using the new language struc- ture, begin by pointing to other objects that are not near you by saying “That is a/an …”

At the next stage ask each individual student to point to objects which are near or far from the student using both structures “This is a/an …” and “That is a/an …”

Class 4 - Numbers

Show flash cards containing numbers and have children repeat them a�er you. Then keep silent and have the children repeat the numbers while you flash the cards. Small groups of numbers (e.g. 1 to 4 in the first lesson, then increasing li�le by li�le up to 10 in the later lessons) are shown, acquired, and then checked in each lesson. They should be checked going first forward, then backwards, then ins scrambled order, so the children are not just repeating by heart.

Another way to check their knowledge of numbers is by supplying the children with sheets of papers where dots, corresponding to numbers, will form a simple picture when united. You say the numbers aloud and if the students draws the lines connecting the dots correctly, the picture will emerge.

You can show objects that students already know and link them with the num- bers and colours, like this : banana – one banana

show objects that students already know and link them with the num- bers and colours, like

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show objects that students already know and link them with the num- bers and colours, like

Class 5 - Colours

Class 5 - Colours Show coloured flash cards while you say aloud the names of colours.
Class 5 - Colours Show coloured flash cards while you say aloud the names of colours.
Class 5 - Colours Show coloured flash cards while you say aloud the names of colours.

Show coloured flash cards while you say aloud the names of colours. Then the students will say the names of colours while you silently flash the cards.

Their knowledge of the words for colours can also be checked by bingo cards. Each student has two or more cards with different colours on them. The names of the colours will be said aloud and the one who has completed his/her bingo cards is the winner

Note: You will need to explain the game in Albanian in order for the students to fully understand the game instructions.

You can show objects that students already know and link them with the num- bers and colours, like this: banana – one banana, one green banana. (red apple, etc.). This allows you to review vocabulary students have already learned.

Class 6 – Parts of the body

Show pupils the picture of a body or draw a boy’s or girl’s body on a large piece of paper so that the pupils can see it clearly and teach them the parts of body. Ask the pupils to repeat the words individually or in chorus. The song Head and shoulder. Listen to the song and practice doing the action yourself. There are some general guidelines for teaching songs in class.

1. Play or sing the song once or twice with the pupils just listening, so that they begin to absorb the tune and the rhythm.

2. Play or sing the song again and ask them to clap the rhythm.

3. Ask them to join the action with you.

4. Ask them if they can tell you what the song means from the actions