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Becoming aware of
others thoughts and

2. Strategy Training
According to Parra (2007), a number of inventories has been offered by
different theorists to encourage ESL/EFL teachers and students to learn and use a
broad range of LLS that can be tapped throughout the learning process. This use of
LLS in EFL/ESL contexts is based on the belief that learning will be facilitated by
making students aware of the range of strategies from which they can choose during
language learning and use. Andrew Cohen in Parra (2007) stated that the most
efficient way to heighten learner awareness is to provide strategy training explicit
instruction in how to apply language learning strategies as part of the foreign
language curriculum.
To Cohen, strategy training aims to provide learners with the tools to do the
a. Self-diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in language learning;
b. Become aware of what helps them to learn the target language most
c. Develop a broad range of problem-solving skills;
d. Experiment with familiar and unfamiliar learning strategies;
e. Make decisions about how to approach a language task;
f. Monitor and self-evaluate their performance; and
g. Transfer successful strategies to new learning contexts.
Although no empirical evidence has yet been provided to determine a single
best method for conducting strategy training, Cohen discussed three different
instructional frameworks. According to him, each has been designed to raise student
awareness of the purpose and rationale of strategy use; give students opportunities to

practice the strategies they are being taught, and help them use the strategies in new
learning contexts.

Holly Andrews in Parra (2007) noted that English language learners come to
ESL/EFL classes to master a tool that will help them satisfy personal, social,
professional and cultural needs, wants, and goals. Therefore, they need to learn about
the English language, to practice it, and to use it as effectively as possible. ESL/EFL
teachers need, then, to examine a variety of instructional approaches and techniques
to support their students language learning and language use adequately.

From a socioaffective perspective, different authors recommend EL teachers

working with beginner students to:
a. Get to know their students and their needs. Since English language learners'
abilities, experiences, and expectations can affect learning, teachers need to
know their backgrounds and goals as well as proficiency levels and skill needs.
b. Model tasks before asking your learners to do them. Demonstrate a task
before asking learners to respond. Use scaffolding techniques to support tasks.
Build sequencing, structure, and support in learning activities. Learners need
to become familiar with vocabulary, conversational patterns, grammar
structures, and even activity formats before producing them.
c. Foster a safe classroom environment. Like many adult learners, some English
language learners have had negative educational experiences. Many will be
not very familiar with the activities and exercises of the language classroom.
Therefore, teachers need to include time for activities that allow learners to
get to know one another and get to feel comfortable or at ease in class.
d. Avoid overloading learners. Strike a balance in each activity between
elements that are familiar and mastered and those that are new. Asking
learners to use both new vocabulary and a new grammatical structure in a
role-playing activity where they have to develop original dialogue may be too
much for them to do successfully.

e. Celebrate success. Progress for language learners can be slow and incremental.
Learners need to know that they are moving forward. Make sure expectations
are realistic; create opportunities for success; set short-term as well as long-
term goals; and help learners recognize and acknowledge their own progress.
f. Expose students to the language they will need to manage their own discourse,
both in class and out of class. Practice ways of opening,
g. maintaining, and closing conversations in different contexts. Expose your
students to typical ways of responding and following up, which are different
from your evaluative responses to their performances (e.g., expressing interest,
reacting to situations appropriately, etc.).
h. In language lesson, learners must be given opportunities to develop both their
fluency and their accuracy. They cannot develop fluency if the teacher is
constantly interrupting them to correct their oral mistakes. Teachers must
provide students with fluency-building practice and realize that making
mistakes is a natural part of learning a new language.

3. Implication for Language Teachers and Learners

According to Syaifullah (2017) first, a practical implication is that students
are supposed to know how to use a wide variety of language learning strategies, as
well as understand how to use language learning strategies flexibly. Language
learners tend to use confined and fixed language learning strategies (Fedderholdt,
1998). In language learning, it is indispensable for learners to reflect on their own
learning process, and habitually estimate whether the use of language learning
strategies is effective for improving their language proficiency or not (Feddrbolt,
Second, another implication is that applying language learning strategies in
the language classroom should be treated as a long-term instruction. There is no

positive variation between learners speaking competence and the use of
socioaffective strategies in a short period of the treatment.
Finally yet importantly, special efforts should be concentrated on helping
improve students motivation to learn English-speaking competence.

C. Conclusion

As seen above what EFL/ESL researchers and educational psychologists have

said about learning, affect in EFL, the role and nature of some affective factors in
language learning, the existence of language learning strategies, the importance of
strategy training, and the role of socioaffective language strategies. All this
information provided a proper groundwork to elaborate a basic EFL model to help
teachers better understand their practices and more effectively engage students in
creating, understanding, and connecting to language learning through truly
educational experiences.


Parra, Y.J.F, 2007. The Explicit Teaching of Socioaffective Language Learning

Strategies to Beginner EFL Students at the Centro Colombo Americano: An
Action Research Study.Bogota, D.C: retrieved September 24th 2017. From

Syaifullah, 2017. Module Language Teaching Method (Theory and Task

Included). Pekanbaru.