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QUIZ - Schema theory

Modified Jan 24, 2014

1. __ The theoretical concept of a Schema was first proposed by:

a. Bartlett
b. Piaget
c. Anderson
d. Brewer
2. __ Schema theory proposes that schemas are key cognitive structure and processes. The theory assumes that
schemas play an important part in ....
a. the formation of memories
b. the retrieval of memories
c. The formation and retrieval of memories
d. The formation ands storage of memories
3. __ Which of the following is not true about schema?
a. We continue to create new schema throughout our lives
b. There is biological support that our brain categorizes information into what could be called "schema."
c. Schema play a role in what remember and what we fail to remember.
d. Schema are observable by using modern brain scanning technology.
4. __ Which of the following was not one of the findings of Bartlett's War with Ghosts study?
a. There were many extra details added to the story, making the story longer than the original.
b. The story remained coherent.
c. Unimportant details were taken out.
d. Culturally unfamiliar details were changed to things that were more culturally relevant.
5. __ When a child learns that a dog has four legs, then often they call all four-legged creatures "dogs." Eventually, the
child learns that a large four-legged animal that goes "moo" and gives milk is not a dog - but a cow. According to
schema theory, what has happened?
a. Cognitive development
b. Accommodation
c. Assimilation
d. Reconstruction
6. __ When you travel to foreign country and you see a type of shower that you have never seen before, you tend to
use your schema, which are based on past experience, to figure out how to use it. But when this fails, you go to the
reception and someone comes up to show you how to use this new type of shower. Once you have seen how to use
this new type of shower, you add it to your shower schema. What did Piaget call this process?
a. Cognitive development
b. Accommodation
c. Assimilation
d. Reconstruction
7. __ One of the problems with a lot of the early research on schemas was
a. they did not have brain scanning technology to support their claims.
b. the studies lacked ecological validity.
c. they were not experimental.
d. they were not replicable.
8. __ Dr. __________ was the name of the psychologist that proposed that certain mental disorders such as depression
could be treated using a type of therapy he called _______________________
a. Beck, reconstructive memory
b. Beck, cognitive restructuring
c. Prichert, top-down processing
d. Cohen, reconstructive processing
e. None of the above
True / False
9. __ Schemas can be static and unchanging. This is one of the reasons why people might stereotype.
10. __ Schemas are sometimes shared with others, but can differ significantly from person to person depending upon
their culture and experiences
11. __ A script is a specific type of schema
12. __ Schemas are entirely found in the unconscious. In other words, we are not consciously aware of our schemas.
13. __ Schemas are organized based upon the meaning they have to the specific individual .
14. __ Different events or prompts in the environment can turn on our schemas
15. __ Schemas are tangible structures that can by physically observed in the mind
16. __ We are sometimes unaware of our schemas. This fact helps explain how stereotyping can occur.
17. __ schema driven cognitive processing is a bottom-up process.
18. __ What we think about can eventually lead to specific behaviors.
19. __ A bias is a type of distortion

Schema Theory

20. Schema theory is supported by research by ______________________________ (name(s) and year). It suggests that
schemas produce expectations about what might or should ____________________. In this way, schemas can be helpful
us to make p_________________ s about what will happen or what to expect in the future.

21. They also provide a way for us to search for relevant information that might be related. For instance, if we see
something that looks something different or strange we will search our schema for something that has many of the
same characteristics as what we are looking at. We will then try to make sense of what we are seeing based upon
our past schemas. We may choose to (accommodate / assimilate ) the new information into our existing
schemas we may modify our schemas to fit the new reality we observe. This process is called (accommodation /

22. Our schemas are filled with information in slots that are connected or related according to our beliefs or
expectations. Some of these slots already contain information and some do not. If we face new situations or
experiences we may fill additional slots with information from these experiences. This is another example of
(assimilation / accommodation).

23. As we ARE / ARE NOT always conscious of our schemas they can influence us in ways we ARE / ARE NOT always
aware of.

24. Schema theory helps us to explain how and why people tend to be reconstructive with their memories. That is, it
explains why and how people actively _____________________memories or details that we dont know or arent clear
about but that make sense or meaning of the memory in terms of our existing __________________.

25. If information we receive doesnt quite fit with our schema, people may change or distort the memory of the
experience so that is more easily fits or assimilates into our existing schemas. Importantly, we MAY / MAY NOT
be aware this is happening.

26. One real-life problem with schemas is that they are only as good as the information or memories that they are
__________________ upon. If a memory or category is incorrect or distorted, then some of our thinking could also be
___________________ or distorted.

27. If we assume that what we THINK about can eventually lead to specific BEHAVIORS, schema theory can be a
powerful way for psychologists to better be able to u___________________, explain, p__________________,
d______________________, or even c _________________ human behaviors and mental processes.

28. Schemas can affect memory at all three key stages.

a. E _____________________

b. S _____________________

c. R ____________________