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CM654 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY NO.

2
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CM654 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT

CASE STUDY NO. 2

Prepared By: Engr. Julius Christian A. Socia

Submitted To: Dr. Manuel M. Muhi


CM654 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY NO.2
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1. Quality Assurance is the backbone of any company adhering total quality management to
provide high quality product and output. As a construction manager of the company,
prepare a quality assurance program for a particular portion of the construction activities.
(e.g., concreting works, rebar works, etc.) Draw a diagram or flowchart including the
possible quality assurance checklist of the production process of the system reviewing the
performances.

ITEMS OF WORK REQUIRING INSPECTION (EARTHWORKS)

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products


and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO
9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality
requirements will be fulfilled".

This quality assurance plan (QAP) outlines the necessary QA inspection to be done to provide
adequate confidence that the project meet the requirements of the approved plans and
specifications.

The location and details of the structure and appurtenances is shown on the construction
drawings. The intensity of the QA inspection is shown in Table 1. Additional work items may
be encountered during construction. The intensity of QA inspection of any additional items will
be determined by the engineer and this QAP will be modified accordingly.

A. Clearing and Grubbing

Clearing refers to the removal of trees, shrubs, stumps and rubbish from the future right-of-
way of a transportation corridor. Limited inspection will be required on clearing and grubbing.
The limits for clearing and grubbing will be staked and inspections will be required to verify that
the item was completed in accordance with the plans and specifications.

B. Foundation Preparation

Verify that the foundation is cleared and grubbed of unsuitable material and meet applicable
local and state regulations. Inspect to verify that the foundation preparation does not contain
roots, brush, rock or other material not suitable for the foundation. Stockpile any available
topsoil so that it can be spread over the disturbed areas after construction.

C. Excavation

Verify that all excavations are to the neat lines and grades as shown on the plans and in
accordance with the existing rules and regulations.
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D. Earth fill

Verify that the earth fill is of the quality and moisture content specified and compacted to the
degree as specified and to the neat lines and grades as shown on the plans and in accordance
with construction specifications.

E. Concrete

Verify that all concrete is of the quality as specified and placed to the neat lines and grades as
specified on the plans and in accordance with construction specifications. Check reinforcing
steel to ensure it is on the type, size and spacing as shown on the drawings.

F. Pollution Control

Inspect to verify that pollution control measures are install as per the plans and specification
and/or as required by the permits.

G. Vegetative Measures

QA inspection for this item will be to ensure that:

The site/seedbed is properly prepared.


The correct type and amount of seed, fertilizer, lime and mulch are applied according to
the plans and specifications.
Where sod is used, the correct type and amount of sod and applied according to the
plans and specifications.
All disturbed areas are treated.

TIMING OF QUALITY ASSURANCE ACTIVITIES AND STAFFING

QA is designed for product evaluation and process monitoring. They also assure that the
product development and associated processes are correctly carried out as per the process
control plan. QA inspections must be performed in a timely manner to ensure quality installation
of the works of improvement. Inspection will need to be coordinated between the landowner,
contractor and quality team. QA inspection will vary from periodic checks of installation to
continuous inspection for critical items as shown in Table 1.

The Area Engineer will coordinate timely scheduling of qualified personnel to provide
construction QA inspection and survey assistance for project. This will require the designer and
the contractor to communicate when practices are to be executed.

Quality team will provide the QA inspections for this project. The items needed to inspect and
the intensity of QA inspection is shown in Table 1. Other experts, will be on call to fill in if the
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quality team is absent from work and/or to provide assistance in the layout or checkout of the
project.

Table 1 QA Inspection Intensity

QA Inspection
Item
*Intensity
Pollution Control P/F
Clearing and Grubbing P/F
Foundation Preparation P/F
Excavation P/F
Earth fill P/F
Concrete C/F
Vegetative Measures P/F
Add other items as needed

Legend: C Continuous; P Periodic; F - Final

*The inspector shall immediately notify the engineer if continuous inspection is required and
cannot be performed with available staff.

KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES NEEDED TO PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE


INSPECTIONS

Must be knowledgeable of the QA required for the project to be undertaken, as shown


on the plans and described in the specifications.
Must understand the design concepts of the job to ensure that it is installed in
conformance with the approved plans and specifications.
Ability to read and interpret construction drawings and specifications and perform basic
layout of the conservation practices identified.
Ability to check all aspects of the work involved as identified, but not limited to:
excavation, earth fill, concrete, pollution control, vegetative measures, etc.
Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships and clear
communications with the contractor, landowner, and the designer.
Ability to recognize potential safety hazards and inform the landowner or contractor of
potential safety hazards.
Ability to coordinate the work activities with the persons responsible for the various
utilities affected by the work.
Ability to develop and maintain required records and reports.
Ability to supervise or coordinate efforts of others assigned to the project.
Ability to recognize needed changes in the engineering plans and specifications and
obtains concurrence of the engineer prior to making the needed changes.
Ability to anticipate necessary design changes and immediately notify the DC and
engineer of required changes.
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STAFF QA RESPONSIBILITIES

The person assigned to provide QA for the project shall thoroughly review the
engineering plans and specifications prior to the start of construction.
A design folder will be provided to the field office for use by the responsible person.
The person responsible for QA shall review the design folder in order to become familiar
with the design concepts utilized in the design of the practices listed.
The person responsible for QA shall not make any changes in the engineering plans and
specifications without prior approval of the individual approving the design or someone
with the appropriate engineering job approval authority.
Any design changes required by site conditions or requested by the landowner or
contractor shall be approved in writing prior to the change. The person responsible for
QA shall keep the designer and engineer informed of all construction progress.
The engineer shall be available to review and provide QA at critical points during
construction as shown in Table 1. The engineer will be available to make periodic on-
site QA reviews as needed to ensure overall compliance with plans and specifications
and to provide assistance on needed modifications.
The designer shall coordinate a pre-construction meeting between the landowner and/or
contractor and other staffs prior to the start of construction. The meeting will cover the
responsibilities of all parties.

TESTING EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES NEEDED

Surveying equipment to assist in layout and checkout the structure and supporting
practices and appurtenances including grades and elevations.
A camera to document the clearing operation.

DOCUMENTATION

Certification of practices installed will be performed by individuals with the appropriate


engineering job approval authority. Documentation of all practices shall be in accordance with
the existing rules and regulations. All survey notes will be closed out and tied back to
benchmarks.

Survey notes documenting the location and measurements shall be recorded on loose leaf
survey notes or in a bound survey field book. All construction checks taken shall be recorded.
Construction QA checks shall follow the required format. Quantity computations for all
materials installed shall be measured and recorded on standard forms or computation paper
and checked and initialed by a second person.

Photographs shall be taken of the job and logged for the duration of the construction. The
camera, when possible, be set to automatically imprint the date and time of the photo.

The as-built drawings shall be kept current during construction and the final as-built drawings
shall be completed within 14 days of final construction.

Copies of the final AS-BUILT plans shall be made available to the parties concerned.
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SAMPLE QUALITY ASSURANCE CHECKLIST FOR EARTHWORKS


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2. In ensuring quality in the construction, audit is an art and parcel to comply the results with
the planned target. It is used to verify whether the company operates according to planned
methods and checks the effectiveness. As a construction manager, prepare your own
performance audit program for a construction project.
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SAMPLE PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM FOR A ROAD & BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION


PROJECTS OF GOVERNMENT SECTOR AGENCY (Asian Development Bank sector
support)

AUDIT OBJECTIVES

The primary objective of the Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 (PDP) is the pursuit of
inclusive economic growth.

1. The PDP sets five objectives for infrastructure development, including the transport
sector: (i) optimize resources and investments, (ii) attract investments to infrastructure,
(iii) foster transparency and accountability in infrastructure development, (iv) adapt to
climate change and mitigate the impacts of natural disasters, and (v) provide productive
employment opportunities

2. To optimize resources and investments, the PDP calls for improved project planning and
development, and implementation and synchronization of planning and budgeting.

3. To foster transparency and accountability, stakeholder participation will be encouraged


in governance, monitoring, and provision of feedback on infrastructure development. In
relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation of natural disasters

AUDIT SCOPE

Our audit scope is to examine the program and other records of DPWHs, and of other agencies
for road and bridge construction projects monitoring process. We will conduct this performance
audit in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards
require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide
a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe
that the evidence that will be obtained will provide a reasonable basis for our findings and
conclusions based on our audit objectives.

As part of our audit, we will prepare supplemental information that relates to our audit
objectives. Our audit will not be directed toward expressing an opinion on this information and,
accordingly, we will express no opinion on it.

AUDIT METHODOLGY

We will conduct a preliminary review of DPWHs road and bridge construction projects
monitoring process to formulate a basis for defining our audit objectives and our audit scope.
Our preliminary review includes interviewing DPWH staff regarding their function and
responsibilities; reviewing applicable State and federal laws, regulations, policies, procedures
and manuals; analyzing available data and statistics; and examining reports from various
internal and external audit reviews.

To assess the effectiveness of DPWHs efforts to ensure that road and bridge construction
projects are monitored in accordance with selected State and federal requirements, we will
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examine project files at various DPWH Engineering Offices and at contractors/consultants


offices that DPWH hired to perform construction and engineering testing services. We will
analyze the files to assess DPWHs compliance with requirements related to construction project
oversight, preparation of contractor and consultant evaluations, completion of final estimate
reviews, claims processing procedures, and proprietary of bonus performance program
payments.

To assess the effectiveness of DPWHs efforts to ensure that road and bridge construction
materials testing is completed in accordance with selected State and federal requirements, we
will examine agency records related to lab technician certifications, construction project quality
control testing plans, and inspector reports of materials tested.

When selecting activities or programs for audit, we will use an approach based on assessment
of risk and opportunity for improvement. Accordingly, we will focus our audit efforts on
activities or programs having the greatest probability for needing improvement as identified
through a preliminary review. Our limited audit resources will be used, by design, to identify
where and how improvements can be made. Consequently, we will prepare our performance
audit reports on an exception basis.

References:

https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/33700/files/philippines-transport-
assessment.pdf

https://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/FL/fl348_QAP_June_2013.docx

http://www.westernbay.govt.nz/our-services/district-plan-resource-consents/district-plan/
development-code-2009/Documents/CERT%201d%20-%20Quality%20Assurance%20Checklist
%20Earthworks.pdf

Prepared by:

Julius Christian A. Socia