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Laws of Motion 1

Laws of Motion
Aristotles Fallacy - Force, The Law of Inertia, Newtons 1st Law of M otion, Newtons 2nd Law of M otion,
Newtons Third Law of Motion, Applications of Newtons Laws, Law of Conservation of momentum, Equilibrium
of a Particles, Common Force in Mechanics - Friction, Dynamics of Circular Motion

INTRODUCTION
Inthepreviouschapter,wewereonlyconcernedaboutthemotionofaparticleinspacequantitatively.
Wesawthatuniformmotionneedstheconceptofvelocityalonewhereasnon-uniformmotionrequiresthe
conceptofaccelerationinaddition.Nowthequestionariseswhogovernsthemotionofthebodies.Weknow
thatinordertomoveafootballfromrest,someonemustkickit.Tothrowastoneupwards,onehastogive
itanupwardpush.Abreezecausesthebranchesofatreetoswing.Aboatmovesinaflowingriverwithout
anyonerowingit.Clearly,someexternalagencyisneededtoprovideforcetomoveabodyfromrest.

ARISTOTLES FALLACY
Afallacyisanargumentwhichprovidespoorreasoninginsupportofitsconclusion.Anargumentcan
befallaciouswhetherornotitsconclusionistrue.TheGreekthinker,Aristotleheldtheviewthatifabody
is moving,somethingexternalor externalagencyis requiredtokeepinmotion.TheAristotelianlawof
motionmaybephrasedforourpurposehere, Anexternalforceisrequiredtokeepabodyinmotion.
FORCE
Aforceisapushorapull.Aforcegiventoanobjectprovidesenergytoitcausingtheobjecttostart
moving,stopmoving,changeitsspeedchangeinshapeorchangeitsdirection.
Oritisanexternaleffortintheformofpushorpull,which
(i) Producesortriestoproducemotioninabodyatrest,or
(ii) Stopsortriestostopamovingbody,or
(iii) Changesortriestochangethedirectionofmotionofthebody.
Thefollowingfactordeterminetheeffectthataforcehasonabody
(i) Themagnitudeofforceapplied
(ii) Thedirectioninwhichforceisapplied
(iii) Thepointofapplicationofforce.
Forcesalwaysoccurinpairs,itcanbeeitherbalancedorunbalanced.
BALANCED FORCES
Balancedforcesarethoseforceswhichdoesntcausechangeinmotion. Theyareequalinsizeand
oppositeindirection.

A B
As the force that each of them are exerting is equal, the two forces cancel each other out and the
resultingforceiszero.Therefore,thereisnochangeinmotion.

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2 Laws of Motion

Tugofwarisagoodexampletoseebalancedforcesinaction.

A B C
UNBALANCED FORCES
Unbalancedforces always cause a changein motion. They are not equal and opposite. When two
unbalancedforces areexertedinoppositedirections,theircombinedeffect/forceisequaltothedifference
betweenthetwoforcesandisexertedinthedirectionofthelargerforce.Lookatthefollowingexamplesto
helpmakethismoreclearer.
A
+ =
C
B

=
A B C
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE
Differentforcesinnature-
(A)Gravitationalforceorinteraction (B)Electromagneticforceorinteraction
(C)Nuclearforceorinteraction, (D)Weakforceorinteraction,
(A) Gravitational force
Thisforceactsin betweentwomasses.
Thenatureofthisforceisattractive.
ThisforcecanbeobtainedfromNewtonsgravitationallaw.
AccordingtoNewtonsgravitationallaw
F m1m2
F r2
orF=Gm1m2/r2
Invectornotation,theforceactingonm2duetom1
GisconstantwhichiscalledGravitationalconstant.Itisauniversalconstant.Itsvalueis
G=6.671011Nm2/kg2
anddimensionsareM1L3T2
Therangeofthisforceisverylarge.
Thisforceactsinbetweentheplanets,hereitsmagnitudeisverylarge.Thisforcealsoactsinbetween
atomicparticles(ee),(ep),(pp),(pn)butinthiscaseitsmagnitudeisverysmall.Thisforce
isweakestamountallforcesinnature.EnergyparticleofthisforceisGravitation.
Thisforceisimportantinthosecircumstancesinwhichonebodytakingpartintheinteractionis
havingastronomicalsize.

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Laws of Motion 3

Gravitationalforceof6.671011 newtonactsbetweentwobodiesofmass1kgeachplacedat
adistance1mapart.
Theinteractiontimeofthisforceisabout102sec.
Aforceof2.31020newtonactsinbetweenthemoonandtheearthwhereasaforceof4.054
1047newtonactsinbetweenanelectronandaprotonofhydrogenatom.
(B) Electromagnetic force
Thisforceactsbetweenchargedormagnetizedobjects.Theforceactingbetweenstationaryormoving
charges in electromagnetic force. Source of electrical forces are stationary and moving charges.
Magneticforceactsonlyonmovingcharges.Itcanbeattractiveorrepulsive.
Thereisrepulsiveforcebetweenthechargesofsimilarnatureandattractiveforcebetweenthecharges
ofdissimilarnature.
Coulombs law
F q1 q2
F r2
or
F=Kq1 q2 r2
whereKisaconstantwhichdependsuponthenatureofthemedium.Forvaccum

1
K 9 109 N m 2 / C2
40

0 iscalledpermittivityofvacuumanditsvalueis8.851012C2/N-m2

Therangeofthisforceisalsoverylarge.

1
Electromagneticforceis1036timesstrongerthanthegravitationforcebut timesweakerthanthe
137
nuclear force.
(C) Nuclear force
Thisforceactswithinthenucleusofanatom.
Thisforceactsonlyamongprotonsandneutronswithinthenucleusofanatom.
Natureofthisforceinunknownandithas uniqueproperties;thereforeitis alsocalledstrange
force.
Thisforceismaximuminsidethenucleusandzerooutsidethenucleus.
Therangeoftheforceisverysmall(~1015m)
Thisforceisstrongestforceofnature
Itsenergyparticleispion.
ThemagnitudeofthisforcecanbeobtainedfromYukawapotential:

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4 Laws of Motion

e r /r0
U(r)=U= U 0
r
whereU0and r0are constants.
Nuclear force does not depend on charge i.e., it is charge independent. This force acts between
proton-proton,neutron-neutronandneutron-protoninequalstrength.
(D) Weak forces -
decayinradioactivedisintegrationisexplainedbythisforce.
Thisforceisweakerincomparisontonuclearandelectromagneticforcesandis1025 timesthe
nuclear force.
Therangeofthisforceisoftheorderof1015m.Theenergyparticleofthisforceisboson.
Neutronandprotoninthenucleus decayduetoweakforcesas
(Antineutrino)1n0 1p1+1+ v
(Neutrino) 1p1 1n0++1+v
Thisforceisrelatedwiththetransformationofneutrontoprotonorprotontoneutronin decay.
Thenatureofweakforcesisstillunknown.
Comparative Study of Forces

S.No. Forces Nature Range Relative Energy particle


strength
1. Gravitational attractive infinite 1 graviton
2. Electromagnetic attractive infinite 1036 photon
orrepulsive
3. Nuclear attractive veryshort 1039 pion
4. Weak unknown veryshort 1014 boson

TYPESOFFORCES
Field Forces
Thoseforceswhichdonotrequirecontactbetweenthebodiestoact,forexamplegravitationalforce,
electro-magneticforceetc.,areknownas fieldforces.
Contact Force (F)
Forceswhichactwhenbodiesareincontactareknownascontactforces.Itisusuallyconvenientto
resolvecontactforcesintocomponents,oneparalleltothesurfaceofcontact,theotherperpendiculartothe
surface of contact.
Normal Force or Normal Reaction (N):
The component ofthe contact forcethat isperpendicular tothe surfaceofcontact is known asthe
Normalreactionforce.Itmeasureshowstronglythesurfaces incontactarepressedtogether.

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Laws of Motion 5

Frictional Force (f):


Itisthecomponentofthecontactforceparalleltothesurfaceofcontact.Thedirectionoftheforceof
friction is opposite to thedirection of relative motion between the surfaces, or is such as to oppose any
tendencyofrelativemotion betweenthesurfaces.
Tension:
It is inter molecular force between the atoms of a string, which acts or reacts when the string is
stretched.Therearesomeimportantpointsregardingthetensioninastring.
(i) Forceoftensionactonabodyinthedirectionawayfrom,thepointofcontactortiedendsofthe
string.
(ii) Ifastringismassless,thetensioninitissameeverywhere;ontheotherhandifastringisnot
massless(i.e.itsmassisnotnegligible),tensionatdifferentpointsmaybedifferent.
(iii) Iffrictionispresentbetweenthepulleyandthestring,thetensioninthestringwillbemoreonthe
sideoflargermass.

SPRING FORCE
AnidealspringfollowsHookeslawwhichsaysthattheforceappliedbyaspringonbodiesconnected
toitisproportionaltoitsextensionorcompression(changeinlengthfromitsnaturallength).
Weknowthatthemoreforceweapplytospringthemoreitstretchesi.e.theextensionofthespring
isproportionaltotheappliedforce.Figureshowsaspringinitsequilibriumlength.If westretchis bya
distancexfromitsequilibriumpositionitappliesaforceF,towardsitsequilibriumposition(RestoringForce)
whichisproportionaltox

Fx F
F=kx x
wherekisaconstantthatischaracteristicofthespringalsoknownasthespringconstant.
()signindicatenatureofforcerestoring.Aspringhastendencyofrestoringitsequilibriumposition,
thus whether we stretch it or compress, and it always opposes the external force in the direction
towardsitsequilibriumposition.
Theforcesexertedbyalightspringonbodiesconnectedtoitatoppositeendsareequalandopposite.
1
Springconstantofaspringisinverselyproportionaltoitsrelaxedlength k .
l

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Whatisthemagnitudeoftheforceexertedbyasmoothinclinedplaneofinclinationq ona
massmplacedontheplane?Shownbyadiagram.
N

mgcos
mg q
q

Solution. mgcosq mgcosq inequilibrium)

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6 Laws of Motion

Example 2. Whatisthemagnitude&directionofforceduetogravity?
Solution. mg,verticallydownward.
Example 3. A car of mass 1000 kg is moving with a speed of 36 km/h on a level road. Calculate the
retardingforcerequiredtostopthecarinadistanceof50m.
Solution. Herem=1000kg;u=36km/h=10m/s;v=0;S=50m

v 2 u 2 2aS
0 100
a 1ms2
2x50

F ma 1000( 1) 1000N
Example 4. ADiwalirocketisejecting0.05kgofgasespersecondataspeedof400m/s.Whatisthe
accelerating forceon the rocket?

vu v0 m
Solution. F ma m m v 0.05x 400 20 N
t t t
Example 5. A600kgrocketissetforaverticalfiring.Iftheexhaustspeedis1000m/s,thenwhatisthe
amountofgasesejectedpersecondtosupplythethrustneededtoovercometheweightofthe
rocket?(g=10ms-2)

Solution. F mg 600 x10 6000 N


vu u m
F ma m m u
t t t
m F 6000
6 kg / s
t u 1000

EXERCISE
Question 1. Amassof5kgacteduponbyaforceof1N.Startingfromrest,howmuchisdistancecovered
bythemassin10s? (S=10m)

Question 2. Abulletofmass200gfiredfromagunmovingwithavelocityof20m/shitsawoodenlog.
Thebulletstopsaftertravellingadistanceof40cminthelog.Calculatetheretardingforce
exertedbythelogonthebullet. (F=-100N)

Question 3. Aforceof10Ngivesamassm1anaccelerationof10ms2,amassm2anaccelerationof
20ms-2.Whataccelerationwoulditgiveifboththemassesaretiedtogether?(a=6.66ms-2)

Question 4. Twomutuallyperpendicularforces of8Nand6N actsonthesamebodyof mass 10kg.


Calculate(i)netforceactingonthebody,(ii)magnitudeoftheaccelerationofthebodyand
(iii)directionofaccelerationofthebody.[Ans:(i)10N;(ii)1ms-2;(iii)36053with8Nforce]
Question 5. Abodyofmass3kgismovingwiththevelocityof2m/s.Nowaforceisappliedonthebody
sothatitsvelocitychangesto3.5m/sin25s.Calculatethedirectionandmagnitudeofthe
forceactingonthebody. (F=0.18N)

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Laws of Motion 7

THE LAWOFINERTIA
Inertiaofabodyreferstotheinabilityofabodytochangeitsstate(ofrestorofuniformmotionina
straightline)onitsown.
INERTIAOF REST
Itistheinabilityofabodytochangebyitself,itsstateofrest.Thismeansabodywhichisatrestwill
remainatrestunlessoruntilsomeexternalforceisnotappliedtoit.
(A) Ifweplaceacoinonsmoothpieceofcardboardcoveringaglassandstrikethecardboardpiece
suddenlywithafinger.Thecardboardslipsawayandthecoinfallsintotheglassduetoinertiaof
rest.
(B) Thedustparticlesinacarpetfalloffwhenitisbeatenwithastick.Thisisbecausethebeating
setsthecarpetinmotionwhereasthedustparticlestendtoremainatrestandhencegetsseparated.
INERTIA OF MOTION
Itistheinabilityofabodytochangebyitself,itsstateofmotionoritistheinabilityofamovingbody
tostoponitsown.Thismeansabodywhichisinmotionwillremaininmotionalongastraightlineunless
oruntilsomeexternalforceisnotappliedtoit.
INERTIA OF DIRECTION
Inertiaofdirection:-Thetendencyofabodybywhichitresistsachangeinitsdirectionofmotionis
calledinertiaofdirection.
fnet
(i) Whenastonetiedtooneendofastringiswhirledandthestring
breakssuddenly,thestonefliesoffalongthetangenttothecircle.
This is because the pull in the string was forcing the stone to
moveinacircle.Assoonasthestringbreaks,thepullvanishes.
The stone in a bid to move along the straight line flies off
tangentially.
(ii) Therotatingwheelofanyvehiclethrowoutmud,ifany,tangentially,
duetodirectionalinertia.
(iii) Whenacargoesroundacurvesuddenly,thepersonsittinginside
isthrownoutwards.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1: Whyapersonwhoisstandingfreelyinbus,thrownbackward,whenbusstartssuddenly?
Solution. Whenabussuddenlystarts,theforceresponsibleforbringingbusinmotionisalsotransmitted
tolowerpartofbody,sothispartofthebodycomesinmotionalongwiththebus.Whilethe
upperhalfofbody(sayabovethewaist)receivesnoforcetoovercomeinertiaofrestandso
itstaysinitsoriginalposition.Thusthereisarelativedisplacementbetweenthetwopartsof
thebodyanditappearsasiftheupperpartofthebodyhasbeenthrownbackward.

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8 Laws of Motion

Note: (i) Ifthemotionofthebusisslow,theinertiaofmotionwillbetransmittedtothebodyofthe


personuniformlyandsotheentirebodyofthepersonwillcomeinmotionwiththebusandthe
personwillnotexperienceanyjerk.
(ii) Whenahorsestartssuddenly,theridertendstofallbackwardonaccountofinertiaofrestof
upperpartofthebodyasexplainedabove.
Example 2: Inoiltankerssomespaceisleftatthetopwhilefillingthem.Explainwhy?
Solution. Whenamovingoiltankersuddenlystops,theoilinsidethetankercontinuestobeinthestate
ofmotionduetoinertiaofmotion.Asaresultitsplashesintheforwarddirection.similarly,
whenastationarytankersuddenlysets intomotion,theoilinsidethetankersplashesinthe
backwarddirection. Ifno spaceis left at the top of the oil,it willoverflow. Therefore,to
preventanyoverflowoftheoilduetosuddenstartorstopofthetanker,somespaceisleft
vacantatthetopwhilefillingthetanker.
Example 3: Inthearrangementshowninthefigure,whatwillhappen?
A
(A) IfthestringBispulledwithasuddenjerk?
M
(B) IfthestringBispulledsteadilytheforceappliedtoit?
B
Solution. (A) IfthestringBispulledwithasuddenjerkthenitwillexperience
tensionwhileduetoinertiaofrestofmassMthisforcewillnot
betransmittedtothestringAandsothestringBwillbreak.

(B) IfthestringBispulledsteadilytheforceappliedtoitwillbetransmittedfromstringB
toAthroughthemassMandastensioninAwillbegreaterthaninBbyMg(weightof
massM)thestringAwillbreak.

EXERCISE
Question 1. Inertiaisthatpropertyofabodybyvirtueofwhichthebodyis

(A) Unabletochangebyitselfthestateofrest
(B) Unabletochangebyitselfthestateofuniformmotion
(C) Unabletochangebyitselfthedirectionofmotion
(D) Unabletochangebyitselfthestateofrestorofuniformlinearmotion
Question 2. Two objectsA and B have masses 50 kg and 60 kg. If their inertia of rest are IA and IB
respectivelythenwhichoneofthefollowingiscorrect?
(A) IA>IB (B) IA=IB
(C) IA<IB (D) None of these

Question 3. Whathappenswhenyoushakeawetpieceofcloth?Explain.
Question 4. Abulletfiredonawindowglassmakesacleanholethrough
itwhileastonebreaksthewholewindow.Explain.

Cracksbytheball Holebythebullet

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Laws of Motion 9

Question 5. Whyapersonwhoissittingfreelyinbus,throwninforwarddirection,whenbusstopssuddenly?
Question 6. Amotorcycleandacararemovingonahorizontalroadwiththesamevelocity.Iftheyare
broughttorestbytheapplicationofbrakes,whichprovidesequalretardation,then

(A) Motorcyclewillstopatshorterdistance

(B) Carwillstopatashorterdistance

(C) Bothwillstopatthesamedistance

(D) Nothingcanbepredicted

Question 7. Whyitisadvisedtotietheluggagewitharopeontheroofofbuses?

NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION


Abodywhichisatrestwillremainatrestunlessoruntilsomeexternalforceisnotappliedtoit.Abody
whichismovingwithuniformvelocitywillremaininthatstateofmotionunlessoruntilsomeexternalforce
isnotappliedtoit.
F=ma
if F=0
a=0(m0)
Examples:-
(i) Wetendtofallforwardwhenabussuddenlystops.Whenbusstopssuddenly,wetendtoresistthe
changeinourstateofmotionandhencefallforward.
(ii) Wetendtofallbackwardwhenabussuddenlystarts.
(iii) Wetendtogetthrowntoonesidewhenacartakessharpturn.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Aboysittingonthetopmostberthinthecompartmentofatrainwhichisjustgoingtostopon
therailwaystationdropsanappleaimingattheopenhandofhisbrothersituatedvertically
belowhishandsatadistanceofabout2m.Theapplewillfall

(A) Inthehandofhisbrother

(B) Slightlyawayfromthehandofhisbrotherinthedirectionofmotionofthetrain.

(C) Slightlyawayfromthehandsofhisbrotherinthedirectionoppositetothedirectionof
motionofthetrain.

(D) None of these

Solution. (B)

AccordingtotheNewtonsfirstlawofmotion,thevelocityofapplewhendroppedisequalto
thevelocityoftrainatthatinstant.Asthevelocityoftrainisdecreasingbutvelocityofapple
remainsunchanged,theapplewillfallaheadofhisbrotherinthedirectionofmotionoftrain.

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10 Laws of Motion

Example 2. Drums ofoil arecarried in atruck. If a constant acceleration is appliedon thetruck, the
surfaceofoilindrumwill
(A) Remain unaffected (B) Risetowardsforwarddirection
(C) Risetowardsbackwarddirection (D)Nothingiscertain
Solution. (C)
FE


Fg FR

Whenaconstantaccelerationisappliedonthetruck,aconstantforceactsonit.Theresultant
ofthisforceandtheforceduetogravityactsalongthesurfaceoftheoil.Hence,thesurface
ofoilrisestowardsbackwarddirection.

EXERCISE
Question 1. Whenabus suddenlytakesaturn,thepassengersarethrownoutwardsbecauseof
(A) Inertiaofmotion (B) Accelerationofmotion
(C) Speedofmotion (D) Both(B)and(C)
Question 2. Apersonsittinginanopencarmovingatconstantvelocitythrowsaballverticallyupintoair.
Theballfall
(A) Outsidethecar (B) Inthecaraheadoftheperson
(C) Inthecartothesideoftheperson (D) Exactlyinthehandwhichthrewitup

LINEAR MOMENTUM
Theproductofmassofabody(m)andvelocity( v )iscalledlinearmomentum,i.e.,
Itisavectorquantityanditsdirectionisinthedirectionofvelocity.
InSIsystemitsunitiskg-m/sanddimensionsareM1L1T1.
Ifm1andv1arethemassandvelocity ofonebodyandm2andv2arethemassand velocityof
anotherbody,then
p1 m1v1

p 2 m2 v 2
If v1=v2andm1>m2
then p1>p2
Thusthemomentumofheavierbodywillbegreaterthanthemomentumoflighterbody.
Ifp1=p2,then
v1 m 2
m1v2=m2v2 or
v 2 m1
Ifm1>m2thenv2 >v1
i.e.momentumbeingsame,thevelocityofheavierbodywillbelesserthanthevelocityoflighter
body.
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Laws of Motion 11

NEWTONS SECONDLAW
(A) Therateofchangeoflinearmomentumofabodyisdirectlyproportionaltotheexternalforceapplied
onthebodyandthischangetakesplacealwaysinthedirectionoftheappliedforce.

(2) Ifabodyofmassm,moveswithvelocity v thenitslinearmomentumcanbegivenby p mv andif

force F isappliedonabody,then

dp
dp
F Fk (k=1inC.G.S.andS.I.units)
dt dt

dp
mv mu m(v u)
or F
dt t 2 t1 t


(v u)
As a (accelerationproducedinthebody)
t

F ma

Force=massacceleration

F 1
a or a
m m

Note : (A) Firstlawcanbeobtainedfromsecondlaw.


(B) Fromthis,lawofconservationoflinearmomentumcanbeobtained,i.e.,
If F=0,thendp/dt=0
p=mv=constant
(C) Accordingtothislawmassofaparticleorbodydoesnotchangewithvelocity
Example :
While catching a ball the cricketer moves hands backwards. In this case he needs to decrease the
forcewithwhichballis comingsothat it doesnt hurtcricketers hand,so heincreases thetimeby
loweringhishandandhenceaccelerationoftheballdecreases.
Useofspringsandshockersinmotorcars.
Ajudochampbreaksapileofbricksinonego.Hisactionistoofast.
Inthiscaseheneedstoincreasetheforcewithwhichhecanbreakthepile, sohedecreasesthe
timebyfasteninghisaction.

dp
F
dt

Ifwedecreaset,Fwillincrease

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12 Laws of Motion

Inahighjumpathleteevent,theathletesfallonacushionedbedtoincreasethetimeofstop.This
resultsin thedecreaseofrateofchangeof momentumandhenceforce.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Atrainismovingwithvelocity20m/sec.onthis,dustisfallingattherateof50kg/min.The
extraforcerequiredtomovethistrainwithconstantvelocitywillbe
(A) 16.66N (B) 1000N
(C) 166.6N (D) 1200N
Solution : (A)
dm 50
Force F v 20 16.66N
dt 60
Example 2. Aforceof10Newtonactsonabodyofmass20kgfor10seconds.Changeinitsmomentum
is
(A) 5kgm/s (B) 100kgm/s
(C) 200kgm/s (D) 1000kgm/s
Solution : (B)
Changeinmomentum=forcetime=1010=100kgm/sec

1
Example 3. Avehicleof100kgismovingwithavelocityof5m/sec.Tostopitin sec,therequired
10
forceinoppositedirectionis
(A) 5000N (B) 500N
(C) 50N (D) 1000N
Solution : (A)
m=100kg,u=5m/s,v=0,t=0.1sec
mdv m(v u) 100(0 5)
Force
dt t 0.1
F=5000N
Example 4. Aforceof5NgivesamassM1,anaccelerationequalto8m/s2andM2,anacceleration=24
m/s2.Whatistheaccelerationifbothmassesaretiedtogether?
(A) 16m/s2 (B) 6m/s2
(C) 12m/s2 (D) 4m/s2

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Laws of Motion 13

Solution. (B)
MassM1=5/8kg,MassM2=5/24kg.
Totalmass=M1+M2=5/8+5/24=20/24kg.
5 5 24
Therefore,totalaccelerationintwomasses=F/(M1+M2)= 6ms2
20 / 24 20
Example 5. Canasingleisolatedforceexistinnature?Givereason.
Solution. No,singleisolatedforcecannotexistinnature.Foreveryactionthereisequalandopposite
reaction.Soforcesalwaysappearinpairs.
Example 6. AbodyofmassmmovesalongXaxissuchthatitspositionco-ordinateatanyinstanttis
x=at4bt3+ct.Wherea,b,careconstant.Whatistheforceactingontheparticleatany
instant?
Solution. Positionco-ordinates,X=at4bt3+ct
dx
Velocity 4at33bt2+c
dt
d2 x d
Acceleration= = ( 4at 3 -3bt 2 + c ) =12at26bt
dt 2 dt
Force=massxacceleration=m(12at26bt)
Example 7. ExpressNewtonssecondhowofmotionincomponentform.Giveitssignificance.
Solution. Force,momentumandaccelerationcanberepresentedintheirrectangularcomponents.

F = F i + F j + F K
x y

z

P = Px i + Py j + Pz K

a = a x i + a y j + a z K

Thevectorformofsecondlawofmotion.

dp
F ma
dt

d
Fx i f y j Fz K (Px i Py j Pz k)

dt

m (a x i a y j a z k)

dPx
Fx ma x
dt

dPy
Fy ma y
dt

dPz
Fz ma z
dt

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14 Laws of Motion

EXERCISE
Question 1. Aplayerstopsafootballweighing0.5kgwhichfliestowardshimwithavelocityof10m/s.If
theimpactlastsfor1/50thsecondandtheballbouncesbackwithavelocityof15m/s,thenthe
averageforceinvolvedis
(A) 250N (B) 1250N
(C) 500N (D) 625N
Question 2. We can derive Newtons
(A) Secondandthirdlawsfromthefirstlaw
(B) Firstandsecondlawsfromthethirdlaw
(C) Thirdandfirstlawsfromthesecondlaw
(D) Allthethreelawsareindependentofeachother
Question 3. Whenabodyisstationary
(A) Thereisnoforceactingonit
(B) Theforceactingonitisnotincontactwithit
(C) Thecombinationofforcesactingonitbalanceseachother
(D) Thebodyisinvacuum
Question 4. TwotrainsAandBarerunninginthesamedirectiononparalleltrackssuchthatAisfaster
thanB.If packetsofequalweights areexchangedbetweenthetwo, then
(A) AwillberetardedbutBwillbeaccelerated
(B) AwillbeacceleratedbutBwillberetarded
(C) TherewillbenochangeinvelocityofA,butBwillbeaccelerated
(D) TherewillbenochangeinvelocityofB,butAwillbeaccelerated.
Question 5. Abodyofmass2kgmovingonahorizontalsurfacewithinitialvelocityof4ms1comesto
restafter two seconds.If onewants to keep this body moving onthe same surfacewitha
velocityof4ms1,theforcerequiredis
(A) 2N (B) 4N
(C) 0N (D) 8N
Question 6. Abatsmanhitsbackaballstraightinthedirectionofthebowlerwithoutchangingitsinitial
speedof12ms1.Ifthemassoftheballis0.15kg.,determinetheimpulseimpartedtothe
ball.(Assumelinearmotionoftheball)
(A) 4.6Ns (B) 3.6Ns
(C) 2.6Ns (D) 0
Question 7. Anobjectatrestinspacesuddenlyexplodesintothreepartsofsamemass.Themomentums
ofthetwopartsare 2pi pj .Themomentumofthethirdpart

(A) Willhaveamagnitude p 3 . (B) Willhaveamagnitude p 5 .


(C) Willhaveamagnitudep. (D) Willhaveamagnitude2p.
Question 8. Aballofmassmisthrownverticallyupwards.Whatistherateatwhichthemomentumof
theballchanges
(A) Zero (B) Mg
(C) Infinity (D) Dataisnotsufficient.

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Laws of Motion 15

UNIT OF FORCE
Unit of force in SI system in Newton.
One Newton force is that force which when acted on a body of mass one kilogram produces on
acceleration of 1m/sec2.
Unit of force in C.G.S system is dyne.
Onedyneforceisthatforcewhichwhenactedonabodyofmassonegramproducesanacceleration
of 1cm/sec2
1newton=105dynes
1kgwt=gnewton
Dimensionofforceis=[M1L1T2]
Gravitationalunitofforce-InSIsystem,kilogramweight(kg-wt)orkilogramforce(kgf)
1kgwt=1kgf=9.8newton.
InC.G.Ssystem,gram-weight(gm-wt)orgram-force(gmf)
1gmwt=1gmf=980dyne

INERTIALAND GRAVITATIONAL MASS

Masscanbedefinedintwoways,byNewtonslawsofmotionandbyNewtonslawofgravitation

AccordingtoNewtonssecondlawofmotion,ifaconstantforceappliedonabodyproducesan
accelerationainthatbodythen

F
=mass(m)
a

Thismass iscalledinertialmass
AccordingtoNewtonslawofgravitationalforceisduetoabodylikeearththegravitationalforce
ofattractionFproducesanaccelerationgthen.F=mg

F FR 2
or m= =
a GM
The mass is obtained from gravitational force F and acceleration due to gravity g is called
gravitational mass.
Evenwiththemostsensitiveinstrumentsavailableno differencehasbeendetected betweenthe
valuesofinertialandgravitationalmassofabodyi.e.
Inertialmass=Gravitationalmass.
General Expression for Force :

As p mv
d dm mdv
F (mv) v
dt dt dt

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16 Laws of Motion

Case - I :
dm
Whenmass=constant, 0
dt
dv
F ma
dt
Case- II :
InvariablemasssystemlikeRocketpropulsion,firingofbulletsetc.
Relativespeedisconstantinthesecases

dm
F v
dt

IMPULSE
y b
Theimpulseofconstantforceisequivalenttotheproduct a
oftheforceandthetimeduringwhichtheforceactson
F
thebody. d c x
t1 t t2
Impulse=(magnitudeofforce)time=Ft
t

Iftheforcechangewithtime,thentheimpulse= Fdt
0

Itisavectorquantityitsunitisnewton-sec.
Relationbetweenimpulseandlinearmomentum
t t
t
dP
Impulse= Fdt dt dP =Changeinmomentum= (mv mu)
0 0 dt 0

Ifagraphisdrawnbetweenforceandtime,thenareabetween(Ft)curveandtimeaxisisequal
totheimpulse.
Impulsebetweent1andt2=areaabcd.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Acricketballofmass150gm.movesataspeedof12m/sandaftergettingbythebatitis
deflectedbackatthespeedof20m/sec.Ifthebatandtheballremainedincontactfor0.02
secthencalculatetheimpulseandaverageforceexertedontheballbythebat.
[Assumetheballalwaysmovesnormaltothebat].
Solution. AccordingtotheExamplethechangeinmomentumoftheball
p=pfpi=m(vu)=150103[20(12)]=4.8
impulse=changeinmomentum=4.8N-s
andforce=240N

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Laws of Motion 17

Example 2. Aballofmass150gmovingwithacceleration 20m / s 2 ishitbyaforce,whichactsonitfor


0.1sec.Theimpulsiveforceis
(A) 0.5N-s (B) 0.1N-s
(C) 0.3N-s (D) 1.2N-s
Solution : (C)
Impulsiveforce=forcetime=mat=0.15200.1=0.3N-s
Example 3. A force of 50 dynes is acted on a body of mass 5 g which is at rest for an interval of 3
seconds,thenimpulseis
(A) 0.15103Ns (B) 0.98103N3
(C) 1.5103Ns (D) 2.5103N3
Solution : (C)
Impulse=forcetime=501053=1.5103Ns

EXERCISE
Question 1. Theforce-time(Ft)curveofaparticleexecutinglinearmotionisasshowninthefigure.
Themomentumacquiredbytheparticleintimeintervalfromzeroto8secondwillbe
(A) 2Ns
+2
Force (N)

(B) +4 Ns 2 4 6 8

(C) 6 Ns 2 Time(s)

(D) Zero
Question 2. Anobjectwithamassof12.53kgexperiencesaforceof16.41N.Whatistheacceleration
oftheobject?
(A) 1.30m/s2 (B) 37.58m/s2
(C) 4.13m/s2 (D) 0.76m/s2
Question 3. Anobjectwithaforceof14.67Nonitisacceleratingat17.18m/s2.Whatisthemassofthe
object?
(A) 0.85kg (B) 1.36kg
(C) 0.34kg (D) 252.03kg

PSEUDO FORCE
Those forces which do not actually act on the particles but appear to be acting no the particles
due to accelerated motion of frame of reference, are called pseudo forces.
Fictitiousforce=(massofaparticleaccelerationofnon-inertialframeofreferencewithrespect
to an inertial frame of reference)
Examples -
The additional force acting in rockets or lifts moving with accelerated velocity is pseudo force.

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18 Laws of Motion

Ifabodyis placedona rotatingframeofreference(theframeofreferenceonearth), thecarioles


and centrifugal forces appear to be acting due to rotation of frame of reference. They are not
realforcesbutappeartobeactingduetorotationofframeofreference.Thereforetheyarepseudo
forces.

THIRD LAW OF MOTION


Toeveryactionthereisanequalandoppositereaction.Herebyactionandreaction,onemeansforce
only,ifanobjectexertsaforceFonasecond,thenthesecondobjectexertsanequalbutoppositeforcein
theoppositedirection.

Mathematically F12 F21

HereisforceactingonbodyF1duetoF2andisforceactingonbody2dueto1.
Significance of Newtons Laws:
(A) Thefirstlawtellsusaboutthenaturalstateofabody,whichisinmotionalongastraightlinewith
constantspeedorrest.Itisalsoknownthelawofinertia.
(B) Thesecondlawtellsusthatifabodydoesnotfollowitsnaturalstateofmotionthenitisunderthe
influenceofotherbodies,thatis,anetunbalancedforcemustbeactingonit.
(C) Thethirdlawtellsusaboutthenatureofforce,thatis,forceexistsinpairs.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Whenamanjumpsoutofaboat,theboatispushedaway.Why?
Solution . ThisisduetoNewtonsthirdlawofmotion.Whenmanjumpsoutofaboat,heintheprocess,
presses/pushes/kickstheboatinthebackward(opposite)directionandinturn,thereaction
oftheboatontheman,pusheshimoutoftheboat.
Example 2. Theforceofactionandreactionareequalandoppositebutthemotionofthebodydoesnt
seize because
(A) Bothactionandreactionactonthesamebodyinsamedirection.
(B) Bothactionandreactionactonthesamebodyinoppositedirection.
(C) Bothactionandreactionactontwodifferentobjects.
(D) None of these.
Solution. (C)
Actionandreactionactontwodifferentobjectssothatthepointofactionofthetwoforces
isnotsameandhencelawofvectoradditioncantbeapplied.
Example 3. AblockofmassMispulledalonghorizontalfrictionlesssurfacebyaropeofmassm.Force
Pisappliedatoneendofrope.Theforcewhichtheropeexertsontheblockis

P MP
(A) (B) (m M)
M m

P MP
(C) (m M) (D) (M m)

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Laws of Motion 19

Soluton. (B)
Thesituationisshowninfigure

T O
M P
m

Let abethecommonaccelerationofthe system. Here


T=Maforblock,PT=maforrope
P
i.e.PMaorP=a(M+m)ora= a (M m)

MP
Now T
(M m)

EXERCISE
Question 1. Actionandreactionareequalandopposite.Whycannottheycanceleachother?

Question 2. Whydoesaheavygunnotrecoilsostronglyasalightgunfiringthesamebullet?

Question 3. HowNewtonsthirdlawofmotionhelpsusinwalking?

Question 4. Twoboysonice-skatesholdaropebetweenthem.Oneboyismuchheavierthantheother.
Thelightweightboypullsontherope.Howwilltheymove?

Question 5. Whydowepulltheropedownwardsforclimbingup?

APPLICATIONS OFNEWTONS LAWS


1. HorseandCartProblem:Ahorsepulls acart.Accordingto Newtons 3rdlawofmotionthe cart
pullsthehorsewithequalbutoppositeforce.Then,howdoesthecartmove?
Re RH

Rsinq

R
TC TH WH Rcosq
f Pq

We

Wc weightofcart& R c normalreactionofcart.

Wc R c

WH R H ( WH wt.ofhorseand R H normalreactionofhorse)

P appliedforce& R isthereactionof P and f forceoffriction
ResolvingRintotwoperpendicularcomponentsRsinqandRcosq
Weget, Rsinq=mg.

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20 Laws of Motion

NowweareleftwithfandRcosqwhichareinoppositedirection.
CartwillmoveonlyifRcosq>f

MOTION INA LIFT


Theweight ofabodyissimplytheforceexertedbyearthonthebody.Ifbodyisonanaccelerated
platform,thebodyexperiences fictitious force, sotheweight ofthebodyappears changedand this
new weight is called apparent weight. Let a man of weight W = Mg be standing in a lift.

We consider the following cases :


a=0
Case (a) If the lift moving with constant velocity v upwards or downwards.
In this case there is no accelerated motion hence no pseudo force experienced g
by observer O in side the lift.

So apparent weight W =Actual weight W.. W=Mg

Case (b) If the lift accelerated (i.e. a = constant upwards acceleration)


Then net force acting on the man are (i) weight W = Mg downward (ii) a
fictitious force F0 = Ma downward
g
So apparent weight W = W + F0
or W = Mg + Ma = M (g + a)
W=M(g+a)
Effective gravitational acceleration g = g + a

Case (c) If the lift accelerated downward with accelertion a < g : Then ficititious a
force F0 = Ma acts upward while weight of mass W = Mg always acts
downward, therefore g

So apparent weight W = W + F0
W=M(ga)
or W = Mg Ma = M (g a) a=g
Effective gravitational acceleration g = g a
g
Special case : If g = a then W = 0 condition of weightlessness

Thus, in a freely falling lift the man will experience weightlessness. W=0
a>g
Case (d) If lift accelerates downward with acceleration a > g

Then as in Case (c) g

Apparent weight W = M(g a) = M (a g) is negative, i.e, the man


W=M(ag)
willbeacceleratedupwardandhisheadwillsticktotheceilingofthelift.

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Laws of Motion 21

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. The mass ofanelevator(lift) is 500kg. Calculatethetension in thecableof theelevator
whentheelevatoris(i)stationary,(ii)ascendingwithanaccelerationof2.0ms2,(iii)descending
with the same acceleration. (g = 9.8 N kg1 )
Solution. The gravity - force on the elevator is mg = 500 9.8 = 4900 N
Whentheelevatorisstationary(accelerationiszero),thenetforceonitwillbezero(fig.a)
thatis, T
T T
T mg = 0 Elevator
or T = mg = 4900 N
When the elevator is accelerated upward, the net force on it will
beintheupwarddirection.Therefore,thetensionTwillbegreater
mg mg mg
thanthegravityforcemg(fig.b)AccordingtoNewtonssecondlaw, (a) (b) (c)
the net force (T mg) will be equal to mass m acceleration a.
Thatis,
T mg = ma
or T = mg + ma = 4900 + 500 2.0 = 5900 N
When the elevator is accelerated downward, net force will be in the downward direction
and the tension T will be less than mg (fig.c)Again by Newtons law, we have
mg T = ma
or T = mg ma = 4900 500 2.0 = 3900 N
Example 2. Anelevatoranditsloadweighatotalof1600 b.FindthetensionTinthesupportingcable
whentheelevator,originallymovingdownwardat20 fts1is broughttorestwithconstant
acceleration in a distance of 50 ft.
Solution. The elevator movingdownward stops after adistance of 50 ft. Therefore, by the formula
v2 = u2 + 2as, we have
02 = 202 + 2a 50
a = 4ft s2
Let T be the tension in the cable. Then, we have
T = m (g a)
Here m = 1600 b. In FPS system, g = 32 ft s2

57600
T = 1600 {32 (4)} = 57600 poundals = = 1800 b. wt.
32
Example 3. Aliftofmass2000kgissupportedbythicksteelropes.Ifthemaximumupwardacceleration
oftheliftis1.2ms2andthebreakingstressfortheropesis2.8108Nm2,whatshould
be the minimum diameter of the ropes? (g = 9.8 ms2 )
Solution. When the lift is accelerated upward, the tension T in the rope is greater than the gravity-
force mg. If the acceleration of the lift is a, then by Newtons law, we have
T mg = ma

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22 Laws of Motion

or T = mg + mg = m (g + a)
Mass of the lift m = 2000 kg and maximum acceleration a = 1.2 ms2. Hence maximum
tensionintheropeis
T = 2000(9.8 + 1.2) =22, 000 N.
If r be the radius of the rope, then the stress will be T/r 2

T
= 2.8 108 Nm2 (given)
r 2

T 22000 1
or r2 = (2.8 108 ) = (22 / 7) (2.8 108 ) =
4 10 4

1
r = = 0.005 m.
200

Example 4. Alift isgoingup,thetotalmassoftheliftandthepassengeris 1500kg.Thevariationin


speed oflift is as shown in fig. What will be thetension in therope pulling the liftat (i)
1 sec, (ii) 6 sec, (iii) 11 sec.

velocity 3.6 m/s


Solution. A slope of v t curve gives acceleration

At, t = 1 sec

3.6 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
a = = 1.8 m/s2 t(sec)
2

liftismovingup
T = m (g + a) = 1500 (9.8 + 1.8) = 17400 N
at t = 6 sec a = 0
T = mg = 1500 9.8 = 14700 N

0 3.6
at t = 11 sec a = = 1.8 m/s2 lift is moving down.
2

T = mg (g a) = 1500 (9.8 1.8) = 12000 N

Example 5. Aliftismovingupwardswithaccelerationa0.Aninclinedplaneisplacedinthislift.What
is the time taken by a body of mass m in sliding down from the top of this plane to the
bottom (If length of the base of the plane is 1 and angle is q)

Solution. Astheliftismovingupsotheapparentweightofthebodyism(g+a0)anditscomponent
along the plane is m (g + a 0 ) sin q due to which the acceleration down the plane is
(g + a0) sin q
length of inclined planeAB = /cosq using

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Laws of Motion 23

1
s = ut + at2 and u = 0, a = (g + a0) sin q
2 a0
1
= (g + a0 ) sinq t2 A
cosq 2 m

2 q
t (g a ) sin q cos q B C
0

PULLEY
A single fixed pulley changes the direction of force only and in general assumed to be mass
less and frictionless.
It is clear from example given below.
Example
A bucket of mass 25kg is raised by a 50 kg man in two different ways as shown in fig. What is
the action on the floor by the man in the two cases? If the floor yields to a normal force of 700
N, which mode should the man adopt to lift the bucket without the floor yielding?
Solution.
Here, mass of the bucket, m = 25 kg
mass of the man, M = 50 kg
Force appliedto liftthe bucket, F= mg=25 9.8 =245 N
Weight of the man, Mg = 50 9.8 = 490 N
fig (a) When the bucket is raised by the man by applying force F in
upward direction, reaction equal and opposite to F will act on the floor in
addition to the weight of the man.
Therefore,actiononthefloor= Mg +F =490+245=735N
Since the floor yields to a normal force of 700 N
Fig. (b) When the bucket is raised by the man by applying force F over
therope(passedoverthepulley)indownwarddirection,reactionequaland
opposite to F will act on the floor. Therefore, action on the floor = Mg
F = 490 245 = 245 N
The mode (b) should be adopted by the man to lift the bucket.
Case I
m1 = m2 = m
Tension in the string T = mg
Acceleration a = zero
Reaction at the pulley
R = 2T = 2mg
[Strength of support or suspension]

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24 Laws of Motion

Case II
m1 > m2
for mass m1, m1 g T = m1 a .........(A)

for mass m2, T m2g = m2 a .........(2)


Solving, we get

m1 m 2
a = m m g
1 2

(2m1m 2 )g
or T (m m )
1 2

4m1m 2 g
reactionatthepulleyR=2T= (m m )
1 2

Case III
The forces acting on the system are shown in the fig.
For mass m1 : T 1 m1 g = m1 a ...(A)
For mass m2 : m2g + T 2 T 1 = m2 a ...(2)
For mass m3 : m3g T 2 = m3 a ...(3)
m 2 m 3 m1
Solving these equations, we get a m m m g
1 2 3

Putting the value of a in equation (i) & (iii) tension, T1 & T2 can be calculated.
Case IV
(a) Without friction :
For mass m1 : T = m1 a
For mass m2 : m2g T = m2 a
Solving, we get
2 m g
Acceleration a (m m )
1 2

m1 m 2 g
T
(m 1 m 2 )
(b) With friction :
(friction in between. surface and block)
For mass m1 : T m1g = m1 a
For mass m2 : m2g = m2 a
Solving we get

(m 2 m1 ) g m1m2 (1 ) g
Acceleration a (m m ) or T = (m 1 m 2 )
1 2

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Laws of Motion 25

Case V
(m1 > m2 )
m1 g T 1 = m1 a ...(i)
T2 m2 g = m2 a ...(ii) M
T1 T 2 = Ma ...(iii)
Solving(i), (ii) and(iii), weget
(m1 m 2 )
a
(m1 m 2 M)

2m 2 M 2m1 M
T1 m1g , T2 m 2 g
m1 m2 M m1 m 2 M
Case VI
Mass suspended over a pulley from another on an inclined plane.
(a)Withoutfriction:
For m1 : m1g T = m1 a
For m2 : T m2g sinq = m2 a
Solving, we get
(m 1 m 2 sin q) g
Acceleration a (m1 m 2 )
m1m2 (1 sin q)g
T = (m1 m 2 )
(b) With friction :
For m1 : m1g T = m1 a
N = m2g cos q
N = m2g cosq
For m2 : T m2 g cos q m2 g sin q = m2 a
m1 m 2 (sin q cos q)
Acceleration a = g
m1 m 2
m1 m 2 [1 sin q cos q]g
Tension T (m1 m 2 )
Case VII
Masses m1 & m2 are connected by a string passing over a pulley (m1 > m2 )
For mass m1 :
m1g sin T = m1 a
For mass m2 :
T m2g sin = m2 a

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26 Laws of Motion

g (m1 sin m 2 sin )


Acceleration a
(m1 m 2 )

m1m 2 (sin sin ) g


Tension T (m1 m 2 )
a
Case VIII

1 2 mm b
From case IV-(a) we know that the tension T (m m ) g
1 2

If x is the extension in the spring, then T = kx


T m1 m 2 g
x
k k(m1 m 2 )

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. The pulley arrangement of figures (a) and (b) are identical. The
mass of the rope is negligible. In figure (a) the mass m is lifted
by attaching a mass 2 m to the other end of the rope. In figure
(b) mass m is lifted up by pulling the other end of the rope with
m 2m m F=2mg
a constant downward force F = 2mg. The ratio of acceleration in
(a) (b)
the two cases will be
(A) 1: 1 (B) 1 : 3
(C) 3: 1 (D) 1 : 2
Solution. Letinthecaseshowninfigure(a),thentensioninthestringbeTandaccelerationproduced
is a, then
T mg = ma ...(i)
and 2mg T = 2ma ...(ii)
From equation (i) and (ii)

g
a =
3

Let inthe caseshownin figure (b), thetensioninthe stringbeTand accelerationbea,


then
T mg = ma ...(iii)
T 2mg = 0 ...(iv)
fromequation (iii)and (iv)
a = g
a g/3 1
a' g 3

Answer is (B)

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Laws of Motion 27

Example 2. A bodyofmass10 kg is placedonthehorizontalsmoothtable.


m1= 10 kg
Astringistiedwithitwhichpassesoverafrictionlesspulley.
The other end of the string is tied with a body of mass
5kg.When thebodies move,theaccelerationproducedin a
them, is -
(A) 9.8 m/s2 (B) 4.8 m/s2 m2= 5 kg

(C) 4.25 m/s2 (D) 3.27 m/s2


Solution. Due togravitational forceg acting onthe body ofmass 5kg.both bodies move. Let the
acceleration produced in the system be a, then
m2g = (m1 + m2) a

m 2g 5g g 9.8
a = (m m ) (5 10) =
1 2 3 3
= 3.27 m/s2
Answer is (D)
Example 3. The following figure shows a painter in a platform suspended
alongthebuilding.Whenthepainterpullstheropetheforceexerted
ontheflooris 450Nwhiletheweight ofthepainteris 1000N.If
theweightoftheplatformis250N,thewhatwillbetheacceleration
produced in the platform? (g = 10 m/s2 )
(A) 4 m/s2 (B) 2 m/s2
(C) 5 m/s2 (D) 6 m/s2

1000
Solution. Let the acceleration be a and mass of the painter = 100 kg. If the pull applied to
10
theropebythepainterisF,thentheropewillalsoapplysameamountofforce.FromNewtons
law
F + 450 1000 = 100a
or F 550 = 100a ...(i)
250
Mass of platform = = 25 kg
10
F 450 250 = 25 a
or F 700 = 25a ...(ii)
from equation (i) and (ii)
a = 2m/s2
Answer is (B)
Example 4. In the following figure, if the table and pulley are frictionless
andstringsareweightless,andthentheaccelerationofthe
system will be-
(A) 3.2 m/s2 (B) 2.5 m/s2
(C) 1.8 m/s2 (D) 1.4 m/s2

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28 Laws of Motion

Solution. From the figure,


m2 g T 2 = m2 a ...(i)
T1 = m1g = m1 a ...(ii)
or T2 T1 = Ma ...(iii)
solving(i),(ii)and(iii)
a = 1.4 m/s2 Answer is (D)
Example 5. Two 2kg weights are suspended from a spring balance as
showninfigure.Thereadinginthescaleofthespringbalance
will be -
(A) zero (B) 4 kg-wt
(C) 2 kg-wt (D) 1 kg-wt
Solution. Spring balance is rest therefore tensions will be same in both strings. Let it be T. Since
the weights are also at rest. So T 2kg wt = 0. Here one weight, acts as a support of
another weight.
Answer is (C)
Example 6. AtriangularblockofmassMwithangles 30,60and90rests withits3090sideon
a horizontal smooth table.A cubical block of mass m is placed on 30 60 side of the
block. With what acceleration should M be moved relative to stationary table so that the
mass m remains stationary relative to the triangular block?
(A) 5.66 m/s2 m
60
(B) 4.32 m/s2
M
(C) 9.8 m/s2
mg
90 30
(D) 4.9 m/s2
Solution. Acceleration of the block of mass m along the inclined plane in downward direction
= g sin q = g sin 30
If the block m is to remain stationary, then
g sin 30 = a cos 30
sin 30
or a g g tan 0
cos 30
1 9.8
= 9.8 = 5.66 m/s2 Answer is (A)
3 1.732

EXERCISE
Question 1. Inthefollowingfig.amassof6kgissuspendedbyaropeoflength
2mfromtheceiling.Aforceof50Ninthehorizontaldirectionis T1
appliedatthemidpointPoftherope,asshown.Whatistheanglethe 1m q
ropewillmakewiththeverticalinequilibrium?(Takeg=10ms2).
P
Neglectthemassoftherope. 50N
T2
1m
(A) 40 (B) 50
(C) 60 (D) 70 60N

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Laws of Motion 29

Question 2. Twomasses4.8kgand5kgtiedtoastringarehangingoveralight
frictionlesspulley.Whatistheaccelerationofthemasseswhenleft
freeto move?
(A) 5ms2 (B) 9.8ms2
(C) 0.2ms2 (D) 4.8ms2
Question 3. Abodyofmassmissuspendedbytwostringsmakingangles
,withthehorizontal.Tensionsinthetwostringsare
mg cos mg sin
(A) T1 T2 (B) T1 T2
sin( ) sin( )

mg cos mg cos
(C) T1 ,T2 (D) None of these
sin( ) sin( )
Question 4. TwomassesM1andM2areattachedtoastringwhichpassesoverapulleyattachedtothe
edgeofahorizontaltable.ThemassM1liesonthefrictionlesssurfaceofthetable.LetTbe
thetensioninthestringandatheaccelerationofthemasses.Thenwhichoneofthefollowing
iscorrect.

M 2 M1M 2
(A) a
gandT
M M
g T
M
1 M 2 1 2 M1

M1M 2 T
(B) a gandT M 2 g
M M M M
1 2 1 2 M2

M M M1 M 2
(C) a M M gandT g
1 2

1 2 M 2

MM M
(D) a M M gandT M M g
1 2 2

1 2 1 2

Question 5. Twomassesmand2mareattachedwitheachotherbyaropepassingoverafrictionlessand
massless pulley. Ifthe pulley is acceleratedupwards with anaccelerationa, what isthe
valueofT?
ga ga
(A) (B)
3 3
4m (g a) m (g a)
(C) (D)
3 3
Question 6. Anelectricbulbsuspendedfromtheroofofarailwaytrainbyaflexiblewireshiftsthroughan
angleof1948whenthetraingoeshorizontallyroundacurvedpathof200mradius.Find
speedoftrain.

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM



Ifnoexternalforceisactingonabody,thenitslinearmomentum p remainsconservedorconstanti.e.
ifF=0,then

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30 Laws of Motion


dp
0 or p mv Cons tan t
dt
Let theinitialvelocityof bodyAis uAand that of bodyBis uB, aftercollisionfinalvelocityofA
becomesvA andthat ofBbecomesVB.

mA uA mB uB

Then, MomentumofballAbeforecollisionismAuA
MomentumofballBbeforecollisionismBuB

After collision ;

mA vA mB vB

MomentumofballAaftercollisionismAvA
MomentumofballBaftercollisionismBvB
(v A u A )
TherateofchangeofmomentumofballAisFA= m A
t
(v B u B )
TherateofchangeofmomentumofballBisFB= m B
t
Accordingtothirdlaw,theforceexertedbyballAonballBisequalandopposite.
FA=FB
(v A u A ) (v u B )
mA =m B B
t t
m A vA mA u A m B u B mB v B

m A u A m B u B m A v A m B vB

Fromtheaboveequationitisclearthat
Momentumbeforecollision=Momentumaftercollision
Ifthetwobodiessticktoeachotheraftercollisionthentheywillmovewithacommonvelocityv
givenby,mAuA+mBuB=(mA+mB)v

(m A u A mB u B )
v
(m A mB )

APPLICATIONS OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM


1. A block of mass m is at rest in a gravity free space suddenly explodes into two parts in the ratio
1: 3, if lighter particle has a speed of 9 m/s along +ve x-axis just after explosion, then the speed
of heavier particle can be calculated as shown.

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Laws of Motion 31


Pinital 0
m 3m
Pfinal 9 i v
4 4

Pinitial Pfinal

m 3m
0 9 i v
4 4

v 3i m / s

2. A man of mass M standing on a frictionless floor, throws a ball of mass m with a speed u along
+ve x-axis as showninthefigure. The velocityofman, afterhethrows theball is v
u
pinitial 0
v M
m

pfinal mui mv


As pinitial p final

mi
v
M
3. Aballofmassm movingwithconstantspeedofum/s(along+vex-axis)iscaughtbymanofmass
M standingonafrictionlessfloor.Thevelocity acquiredbythemanis v
u
pinitial mui
m M

pfinal (m M)v


pinitial p final

mui
v
(m M)
4. If agun ofmass M fires a bullet ofmass m withspeed v, then recoilspeed of the gunis given by
V= mv/M.

ROCKET PROPULSION
Itisanexampleofvariablemass-system.Inarocket,combustionchambercarriesfuelandoxidising
agent. When the fuel burns, a hot jet of gases emerges out forcefully from the small hole in the tail of
the rocket.
Let u be the velocity of emerging gases relative to the rocket and (M/t) be the rate of fuel
consumption,thentheupthrustontherocketisF=u(M/t).
Let M0 be the initial mass (rocket + fuel), M and v be the mass and velocity of the rocket at any

instantt,then u log e 0
M
M

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32 Laws of Motion

RECOIL
Recoilisthekickgivenbyagunwhenitisfired.Intechnicalterms,thiskickiscausedbytheguns
backwardmomentum,whichexactlybalancestheforwardmomentumoftheprojectile.Inmostsmallarms,
themomentumistransferredtothegroundthroughthebodyoftheshooter;whileinheaviergunssuchas
mountedmachinegunsorcannons,themomentumistransferredtothegroundthroughamountingsystem.
Thechangeinmomentumresultsinaforcewhich,accordingtoNewtonssecondlaw,isequaltothe
timederivativeofthebackwardmomentumofthegun.Thebackwardmomentumisequaltothemassofthe
gun multipliedby itsreversevelocity. This backwardmomentumis equal, by thelawof conservationof
momentum,totheforwardmomentumoftheejectofthegun.

RECOIL MOMENTUMAND RECOIL ENERGY


There are two conservation laws at work when a gun is fired: conservation of momentum and
conservationofenergy.Recoilisexplainedbythelawofconservationofmomentum,andsoitiseasierto
discussitseparatelyfromenergy.
Therecoilofafirearm,whetherlargeorsmall,isaresultofthelawofconservationofmomentum.
Assumingthatthefirearmandprojectilearebothatrestbeforefiring,thentheirtotalmomentumiszero.
Immediatelyafterfiring, conservationofmomentumrequiresthat thetotalmomentumofthefirearmand
projectileisthesameasbefore,namelyzero.Statingthismathematically:
pf+pp=0
wherepfis themomentumofthefirearmandppis themomentumoftheprojectile.Inotherwords,
immediatelyafterfiring,themomentumofthefirearmisequalandoppositetothemomentumoftheprojectile.
Sincemomentumofabodyisdefinedasitsmassmultipliedbyitsvelocity,wecanrewritetheabove
equationas:
mfxvf+mpxvp=0
vf=(mp/mf)vp mp mf
vf
where: vp
mfisthemassofthefirearm
vfisthevelocityofthefirearmimmediatelyafterfiring
mpisthemassoftheprojectile
vpisthevelocityoftheprojectileimmediatelyafterfiring
Aconsiderationof energyleads to adifferent equation.FromNewtons secondlaw, theenergyofa
movingbodyduetoitsmotioncanbestatedmathematicallyas:
Et=1/2mv2
where:misthemassofthefirearmsystem,orejectsandprojectileafterleavingthebarrelvisitsvelocity

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Abulletofmass20gisfiredbyagunofmass20kg.Ifthemuzzlespeedofthebulletis
100ms1,whatistherecoilspeedofgun?
Solution : Massofgun, M=20kg,
Massofbullet, m=0.02kg,
Speedofbullet, v=100ms1
ThenrecoilspeedofgunisgivenbyV
mv 0.02 100
V 0.1 ms1
M 20
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Laws of Motion 33

Example 2. Anucleusisatrest.Allofasuddenitsplitsintotwosmallnuclei.Whatistheangleatwhich
thesetwonucleiflyapart?
Solution : LetM=massofnucleusatrest
Momentumofthenucleibeforedisintegration=M0=0
Letm1andm2bethemassofthetwosmallernucleiandv1andv2betheirvelocities.
Momentumofthenucleusafterdisintegration=m1v1+m2v2.
Accordingtothelawofconservationoflinearmomentumm1v1+m2v2=0
or m1v1=m2v2
Thevesignshowsthatthevelocitiesv1andv2mustbeofoppositesigni.e.thetwoproducts
mustbeemittedinoppositedirection.Thus,theanglebetweentwonucleiis180.
Example 3. Abodyofmass1kginitiallyatrestexplodesandbreaksintothreefragmentsofmassesinthe
ratio1:1:3.Thetwopiecesofequalmassflyoffperpendiculartoeachotherwithaspeed
of30ms1each.Whatisthevelocityofheavierfragments?
Solution : Here m1+m2+m3=1kg v1
m1
Since m1:m2:m3=1:1:3
m1=m2=0.2kg,m3=0.6kg m3 45 m1v 1cos45
v3
v1=v2=30ms1,v3=? 45 m2v 2cos45
Accordingtothelawofconservationoflinearmomentum, m2
m3v3=m1v1cos45+m2v2cos45 v2

1 1
0.6v3 0.2 30 0.2 30
2 2
v3=14.14ms1
Example 4. Abodyofmass2kgmovingwithaspeedof100m/shitsawallandreboundswiththesame
speed.Ifthecontacttimeis(1/50)s,theforceappliedonthewallis
(A)104N (B) 2104N
(C) 4N (D) 8N
Solution. (B)
Initialmomentumofthebody=mv=2100=200N-s
Finalmomentum=200N-s
Changeofmomentumofthebody=200(200)=400m/s
Momentumgiventothewall=+400N-s
1
Time= s
50
Momentumgivenpersecond
400
2 104 N Forceappliedonthewall
1 / 50

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34 Laws of Motion

Example 5. Thepositionxofabodyofmass2kgvarieswithtimetas
x=(2t2+3t4)m
Forceactingonthebodyis-
(A) 4N (B) 8N
(C)2N (D)16N
Solution. (B)
x=(2t2+3t4)m
Velocityv=dx/dt=(4t+3)m/s
Accelerationa=d2x/dt2=4m/s2
Force=massacceleration
=24=8N

EXERCISE
Question 1. Amachinegunofmass10kgfires20gbulletsattherateof10bulletspersecondwitha
speedof500ms1.Whatforceisrequiredtoholdtheguninposition?
Question 2. Abulletofmass100gisfiredfromarifleofmass20kgwithaspeedof50ms1.Calculate
thevelocityofrecoiloftherifle.
Question 3. Abomb at rest explodes intothree parts of thesame mass Themomentum of 2 partsare
2pi and pj .Findthemagnitudeofthemomentumofthethirdpart.

Question 4. Whenaballisthrownupward,itsmomentumfirstincreasesandthendecreases.Inthiscases
lawofconservationofmomentumisvalidornot.
Question 5. Ahunterwithamachineguncanfire50gbulletswithavelocityof800ms1.A40kgtiger
springsathimwithavelocityof10ms1.Howmanybulletsmusthefireontothetigerinorder
tostopitinhistrack?

FREE BODY DIAGRAM


AdiagramshowingallexternalforcesactingonanobjectiscalledFreebodydiagramF.B.D.
Ina specificExample, first we arerequired tochoose abody andthen we find thenumber of
forcesactingonit,andalltheforcesaredrawnonthebody,consideringitasapointmass.The
resultingdiagramisknownasfreebodydiagram(FBD)
Forexample,iftwobodiesofmassesmandMareincontactandaforceFonMisappliedfrom
theleftfig.(A),thefreebodydiagramsofMandmwillbeasshowninfig.(B)and(C)
R1 R1

F F f1 f1
M m M M

(a) Mg mg
(b) (c)

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Laws of Motion 35

Important point :
TwoforcesinNewtonsthirdlawneveroccurinthesamefree-bodydiagram.Thisisbecausea
free-bodydiagramshowsforcesactingonasingleobject,andtheaction-reactionpairinNewtons
thirdlawalwaysactsondifferentobjects.

SOLVED EXAMPLE
Example 1. Three blocksA, B and C having masses mA, mBand mC are placed oneover the other as
showninfigure.Drawfreebodydiagramsofallthethreeblocks.

mA
mB
mC

Solution : FreebodydiagramsofA,BandCareshownbelow:
N1 N2 N3

mA mB mC

N1 N2
m Ag m Bg m Cg
Here, N1=normalreactionbetweenAandB.
N2=normalreactionbetweenBandC.
N3=normalreactionbetweenCandground.
Example 2. Drawfreebodydiagramsituationshowninthefigure.

F
q
M q2
(i) (ii) B A q1
NBS
Solution : (i) Forcesactingontheblockare
F
1. Appliedforcerepresentedas F q
M

2. Mginverticallydownwarddirection
(Mg)
NormalreactionofsurfaceonblockNinverticallyupwarddirection

(ii) LetnormalreactionatcontactpointsAandBbeNAandNBrespectively.Mginvertically
downward direction
NA NB
q q

Mg
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36 Laws of Motion

EXERCISE
Question 1:Threeblocksareconnected withthehelpoftwomass- 1 2 P
lessstringsandamass-lesspulleyasshowninthefigure.
Ifthereis nofrictioninvolvedandstringsare taught,then
drawfreebodydiagramofeachoftheblocks.
3

Question2:DrawfreebodydiagramsoftwoblocksAandBinthearrangementshowninthefigure,
whereBlockBislyingonasmoothhorizontalplane.

B F

Question 3: Ablockofmassmisheldwiththesupportofaspringofconstantkonaroughinclineof
angle.Drawthefreebodydiagram(FBD)oftheblock.

k
m

Question 4: ArodABishingedatAfromawallandisheldwiththehelpofastringasshowninthe
figure.Drawthefreebodydiagram(FBD)oftherod.

A C

Question5:ArodABisplacedinsideasphericalshell,whoseinsidesurfaceisrough.Drawthefreebody
diagram(FBD)oftherod.

EQUILIBRIUM OFA PARTICLE


Equilibriumofaparticleinmechanicsreferstothesituationwhenthenetexternalforceontheparticle
iszero.Accordingtothefirstlaw,thismeansthat,theparticleiseitheratrestorinuniformmotionora
systemissaidtobeintranslationalequilibriumifitdoesnottendtoundergoanyfurtherchangeofitsown.
If two forces F1andF2,actonaparticle,equilibriumrequiresF1=F2
i.e.thetwoforcesontheparticlemustbeequalandopposite.

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Laws of Motion 37


Equilibrium under threeconcurrent forces F1, F2, and F3 requires that the vectorsum of the three

forcesiszeroornetforceonbodyiszero net 0
F

F1+F2+F3=0. ,i.e.

ma 0

dv
m 0
dt

v =constant

i.e.,ifabodyisintranslationalequilibriumitwillbeeitheratrestorinuniformmotioninastraightline.
Ifitisatrest,theequilibriumiscalledstatic.Ifitisinmotion,theequilibriumiscalleddynamic.
Steps To Solve The Example of Connected Bodies
1. Makeasimplesketchshowingthebodyunderconsideration.
2. Identifytheforcesactingonthebody,drawarrowsonyoursketchtoshowthedirectionofeachforce
actingonthebody.
3. Identifythedirectionofaccelerationandresolvetheforcesalongthisdirectionandperpendiculartoit
4. FindnetforceinthedirectionofaccelerationandapplyF=Matowriteequationofmotioninthat
direction.Inthedirectionofequilibriumtakenetforcezero.
5. Ifneededwriterelationbetweenaccelerationsofbodiesgiveninthesituation
6. Solvethewrittenequationsin4and5findunknownaccelerationsandforces.

CONSTRAINTS
Tillnowwehadseenthecasewhenaccelerationsofthedifferentpartsofasystemaresame.There
aresituationsinwhichtheaccelerationsofdifferentpartsofthesystemmaynotbethesame.Wegetsuch
situationsincaseofmoveablepulleysorbodiesincontactwhereeachbodyisfreetomove.Insuchcases,
a relationship between accelerations can be found by considering physical properties of system.We call
suchrelationsareconstrainedrelation.
The proceduretodetermineconstraint relationwiththis methodis straightforwardandgiveninthe
followingsteps:
Mathematical Procedure to Determine Constraint Relation:
Step I. Assumethedirectionofacceleration(orvelocity)ofeachbody(orparticle),
Step II. Locatethepositionofeachparticlefromafixedpointe.g.centreofpulley,
StepIII.Identifytheconstraintandwritedowntheequationofconstraintintermsofdistanceassumed.
CONDITION FOR BALANCE
LetSandSbetheweightsofscalepansandaandbbethearmsofthebalancerespectively.Asthe
beamremainshorizontalwhenpansareempty,movementsaboutfulcrummustbezero.

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38 Laws of Motion

S a = S b ....(i) a F b
Suppose now that equal weights, W each, are put on the pans of
thebalance,thebeamhastoremainhorizontalforbalancetobetrue S S
taking movements about F, we have
(S + W) a = (S + W) b ...(ii)
Using (i)or Wa = Wb or a = b i.e., arms of balance must be equal
Putting a = b, in equ, (i)
We have S = S, weights of scale pans be equal
The method of Double weighing : The true weight of a body can be determined with the help
of a false balance as follows :
(i)Whenarms areequalbeweightofpansareunequal thentheweightofbodycanbedetermined
with the help of a false balance as follows :
Place the body having the true weight W in the lift pan & counter poise it with standard weights
= W1,
(S + W) a = (S + W1)a or S + W = S + W1
S S = W1 W ...(i)
Now place the body in the right pan and counter poise it with standard weights = W2
a a
(S + W2) a = (S + W) a or S + W2 = S + W
S S = W W2 ...(ii)
equating R.H.S. of eqn (i) and eq.(ii) S S'
W W1
W1 W2 W2 W
W =
2
true weight of body is equal to the arithmetic mean of the two apparent weights.
(ii)Whenthebeamremainshorizontalbutneitherarmsareequalnorweightsofscalepansareequal
Sa = Sb ....(i)
Place the body with true weight W in the left arm and counter poise it with standard weights W1
then (S + W)a = (S + W1)b
Using (A) we have Wa = W1 b ....(ii)
Now put the body in right pan and standard weights W2 in the left arm to counter poise it.
(S + W2) a = (S + W) b a b

using (i) we have W2a = Wb or Wb = W2 a ....(iii)


Multiply eqn. (ii) and eqn. (iii) vertically, we have
S S'
W W1
2
W = ab = W1 W2 ab or W W1 W2 W2 W

Thus the true weight of the body in this case is the geometric mean of the two apparent weights.

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Laws of Motion 39

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Acube havingmass m andside a is placed onhorizontal surface as shown in the figure.
A horizontal force F is acting perpendicular to one of the surface, the force is at a point
at a height of 3a/4 from the base. The minimum force required that the cube turns about
one of its edges is
F
(A) (3/2) mg (B) mg m
a 3/4a
(C) (2/3) mg (D) 3/4mg mg a/2
O
Solution. The cube will turn about an edge O if the torque at O satisfies the following condition
2
F (3/4) a > mg a/2 or F > mg
3
F minimum = (2/3) mg
Hence the answer is (C)
Example 2. What should be the value of m (mass of suspended block) so as to prevent the smaller
blockmfromslidingoverthetriangularblockofmassM.Allsurfacesarefrictionlessand
the string and pulley are light.
mM
(A) m ' m
cot q 1
cot q 1 T
(2) m ' M
mM q T
mM a
(3) m ' m'
tan q 1
Mm
(4) m '
cot q 1
Solution. Writing force equations
-a cosq
ma = mg T ...(i)
T = (m + M) a ...(ii) a
m a = mg (m + M) a g
g
a (m + m + M) = mg q

m'g
or a = a ...(iii)
m' m M
For the block having mass m, not to slide it is necessary that
a cos q = g sin q
m'g
cos q g sin q
m ' m M
m = (m + m + M) tanq or m (1 tanq) = (m + M) tanq
(m M) tan q mM
m' = Hence the answer is (A)
1 tan q cot q 1

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40 Laws of Motion

Example 3. A mass of 400 kg is suspended by two ropes from pointsA and B on the roof and the
wall. The tension in rope OA is .
(A) 200 kg weight (B) 300 kg weight
(C) 400 kg weight (D) 600 kg weight
Solution. On resolving tension T 1 , the horizontal and vertical
components for T 1 are B
T 45

T1 sin 45 = Mg = 400 g and T1 cos45 = T2


T1
400 g
tan45 = T T2 = 400 g = 400 kg wt.
2 A T2
400kg
Hence the answer is (C)

Example 4. ArodABwhoselengthis13mrestsontwoperpendicularsurfacesasshowninthefigure
andstarts sliding.AtaparticulartimeendBisatadistanceof12mfromverticalsurface
and its velocity is 10 m/s. What is the velocity ofA at this time :

(A) 10 m/s (upwards) (B) 24 m/s (upwards)

(C) 24 m/s (downwards) (D) 10m/s (horizontal)


Solution. Iflengthofrod is and at anytimethecoordinates ofAand B are(0,y)and(x, 0) then
dx dy
2 = x2 + y2 now when Differentiating with respect to time 0 = 2x 2y
dt dt
dy x dx dy dx
dt y dt or VA , VB
dt dt
x
VA = y VB or VB = 10 m/s, x = 12 and y = 5

VA = 12/5 10 = 24 m/s negative () sign indicates that velocity VA is downwards,

Hence the answer is (C)

MOTION OF BODIES CONNECTED TOGETHER BY STRINGS


(a) For two bodies
Suppose two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are tied together and bodies are pulled by applying a
force F on the body m2 .
If T is the tension produced in the string and a is the acceleration produced in the system,
then a
force F
acceleration = total mass = (m m ) m1
1 2 m2 F
Since acceleration is same for both bodies.
For the body m1 ,

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Laws of Motion 41

T = m1 a
For the body m2
F T = m2 a
F
or T = F m2 a = F m2 (m m )
1 2

Tension in the string

m1 F
T
(m1 m 2 )

(b) For three bodies


If three bodies of masses m1 , m2 and m3 are tied by strings and pulled by a force F, the
acceleration produced in the system -

a
F T1 T2
a = (m m m ) m1 m2 mm2 2
1 2 3 F

For the body of mass m1 ,


T1 = m1 a
For the body of mass m2 ,
T2 T 1 = m2 a
For the body of mass m3
F T 2 = m3 a
Solving these equations

m1F
T1 = (m m m )
1 2 3

(m1 m 2 ) F
and T2
(m1 m 2 m 3 ) = (m1 + m2 ) a

Rope lying on a horizontal surface


(a) Auniform ropeof length L whichis lyingon africtionless tableis pulledby applying
a constant force
Let the mass of the rope be m and its length be L. So the mass per unit length of the rope is
(M/L)

L
A PT B F
T
(L )

IfTisthetensionintheropeatadistance fromendBandaccelerationoftheropeisa,thenfor
partPB

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42 Laws of Motion

M
F T = mass of part PB a = a
L
For the part AP
M
T = mass of part AP a (L )a
L
(L )
T (F T)

l
or T = 1 F
L

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Two bodieswhose masses are m1 =50 kg and m2 =150kg are
F
tiedbyalightstringandareplacedonafrictionlesshorizontal m1 m2
surface. When m1 is pulled by a force F, an acceleration of
5 ms2 is produced in both the bodies. Calculate the value of
F. What is the tension in the string?
Solution. The force F is pulling both the bodies together. Hence
F T T
if the acceleration produced in the direction of force be m1 m2
a, then by Newtons law of motion, we have
(net) force = mass acceleration
F = (m1 + m2) a = (50 + 150) = 1000 N
To determine the tension in the string, we have to consider the force acting on the bodies
separately.Whenm1ispulledbytheforceF,thenm1pullsm2throughthestringbyaforce
T. This force is the tension in the string which acts on m2 in the forward direction
(see fig) m2 also pulls m1 by the same (reactionary) force T. Hence the tension T of the
string acts on m1 in the backward direction.
Thus, a net force F T acts on m1 in the forward direction. Hence, by Newtons law
applied for m1 alone, we have
F T = m1 a
or T = F m1 a = 1000 (50 5) = 750 N
We can determine T also by applying Newtons law for the motion of m2 alone. On m2
there is a net force T in the forward direction
T = m2a = 150 5 = 750 N T1
m1
Example 2. The masses m1, m2 and m3 of the three bodies shown in fig. are
T2
5, 2, 3 kg respectively. Calculate the values of the tensionT1, T2
and T 3 when (a) the whole system is going upward with an m2
accelerating of 2ms 2 , (b) the whole system is stationary T3
(g = 9.8 ms2 ) m3

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Laws of Motion 43

Solution. (a) All the three bodies m1 , m2 and m3 are moving upward together. The force pulling
thesystemupwardisT1andthedownwardgravity-forceis(m1+m2+m3)g.Hence
thenet forceonthesystemisT1 (m1+m2+ m3)g.AccordingtoNewtons second
law, this force is equal to total mass acceleration. If a be the acceleration of the
system in the upward direction, then
T1 = (m1 + m2 + m3) g = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) a
or T1 (5 + 2 + 3) 9.8 = (5 + 2 + 3) 2
T1 = 20 + 98 = 118 N
The force pulling m2 and m3 in the upward direction is T2 and the gravity-force of
themis (m2+ m3)g.Hencethenet forcein theupwarddirectionis T2 (m2+ m3)
g .Again, by Newtons law, we have
T2 (m2 + m3) g = (m2 + m3)g
T2 (2 + 3) 9.8 = (2 + 3) 2
T2 = 10 + 49 = 59 N
The net force on m3 in the upward direction is T 3 m3g.
Hence by Newtons law, we have
T3 m3 g = m3 a
or T3 3 9.8 = 3 2
T3 = 6.0 + 29.4 = 35.4 N
(b) Ifthewholesystemisstationary(ormovingwithuniformvelocity),thena=0.Hence
from equation. (i), (ii) and (iii), we have
T1 = (m1 + m2 + m3) g = 10 9.8 = 98 N
T2 = (m2 + m3) g = 5 9.8 = 49 N
T3 = m3 g = 3 9.8 = 27.4 N
Example 3. Twoblocksofmasses2.9kgand1.9kgaresuspendedfromarigidsupportSbytwoinextensible
wires each of length 1m. The upper wire has negligible mass and the lower wire has a
uniformmassof0.2kgm1.Thewholesystemofblocks,wiresandsupporthaveanupward
acceleration of 0.2 ms2 .Acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 ms2 . S
B
(i) Find the tension at the mid-point of the lower wire.
C 2.9 kg
(ii) Find the tension at the mid-point of the upper wire.
A
Solution. (i) Suppose, the tension at the pointA is TA. Then
D 1.9 kg
TA mg = ma
or TA = m (a + g)
where m = 1.9 kg + mass of the wire of length
1
AD = 1.9 + 0.2 = 2.0 kg
2
TA = 2.0 (0.2 + 9.8 ) = 20 N

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44 Laws of Motion

(ii) Suppose, the tension at the point B is TB, then

TB = M (a + g)

where M = 2.9 kg + 1.9 kg + mass of the wire CD = 2.9 + 1.9 + 0.2 = 5.0 kg
TB = 5.0 (0.2 + 9.8) = 50 N

EXERCISE
Question 1. Abodyisinequilibriumundertheactionofthreeforcesonit.Forthisitisnecessarythat
the three forces
(A) are in or should be in a straight line
(B) should pass through the same point and do not lie in the same plane
(C) should pass through the same point and lie in the same plane
(D) should be mutually perpendicular to each other and pass through a common point
Question2. Twomasses10kgand20kgareconnectedwithamasslessspringasshowninthefigure.A
forceof200Nisactingonthemass20kg.Whentheaccelerationof10kgmassis12m/s2 ,
theaccelerationof20kgmassis-
10kg 20kg
2 2
(A) 12 m/sec (B) 4 m/sec

(C) 10 m/sec2 (D) zero


Question 3. Aliftisdescendingwithanaccelerationa.Apersonstandinginitdropsabook.Theacceleration
of the book relative to floor of the lift will be (take acceleration due to gravity = g)
(A) g (B) a
(C) g a (D) g + a
Question 4. Ratio of weight of a man in a stationary lift & weight of a man in a lift moving down-
ward with an acceleration a is 3 : 2 then acceleration of lift is -
(A) g/3 (B) g/2
(C) g (D) 2g
Question 5. Three block are connected as shown in fig., on a horizontal frictionless table and pulled
to the right with a force T3 = 60N. If m1 = 10 kg. m2 = 20 kg. m3 = 30 kg. the tension
T2 is -
T1 T2 T3
(A) 10 N (B) 20 N m1 m2
m3

(C) 30 N (D) 60 N
Question 6. Inthefollowingfigure,twoblocksonm1=2kgandm2=1kgareincontactwithafrictionless
table.A horizontal force F= 3Nis appliedto mass m1, the contactforce betweenm1 and
m2 will be -

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Laws of Motion 45

m1=2kg
(A) 1N (B) 2N m2=1kg
F
F
(C) 3N (D) zero F

Question 7. Ablockofmassm1=2kgonasmoothinclinedplaneatangle30isconnectedtoasecond
block of mass m2 = 3kg by a cord passing over a frictionless pulley as shown in figure.
The acceleration of each block is (assume g = 10 m/sec2 ) -
(A) 2 m/sec2
(B) 4 m/sec2
(C) 6 m/sec2 2k
g m2
m1 3kg
(D) 8 m/sec2 30
Question 8. Two blocks are connected by a cord passing over a small frictionless pulley and resting
on frictionless planes as shown in the figure. The acceleration of the blocks is -

(A) 0.33 m/s2


(B) 0.66 m/s2 g 50
0k kg
(C) 1 m/s 2 10

37 53
(D) 1.32 m/s2
Question 9. AblockDofweight 300kgis hangedwithstringsA& Basshownin fig.W iswall and
R is rigid support.Tension in stringA is - R
45
(A) zero (B) 150kg
W 90
(C) 300kg (D) 400kg A
D 300kgf
Question 10.Two masses are suspended vertically on a pulley their acceleration is -
m1 2 m
(A) g (B) m g
m2 1

m 2 m1 m1 m 2 m1
(C) m m g (D) m m g
1 2 2 1 m2

Question 11. Twobodiesof5kgand4kgaretiedtoastringasshowninfig.Ifthetableandpulleyboth


are smooth, acceleration of 5kg body will be equal to - 4kg
T
(A) g (B) g/4 T

(C) 4g/9 (D) 5g/9 5kg

Question 12.Abodyofmass2kghasaninitialvelocityof3m/salongOEanditissubjectedtoaforce
of4newtoninadirectionperpendiculartoOE.ThedistanceofbodyfromOafter4seconds
will be - N

(A) 12 metres (B) 20 metres


W E
O
(C) 8 metres (D) 48 metres
S

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46 Laws of Motion

Question 13.Twoblocks ofmass m1& m2connected witha lightspring, placedonafrictionless table.


They are left after pulling, ratio of acceleration produced in them -

m1 m2 F

m1 m2
(A) m2 (B) m
1

m1 m 2 4m1m 2
(C) m1 m 2 (D) (m m ) 2
1 2

Question 14.A rope of length L is pulled by a constant force F. What is the tension in the rope at a
distance x from the end where the force is applied -
Fx FL
(A) (B)
Lx Lx
FL F(L x)
(C) (D)
x x
Question 15.Twoblocksatmassm&2marekeptonasmoothhorizontalplane.FirstforceFisapplied
onblockofmass2msecondlysameforceFisappliedonblockofmassm.Ratioofforces
between blocks in above two conditions.- 2m
m
F
(A) 1: 1 (B) 1: 2
(C) 1: 3 (D) 1: 4
Question 16. AweightWistiedtotwostringspassingoverthefrictionlesspulleysAandBasshowninthe
figure.IfweightsPandQmovedownwardswithspeedV,theweightWatanyinstantrises
withthespeed-
(A) V cosq q q
(B) 2V cosq A B
P Q
(C) V/cosq
W
(D) 2V/cosq

COMMON FORCES IN MECHANICS

Inmechanics, weencounterseveralkindsofforces.Gravitationalforce-Itistheforceofattraction
betweenanytwobodiesintheuniverse.Thisforcecanactatadistancewithouttheneedofanyintervening
medium.All other forces common in mechanics are contact forces which satisfy Newtons 3rd law, like -
FrictionForce.

FRICTION

Itisthatopposingforcewhichcomesintoplaywhenonebodytriesoractuallymovesoverthesurface
ofanotherbody.
WhatCausesFriction?
The surfaces of bodies are never perfectly smooth. Even a very smooth surface seen under a
microscope,isfoundtohavedepressionsandprojectionsasshowninthefigurebelow.

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Laws of Motion 47

Enlargedviewofapparentlysmoothsurfacesincontact-Theinterlockingoftheirregularitiesofthe
surfacesincontact causesfriction.

Static Friction
The opposing force that comes into play when one body tends to move over the surface
of another, but the actual motion has yet not started is called static friction.
Inthiscasefrictionalforce(F)isequalanoppositetotheappliedforce(P).
SoaslongasF=Pbodydoesntmove.

FR
WhereF=P&R=mg
R

Directionofapplied
m force(P)
Friction(F)

mg
The static friction betweentwocontact surfaces is given byfs<s N, whereNis thenormal force
between the contact surfaces and s is a constant which depends on the nature of the surfaces and is
called coefficient of limiting friction.
Static Friction -A Self-adjusting Force
Considerablockofwoodlyingonaplanehorizontaltable.Thereisnoforceoffrictionastheblockof
woodisstationary.Pushtheblocklightlywiththehand.Theblockdoesnotmovebecausetheforceapplied
bythehandisexactlybalancedbytheforceoffrictionactinghorizontallyintheoppositedirection.Nowpush
theblockalittleharder,stilltheblockdoesnotmoveastheforceoffrictionincreasessoastobecomeequal
andoppositetotheappliedforce.
Staticfrictionactsonstationaryobjects.Itsvaluessatisfythecondition
fs<s N
sCo-efficientoflimitingfriction
Staticfrictiontakesits peakvalue(fs(max)= sN)whenone surface is about to slide onthe other.
Staticfrictioninthiscaseiscalledlimitingfriction.
LIMITING:Limitingfriction is the maximumopposingforce that comes intoplay,whenone
body is just at the verge of moving over the surface of another body (actual movement is not
there).
The maximum value of static friction, when motion is impending, is sometimes referred to as
limiting friction.

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48 Laws of Motion

Laws of Limiting Friction


1. Themagnitudeoftheforceoflimitingfriction(F)betweenanytwobodiesincontactisdirectly
proportionaltothenormalreaction(R)betweenthem.
2. Thedirectionofforceoflimitingfrictionisalwaysoppositetothedirectionofinwhichonebodyis
atthevergeofmovingovertheother.
The forceoflimitingfrictionisindependentoftheapparentareaofcontact,solongas normal
reactionbetweenthetwobodiesincontactremainsthesame.Theforceoflimitingfrictionbetween
thetwobodiesincontactdependsonthenatureofthematerialofthesurfacesincontactandtheir
roughness orsmoothness.
KINETIC FRICTION ( K)
Itis that opposing force which comes into play when onebody actuallymoves overthe surfaceof
anotherbody.
SLIDING:Itisthatopposingforcewhichcomesintoplaywhenonebodyactuallyslidesoverthe
surfaceofanotherbody.
ROLLING:Itisthatopposingforcewhichcomesintoplaywhenonebodyactuallyrollsoverthe
surfaceofanotherbody.
fk=kN
The relative motion of a contact surface with respect to each other is opposed by a force given
byfk=kN, whereNis thenormalforcebetween thecontactsurfaces andkis aconstant called
coefficient of kinetic friction, which depends, largely, on the nature of the contact surfaces.
N

kN v

mg

Static Kinetic
friction friction
Friction
force

45
fs(max) Applied
force
Graphical representation of variation of friction force
with the force applied on a body

ANGLE OF REPOSE
Considera situationinwhichablockisplacedonan inclinedplanewithco-efficient of friction''
then the maximum value of angle of inclined plane for which the block can remain at rest is defined as
angle of repose.

sN = s mg cos

mg sin mg cos
mg

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Laws of Motion 49

Two blocks placed one above the other


Case - I :
(a) F(M1+M2)g

Both blocks move together with same acceleration ' ' M2

F M1 F
a
M1 M 2
Smooth

amax=g
(b) F>(M1+M2)g
M2 moves with constant acceleration a2 = g

F M 2 g
M1 moves with acceleration a 1
M1

M2slips backwardonM1.

Case - II :

(M1 M 2 )M 2 F
(a) F g , both blocks move together with acceleration a with
M1 M1 M 2
M 2
a max g.
M1
M2 F

(b) F (M1 M 2 )M 2 g , M1
M1
Smooth
M 2
M1 moves with constant acceleration a 1 M g
1

F M 2 g
M2 moves with acceleration a 2
M2
M2slipsforwardonM1.
Minimum force required to move a body on a rough horizontal surface
Fcosq>R
R F sin q
F
mg
F
cos q sin q q
M F cos q
R
mg
Fmin at q=tan1()
1 2

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50 Laws of Motion

BLOCK ON INCLINED PLANE

f
1. Iftanq,theblockwillremainstationaryontheinclinedplane;

andthefrictionalforceactingontheblockwillbeequaltomgsinq
q
andstaticinnature
g sin
m q
f=mgsinq
2. Ifablockslidesdownaninclinedplanewithconstantvelocity,thefrictionalforceactingontheblock
iskineticinnatureandisequaltomg sinq
f=mg sinq

f
v
q

3. If<tanq,theblockwillslidedowntheplanewithaccelerationaequalto
a=gsinq gcos q
Frictionalforceiskineticinnatureandisgivenbyf=N=mgcosq(lessthanmgsinq)

a
q

4. Ifablockis projecteduptheplane, retardationaisgivenby a=gsinq+ gcosq.

v
a
q

5. If mg sin q exceeds frictional force, the block tends to slide down. The minimum force required to
preventslidingisFmin=mgsinqmgcosq
f

F
q
g sin
m q

6. Ifyoutrytopushablockuptheplane,frictionalforceandmg sinqbothopposestheupwardmotion
oftheblock, hence,theminimumforcerequiredtomoveupis givenby
Fmin=mgsinq+mgcosq

F
q
sin
f

mg q

Note:Incase5-6,ifFlies betweenmgsinq=mgcosqandmgsinq+mgcosq, theblock


remainsstationaryontheinclinedplane.

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Laws of Motion 51

Friction is a Necessity
1. Walkingwillnotbepossiblewithoutfriction.Ourfootpressingthegroundwillonlyslip.
2. Notwobodieswillsticktoeachotherwithoutfriction.
3. Brakesofthevehicleswillnotworkwithoutfriction.
4. Nutsandboltsforholdingthepartsofmachinerytogetherwillnotwork.
5. Writingonblackboardoronpaperwillalsonotbepossiblewithoutfriction.
6. The transfer of motion from one part of a machine to the other part through belts will not be
possiblewithoutfriction.
A. Adhesiveswilllosetheirpurpose.
B. Cleaningwithsandpaperwillnotbepossiblewithoutfriction.
FRICTION ISANEVIL
1. Friction always opposes the relative motion between any two bodies in contact. Therefore, extra
energyhastobespenttoovercomefriction.Thusfrictioninvolvesunnecessaryexpenseofenergy.It
meansoutputisalwayslessthantheinput.
2. Frictioncauseswearandtearofpartsofmachineryincontact.Thustheirlifetimereduces.
3. Frictionalforcesresultintheproductionofheat,whichcausesdamagetothemachinery.
METHODS OF CHANGING FRICTION
(i) Bypolishing
(ii) Bylubrication
(iii) Byproperselectionofmaterials
(iv) Bystreamlining
(v) Byusingballbearings
Some of the ways of increasing friction:
1. Onarainyday,wethrowsomesandontheslipperyground.Thisincreasesfrictionbetweenourfeet
andtheground.Thechanceofslippinggetsreduced.
2. Similarly,sandisspreadontrackscoveredwithsnow.Forcesoffrictionbetweenthewheelsandthe
trackincreasesanddrivingbecomesafer.
3. Inthemanufactureoftyres, syntheticrubberispreferredbecauseitscoefficientoffrictionwiththe
roadislarger.Properthreadingofthetyresalsoincreasestheforceoffrictionbetweenthetyresand
theroad.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Theforcerequiredtojustmoveabodyuptheinclinedplaneisdoubletheforcerequiredto
justpreventthebodyfromslidingdowntheplane.Thecoefficientoffrictionis.Theinclination
oftheplaneis

(A) tan1 () (B) tan1(/2)

(C) tan1(2) (D) tan1(3)

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52 Laws of Motion

Solution. (D)

N F1 N F2
F
sq sq
F g co g co
m m
mg mg
nq nq
gsi q gsi q
m m
Case(a)Case(b)

mgsin q =F1 N

N=mgcos

mgsin+mgcos=F1

In second case (b)

N+F2=mgsin

mgcos+F2=mgsin

orF2=mgsin mg cos q

butF1=2F2

therefore

mgsinq + mgcosq 2 mg sin q mg cos q

mg sin q 3mg cos q

or tan q 3

q tan 1 3

Example 2. Automobiletyreshavegenerallyirregularprojectionsovertheirsurfaces.Explainwhy?

Solution . Thisisdonetoincreasetheforceoffriction. Ifthetyresdonothaveirregularprojections,


thentheforceoffrictionbetweenthetyresandtheroadwillbeverysmall/less.Duetothe
smallfriction,theautomobilemayskidofftheroadwhenbrakesareapplied.

Example 3. Islargebrakeonabicyclewheelmoreeffectivethanasmallone?Explain.

Solution. The forceoffrictionis independentofthearea ofcontact.Thus largebrakeandthesmall


brake will have the same effect. However, the small brake may go out of order earlier,
because of the faster wearand tear.

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Laws of Motion 53

EXERCISE
Question 1. A uniform chain of length L lies on a table. If the coefficient of friction is , then the
maximumlengthofthechainwhichcanhangfromtheedgeofthetablewithoutthechain
sliding down is -
L L
(A) (B)
1 1

L L
(C) (D)
1
Question 2. Whenabodyslidesdownaninclinedplanewithcoefficientoffrictionas,thenitsacceleration
is given by -

(A) g( sinq + cos q) (B) g( sinq cos q)

(C) g( sinq + cos q) (D) g(sinq cos q)

Question 3. Work done in moving a body up an inclined rough plane () of length S will be -
(A) mg(sinq + cosq)S (B) mg(sinq + cosq)S
(C) mg(sinq cosq)S (D) mg(sinq cosq)S
Question 4. Anobjecttakesntimes moretimetoslidedown a45inclinedrough surfaceas it takes
to slide down a perfectly smooth 45 inclined surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction
between the object and the incline is given by

1
(A) (1 n 2 ) (B) 1 2
n

1
(C) (1 n2 ) (D) 1 2
n
Question 5. Two masses m2 = 10kg and m1 = 5kg are connected by a string passing over a pulley
as shown. If the coefficient of friction be 0.15, then the minimum weight than may be
placed on m2 to stop motion is - m T
100kg m2
(A) 18.7kg (B) 23.3kg
T
(C) 32.5kg (D) 44.3kg m1 5kg

Question 6. Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweenthetyresandroadis0.4.Theminimumdistancecovered
before attaining a speed of 8 ms1 starting from rest is nearly -
(A) 8.0m (B) 4.1m
(C) 16.4m (D) 18.3m
Question 7. The pulleyshowninthefigureis masslessand frictionless.Themotionofthebodiesis
frictionless. the acceleration produced in the system will be

F F m
(A) (B) P T
M m
M F
F F
(C) (D)
Mm Mm

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54 Laws of Motion

Question 8. In the above problem, the tension produced in the string will be -
Fm FM
(A) (B)
M m
Fm Fm
(C) (D)
Mm Mm
Question 10. Ablock ofmass 2kgis lyingona floor.The coefficient ofstatic frictionis 0.54.What
will be value of frictional force if the applied force is 2.8 N and g = 10 m/s2
(A) 2.8 Newton (B) 8 Newton
(C) zero (D) 2 Newton
Question 11. A block of mass 0.5 kg rests against a wall exerting a horizontal force of 15 N on the
wall.Ifthecoefficientoffrictionalbetweenthewallandtheblockis0.5thenthefrictional
force acting on the block will be
(A) 0.49N (B) 4.90N
(C) 9.8 N (D) 49.9N
Question 12. A body of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface with coefficient of friction .
A person tries to pull the body by applying a horizontal force, F but the body does not
move. The force (F) on the body by the surface is
(A) F = mg (B) F = Mg

(C) F = Mg 1 u 2 (D) None of the above


Question 13. All the surfaces shown in the figure are rough.The direction of friction on Bdue toA is

(A) zero (B) to the left


A B F
(C) upwards (D) downwards

Question 14. Abrick of mass 2kgjust begins toslidedown aninclined planeat an angle of 45 with
the horizontal. The force of friction will be
(A) 19.6cos 45 (B) 119.6sin45
(C) 9.8sin45 (D) 9.8 cos 45
Question 15. A body is projected along a rough horizontal surface with a velocity 6 m/s. If the body
comes to rest after travelling a distance 9m, the coefficient of sliding friction is
(g = 10 m/s2)
(A) 0.5 (B) 0.6

(C) 0.4 (D) 0.2

DYNAMICS OF CIRCULAR MOTION

REFERENCE FRAMES
Inordertostudyrestandmotion,oneneedstoobservethepositionofbodies,whichcanbedoneonly
with respect to a frame of reference. The frame of reference consists of an observer, with a coordinate
frame(Cartesianor, otherwise) tomeasurepositionandclockstomeasuretime. Frameofreferences of
twotypes.

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Laws of Motion 55

INERTIAL FRAME OF REFERENCE


Inertialframesarethosewhichdonothaveanyacceleration,i.e.eithertheframeatrestoritismoving
withauniformspeed.InsuchframeswecandirectlyapplyNewtonslawsandgeneratedynamicequations
oftheobjectspresentintheframe.
NON-INERTIAL FRAME OF REFERENCE
Non-inertialframesareacceleratedreferenceframesandNewtonslawsarenotdirectlyapplicablein
suchframes,beforeapplicationofNewtonsLawssomemodificationsarerequiredtosolvetheproblem.
(i) Applyapseudoforceonanobjectifandonlyitisplacedonanotherobject(Non-Inertialframe)
acceleratingwithrespect tosomeinertialreferenceframe(i.e.,earth).
(ii) Thedirectionofpseudoforcemustbeoppositetothedirectionofaccelerationofthenon-Inertial
frame.
(iii) Themagnitudeofpseudoforceistheproductofmassofthebodyandaccelerationofthenon-
inertialframe.
Example
Allsurfacesaresmoothinadjoiningfigure.FindFsuchthatblockremainsstationarywithrespectto
the wedge.

m
F
M
q
Solution
F
Accelerationof(block+wedge) a
(M m)
LetussolvetheExamplebyboththemethods.
Ncosq
Method I : Frominertialframeofreference(Ground)(applyreal
y
forces):w.r.t.groundblockismovingwithanframeof
reference Frame of Reference acceleration a
Nsinq x
Fy=0cosq=mg ...(i)
and Fx=maNsinq=ma ...(ii)
mg
Fromequation(i)and(ii)i.e., a
F=(M+m)a=(M+m)gtanq.
Method II : From non-inertial frame ofreference (Wedge)
F.B.D.ofblockwrt.wedge(realforces+pseudoforce).Blockisstationarywrt.wedge.
Fy=0cosq=mg ...(iii)
Fx=0Nsinq=ma ...(iv)
Fromequation(iii)and(iv),wewillgetthesameresultF=(M+m)gtanq
Dynamicsofuniformcircularmotionconceptofcentripetalforce.

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56 Laws of Motion

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Centripetalforceistheforcerequiredtomoveabodyuniformlyinacircle.Thisforceactsalongthe
radiusandtowardsthecentreofthecircle.

2
Centripetalacceleration a = = r2
r
Wherevisthelinearvelocity,isangularvelocityofthebodyandr istheradiusofthecircularpath.
As F=m a,therefore,
centripetalforce=massxcentripetalacceleration.
F=mv2/r=mr2
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
Centrifugalforceisaforcethatariseswhenabodyismovingactuallyalonga
circularpathbyvirtueoftendencyofthebodytoregainitsnaturalstraightline
F2 F1
path.Centrifugalforcecan beregardedasthereactionofcentripetalforce.
Centripetalforceactsalongtheradiusandawayfromthecentreofthecircle.

CentripetalforceF1andCentrifugalforceF2.

PARTICLE APPLICATION OF CIRCULAR MOTION


1. Motionof a caron a level road
R
Three forces act on the car:
(i) Theweightofthecar,mg
(ii) Normalreaction,R

(iii) Frictionalforce,F

Asthereisnoaccelerationintheverticaldirection
Rmg=0;R=mg mg
Thecentripetalforcerequiredforcircularmotionisalongthesurfaceoftheroad,towardsthecenter
oftheturn.
Neglecting gravity we get,

mv 2
T=Centripetalforce= m 2 r
r
axis

O r
T v
m

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Laws of Motion 57

Example:
Acaris travelling at30km/hin acircleofradius60m.Whatistheminimumvalueofs for
the car to make the turn without skidding ?
Solution
The minimum S should be that

mv 2 v2
S mg or S
r rg

km 30 1000 25
Hare v = 30 = m/s
h 3600 3

25 25 1
S =0.115
3 3 60 10

ForallvaluesofSgreaterthanorequaltotheabovevalue,thecarcanmaketheturnwithout
skidding.IfthespeedofthecarishighsothatminimumSisgreaterthanthestandardvalues

(rubber tyres on dry concrete S = 1 and on wet concrete S = 0.7), then the car will skid.

2. Motionofa caronabanked road


Thephenomenonofraising outeredgeofthecurvedroadabovetheinneredgeiscalledbankingof
roads.
R

mg

XOA==angleofbanking Rcosq
R
(i) mg (downwards). q
(ii) R(perpendiculartoOA). Fcosq

(iii) ForceoffrictionF(alongAO). q A
Rsinq
(iv) Rcanberesolvedintotworectangularcomponents: Fsinq
(v) R cos q alongverticallyupwarddirection F q mg
O X
(vi) R sin q alongthehorizontal,towardsthecentreofthecurvedroad.
(vii) Fcanalsoberesolvedintotworectangularcomponents:

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58 Laws of Motion

(viii)F cos q alongthehorizontal,towardsthecentreofcurvedroad.


(ix) F sin q alongverticallydownwarddirection.
Rcosq=mg+Fsinq ...(i)
centripetalforcerequired=mv2/r

mv 2
Rsinq+Fcosq= ...(ii)
r
ButFsR,wheresiscoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweenthebankedroadandthetyres.Toobtain
vmax
weputF=sRfrom(i)&(ii)
Rcosq=mg+sRsinq ...(iii)

mv 2
and Rsinq+3Rcosq= ...(iv)
r
From(iii),R(cosq3sinq)=mg

mg
R
cos q 3 sin q
From(iv),

mv 2
R(sin q 3 cos q) ...(v)
r
Using(v).

mg(sin q 3 cos q) mv2



(cos q 3 sin q) r

rg(sin q 3 cos q)
v2
(cos q 3 sin q)

rgsin q(tan q 3 )

cos q(1 3 tan q)

1/2
rg( 3 tan q)
v Thisisthemax.velocityofvehicleonabankedroad.
(1 3 tan q)

Forasmoothsurface=0 v rg tan q

Forahorizontalsurface,q=0 v rg

Example
At what should a highway be banked for cars travelling at a speed of 100 km/h if the radius
of the road is 400 m and no frictional forces are involved?

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Laws of Motion 59

Solution
The banking should be done at an angle q such that
250 250

v2 9 9
tan q
rg 400 10
25
or tan q = = 0.19
81 40
or q = tan1 0.19 0.19 radian
0.19 57.3

11

3. (Considering gravity) Conical pendulum


Tsinq=m2r (i)
Tcosq= mg O

mg T cosq
(ii) l q
T
cos q T
q
(a) Forqtobe90(i.e.,stringtobehorizontal) Tsinq
r C
T=
Itisnotpossible. mg
(b) Tsinq=m2r=m2lsinq

T m2 l

l cos q
(c) Timeperiod= 2
g
4. Bending of a cyclist
Whenacyclistnegotiatesacurve,hebendsslightlyfromhisverticalpositiontowardstheinnerside
of the curve (see figure).
The various forces acting on the system (cycle of man) are :
(i) Weight (mg) of the system acts vertically downward through the centre of the gravity of the
system.
Rcosq
(ii) Normal reaction (R) offered by the road to the system Y R
and actsat anangle q withthe vertical. q
Rcosq
It is assumed that force of friction between the tyres of a
bicycleandthesurfaceis negligible. q mg
ResolveR intotwo components:
(i) Rcosqwhichisequalandoppositetotheweight(mg) O X
of the system.
i.e. R cos q= mg ...(1)

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60 Laws of Motion

(ii) R sin q, which is directed towards the centre of the circular path and provides the necessary
mv 2
centripetalforce r to thesystem toremain inthe circularpath.

mv 2
i.e. R sin q ...(2)
r
R sin q mv 2 1
Dividing(2)by(1),weget
R cos q r mg
v2
tan q
rg
v2
or q tan 1
rg
Clearly,qdepends uponvandrat aplace.
Forsafeturn,qshouldbesmall.qwillbesmallifvissmallandrislarge.Thusturningofthecycle
shouldbeat slowspeedandalongatrackoflargerradius.
5. An aeroplane making a turn
In order tomakes a circular turn,a plane must roll atsome angle q in such amanner that the
horizontal component of the lift force L provides the necessary centripetal force for circular
motion. The vertical component of the lift force balances the weight of the plane.
mv 2
L sin q =
r Lcosq
and L cos q = mg L
q
or the angle q should be such that
Lsinq
r
v2
tan q =
rg q

mg
6. Death well and rotor
Example of uniform circular motion
In death well a person drives a bicycle on a vertical surface of a large wooden well.

(a) A passenger on a 'rotor ride'

In death well walls are at rest while person revolves.


In a rotor at a certain angular speed of rotor a person hangs resting against the wall without
any floor.

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Laws of Motion 61

In rotor person is at rest and the walls rotate.


Inboththesecasesfrictionbalancestheweightofpersonwhilereactionprovidesthecentripetal
force necessary for circular motion i.e.

mv 2
Force of fiction F S = mg and Normal reaction F N =
r
FN v2 rgFN
so , i.e., v =
FS rg FS

rg
Now for v to be minimum F S must be maximum, i.e., vmin =

[as F S max = F N]
Example y
1. A62kgwomanisapassengerinarotorrideatanamusement FS

park.A drum of radius 5.0 m is spun with an angular velocity


of25rpm.Thewomanispressedagainstthewalloftherotating
drumasshowninfig.(a)Calculatethenormalforceofthedrum Radially
ofthewoman(thecentripetalforcethatpreventsherfromleaving inward FN

hercircularpath).(b)Whilethedrumrotates,thefloorislowered.
Averticalstaticfrictionforcesupportsthewomansweight.What
must the coefficient of friction be to support her weight ? W

(b) A force diagram for the person


Solution.
Normal force exerted by the drum on woman towards the centre
2
rev rad 1min
F N = ma c = m2 r = 62 kg 25 5m 2100 N
min 1rev 60s

(b) FN F mg .........(2) dividing eqn. (2) be eq. (1)


2
g 60 10
2 = = 0.292
r 2 25 5
2. A1.1kgblockslidesonahorizontalfrictionlesssurfaceinacircular pathattheendofa0.50
m long string. (a) Calculate theblocks speed if thetension in the string in 86 N. (b)By what
percent does the tension change if the block speed decreases by 10 percent?
Solution
(a) Forcediagramfortheblockisshownin fig.Theupwardnormalforcebalancestheblocks
weight.Thetensionforceofthestringontheblockprovidesthecentripetalforcethatkeeps
the block moving in a circle. Newtons second law for forces along the radial direction is

mv 2 Tr (80N)(0.50m)
F (in radial direction) = T = , or v = 1.2 kg = 5.0 m/s
r m

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62 Laws of Motion

(b) A 10 percent reduction in the speed results in a speed v = 5.4 m/s. The new tension is

2 2
T ' (mv '2 / r) v ' 0.90
0.81
T (mv2 / r) v v FN

T
T ' 70N
Thus, 0.81 Radially
T 86N
inward

percentage reduction in the tension is about 19%. W

The same result is obtained using a proportionality method.

2 2
T ' (mv '2 / r) v ' 0.90
0.81
T (mv2 / r) v v

7. Looping the loop


This is the best example of non uniform circular motion in vertical plane.
For looping the pilot of the plane puts off the engine at lowest point and traverses a vertical
loop. (with variable velocity)
Example
An aeroplane moves at 64 m/s in a vertical loop of radius
120 m, as shown in fig. Calculate the force of the planes seat
on172kgpilotwhilepassingthroughthebottompartoftheloop.
Solution.
Twoforcesactonthepilothisdownwardweigthforcewandtheupwardforceoftheaeroplanes
seatF seat .Becausethepilotmovesinacircularpath,theseforcesalongtheradialdirectionmust,
according to Newtons seconds law ( F = ma), equal the pilots mass times his centripetal
acceleration, where a c = v2 /r.
Fseat
mv 2
We find that F (in radial direction) = F seat w =
r
Remember that force pointing towards the center of the circle
(F seat ) is positive & those pointing away from the center (w) are
negative. w

Substituting=mgandrearranging,wefind thattheforceoftheaeroplaneseaton thepilot


is

v2 64(m / s) 2
Fseat m g = 72kg 9.8m / s 2 =72 kg(34.1 m/s2 + 9.8m/s2 ) =3160.8 N
r 120m
Thepilotin thisexamplefeelsveryheavy.Tokeephimin thecircularpath,theseatmustpush
the pilot upwards with a force of 3160 N, 4.5 times his normal weight. He experiences an
acceleration of 4.5 g, that is, 4.5 times the acceleration of gravity.

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Laws of Motion 63

Motion in a Vertical Circle


H
Let us considerastoneofmass mtiedtooneendofthestringand
movinginaverticalcircleofradiusr(whichisequaltothelengthofthe r
string)asshowninfigure.WhenitisatthehighestpointH,itshouldfall
O v2
vertically downward because of gravity but on the contrary, it does not
(rh) q T
fall. The velocity of the stone is minimum at the highest point and
P mg
maximumatthelowestpoint. h N co
q sq
Letv1bethevelocityofthestoneatthelowestpointLofthecircle. mg mg
L v1 si n
Supposeat anyinstant oftime, stonereaches point P. Let thevelocityof q
stoneat P =v2.
Heightthroughwhichthestoneisraised,whenit goesfrompointLtopoint P=h

1 2
Now, K.E. of stone of mass m at L mv1
2
P.E.of thestoneat L =0

1 2 1 2
Total energy of the stone at L mv1 0 mv1
2 2

1 2
K.E. of stone at P mv 2
2
P.E. ofstone at P= mgh

1 2
Total energy of the stone at P mv2 mgh
2
According to the law of conservation of energy,
1 2 1
mv 2 mgh mv12
2 2
1 2 1 2
or mv 2 mv1 mgh
2 2
2 2
v 2 v1 2gh
As isevident fromequation(1), v2is always less thanv1.
Tension in the string
Let Tbethetensioninthestring.
Therefore,various forces acting onthestone orparticle at P are:
(i) TensionTinthestringactingalongPO
(ii) Weight mg ofthe particle actingvertically downward.
Resolve mg into two components :
(i) mgcosqwhichactsinadirectionoppositetothedirectionoftensionT.
(ii) mgsin q whichacts alongthe tangent at P.
Net force acting on the stone or particle towards the centre of the circle = T mg cos q

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64 Laws of Motion

mv 22
This force provides the necessary centripetal force to the stone to move in the circle.
r
mv 22
i.e., T mg cos q
r
mv 22
or T mg cos q ...(2)
r
Substitutingthevalueofv2fromequation(1)in(2),weget
m 2
T [v1 2gh] mg cos q
r
Now from PON,
rh
cos q
r
m 2 rh
T [v1 2gh] mg ...(3)
r r
Tension at Lowest point L.
Atlowestpoint, h=0
mv12 m
TL mg (v12 gr)
r r
Tension at highest point H
Athighestpoint,h=2r
Therefore, from equation (3), we have
m 2 r 2r m 2
TH [v1 2g(2r)] mg (v1 4gr) mg
r r r
m
TH [v12 4gr gr]
r
m
TH [v12 5gr gr]
r
Difference in tension at the lowest and highest point.
m 2 m m
TL TH (v1 gr) (v12 5gr) (6gr)
r r r
TL TH 6mg

Minimum speed at the lowest point for looping the loop.


In order to keep the body moving in a circular path, the tension in the string must remain positive
evenat thehighest point i.e., TH 0

m 2
(v1 5gr) 0
r
or v12 5gr

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Laws of Motion 65

or v1 5gr
Hence, the minimum speed which the body (say a motor cycle) must possess at the lowest point
sothat itmaygoroundtheverticalcircleis givenby
v1 5gr
To find the speed of the particle or body at the highest point of the vertical circle, substitute
v1 5gr andh=2rinequation(1),weget

v 22 5gr 2g 2r 5gr 4gr gr

v 2 gr

Thisisthevelocityofthebodyatthehighestpointforloopingtheloop.
Application of motion in a vertical circle
1. Waterinabucket doesnotspillifitisrotatedinaverticalcircle.
2. Amotorcyclist inacircusdrives themotorcyclealongaverticalcircleinacage.
3. Apilotloopinaloopwithoutfallingatthetopoftheloop.

SOLVEDEXAMPLE

Example 1: A ball is released fromheight h asshown infig. Find thecondition for theparticle to
complete the circular path.

R
B

Solution. According to law of conservation of energy (K.E. + P.E) atA = (K.E. + P.E) at B

1
0 + mgh = mv2 + 0
2
v = 2gh
But velocity at the lowest point of circle,
5R
v 5gR 2gh 5gR h
2
Example 2: Abodyweighing0.4kgiswhirledinaverticalcirclemaking2revolutionspersecond.
If theradius ofthe circleis 1.2m, find the tension in thestring, whenthe bodyis (a)
at the top of the circle (b) at the bottom of the circle. Given : g = 9.8 ms2 and
= 1.2 m
1
Solution. Mass m = 0.4 kg time period = second and radius, r =1.2 m
2

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66 Laws of Motion

2
Angular velocity, = 4 rad s1 = 12.56 rad s1
1/ 2
mv 2
(a) At the top of the circle, T mg mr2 mg m (r2 g)
r
= 0.4 (1.2 12.56 12.56 9.8) N = 71.8 N
(b)At the lowest point, T = m(r2 + g) = 79.64 m
Example 3: Inacircusamotorcyclistmovesinverticalloopinsideadeathwell(ahollowspherical
chamber with holes, so that the spectators can watch from outside). Explain clearly
why the motorcyclist does not drop down whenthe is at the uppermost point, with no
support from below. What is the minimum speed required to perform a vertical loop
if the radius of the chamber is 25 m?
Solution. When the motorcyclist is at the highest point of the death-well, the normal reaction R
onthemotorcyclistbytheceiling ofthe chamberactsdownwards.Hisweightmgalso
actsdownwards.Thesetwoforcesarebalancedbytheoutwardcentrifugalforceacting
on him.
mv 2
R + mg = .......(i) r = radius of the circle
r
Herevisthespeedofthemotorcyclistandmisthemassofthemotorcyclist(including
the mass the motor cycle). Because of the balancing of the forces, the motorcyclist
does not fall down.
Theminimum speedrequiredto performavertical loopis givenbyequation (i),when
R = 0
mv 2 min
mg = or v2 min = gr
r
or vmin = gr = 9.8 25 ms1 = 15.65 ms1

So, the minimum speed at the top required to perform a vertical loop is 15.65 ms1 .

EXERCISE
Question 1: A4kgballinswunginaverticalcircleattheendofacord1mlong.Whatisthemaximum
speed which is can swing if the cord can sustain maximum tension of 163.6 N?
Question 2: A small body of mass m = 0.1 kg swings in a vertical circle at the end of a chord of
length1m.Itsspeedis2m/swhenthechordmakesanangleq =30withthevertical.
Find the tension in the chord.

6.7 Condition of overturning


Here, we shell find the condition for the car to overturn. Let the distance between the centres
of wheels of the car be 2a and the centre of gravity be h meters above the ground (road). The
different forces acting on the car are shown in the fig.

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Laws of Motion 67

R1 R2

h
F1 F2
mg
a a
The weight mg of the car acts downwards through centre of gravity G.
The normal reactions of the ground R1 and R2 on the inner and outer wheels respectively.
These act vertically upwards.
Let force of friction F 1 + F 2 between wheels and ground towards the centre of the turn.
Let the radius of circular path be r and the speed of the car be v.
Since there is no vertical motion, equating the vertical forces, we have
R1 + R2 = mg ....(1)
The horizontal force = centripetal force for motion in a circle
R0
mv 2
So, F = F 1 + F 2 = ....(2)
r
Taking moments about the centre of mass G. G

(F 1 + F 2 ) h = R1 a = R2 a h
F2
mg
a
F 1 + F 2 = (R2 R1 ) = ...(3) a a
h
Combining this with equation (2) to eliminate F 1 + F 2 gives

hmv 2
R2 R 1 ...(4)
ar
We now havetwo simultaneous equations, (1) and(4), for R1 and R2 . Solving these by adding
and subtracting, we find that

hmv 2 hmv 2
2R1 = mg and 2R2 = mg +
ar ar
From these expressions it is clear.
Inner wheels will leave the ground when R1 will become zero and the car begins to overturn,

hmv2
i..e, mg
ar

2 gra
So the limiting speed is given by v as required.
h

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68 Laws of Motion

Example
1. The radius of curvature of a railway line at a place when the train is moving with a speed of 36
kmh 1 is 1000 m, the distance between the two rails being 1.5 metre. Calculate the elevation of
the outer rail above the inner rail so that there may be no side pressure on the rails.
Solution :

36 1000
Velocity,v=36kmh1= ms1=10ms1
3600

v2 1
radius,r=1000m;tanq = = =
rg 1000 9.8 9.8

Let h be the height through which outer rail is raised. Let be the distance between the two
rails.
h
Then, tan q = [ q is very small]

or h = tan q
1
h = 1.5 m = 0.0153 m [ = 1.5 m]
98
2. An aircraft executes a horizontal loop oat a speed of 720 km h1 with its wing banked at 15.
Calculate the radius of the loop.
Solution :

720 1000
Speed , v = 720 km h1 = ms1 = 200 ms1 and tan q=tan15=0.2679
3600

v2 v2 200 200
tan q = or r = m
rg g tan q 9.8 0.2679

= 1523.7m= 15.24 km,


3. A train rounds an unbanked circular bend of radius 30 m at a speed of 54 km h1 . The mass
ofthetrainis106 kg.Whatprovidesthecentripetalforcerequiredforthispropose? Theengine
or the rails? The outer of inner rails ? Which rail will wear out faster, the outer or the inner
rail ? What is the angle of banking required to prevent wearing out of the rails?
Solution:

54 5
r = 30 m, v = 54 km h1 = ms1 = 15 ms1 m = 106 kg, q = ?
18

(i)The centripetal force isprovidedby thelateral thrust bythe outerrail on theflanges ofthe
wheel of the train. The train causes an equal and opposite thrust on the outer rail (Newtons
third law of motion).
Thus, the outer rails wear out faster.

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Laws of Motion 69

v2 15 15
(ii) tan q = = = 0.7653
rg 60 9.8

q = tan1 (0.7653) = 37.43


4. Acircularracetackofradius300misbankedatanangleof150.Ifthecoefficientoffriction
between the wheels of a race car and the road is 0.2, what is the (a) optimum speed of the
racecartoavoidwearandtearoftyres,andthe(b)maximumpermissiblespeedtoavoidslipping?
Solution:
(a) on a banked road, the horizontal component of the normal reaction and the friction force
contributetoprovidecentripetalforcetokeepthecarmovingoacircularturnwithoutslipping.
At theoptimum speed, thecomponent of thenormal reaction isenough to providethe required
centripetal force. In this case, the frictional force is not required. The optimum speed is given
by
v0 = (rg tan q)1/2 = (300 9.8 tan 15)1/2 ms1 = 28.1 ms1
(b) The maximum permissible speed if given by

1/ 2
s tan q
vmax = Substituting values and simplifying, we get vmax = 38.1 ms1 .
1 s tan q

POINTS TO BE REMEMBER

Uniform motion in a circle -

dq 2
Angularvelocity 2n
dt T


Linearvelocity v r


v=rwhen and r areperpendiculartoeachother..

v2
Centripetal acceleration a 2 r v 4 2 n 2 r
r

Equations of motion -
Forconstantangularacceleration-
(i)=0 +t

1 2
(ii)q = 0 t t
2

(iii) 2 20 2q

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70 Laws of Motion

Motionof acaron aplanecircular road -


Formotionwithoutskidding

Mv 2max
M g , v max rg
r
Motion onabanked road -Angleofbanking =q

h
tan q
b
1/ 2
rg( tan q )
Maximumsafespeedatthebend v max
1 ( tan q)

rhg
Iffrictionisnegligible v max rg tan q =
b
v 2 max
and tan q
rg

Motion of cyclist on a curve -

v2
Inequilibriumanglewithverticalis q then tan q
rg

Maximumsafespeed=vmax= rg

Motion in a vertical circle (particle tied to string) -

v2A
T
Atthetopposition-Tension A m g
r

ForT A=0,criticalspeed gr

v2B
T
Atthebottom-Tension B m g
r

Forcompletingthecircularmotionminimumspeedatthebottom v B 5gr,

Tension TB 6mg

Conical pendulum (Motion in a horizontal circle)

mg
Tensionisstring
( r 2 )1/ 2
2

g
Angularvelocity
cos q

cos q r
Periodictime 2 2
g g tan q

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Laws of Motion 71

SOLVEDEXAMPLE
Example 1. Thecircularmotionofaparticlewithconstantspeedis
(A) Periodicbutnotsimpleharmonic (B) Simpleharmonicbutnotperiodic
(C) Periodicandsimpleharmonic (D) Neitherperiodicnorsimpleharmonic
Solution. (A)

Incircularmotionofaparticlewithconstantspeed,particlerepeats
itsmotionafteraregularintervaloftimebutdoesnotoscillateabout
afixedpoint.So,motionofparticleisperiodicbutnotsimpleharmonic.
Example 2. Abuckettiedattheendofa1.6mlongstringiswhirledinaverticalcirclewithconstant
speed.Whatshouldbetheminimumspeedsothat thewaterfromthebucketdoesnotspill
whenthebucketisatthehighestposition
(A) 4m/sec (B) 6.25m/sec
(C) 16m/sec (D) None oftheabove
Solution. (A)
Sincewaterdoesnotfalldown,thereforethevelocityofrevolutionshouldbejustsufficientto
providecentripetalaccelerationatthetopofverticalcircle.So,

v (g r) {10 (1.6)} (16) =4m/sec.

Example 3. Explainwhycurvedroadsaregenerallybanked?
Solution. Theforceoffrictionbetweentheroadandthetyresprovidesthenecessarycentripetalforce
to the vehicle to negotiate the flat curved roads. If the force of friction is insufficient to
providethenecessarycentripetalforcetothevehicle,itwillskidandgoofftheroad.Toavoid
this,theroadisbankedi.e.theouteredgeoftheroadisraisedalittleabovetheinneredge.

EXERCISE
Question 1. Acarmovesalongahorizontalcircularroadofradiusrwithvelocityv.Thecoefficientof
frictionbetweenthewheelsandtheroadis .Whichofthefollowingstatementsisnottrue?

(A) Thecarwillslipif v rg

v2
(B) Thecarwillslipif
rg

v2
(C) Thecarwillslipif r
g
(D) The carwill slip at alower speed, alongwith some acceleration, thanif it movesat
constant speed
Question 2. Thedriver ofacartravellingat velocityvsuddenlyseesabroad wallinfront ofhim ata
distanced.Heshould
(A) Brakesharply (B) Turnsharply
(C) (A)and(B)both (D) None oftheabove

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72 Laws of Motion

Question 3. Acyclistridingthebicycleataspeedof 14 3 ms 1 takesaturnaroundacircularroadof


radius 20 3 m without skidding. (Given g = 9.8 ms2 ), what is his inclination to the
vertical
(A) 30o (B) 90o
(C) 45o (D) 60o
Question 4. Considerthefollowingstatements
Assertion(A):Acyclist always bendsinwards whilenegotiatingacurve
Reason(R):Bybendinghelowershiscentre ofgravityofthesestatements:
(A) BothAandRaretrueandRisthecorrectexplanationofA
(B) BothAandRaretruebutRisnotthecorrectexplanationofA
(C) AistruebutRisfalse
(D) AisfalsebutRistrue
Question 5. A racing car of 1000 kg moves round a banked track at a constant speed of 108km / hr .
Assumingthetotalreactionatthewheelsisnormaltothetrackandthehorizontalradiusof
the track is 100m , calculate the angle of inclination of the track to the horizontal
(takeg=10m/s2)
(A) 12 o (B) 27 o
(C) 42 o (D) 65 o
Question 6. Intheabovequestion,whatisthereactionat thewheels?
(A) 13450N (B) 26900N
(C) 6725N (D) 40350N
Question 7. Acarismovingwithaspeedvonaroadinclinedatanangle q inacirculararcofradiusr,the
minimumcoefficientoffriction,sothatthecardoesnotslipaway
v2
(A) tan q (B) =v2/rg
rg

v 2 cos q rg sin q v 2 cos q rg sin q


(C) (D)
rg cos q v 2 sin q rg cos q v 2 sin q
Question 8. Aweightlessthreadcanbeartensionupto 3.7 kg wt .Astoneofmass 500 gms istiedtoitand
revolvedinacircularpathofradius 4m inaverticalplane.Ifg=10m/s2,thenthemaximum
angularvelocityofthestonewillbe
(A) 4 radians/sec (B) 16radians/sec

(C) 21 radians / sec (D) 2radius/sec

Question 9. A 2kg stoneattheendofastring 1m longiswhirledinaverticalcircleataconstantspeed.


Thespeedofthestoneis 4m / sec .Thetensioninthestringwillbe 52 N ,whenthestoneis
(A) Atthetopofthecircle (B) Atthebottomofthecircle
(C) Halfwaydown (D) None oftheabove

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Laws of Motion 73

Question 10. AparticleofmassMcarriesacharge+Q.Itisattachedtoastringoflengthlandiswhirled



inaverticalcircleinelectricfield E directedupwards;whatshouldbetheminimumspeedof
theparticleatAsothatitloopstheloop
A
(A) [(g+QE/M)l]1/2
T
(B) [(gQE/M)l]1/2
E
l
(C) [(Mg+QE)l]1/2
(D) [(Mg QE)l]1/2
B
Question 11. AstonetiedtoastringoflengthLiswhirledinaverticalcirclewiththeotherendofthestring
atthecentre.Atacertaininstantoftime,thestoneisatitslowestpositionandhasaspeedu.
Themagnitudeofthechangeinitsvelocityasitreachesapositionwherethestringishorizontal
is

(A) u 2 2gL (B) 2gL

(C) u 2 gl (D) 2(u 2 gL)

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C

CBSESECTION
Laws of Motion 75

ASSIGNMENT Type(A)VeryShortAnswerQuestions:
1. Whyacricketplayerlowershishandswhilecatchingacricketball?
2. Atenpaisacoinplacedonrevolvingtablefliesofftangentially.Explainwhy.
3. Actionandreactionareequalandopposite.Whycanttheycanceleachother?
4. Whyagunrecoilsbackwhenitisbeingfired?
5. Abodyisacteduponbyanumberofexternalforces.Canitremainatrest?
6. Definethetermlinearmomentumofabody.
7. Abusweighing900kgisatrestonthebusstand.Whatisthelinearmomentumofthebus?
8. What is the difference between Newton and newton?
9. WhatistheprincipleofRocketPropulsion?
10. Newtonsfirstlawofmotionisthelawofinertia.Explain.
Type (B) ShortAnswer Questions:
1. Thevelocityofabodyiscontinuouslychanging.Canitsspeedremainconstant?Ifspeedischanging,
canthevelocityremainconstant?
2. Itispossibleforabodytohaveaconstantspeedinanacceleratedmotion?
3. Aparticle is movingwith auniformspeed onacircular path. State, with reason,whetherit has an
accelerationornot.
4. Canabodymoveonacurvedpathwithouthavingacceleration?
5. Aparticleismovinginastraightline.Whatcanyousayaboutitsacceleration?
6. Thespeedofabodyisconstant.Canithaveapathotherthanacircularorstraight-linepath?
7. Ifboththe speedofabodyand theradius ofits circular patharedoubled, what will happentothe
centripetalforce?
8. Abodyis movingwithaconstant speedinahorizontalcircle. Explainwithreasons whichquantity
amongitsvelocity,accelerationandkineticenergyremainsunchanged.
9. Awomanstandsonaspringscaleontheelevator.Inwhichcasewillthescalerecordtheminimum
readingandthemaximumreading:
(i) Elevatorstationary
(ii) Elevatorcablebreaks,freefall
(iii) Elevatoracceleratingupward
(iv) Elevator accelerating downward
10. Thetotalmomentumintheuniverseremainsconstant.Isthisstatementtrue?Ifso,Explain?
11. Abirdissittingonthefloorofawirecageandthecageisinthehandofaboy.Thebirdstartsflyingin
thecage.Willtheboyexperienceanychangeintheweightofthecage?

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76 Laws of Motion

Type (C) LongAnswer Questions:


1. Whatisinertia?Defineandexplainthethreetypesofinertia.
2. ExplainNewtonsfirstlawofmotion.Whydowecallitasthelawofinertia?
3. StateNewtons secondlawofmotion. Howdoesit helptomeasureforce?AlsoshowthatNewtons
secondlawofmotionistheonlyreallawofmotion.
5. Whatisforce?WhataretheabsoluteandgravitationalunitsofforceinCGSsystemandSIsystem?
Howthesedifferentunits arerelatedtoeachother?
6. Discussthemotionofhorse-cartproblem.
7. Stateandproveimpulse-momentumtheorem.
8. Discussgraphicalmethodforthemeasurementofimpulseinthefollowingcase:
(i) Whenconstantforceactsonthebody.
(ii) Whenavariableforceactsonthebody.
9. StateNewtonsthirdlawofmotion.Derivetheprincipleofconservationoflinearmomentumfromit.
10. Statetheprincipleofconservationoflinearmomentum.Explain,whythegunrecoilswhenabulletis
firedfromit?
11. Provethatthevelocityofarocketatanyinstantwhenitsmassismisgivenby

m0
v v0 u log e ,
m
Where,v0andm0arethevelocityandmassoftherocketatt=0anduisthevelocityofexhaustgases
relativetotherocket.

12. What are concurrent forces? Prove that under the action of three concurrent forces F1 , F2 and F3 , a

bodywillbeinequilibrium,when F1 F2 F3 0.

13. Definethetermsmomentumandimpulse.Obtaintherelationbetweenimpulseandmomentum.
Type (D) Give reasons for the following :
1. Onthehillstheroadsaremadesloppingdownwardstowardsthehill.
2. Thewingsoftheaeroplaneareleantinwardswhiletakingaturn.
3. Inthewellofdeaththeriderdoesnotfallwhiledrivingthemotor-cycleonthewall.
4. Asmallsmoothballisplacedonasmoothcirculardisc.Whenthediscisrotated,theballfallsdown?
Type (E) Numerical Questions
1. Abodyofmass2kgismovingwithanaccelerationof50cms2.Calculatetheforceactingonit.
2. Acricket ballofmass 0.2kgmovingwithavelocityof20m1is brought torestin0.4 s.Findthe
average force.
3. Atruckstartsfromrestandrollsdownahillwithconstantacceleration.Ittravelsadistanceof400m
in20s.Finditsacceleration.Alsofindtheforceactingonitifitsmassis7000kg.

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Laws of Motion 77

4. Calculatetheforceexertedonthewallofabuildingperpendiculartothejetofwaterflowingoutofa
pipeofareaofcross section102m2withvelocity of15ms1.Assumethat water does not rebound
afterstrikingthewall.
5. Abusweighing5tonnes(1tonne=1000kg)ismovingwithavelocityof60km/hr.Calculatetheforce
requiredtostopitin10sec.
6. Ablockofmassm1kgacceleratesat10ms2whenaforceof10Nactsonit.Anotherblockofmass
m2kgacceleratesat5ms2whenthesameforceactsonit.Findtheaccelerationifboththeblocksare
tiedtogetherandsameforceactsonthecombination.
7. Ashipofmass3107kgandinitiallyatrestcanbepulledthroughadistanceof3mbymeansofaforce
of5104N.Thewaterresistanceisnegligible.Findthespeedattainedbytheshape.
8. A rocket with a lift - off mass 10,000 kg is blasted upward with an initial acceleration of 6 ms2.
Calculatetheinitialthrust(force)oftheblast.
9. Whilelaunchingarocketofmass200quintal,forceof5105Nisappliedfor20s.Whatisthevelocity
attainedattheendofthistime?
10. A20gbullet movingat300ms1stopsafterpenetrating3cmofbone.Calculatetheaverageforce
exertedbythebullet.
11. Aforceof10Nproducesanaccelerationof2ms2inabodyofmassm1and5ms2inabodyofmass
m2.Whatwillbetheaccelerationproducedbythesameforcewhenboththebodiesaretiedtogether?
12. Twoblocksofmassm1andm2areconnectedwithamasslessstring.These m2 F
blocksareplacedoverasmoothsurfaceofinclinedplaneatanangleof30.A T1
forceof50Nisappliedtopulltheseblocksasshowninfigure.Calculatethe
accelerationoftheblocks.Given:m1=0.1kgandm2=0.2kg. 30
13. Ablockofmass5kgliesonahorizontalfrictionlessplane.Astringattachedtoitpassesoverasmooth
pulleyfixedtotheedgeoftheplaneandcarriesaloadofmass1kg.Findtheaccelerationofthesystem.
14. Atautstringpassesoveralightsmoothpulleyattheedgeofasmoothtable.Ithasmass4kgattached
tooneendandhangingfreely, andamass 2kgattachedtotheendwhichliesonthetable. Findthe
tensioninthestringandtheaccelerationofeithermass.
15. Astringpassesoverasmoothpulleywithmasses4kgand5kgattachedtotheendsofthestringand
hangingvertically.Findtheaccelerationofeithermass,andalsothetensioninthestring.
16. Abobofpendulumofmass50gissuspendedbyastringwiththeroofofanelevator.Iftheliftisfalling
withauniformaccelerationof5ms2,findthetensioninthestring.Takeg=10ms2.
17. Agunweighing10kgfiresabulletof30gwithavelocityof330ms1.Withwhatvelocitydoesthegun
recoil?Whatisthecombinedmomentumofthegunandthebulletbeforeandafterfiring?
18. Abulletofmass7kgisfiredintoablockofwoodweighing7kg.Theblockisfreetomove.Afterthe
impact,thevelocityofthebulletandblockis70cms1.Whatistheinitialvelocityofthebullet?
19. Abombis throwninahorizontaldirectionwithavelocityof50ms1. Itexplodesintotwoparts of
masses6kgand3kg.Theheavierfragmentcontinuestomoveinthehorizontaldirectionwithavelocity
of40ms1.Calculatethevelocityofthelighterfragment.
20. Acricketballofmass150gismovingwithavelocityof12ms1andishitbyabatsothattheballis
turnedbackwithavelocityof20ms1.Theforceofblowactsfor0.01secondontheball.Calculatethe
averageforceexertedbythebatontheball.

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78 Laws of Motion

21. A cricket ball of 200g moving witha velocity of10 ms2 is brought to rest by a player in0.05 s.
Calculatetheimpulseoftheballandaverageforceappliedbytheplayer.
22. Arubberballofmass100gfallsfromaheightof1mandreboundstoaheightof40cm.Findthe
impulseandtheaverageforcebetweentheballandtheground,iftimeduringwhichtheyareincontact
was0.1s.
23. Amassof4kgissuspendedbyaropeoflength4mfromaceiling.A
2m
forceof20Ninthehorizontaldirectionisappliedatthemid-pointof 2N
theropeasshowninfigure. 2m
Whatistheanglewhichropemakewiththeverticalinequilibrium? 4kg
Neglectthemassoftherope.Takeg=10ms2.
24. Arockethasmassof2.0104kgofwhichhalfisfuel.Assumethatthefuelisconsumedataconstant
rateastherocketisfiredandthatthereisconstantthrustof5.0106N.Neglectingairresistanceand
anypossiblevariationofg,compute(a)theinitialaccelerationand(b)theaccelerationjustasthelast
fuelisused.
24. Afootballofmass200gmovingtowardsaplayerwithavelocityof20ms1iskickedbackbyhim.If
theballafterbeingkickedmoveswithavelocityof30ms1atanangleof45withthehorizontal,then
find(i)thenetimpulseoftheforceand(ii)theaverageforceactingonthefootball.(Given, timeof
contactbetweenfootballandthefootoftheplayeris0.1s).
25. Ahunterhasamachinegunthatcanfire50gbulletswithavelocityof200ms1.A50kgtigersprings
attime.Ifhefires80bulletspersecondandthetigerisstoppedathistrack,findthevelocitywithwhich
thetigerspringsatthehunter.
Type (D) Check your understanding :
1. Aparticleofmassmismovinginacircularpathofconstantradiusrsuchthatitscentripetalacceleration
acis varyingwithtimet asac=k2rt2, wherekisaconstant.Provethat thepowerdeliveredtothe
particlebytheforcesactingonitismk2r2t.
2. Thedriverofacartravellingatspeedvsuddenlyseesawallatadistancerdirectlyinfrontofhim.To
avoidcollision,shouldheapplythebrakesorturnthecarsharplyawayfromthewall?Givereason.
3. A40-kgspheresuspendedbyathreadoflengthisoscillatinginaverticalplane,theangularamplitude
beingq0.Whatisthetensioninthethreadwhenitmakesanangleqwiththeverticalduringoscillations?
Ifthethreadcansupportamaximumtensionof80kg,thenwhatcanbethemaximumangularamplitude
ofoscillationofthesphere?
4. AtubeoflengthLisfilledcompletelywithanincompressibleliquidofmassMandclosedatboththe
ends.Thetubeisthenrotatedinahorizontalplaneaboutoneofitsendswithauniformangularvelocity
.Determinetheforceexertedbytheliquidattheotherend.

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Laws of Motion 79

CBSE-SECTION(ANSWERS)

SECTION-1
Numerical

1. 1N 2. 10N
3. 2ms2,14000N 4. 2250N
5. 833333N 6. 3.33ms2
7. 0.1ms1 8. 15.8104N
9. 500ms1 10. 3104N
11. 1.43ms2 12. 161.8ms2
13. 1.63ms2 14. 6.53ms2;13.06N
15. 1.09ms2;43.55N 16. 0.25N
17. 0.99ms1;zeroinbothcases 18. 700.7ms1
19. 70ms1 20. 480N
21. 2Ns;40N 22. 1.446Ns;14.45N
23. 2634 24. 240.2ms2,490.2ms2
24. 9.27Ns;92.7N 25. 16ms1

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