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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting 11.3.3 Blast Damage & Vibration Criteria Three major nuisance of blasting, LECTURE

11.3.3 Blast Damage & Vibration Criteria Three major nuisance of blasting,

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1. Ground vibration - structural damage resulting from the vibration and blast shock wave

2. Flyrock - ejected rock pieces from the blast

3. Airblast and noise - Damage due to air overpressure generated in the atmosphere

Ground vibration

To reduce these nuisance one must opt for controlled blasting. One of the important parameter governs the ground vibration is the peak particle velocity (PPV). Particle velocity is the particles of a medium that are displaced from their random motion in the presence of a Sound Wave. The speed or velocity of a particle during this displacement is called the particle velocity, having units m/s. PPV is the greatest instantaneous particle velocity during a given time interval. If measurements are made in 3-axis then the resultant PPV is the vector sum of the square root of the summed squares of the maximum velocities, regardless of when in the time history those occur. PPV can be measured using seismographs. In case of blasting, as per USBM empirical equation, at a given location, peak particle velocity (PPV) depends on the distance from the blast and the maximum charge per delay and is given by,

the blast and the maximum charge per delay and is given by, Where, V is the

Where, V is the peak particle velocity (mm/s), D is the distance between the blast and the monitoring station (m), Q is the maximum charge per delay (kg), and K and ‘b’ are the site constants. Conventionally, D/ Q 1/2 is called scaled distance. The damage or the disturbance corresponding to different PPV is given in table 11.1. Table 11.2 gives the permissible PPV (mm/s) as per DGMS (Tech) (S&T) Circular No.7 of 1997.

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting Table 11.1: Damage criteria for Ground transmitted vibrations Peak Particle velocity

Table 11.1: Damage criteria for Ground transmitted vibrations

Peak

Particle

velocity

Effect

threshold, mm/s

600

New Cracks form in rock

300

Falls of rock in unlined tunnels

190

Falls of plaster and serious cracking in buildings

140

Minor new cracks, opening of old cracks

100

Safe limit for lined tunnels, reinforced concrete

50

Safe limit for residential buildings

30

Feels severe

10

Disturbing to people

5

Some complaints likely

1

Vibrations are noticeable

<1

Barely perceptible vibrations

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting Table 11.2: Permissible PPV (mm/s) as per DGMS (Tech) (S&T) Circular No.7

Table 11.2: Permissible PPV (mm/s) as per DGMS (Tech) (S&T) Circular No.7 of 1997

(mm/s) as per DGMS (Tech) (S&T) Circular No.7 of 1997 Table 11.3: Range of PPV as

Table 11.3: Range of PPV as a function of the class of structure (Chae, 1978)

100mm/s

Class A: Structures of substantial construction

50mm/s

Class B: Relatively new structures in poor condition

25mm/s

Class C: Relatively old structures in poor condition

13mm/s

Class D: Old residential structures in very poor condition

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting Dowding(1996) suggests maximum allowable PPV for various structure types and conditions (Table

Dowding(1996) suggests maximum allowable PPV for various structure types and conditions (Table 11.4)

Table 11.4: Dowding building structure vibration criteria

Table 11.4: Dowding building structure vibration criteria The American association of State Highway and Transportation

The American association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTHO) 1990 identifies maximum vibration levels for preventing damage to structure from intermittent construction or maintenance activities.

Table 11.5: AASTHO maximum vibration levels for preventing damage

intermittent construction or maintenance activities. Table 11.5: AASTHO maximum vibration levels for preventing damage 323

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting Figure 11.16: Maximum charge weight versus safe distance for various classes of
Module 11: Rock Blasting Figure 11.16: Maximum charge weight versus safe distance for various classes of

Figure 11.16: Maximum charge weight versus safe distance for various classes of structure. A- Structures of substantial construction, B- Relatively new structures in poor condition C- Relatively old structures in poor condition D- Old residential structures in very poor condition

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting FLY ROCK Flyrock is always a major concern during blasting. Flyrock from

FLY ROCK

Flyrock is always a major concern during blasting. Flyrock from surface blasting operations can cause serious injury and death to employees and other persons and damages to structures

and machineries and other installations. Flyrock is caused by a mismatch of the distribution of explosive energy, type of confinement of the explosive charge, and mechanical strength of the rock. Factors responsible for creating this mismatch include, 1) Abrupt change in the rock resistance due to presence of joints, cracks, layers of mud, silt, or soft material in the host rock.

2)

Differential weathering of rocks near an outcrop;

3)

faults and slip planes; back breaks, overhangs, and uneven highwall face;

4) High explosive concentration leading to excessive localized energy density due to migration of explosive charge into fissures, caverns, voids, and mud seams; 5) Deviation of blast holes from the intended direction causing a reduction in burden or spacing; 6) Insufficient or improper stemming leading to stemming ejection and bench-top

7)

flyrock; Inappropriate or poor blast design.

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting Figure 11.16: Common causes of flyrock a) Inadequate front row burden b)
Module 11: Rock Blasting Figure 11.16: Common causes of flyrock a) Inadequate front row burden b)

Figure 11.16: Common causes of flyrock a) Inadequate front row burden b) hole mis- alighnment resulting in concentration of explosives c) weak seams vent gas to rock face, d) holes loaded close to bench surface e) some holes with no stemming f) blocks holes loaded with fixed weight of explosive or number of cartridges

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting AIR OVERPRESSURE When explosives are used to break rock in a mine

AIR OVERPRESSURE When explosives are used to break rock in a mine or construction project, the blast produces both ground vibration and air overpressure (noise). In most cases the atmosphere selectively absorbs the higher frequencies from a blast, leaving relatively low energy (5 hertz) sound waves to effect structures. If a structure has a natural vibration frequency around 5 hertz, it will respond to the air overpressure by producing higher frequency secondary noise on internal walls. It is this response from the middle of flat walls in a structure which causes much of the secondary rattling noise and other observed effects such as movement of pictures, clocks, etc. Most concern about structural damage comes from people who feel the effects while inside their homes. They are actually responding to the structural motion that produces rattling and motion and not to the actual noise and ground vibration from the blast, which are often imperceptible when outside the structure. Air overpressure produced by blasting is expressed in pressure units called decibels (dB). This overpressure can be measured accurately with specialized instruments called seismometers. The stress on a structure from a 131.7 dB overpressure produced by a blast is roughly equivalent to the stress produced by a 25 mph wind. The wind isn’t as noticeable as the air overpressure due to its slow rate of pressure change and the correspondingly minor or nonexistent rattling, in contrast to the relatively rapid pressure changes produced by air overpressure waves The relationship between decibels and pressure P (kPa) is given by the equation, where Po is the overpressure of the lowest sound that can be heard about 2x10 -5 kPa.

is given by the equation, where Po is the overpressure of the lowest sound that can

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Module 11: Rock Blasting

Module 11: Rock Blasting The following table gives the decibel levels produced by some typical situations:

The following table gives the decibel levels produced by some typical situations:

the decibel levels produced by some typical situations: Figure 11.17: Human and structural response to sound

Figure 11.17: Human and structural response to sound pressure level (Ladegaad-Pedersen and Dally, 1975)

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