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Mr. O.N. Singh (S.D.O.) Prakash Hari Sharma

Final Year (CSE)
HRIT, Ghaziabad


About BSNL 3

Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile 4

Telephone Systems


GSM Network 9

GSM Network Areas 12

GSM Specification 14

Subscribers Identity Module 15

GSM Subscriber Services 16

Supplementary Services 17

Conclusion 19

1. About BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Formed in oct. 2000, is world’s 7th largest
telecommunications company providing comprehensive range of telecom
services in India: wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, internet,
broadband, carrier services. Within a span it has become the one of the
largest public sector unit in India.

BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned
initiatives to bridge the rural –urban digital divide ICT sector. In fact there is
no telecom operator in the country to beat it reach with its wide network
giving services I every nook & corner of country and operates across India
except Delhi & Mumbai.

BSNL cellular service cellone, has more than 20.7 million cellular
customers, garnering 24 % of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means
that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection.
In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic
Phone Subscribers i.e. 85 % share of the subscribers and 92 % share in
revenue terms.

BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP

infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video
through the same Backbone and broadband access network. At present there
are 0.6 million Data one broadband customers.
The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of the
telecom services and the desire to excel has made BSNL the no. 1 telecom
company of India.

2. Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone
Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding
telecommunications applications. Today, it represents a continuously
increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world.
Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide, and
nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States. It is
forecasted that cellular systems using a digital technology will become the
universal method of telecommunications. By the year 2005, forecasters
predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers
worldwide. It has even been estimated that some countries may have more
mobile phones than fixed phones by the year 2000 (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Cellular Subscriber Growth Worldwide

The concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where

frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. The idea of cell-based
mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the
early 1970s. However, the Nordic countries were the first to introduce
cellular services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic
Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981.

Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced
mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. The AMPS standard was
adopted by Asia, Latin America, and Oceanic countries, creating the largest
potential market in the world for cellular.

In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than
digital, like today's newer systems. One challenge facing analog systems was
the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost-efficient manner.
As a result, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital
systems over analog systems include ease of signaling, lower levels of
interference, integration of transmission and switching, and increased ability to
meet capacity demands. Table 1 charts the worldwide development of mobile
telephone systems.

Year Mobile System

1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450
1983 American Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
1985 Total Access Communication System (TACS)
1986 Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900
1991 American Digital Cellular (ADC)
1991 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
1992 Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800
1994 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)
1995 PCS 1900—Canada
1996 PCS—United States

Table 1. The Development of Mobile Telephone Systems

Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems

have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This
presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with
the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended
to address these problems.

From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an

analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was
adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or

broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple
access (TDMA) solution was chosen. A summary of GSM milestones is
given in Table 2.

Year Milestone
1982 GSM formed
1986 field test
1987 TDMA chosen as access method
1988 memorandum of understanding signed
1989 validation of GSM system
1990 Pre operation system
1991 commercial system start-up
1992 coverage of larger cities/airports
1993 coverage of main roads
1995 coverage of rural areas

3. GSM

The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s,

particularly in Europe. The lack of a technological standardization prompted
the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations
(CEPT) to create the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) in 1982 with the
objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could
be used across Europe

In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European

Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and phase I of the GSM

specifications were published in 1990. The first GSM network was launched
in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland. By the end of 1993, over a million

subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers

across 48 countries.[

The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from

Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in
the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than
212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very
common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their
phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its
predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call
quality, and so is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system.
This has also meant that data communication was built into the system from
the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment

The key advantage of GSM systems to consumers has been higher digital
voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls, such as the Short
message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"). The advantage for
network operators has been the ease of deploying equipment from any
vendors that implements the standard. Like other cellular standards, GSM
allows network operators to offer roaming services so that subscribers can
use their phones on GSM networks all over the world.

Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original

GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data
capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99
introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for
GSM Evolution About GSM

Radio interface
GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by
searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in four

different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or
1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the
United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and
1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated.

The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries,
notably Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-
generation systems.

In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890-915 MHz, and the
downlink frequency band is 935-960 MHz. This 25 MHz bandwidth is
subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels, each spaced 200 kHz apart.
Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate
speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots
(giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half
rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate
is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.

The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in

GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.

GSM has used a variety of voice codes to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into
between 6 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of
data channel they were allocated, were used, called "Full Rate" (13 kbit/s)
and "Half Rate" (6 kbit/s). These used a system based upon linear predictive
coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bit rates, these codecs also
made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air
interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal.

GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the GSM-EFR codec, a 12.2 kbit/s
codec that uses a full rate channel. Finally, with the development of UMTS,
EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband,
which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate
channels, and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good
radio conditions on half-rate channels.

There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network - macro, micro, pico
and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the
implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the
base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof

top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof
top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells
whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used
indoors. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells
and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.

Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and
propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of
kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical
use is 35 km or 22 miles. There are also several implementations of the
concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even
more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing

Multiple Access TDMA/FDMA/FDA

Uplink frequency(mobile to base) 890-915 Mhz
Downlink frequency(base to mobile ) 935-960 Mhz
Channel Bandwidth 200 Khz
Number of channels 124
Channels/carrier 8(full rate),16(half rate)
Frame duration 4.6ms
Interleaving duration 40ms
Modulation GMSK
Speech coding method RPE-LTE convolution
Speech coder bit rate 13kb/s (full rate)
Associated control channel Extra frame
Handoff scheme Mobile assisted
Mobile station power levels 0.8, 2,58 w

Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an

indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor
antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an
antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are
typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for

example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite,

since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio
signals from nearby cells.

The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a
kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be
modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter
prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the
interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference).


A nearby GSM handset is usually the source of the "dit dit dit, dit dit dit, dit
dit dit" signal that can be heard from time to time on home stereo systems,
televisions, computers, and personal music devices. When these audio
devices are in the near field of the GSM handset, the radio signal is strong
enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain function as a
detector. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the
TDMA signal. These signals have been known to interfere with other
electronic devices, such as car stereos and portable audio players. This is a
form of RFI, and could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional
shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. However, the
increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify..

4. The GSM Network

GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications
define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address
the hardware. The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible
but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different
suppliers. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the
switching system (SS), the base station system (BSS), and the operation and

support system (OSS). The basic GSM network elements are shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 2. GSM Network Elements

The Switching System

The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and
subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following
functional units.

• Home location registers (HLR)—The HLR is a database used for

storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the
most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers,
including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and

activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the
PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.
• Mobile services switching center (MSC)—The MSC performs the
telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and
from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions
as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and
• Visitor location registers (VLR)—The VLR is a database that
contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the
MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always
integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new
MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the
mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call,
the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without
having to interrogate the HLR each time.
• Authentication center (AUC)—A unit called the AUC provides
authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity
and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network
operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world.
• equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that
contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that
prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations.
The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a
combined AUC/EIR node.

The Base Station System (BSS)

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base
station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

• BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links
between the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides
functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of
radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A
number of BSCs are served by an MSC.
• BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The
BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to
service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a

The Operation and Support System
The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment
in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is
called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional
entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system.
The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for
centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that
are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide
a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different
operation and maintenance organizations.

Additional Functional Elements

Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows:

• Message center (MXE)—The MXE is a node that provides integrated

voice, fax, and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short
message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e-mail, and
• Mobile service node (MSN)—The MSN is the node that handles the
mobile intelligent network (IN) services.
• Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)—A gateway is
a node used to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often
implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.
• GSM interworking unit (GIWU)—The GIWU consists of both
hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks
for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate
between speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware
equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR.

5. GSM Network Areas

The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. As shown in Figure 3,
these areas include cells, location areas (LAs), MSC/VLR service areas, and
public land mobile network (PLMN) areas.

Figure 3. Network Areas

The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. The
GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number
assigned to each cell. The location area is a group of cells. It is the area in
which the subscriber is paged. Each LA is served by one or more base station
controllers, yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 4). Each LA is assigned a
location area identity (LAI) number.

Figure 4. Location Areas

An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is
covered by one MSC and which is reachable, as it is registered in the VLR of
the MSC (see Figure 5).

Figure 5. MSC/VLR Service Areas

The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see
Figure 6).

6. GSM Specifications
Before looking at the GSM specifications, it is important to understand the
following basic terms:

• bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits; the broader the

bandwidth, the faster data can be sent
• bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data; eight bits are
equivalent to one byte

• frequency—the number of cycles per unit of time; frequency is
measured in hertz (Hz)
• kilo (k)—kilo is the designation for 1,000; the abbreviation kbps
represents 1,000 bits per second
• megahertz (MHz)—1,000,000 hertz (cycles per second)
• milliseconds (ms)—one-thousandth of a second
• watt (W)—a measure of power of a transmitter

Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems

vary among the different PCS networks. Listed below is a description of the
specifications and characteristics for GSM.

• Frequency band—The frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to

1,990 MHz (mobile station to base station).
• Duplex distance—The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is
the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel
has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart.
• Channel separation—The separation between adjacent carrier
frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz.
• Modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a signal by
changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in
GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).
• Transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit
rate of 270 kbps.
• Access method—GSM utilizes the time division multiple access
(TDMA) concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different
• calls may share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time
• Speech coder—GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The
purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters
for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this
filter, leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

7. Subscriber identity module

A SIM for Bell Mobility (Canada)

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM),
commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card
containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. This allows
the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets.
Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset
simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the
phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice
is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.

In Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States many operators lock the
mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is
typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to
try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles. A subscriber can usually
contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee, utilize private services to
remove the lock, or make use of ample software and websites available on
the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. While most web sites offer the
unlocking for a fee, some do it for free. The locking applies to the handset,
identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number,

not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). It is always possible
to switch to another (non-locked) handset if such a handset is available.

Some providers will unlock the phone for free if the customer has held an
account for a certain time period. Third party unlocking services exist that
are often quicker and lower cost than that of the operator. In most countries,
removing the lock is legal. Cingular and T-Mobile provide free unlocking
services to their customers after 3 months of subscription

In countries like Belgium, India, Indonesia and Pakistan, etc., all phones are
sold unlocked. However, in Belgium, it is unlawful for operators there to
offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. This was also the case in
Finland until April 1, 2006, when selling subsidized combinations of

handsets and accounts became legal, though operators have to unlock phones
free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months).

8. GSM Subscriber Services

There are two basic types of services offered through GSM: telephony (also
referred to as teleservices) and data (also referred to as bearer services).
Telephony services are mainly voice services that provide subscribers with
the complete capability (including necessary terminal equipment) to
communicate with other subscribers. Data services provide the capacity
necessary to transmit appropriate data signals between two access points
creating an interface to the network. In addition to normal telephony and
emergency calling, the following subscriber services are supported by GSM:

• Dual-tone multi frequency (DTMF)—DTMF is a tone signaling

scheme often used for various control purposes via the telephone
network, such as remote control of an answering machine. GSM
supports full-originating DTMF.
• Facsimile group III—GSM supports CCITT Group 3 facsimile. As
standard fax machines are designed to be connected to a telephone
using analog signals, a special fax converter connected to the
exchange is used in the GSM system. This enables a GSM–connected
fax to communicate with any analog fax in the network.
• Short message services—A convenient facility of the GSM network
is the short message service. A message consisting of a maximum of

160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. This

service can be viewed as an advanced form of alphanumeric paging with
a number of advantages. If the subscriber's mobile unit is powered off or
has left the coverage area, the message is stored and offered back to the
subscriber when the mobile is powered on or has reentered the coverage
area of the network. This function ensures that the message will be

• Cell broadcast—A variation of the short message service is the cell

broadcast facility. A message of a maximum of 93 characters can be
broadcast to all mobile subscribers in a certain geographic area.

Typical applications include traffic congestion warnings and reports
on accidents.
• Voice mail—This service is actually an answering machine within the
network, which is controlled by the subscriber. Calls can be forwarded
to the subscriber's voice-mail box and the subscriber checks for
messages via a personal security code.
• Fax mail—With this service, the subscriber can receive fax messages
at any fax machine. The messages are stored in a service center from
which they can be retrieved by the subscriber via a personal security
code to the desired fax number.

9. Supplementary Services
GSM supports a comprehensive set of supplementary services that can
complement and support both telephony and data services. Supplementary
services are defined by GSM and are characterized as revenue-generating
features. A partial listing of supplementary services follows.

• Call forwarding— This service gives the subscriber the ability to

forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile unit is
not reachable, if it is busy, if there is no reply, or if call forwarding is
allowed unconditionally.
• Barring of outgoing calls—This service makes it possible for a
mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls.
• Barring of incoming calls—This function allows the subscriber to
prevent incoming calls. The following two conditions for incoming
call barring exist: baring of all incoming calls and barring of incoming
calls when roaming outside the home PLMN.
• Advice of charge (AoC)—The AoC service provides the mobile
subscriber with an estimate of the call charges. There are two types of
AoC information: one that provides the subscriber with an estimate of
the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes.
AoC for data calls is provided on the basis of time measurements.
• Call hold—This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing
call and then subsequently reestablish the call. The call hold service is
only applicable to normal telephony.
• Call waiting—This service enables the mobile subscriber to be
notified of an incoming call during a conversation. The subscriber can
answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. Call waiting is applicable

to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit-switched
• Multiparty service—The multiparty service enables a mobile
subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation—that is, a
simultaneous conversation between three and six subscribers. This
service is only applicable to normal telephony.
• Calling line identification presentation/restriction—These services
supply the called party with the integrated services digital network
(ISDN) number of the calling party. The restriction service enables the
calling party to restrict the presentation. The restriction overrides the
• Closed user groups (CUGs)—CUGs are generally comparable to a
PBX. They are a group of subscribers who are capable of only calling
themselves and certain numbers.


I would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who were part of this
training report in numerous ways, People who gave unending support right
from the stage the training report idea were conceived. In particular I am
extremely grateful to BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED for
providing me with an excellent opportunity of undergoing summer training
for the duration of four weeks.
I express my effusive thanks to Mr. O.N. Singh (S.D.O.) and the
other technical staff members. With their expert guidance and kind help this
training would have been a distant dream.
I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. K.P. Upadhyay (J.T.O.) for
providing me the required information for completion my job.

Prakash Hari Sharma

Final Year (CSE)
HRIT, Ghaziabad


Industrial training is must for every student perusing professional degree

because the ultimate goal of every student is to get the information the
industrial training helps us to get an idea of things.
We should known in order to get a good job i.e. have a good
professional carrier. Industrial training teaches us a lot of things. It helps us
to know the kind of environment we would be getting in an industry and help
us to get with the kind of environment. Industrial training helps us to know
what kind of grade an engineer of specific branch plays in an industry. It help
us to get used to working in groups of known people in it teach us team work
because my work in industrial is accomplished by a group and not an
In totality the industrial teaches us industrial ethics. Some advance
technical knowledge how and help us to acquired with industrial working


I saw various division of C.T.O. Compound Agra Exchange and tried to

group as much as I could, which switched my knowledge and logic. As a
student of computer science I learned GSM which is mainly concerned with
my focus area.
At last, I would like to say thanks again all staff of the unit who
helped me through my training period.



Final Year
Computer Science & Engg.
HRIT, Ghaziabad