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Drilling Equipment

Drilling and Completion


SEC.4

INSTRUCTOR
FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT
Eng. Abdalla M. Darwish HELP
Drilling Equipment

What is Drilling fluid?


Drilling fluid or drilling mud as many people call it is a
vitality in a rotary drilling process. The term drilling
fluid includes air, gas, water and mud. Mud refers
to the liquid that contains solids and water or oil.
The mud is made up with clay and other additives that
give it desirable properties.

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Drilling Equipment

Functions of a Drilling Fluid


Hole Cleaning Power Downhole
Pressure Control Tools
Environment
Suspend Solids
Maximum Hole
Minimize Formation
Information
Damage
Corrosion
Isolate Fluids from
Support Part of DS
Formation
Cost
Cooling and
Lubrication
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Drilling Equipment

Suspension of Solids
Whenever the pumps are switched off Switch off
solids will start to settle. This can
result in:
Bridging off of the wellbore
Stuck pipe
Hole fill
Loss of Hydrostatic
A gel structure is required to suspend
the cuttings under zero shear
conditions:
The gel structure is caused by time
dependant attractive forces which develop in
the fluid.
The longer the fluid is static the stronger
these forces become
The gel structure should be easily broken
The gel properties are especially important
for deviated and horizontal wells as the
distance solids have to settle is very small

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Drilling Equipment

Minimize Formation Damage


Damage to the formation while drilling to the reservoir:
Formation swelling (Normally clay and Salt formations)
Washouts (Clay and Salt formations or any
unconsolidated formation)
This can result in:
Difficult directional control
Poor zonal isolation
Excess mud and cement costs
Poor Hole Cleaning
Stuck Pipe
Difficult fishing jobs

Damage to the reservoir will result in loss of production or


the need for remedial treatment

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Drilling Equipment

Minimize Formation
Damage
Fines may clog pore
throats, reducing
effective permeability

Mud filtrate
invasion

Filtrate may cause


clays to swell,
causing damage

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Drilling Equipment

Minimize Formation
Damage
Mud composition &
Filter cake Formation
reservoir characteristics
influence the degree of
damage. Depth of damage
is influenced by
Mud formulation
Time in open hole
Mud overbalance
Depth of damage is often
less than the total depth of
invasion due to depletion of
damaging species
Filter cake should prevent
extensive damage to
formation during drilling RDF (STARDRILL) Filter Cake

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Drilling Equipment

Isolate the Fluid From the


Formation
The differential
pressure forces fluid
into the wellbore,
resulting in whole
mud or filtrate
entering the formation. Mudcake
Either, or both, of Damaged zone
these is undesirable
because:
The loss of whole mud into the
wellbore is expensive and
damaging
Invading filtrate
The loss of filtrate into the
wellbore may cause
formation damage

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Drilling Equipment

Isolate the Fluid From the


Formation
The flow of fluid is affected by the
formation of a filter cake

The filter cake reduces the flow of fluid


into the formation.
Special additives are added to improve the cake quality:
Bridging material
Plate like material
Plugging material

The filter cake should be


thin with a low
permeability
This avoids reducing the effective hole
diameter
It also reduces the chance of differential
sticking

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Drilling Equipment

Cooling and Lubrication


The drilling fluid
removes heat from
the bit which is then
dispersed at the
surface
Fluid formulations
are not changed to
improve this
function
Very occasionally
the temperature of
the fluid exceeds
the flash point. In
this case it is
necessary to
improve surface
cooling

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Drilling Equipment

Cooling and Lubrication


Extra lubrication may be
required between the drill
string and the casing or
wellbore, especially in
directional wells
Liquid additives are used,
or Oil based mud
Solid additives are
sometimes used such as
glass beads, plastic
beads, graphite or nut
plug
Drill pipe rubbers are
sometimes added to
reduce wear between the
casing and drill pipe

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Drilling Equipment

Power Downhole motors


TURBINES
Turbines to turn
the bit or power
DRIVESHAFT
MWD / LWD
equipment MUD
FLOW

STATOR
STAGE
ROTATION
ROTOR

STATOR

ROTATION

ROTOR

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Drilling Equipment

Transfer information from measurement


equipment to the surface
This is done with a pressure pulse
Antenna Array

Pressure
Time
MWD

Continuous Wave
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Drilling Equipment

Environmental Impact - Offshore

Ma
n
Sheen Discharg
e

Mussel
(Mytilus sp.) Bioaccumulatio
n

Zooplankto
Algae n Tain
(Skeletonema sp.) (Acartia t
sp.)
Fish
Shrimp (Scophthalamus
(Mysidopsis sp.) sp.)
Sediment
Biodegradatio Reworker
n (Corophium sp.)

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Drilling Equipment

Environmental Impact - Land

Discharge
- Chlorides
- Heavy metals
- pH
Liquid Drilled
- TDS
- BOD, COD Waste Cuttings
- Clarity

Disposal
- Toxicity
- Chlorides
Tre - Heavy metals
- Oil content
at - Solids content

Recycle
- Solids
content

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Drilling Equipment

Secure Maximum Hole Information


The operator will always require the following
information:

Rock type being drilled


The cuttings should not dissolve or disintegrate
Analyses of gases
The gases should separate easily from the mud
The fluid should have a defined resistivity
Formation resistivity measurements need to be
made

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Drilling Equipment

Control Corrosion
The :
Drill string fluid
should be non
corrosive to the
Casing and Surface
equipment
Corrosion can lead to:
Wash outs
Corrosion leads to loss of
Twist off
Pump failure
Surface Leaks
&

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Drilling Equipment

Support Part of the Tubular


Weight
Aids in supporting part of the
weight of the drill string and
casing
The degree of buoyancy is
directly proportional to the
density of the fluid.
Buoyancy factor= 65.4-mud weight, ppg
65.4

The fluid density is never changed to


increase the buoyancy

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Drilling Equipment

Maximize Penetration Rates


The fluid properties greatly
influence penetration rates by:
Removing cuttings from below the bit and wellbore
Reducing the cushioning effect of solids between the
bit teeth and the formation
Reducing the hydrostatic differential
Increasing the jet velocity

Bits
Rig days,
Bits,
Rig days
Ft/Bit.

Ft/Bit

5 10
Solids Content (%volume)

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Drilling Equipment

Well Cost
Well Daily Footage Once off and
= + +
Cost Cost Cost Other Costs
($) (days x $/day) (ft x $/ft) ($)

DFS Fluids Drilling Completion


= + +
Cost Engineering Fluid Fluid
($) (days x $/day) (ft x $/ft) ($)

DFS direct cost is relatively small (5 to 10% of well cost)


Greatest savings achieved by improving Drilling Efficiency

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Drilling Equipment

Key Drilling Fluid Issues

Maintain
borehole stability
Minimise
loss of fluid Suspend barite
to the formation under static and
dynamic conditions

Control
formation Remove
pressure drilling cuttings
from the hole

Provide hydraulic
Lubricate
horse power
the drill string
to the bit

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Drilling Equipment

Drilling fluid
Liquid+
Liquid Gas
Gas

Exhaust Aerated
Water Base Mud Oil base mud Air NG N2 Mist Foam
gas mud

Non-
Non-
Inhibitive Diesel Mineral petroleum
inhibitive
HCS

Polymer

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (WBM)
Often, water is the base of drilling mud. Water makes
up the liquid part or phase of a water-based mud.
Crew members put clay and special additives into
the water to make a mud with the properties
needed to do its job well. For example, clays give
it thickness or viscosity. The water in the mud may
be fresh water, sea water or concentrated brine
(salt water).

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (WBM)
INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Inhibitive fluids are Non-hydrated
fluids which do not
cause appreciable
formation alteration.
When swelling and
hydration of clays and
shale are expected,
inhibitive water-base
muds can be applied.
Sub-classified into
Calcium-based Muds
Salt-based Muds
Potassium-based
Muds

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Calcium-Based Muds
Calcium-based muds are primarily used to drill intervals
of highly reactive shales. Calcium muds are best suited
to penetrate horizons that contain gypsum and hydrite.

Calcium-based muds are highly resistant to


contamination. They tolerate solids well, but a high
concentration of low-gravity solids will cause unstable
rheological properties.

The principal calcium-based muds are:


Lime Muds
Lime/MOR-REX Muds
Gyp Muds

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Calcium-Based Muds (Lime Muds)
A type of water-base mud that is saturated with lime,
Ca(OH)2, and has excess, undissolved lime solids
maintained in reserve. It can be low lime, intermidate or
high.

Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function


Bentonite 22-26 Viscosity, Filtration control
Lignosulfonate 2-6 Deflocculant
Lime 2-10 Inhibition, Alkalinity
Control
Caustic Soda/ Caustic PH 10.5-12.5 Alkalinity control,
Potash Inhibition
Lignite 2-4 Filtration control
Starch 3-4 Filtration Control
PAC 0.25-1.5 Filtration Control

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Calcium-Based Muds (Lime/MOR-REX Muds)
Lime/MOR-REX Muds are similar to the lime muds previously
discussed; however, lignosulfonate is not required.
Instead, a polysaccharide deflocculant (MOR-REX) is used
to counteract rheological problems associated with lime
muds.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 10-30 Viscosity, Filtration control
MOR-REX 2-6 Deflocculant, limitation 250 oF,
Alkalinity control
Lime 2-10 Viscosity, filtration control

Caustic Soda/ Caustic Potash PH 11.5-12.5 Alkalinity control, Inhibition

Lignite 2-10 Filtration control


Starch 2-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.25-1.5 Filtration Control
Gilsonite 2-8 Hole stabilizer and filtration
control

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Calcium-Based Muds (Gyp Muds)
Originally, gyp muds were used for drilling massive sections
of anhydrite. Lack of an effective deflocculant confined
their use to low-density muds that normally possessed
high viscosity and high gel strengths, until the introduction
of chrome lignosulfonate as a deflocculant.
. Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 20-24 Viscosity, Filtration control

Lignosulfonate 4-8 Deflocculant


Gypsum 4-8 Inhibition, Alkalinity Control

Caustic Soda/ Caustic Potash PH 9.5-11.0 Alkalinity control, Inhibition


Lignite 2-4 Filtration control
Starch 2-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.25-1.5 Filtration Control
Barite As required Weighting agent
DESCO 2-3 Deflocculant

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Salt-Based Muds
salt-based muds are muds containing varying amounts of
predominantly sodium chloride ranging from 10,000 mg/L
NaCl up to saturation 315,000 mg/L NaCl.
Salt acts as a contaminant in freshwater mud systems.
Even when encountered in small amounts, salt
contamination can cause an increase in viscosity, gel
strengths, and fluid loss. As salt concentrations increase
to greater than 10,000 mg/L, mud properties become
increasingly more difficult to control.

The principal salt-based muds are:


Saturated salt mud
Saltwater mud
Brackish water mud
Saltwater mud Saturated salt mud
Brackish water

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Salt-Based Muds (Saturated salt Muds)
Saturated Salt Muds are used to prevent excessive hole
enlargement while drilling massive salt beds.They can also
be used to reduce dispersion and hydration of shales and
clays. The chloride content of saturated salt muds is
192,000 mg/L (315,000 mg/L NaCl) at saturation.

Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function


Rehydrated Bentonite 10-25 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Soda PH 9.0-11.0 Alkalinity control, Inhibition
Soda Ash 1-3 Calcium removal
Starch 4-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.25-1.5 Filtration Control
Salt (Nacl) 125 Weigh Material, inhibition

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Salt-Based Muds (salt Water Muds)
Saltwater muds are often prepared from fresh water or
bentonite-water muds. The are most often the result of
using field brine or seawater as make up wate or
incorporating salt that is encountered while drilling. These
muds may range from approximately 25,000 mg/L salt
(Nacl) up to 315,000 (nearly saturation).
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Rehydrated Bentonite 15-25 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Soda/ Caustic 0.5-1.5 Alkalinity control, Inhibition
Potash
Lignite 2-4 Filtration Control
Starch 3-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.5-1.0 Filtration Control
Lignosulfonate 3-6 Deflocculant

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Salt-Based Muds (Brackish Water Muds)
In many areas, because of economics or lack of sufficient
fresh water, brackish water from bay water, inland canales
or swamps often is used as the makeup water for drilling
fluids. These muds generally are termed brackish-water if
their salt content is between 10,000 to 25,000 mg/L.

Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function


Rehydrated Bentonite 15-25 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Soda/ Caustic 0.5-1.5 Alkalinity control, Inhibition
Potash
Lignite 2-4 Filtration Control
Starch 3-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.5-1.0 Filtration Control
Lignosulfonate 3-6 Deflocculant

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Potassium-Based Muds
Potassium-based muds are used in areas where inhibition
is required to limit chemical alteration of shales, To drill
water sensitive and sloughing shale, to stabilize shale and
prevent swelling . Potassium performance is based on
cationic exchange of potassium for sodium or calcium
ions on smectites and interlayered clays. The potassium
ion compared to calcium ion or other inhibitive ions, fits
more closely into the clay lattice structure, thereby greatly
reducing hydration of clays.

The principal salt-based muds are:


KCl-Polymer (KCl-PHPA)
KOH-Lignite Muds
KOH-Lime Muds
KCl-Cationic Polymer Muds

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Potassium-Based Muds (KCL polymer Muds)
They were developed to provide wellbore stability and minimize
cuttings dispersion. When properly formulated, benefits such
as low formation damage and high return permeability
encourage their use for drilling water-sensitive formations.
Potassium chloride (KCl) muds not only use a wide variety of
potassium chloride concentrations from 3 to 15 wt%, but also
a wide variety of types and concentrations of polymers.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Prehydrate Bentonite 5-15 Viscosity, Filtration control

Lignosulfonate 3-6 Deflocculant


Potassium Chloride 5-60 Inhibition source of K+ ion

Caustic Potash PH 9.5-11.0 Alkalinity control, Inhibition


Lignite 2-4 Filtration control
Starch 3-6 Filtration Control
PAC 0.5-1.0 Filtration Control

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Potassium-Based Muds (KOH-Lignite Muds)
In areas where high chloride ions may be objectionable (logging,
environmental considerations, etc.) KOH-lignite systems
should be considered. Potassium lignite muds offer inhibition
and are flexible enough to be tailored to meet desired drilling
requirements. Polymers can be used for viscosity and fluid
loss control. Lignosulfonates are added if additional
deflocculation is needed.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 15-25 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Potash 0.5-1.5 Alkalinity control, Inhibition
Lignite 5-8 Filtration control
Barite As needed for density Filtration Control and
viscosity
PAC/CMC 0.5-1.0 Filtration Control and
viscosity

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Drilling Equipment

INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Potassium-Based Muds (KCl - Cationic Polymer
Muds)

One of the most recent advances in drilling fluid


technology has been the development of cationic
muds, which use a cationic (positively charged)
polymer along with a potassium salt to inhibit reactive
shales. KCl-Cationic Polymer muds are generally
considered to be the most inhibitive water-based muds

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (WBM)
Non-INHIBITIVE FLUIDS Hydrated
The term noninhibited
refers to the lack of
specific ions such as
potassium, calcium, or
chloride that would inhibit
the ability of the
formation to absorb
water. It is simple and
inexpensive. It is Sub-
classified into
Clear Water
Native Muds
Bentonite-Water Muds
Lignite/Lignosulfonate
(Deflocculated) Muds

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Drilling Equipment

NON-INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Clear water
Spud Muds are used during drilling to:
clean the hole;
prevent sloughing of the surface hole;
provide a viscous sweep to clean gravel/sand from the
borehole;
form a filter cake to prevent seepage to the formation.

Formulation:
Water: (Fresh, brackish, salt)
Caustic: 8.5 to 10.5 pH in fresh-water muds 10.5 to 11.5 pH
in salt-water muds
Clay: 10 to 35 lb/bbl, depending on mud weight Fresh
water-Sodium bentonite. Salt water-Attapulgite or
prehydrated bentonite

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Drilling Equipment

NON-INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Native Mud
In some areas, drilled formations contain mud-
making claystones or shales. When water is
pumped down the hole during drilling, it
returns with the native solids dispersed in it.

Viscosity builds with continued drilling and


circulation. The result is a viscous native mud.
Dilution may be needed to keep the mud from
becoming excessively viscous. On the other
hand, small quantities of bentonite may be
added to increase viscosity and improve
filtration control. Caustic soda or lime is
usually added for corrosion control.

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Drilling Equipment

NON-INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Bentonite-Water Muds

Bentonite dispersed in fresh water produces a mud


with good cuttings lifting capacity, good drilling rate,
and usually adequate filtration control.

These bentonite-water muds are commonly used as


spud muds for drilling surface hole; however, they
are sometimes used for drilling deeper.

Water quality is important in formulating a bentonite-


water mud. Chlorides (Cl-) and hardness (Ca++and
Mg++) in the makeup water interfere with the
hydration of the bentonite. Calcium ion concentration
should not exceed 150 mg/L. If greater than 150 mg/L,
it should be treated out with soda ash. Treatment with
0.1 lb of soda ash per barrel of water will remove
approximately 100 mg/L of calcium ion
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Drilling Equipment

NON-INHIBITIVE FLUIDS
Lignite-Lignosulfonate Muds
Lignite-Lignosulfonate Muds can be used to drill a variety of
formations. They can be weighted up to 18 or 19 lb/gal,
provided low-gravity solids (bentonite and drill solids) are in
the proper range.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 10-25 Viscosity, Filtration control
Lignosulfonate 0.25-8 Deflocculant, filtration
control
Caustic Soda/Caustic For PH 9.5-10.5 Alkalinity control
potash
Soda Ash 0.25-1 Calcium Ion removal
Lignite 1-4 Filtration Control
Barite As needed for density Weighting agent
Low visocsity PAC/CMC 0.25-1.0 Filtration control
Gilsonite 2-8 Filtration control

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (WBM)
Polymer FLUIDS Polymer
Polymer fluids generally
contain only minor amounts
of bentonite to build
viscosity. Primary
viscosification is provided
by high molecular weight
polymers such as PHPA,
PAC, XC polymer, etc.
Polymers fluids also reduce
cuttings dispersion and
stabilize the wellbore
through encapsulation. It
can be:
Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds
High-Temperature
Deflocculated Polymer Muds

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds
In many areas clear water cannot be used as a drilling fluid
because of its effect on formations and the lack of
sufficient viscosity to properly clean the hole. In these
circumstances Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds may be used
to closely simulate the drilling characteristics of clear
water.
Non-dispersed Polymer muds have found their best
application in areas where formations are hard and
penetration rates are slow.

The principal Non-dispersed polymer muds are:


BEN-EX Muds
Low-Solids PAC/CMC Muds
Low-Solids PHPA Muds

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds-BEN-EX
(Bentonite Extender) Muds
BEN-EX is a powdered water-dispersible polymer packaged in 2-
lb bags. It is used to increase the yield of bentonite and to
flocculate drilled solids. The addition of 0.05 lb/bbl BEN-EX
will approximately double the yield of bentonite. This is an
advantage because fewer solids are used to produce the
same viscosity.

Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function


Bentonite 10-14 Viscosity, Filtration control
BEN-EX 0.05-0.1 Bentonite Extender
Sodium Polyacrylate 0.25-0.5 Selective flocculant
Soda Ash 0.25-0.75 Calcium Ion removal
Barite As needed for density Weighting agent

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds- Low-solids
PAC/CMC muds
Low-solids PAC/CMC muds use cellulose-
based polymers rather than sodium
polyacrylate polymers.The cellulosic polymers
have greater tolerance to calcium and salt
than do the acrylate polymers.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 5-10 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Soda For PH 9.0-9.5 Alkalinity
Regular PAC/CMC 0.25-0.5 Filtration control
Soda Ash 0.25-0. 5 Calcium Ion removal
Barite As needed for density Weighting agent

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
Non-Dispersed Polymer Muds- Low-Solids PHPA
Muds
Low-Solids PHPA Muds (partially hydrolyzed
polyacrylamide) are used to inhibit shale. These
acrylate/acrylamide polymers absorb onto clay
surfaces. Thus, because PHPA is a long-chemical
molecule, it can effectively link a number of clay
platelets together creating viscosity with a minimum
concentration of low-gravity solids.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 10-14 Viscosity, Filtration control
Caustic Soda/Caustic For PH 9.0-9.5 Alkalinity
Potash
PHPA 1.0 Solids Encapsulation,
Borehole Stability
Soda Ash 0.25-0.75 Treat out Ca++
SPA 0.25-0.5 Filtration control
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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
High-Temperature Deflocculated Polymer
Muds
They were developed to extend the temperature stability of
conventional polymer muds. They are designed to tolerate,
in addition to contaminants the inclusion of inhibiting ions
such as KCl or NaCl. These muds are required to provide
stability along the same lines as an oil mud yet still be
economical. If the high-temperature deflocculated polymer
mud can be used in place of an oil-base mud, then it
becomes very attractive for reasons of environmental and
safety considerations.

The principal Non-dispersed polymer muds are:


THERMA-DRIL
PYRO-DRILL
DURATHERM
POLYTEMP

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
High-Temperature Deflocculated Polymer Muds-
(PYRO-DRILL)
PYRO-DRIL is a high-temperature mud system sold by
Milpark. This system uses a MILTEMP, a sulfonated, styrene
maleic anhydride, as a high-temperature deflocculant. PYRO-
TROL is an acrylamide-acrylmido methyl propane sulfonic
acid. This material is used as a high-temperature filtration
control agent. PYRO-VIS is a sugar beet extract and is used
to provide carrying capacity without addition of bentonite.
KEM-SEAL, an acrylate-acrylamide compound, provides
filtration control in saltwater brines.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
PYRO-VIS As needed Supplemental viscosifier
MIL-TEMP 1-2 Deflocculant
PYRO-TROL 1-3 Filtration control
KEM-SEAL 0.5-2 Filtration Control
CHEMTROL X 2-6 Filtration control
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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
High-Temperature Deflocculated Polymer Muds-
(THERMA-DRIL)
THERMA-DRIL is a high-temperature polymer drilling fluid
system sold by Baroid. This mud system utilizes prehydrated
bentonite for suspension and some filtration control.
THERMA-THIN, a liquid polyacrylate/terpolymer, is used as a
deflocculant and to control high-temperature gelation.
THERMA-CHECK, a vinyl-sulfonate co-polymer, is used to
control filtrate up to 425F.
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
Bentonite 8-10 Viscosity, Filtration control
Therma-Thin 1-4 Deflocculant
Therma-Check 2-8 Filtration control
Caustic Soda For Ph 9-10 Alkalinity Control
Oxygen Scavenger 1-2 corrosion control,
temperature stability

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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
High-Temperature Deflocculated Polymer Muds-
(DURATHERM)
DURATHERM is a high-temperature mud system sold by M-I
Drilling Fluids. This mud system uses small concentrations of
bentonite for suspension. XP-20, a modified chrome lignite
containing potassium, is used as a fluid loss additive and
viscosity stabilizer. XP-20 is used primarily in fresh water
systems. MELANEX-T, a melanin polymer derivative, is used
as a high-temperature deflocculant to reduce viscosity and
high-temperature gelation. RESINEX, a resin polymer, is used
for HTHP filtration control
Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function
PYRO-VIS As needed Supplemental viscosifier
MIL-TEMP 1-2 Deflocculant
PYRO-TROL 1-3 Filtration control
KEM-SEAL 0.5-2 Filtration Control
CHEMTROL X 2-6 Filtration control
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Drilling Equipment

Polymer fluids
High-Temperature Deflocculated Polymer Muds-
(POLYTEMP)
The IDF POLY TEMP mud system uses POLY TEMP, a vinyl
sulphonate-vinyl amide co-polymer of low to medium
molecular weight, to reduce filtrate. Bentonite is used for
suspension. POLY TEMP can be used in a seawater or
freshwater system. IDF HITEMP, a resin compound, is used to
aid in HTHP filtrate control.

Additive Concentration, lb/bbl Function


Bentonite 8-10 Viscosity, filter cake
Hi-Temp II 4.0-8.0 Fluid loss control
PTS-200 4.0-8.0 Temperature Stabilizer
PolyTemp 2.0-4.0 Fluid Loss Control
Idsperse XT 1.0-4.0 Deflocculant

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (OBM)
Oil Based Mud
At times, down hole drilling conditions require the
crew to add oil to the mud, or in some cases, crew
members use oil instead of water as the base of
the mud. This is called oil-based mud.

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (OBM)
Oil based mud has many advantages: It can
stabilize the formation and reduce downhole
drilling problems. However, it is harder for the
crew to work with because it can create slippery
conditions and environmental precautions must
be used. From an environmental standpoint, mud
with oil is more difficult to handle because the oil
clings to the drill cuttings. The oil must be
cleaned off the cuttings before theyre disposed
of.

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid (OBM)
There are two basic classifications of oil-
based fluids;
Invert emulsions
Conventional all-oil muds.
The amount of water present will describe
the type of oil base fluid.
The oil used in these types of oil base
fluids can range from crude oil, refined
oils such as diesel or mineral oils, or the
non-petroleum organic fluids that are
currently available..

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Drilling Equipment

Emulsions
Invert Emulsion WBM Emulsion
Oil Phase Water Phase

Water Oil

Oil External Phase Water External Phase


Oil wet solids & surfaces Water-wet solids & surfaces
Desirable for Drilling Cementing / Stimulation

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Drilling Equipment

Emulsifiers
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active
Agents.
Act by Reducing the Interfacial
Tension Between Two Liquids or
Between a Liquid and a Solid.
Emulsifiers
Soaps
Wetting Agents

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Drilling Equipment

Emulsifiers
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents
Have a hydrophilic polar head and an
organophilic non-polar tail.
HYDROPHILIC
HEAD (WATER
LOVING)
C C C C C O

C C C C C

(OIL LOVING) OH

ORGANOPHILIC TAIL
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Drilling Equipment

Emulsifiers

WATER
DROPLET

OIL
FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP
Drilling Equipment

Emulsifiers
INSUFFICIENT
EMULSIFIER CONCENTRATION

WATER WATER
COALESCING
DROPLET DROPLET
OF DROPLETS

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Drilling Equipment

Emulsifiers

- Designed to Oil Wet solids

SOLIDS SURFACE

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Drilling Equipment

Conventional all-oil mud


Conventional all-oil muds have oil as the
external phase but they are designed to be
free of water when formulated or in use. Since
water is not present, asphaltic type materials
are required to control the fluid loss and
viscosity. Since there is no water added to this
system during the formulation and water
additions are avoided if possible while drilling,
there is only a minimum requirement for
emulsifiers.
All-oil muds can withstand small quantities of
water; however, if the water becomes a
contaminating effect, the mud should be
converted to an invert emulsion. If the water is
not quickly emulsified, the solids in the mud
can become water wet and will cause stability
problems.
Water may represent at most 2 to 5 % to
recognize a conventional type

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Drilling Equipment

Invert emulsions
Invert emulsions are oil muds that are
formulated to contain moderate to high
concentrations of water. Water is an integral
part of the invert emulsion and can contain a
salt such as calcium or sodium chloride. An
invert emulsion can contain as much as 60% of
the liquid phase as water. Special emulsifiers
are added to tightly emulsify the water as the
internal phase and prevent the water from
breaking out and coalescing into larger water
droplets. These water droplets, if not tightly
emulsified, can water wet the already oil wet
solids and seriously affect the emulsion
stability.
Invert emulsions are usually tightly emulsified,
low fluid loss oil muds. An improvement in
drilling rates has been seen when the fluid loss
control of the system is relaxed, thus the name
relaxed invert emulsion.

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Drilling Equipment

Invert Vs Conventional
Invert point
Viscosity

Conventional
(Water in oil)

Invert
(Oil in water)

composition
0 100
Water OIL
100 0
FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP
Drilling Equipment

The types of base oils used


Refined Oils- the refined oils are
those such as diesel or kerosene
which is the most commonly used
oil to formulate and maintain oil-
based muds.

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Drilling Equipment

The types of base oils used


Crude Oils - crude oil can be used in
place of diesel as the base oil in
areas where diesel may not be
available in sufficient quantities to
formulate and maintain an oil-based
mud system.

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Drilling Equipment

The types of base oils used


Mineral Oils - the mineral oils have lower
aromatic content than diesel and are
considered less toxic than diesel.

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Drilling Equipment

The types of base oils used


Synthetic Fluids - The base fluids in synthetic
muds are non-petroleum organic compounds
that act like petroleum-derived oils in drilling
operations but appear to biodegrade readily
in the ocean. Like most OBMs, synthetic
muds are invert emulsions, with the synthetic
fluid serving as the external, or continuous,
phase and a brine serving as the internal
phase.

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Drilling Equipment

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Drilling Equipment

GAS
Air drilling
Compressed air is used as the sole circulating
medium.No fluid (Water / Soap) injection means
the annular returns are Dust.Cuttings are
carried to surface by High Annular Velocity and
routed to a pit through a Blooie-Line.

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Drilling Equipment

Air Drilling Layout

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Drilling Equipment

GAS
Drilling with air or gas can prevent
formation damage and can overcome
severe lost circulation problems. And it
allows the bit to drill very fast. No fluid
system to clean up or Disposal at the
surface
Down hole conditions have to be just right
for air or gas to be usable. For example,
the bit cannot drill through formations
containing large amounts of water. The
water mixes with the cuttings and the air
or gas and clogs up the hole. Influxes will
wet cuttings resulting in mud rings in the
annulus, restricting hole cleaning. Chance
of downhole fire if these is no eliminated.

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Drilling Equipment

GAS
Natural gas drilling
If a source of high-pressure
natural gas at the correct
volumes is available, drilling
with natural gas is a very good
option. The use of air
hammers with gas drilling is
another option that can be
used to increase ROP. This is
an option used in tight gas
reservoirs.
Natural gas is also non-toxic
and non-corrosive if
sweetened correctly. Natural
gas has greater solubility in
hydrocarbons when compared
to nitrogen, which may resultin
the potential for greater
disengagement problems and
asphaltene precipitation.

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Drilling Equipment

Natural gas system

RBOPTM
Gas Flare System Drilling Rig

Choke Manifold
Flare Knockout Horizontal Separator
Vessel
Feed Gas Compressors

Produced Gas
Compressors Gas Processing Unit

Feed Gas Line


Gas Gathering Line

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Drilling Equipment

GAS
Cryogenic nitrogen is produced by extraction
from the air through fractional distillation. In
this process the air is liquefied and the liquid
is then separated though the following factors;
Liquid air boils at -317F
Liquid nitrogen boils at -320F
Liquid oxygen boils at -297F.
Oxygen starts to evaporate leaving Nitrogen
rich liquid. By repeating the boiling and
condensing processes high purity of liquid
nitrogen up to 99.98 % can be obtained.
Stainless Steel

Carbon Steel

Vaporizer

Liquid Nitrogen Pump


(-320OF)

Gaseous Nitrogen to well


80OF, 0-10,000 psi
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Drilling Equipment

GAS
Membrane Nitrogen: Nitrogen gas is generated
by introducing compressed air into hollow
membrane fibers, which preferentially separate
oxygen and other rich gases from the air
leaving high purity nitrogen at around 95%.
The remaining 5% is normally oxygen.
NITROGEN
ENRICHED
HOLLOW FIBER GAS
MEMBRANE

OXYGEN-
ENRICHED
AIR

FEED AIR
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Drilling Equipment

N2 surface Equipment

2 3 4

1
1. Primary compressors
2. Compressor - extra
3. Nitrogen Unit
4. Booster

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Drilling Equipment

GAS
The exhaust gas from a diesel engine is
usually composed of approximately 83%
nitrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, 3% oxygen, 2%
carbon monoxide and 2% other gases. To
date, there are no recorded cases of
underbalanced drilling operations using
diesel generated exhaust gas.

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Drilling Equipment

Exhaust Gas System

Compressor & Exhaust Gas Engine


booster Unit (porpane fuel
engine)

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid and GAS


Mist Drilling
Air Drilling with the addition of liquids usually water,
soap and chemical inhibitors. Mixture of water and
soap is added to the air stream at surface at a
controlled rate to improve annular hole cleaning.
Misting can use many different mediums (water,
surfactant, etc.). When Misting the Annular Pressure
increases so the ROP will typically drop vs Dusting
applications. Additional Air Volume can help
improve ROP. Typicall done because the formation
makes water or to prevent downhole fires
AIR/GAS

WATER

MIST
(97-100 % AIR)
FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP
Drilling Equipment

Liquid and GAS


Foaming drilling
Adding surfactant to a fluid and mixing the fluid
system with a gas generates foam. If small
amounts of water are present in the formations
being drilled, special equipment can inject a foam
agent into the air stream. The foam helps separate
the cuttings and remove water from a hole.

AIR/GAS

WATER

FOAM
(0-97 % AIR)
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Drilling Equipment

Mist or foam drilling layout

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Drilling Equipment

Liquid and GAS


Aerated Drilling
In some cases, the rig operator
may use aerated mud, which
like foam drilling, helps prevent Mist
clogging of the well bore.
Aerated drilling uses both mud
and air pumped into the Water Transition
standpipe at the same time.
In a gaseated or aerated
Gas Gaseated
system, the gas is injected into
the system. The gas is
compressed at the bottom of
the hole and expands as it goes
up. It may change the phase
and convert into a mist if there
is enough air and it is allowed
to expand.

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Drilling Equipment

Aerated fluid layout

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Drilling Equipment

Typical Composition OF
WBM
Water (continuous) phase
Reactive commercial clay solids
Reactive formation (drilled) solids
Inert formation (drilled) solids
Inert commercial solids
Soluble chemicals

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Water phase
Definition: The continuous (liquid)
phase of the drilling fluid (mud)

Can be fresh water, brackish water,


sea water, saturated salt water, or
another type of brine fluid

Can be hard water containing a high


concentration of calcium or
magnesium

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Fresh water
Usually available only on land
locations
Advantages:
Commercial clays hydrate more
Most chemicals are more soluble
Disadvantages:
Formation clays hydrate more,
which can result in hole problems
and damage to the producing zone

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Brackish water
Usually in a marine
environment

Slightly salty

Higher calcium and magnesium


than fresh water

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Sea water
Chlorides and hardness varies
Chlorides in Gulf of Mexico
15,000 - 30,000 mg/l
Calcium in Gulf of Mexico 400
mg/l
Magnesium in Gulf of Mexico
1200 mg/l
Hardness in North Sea much
higher
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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Saturated salt water
Used primarily to drill through
large salt formations
Salt must be added to achieve
saturation
Prevents hole enlargement due to
leaching or dissolving salt from
the formation
Leaching could result in hole
problems and expensive mud and
cement costs

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Brine water
Usually used for clay (shale)
inhibition
Potassium chloride (KCl)
Calcium Chloride CaCl2
Formates (Na+, K+)
Bromides

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Reactive Commercial Clay
solids
Thats clay which has low gravity
and used to provide viscosity
and yield point for the mud and
decreasing water loss

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Reactive Commercial Clay solids

S.G. = 2.6, Density = 21.67 ppg


Commercial clays
Sodium Montmorillonite or
bentonite
M-I GEL
Attapulgite
SALT GEL

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Reactive Commercial Clay
solids

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Reactive Formation clay solids
They are produced from drilling and
can change mud properties such as:
S.G. = 2.6, Density = 21.67 ppg
Montmorillonite (swelling clay)
Illite (non-swelling clay)
Kaolinite (non-swelling clay)
Chlorite (non-swelling clay)
Gumbo Shale (combination of above clays)

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Drilling Equipment

Migratory Silt and Clay

Feldspar (Microcline) Kaolinite

Chlorite Illite
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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Commercial Inert solids
Thats used usually as
weighting materials when it has
high gravity such as
Barite (barium sulfate)
S.G. = 4.2, Density = 35 ppg
(M-I BAR)
Used to increase mud density up to
maximum of 22 ppg

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Drilling Equipment

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Commercial Inert solids
Hematite (iron oxide)
S.G. = 5.0, Density = 41.67 ppg
Fer-Ox
Used to increase mud density up to
maximum of 25 ppg

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Commercial Inert solids
Calcium Carbonate
S.G. = 2.8, Density = 23.34 ppg
Acid soluble
Lo-Wate
Used to increase fluid density up to
maximum of 14.0 ppg
Used as bridging agent in drill-in, oil and
synthetic fluids

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Commercial Inert solids
Lost Circulation Material
Material used to bridge off (seal)
formations where whole mud is
being lost to the formation
Nut shells (mostly pecan &
walnut)
Mica
Fiber (wood, paper, plastic, etc.)

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Commercial Inert solids

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Formation Inert solids
They are produced from drilling
and can change mud properties
such as
S.G. = 2.6 , Density = 21.67 ppg
Sand
Limestone
Dolomite

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Formation Inert solids

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Soluble chemicals
Thats used to control PH, density,
viscosity, fluid loss and gel strength
Caustic Soda (NaOH) pH 13.3
Caustic Potash (KOH) pH 13.3
Lime [Ca(OH)2] pH 12.4
Soda Ash (Na2CO3) pH 11 - 11.5
Sodium Bicarb (NaHCO3) pH 8.4
Zinc Oxide (ZnO)

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Soluble chemicals

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Soluble chemicals
Lignosulfonate (organic acid)
Spersene (chrome
lignosulfonate)
Spersene CF (chrome-free
lignosulfonate)
Chemical de-flocculant (mud
thinner) adds anionic (negative)
charges to the mud.

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Drilling Equipment

Composition:
Soluble chemicals
Lignite (organic acid)
Tannathin (lignite)
XP-20 (chrome lignite)
Chemical de-flocculant (mud
thinner) adds anionic (negative)
charges to the mud.
Neutralizes positive sites on the
clays causing them to repel each
other.

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Drilling Equipment

Functional Category function Typical chemicals


Weighting Materials Increase density (weight) of Barite, hematite, calcite.
mud, balancing formation ihmenite
pressure, preventing a
blowout

Viscosifiers Increase viscosity of mud to Bentonite or attapulgite clay,


suspend cuttings and carboxymethyl cellulose, &
weighting agent in mud other polymers

Thinners, dispersants, & Deflocculate clays to Tannins,polyphosphates,


temperature stability optimize viscosity and gel lignite, ligrosulfonates
agents Weighting
strength of mudMaterials

Flocculants Increase viscosity and gel Inorganic salts, hydrated


strength of clays or clarify or lime, gypsum, sodium
de-water low-solids muds carbonate and bicarbonate,
sodium tetraphosphate,
acrylamide-based polymers

Filtrate Decrease fluid loss to the Bentonite clay, lignite, Na-


reducers formation through the filter carboxymethyl cellulose,
cake on the wellbore wall polyacrylate, pregelatinized
starch

FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP


Drilling Equipment

Functional Category function Typical chemicals


Alkalinity, PH control Alkalinity, pH control Lime (CaO), caustic soda
additives additives Optimize pH and (NaOH), soda ash
alkalinity of mud, controlling (Na2CO3), sodium
mud properties bicarbonate (NaHCO3), &
other acids and bases

Lost Circulation Material Plug leaks in the welbore Nut shells, natural fibrous
wall, preventing loss of materials, inorganic solids,
whole drilling mud to the and other inert insoluble
formation solids

lubricants Reduce torque and drag on Oils, synthetic liquids,


the drill string graphite, surfactants,
glycols, glycerin
Shale control material Control hydration of shales Soluble calcium and
that causes swelling and potassium salts, other
dispersion of shale, inorganic salts, and organics
collapsing the wellbore wall such as glycols

Emulsifiers & surfactants Facilitate formation of stable Anionic, cationic, or nonionic


dispersion of insoluble detergents, soaps, organic
liquids in water phase of acids, and water-based
mud detergents

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Drilling Equipment

Functional Category function Typical chemicals


Bactericides Prevent biodegradation of Glutaraldehyde and other
organic additives aldehydes
Defoamers Reduce mud foaming Alcohols, silicones,
aluminum stearate
(C54H105AlO6), alkyl
phosphates

Pipe-freeing agents Prevent pipe from sticking to Detergents, soaps, oils,


wellbore wall or free stuck surfactants
pipe
Calcium reducers Counteract effects of calcium Sodium carbonate and
from seawater, cement, bicarbonate (Na2CO3 &
formation anhydrites, and NaHCO3) , sodium
gypsum on mud properties hydroxide (NaOH),
polyphosphates
Corrosion inhibitors Prevent corrosion of drill Amines, phosphates,
string by formation acids and specialty mixtures
acid gases
Temperature stability agents Increase stability of mud Acrylic or sulfonated
dispersions, emulsions and polymers or copolymers,
rheological properties at high lignite, lignosulfonate, tannins
temperatures

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Drilling Equipment

Viscosifer-Bentonite

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Drilling Equipment

Lost Circulation Material

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Drilling Equipment

Lost Circulation Material

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Drilling Equipment

Thinners & dispersants

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Drilling Equipment

Water Base Mud


Composition
Salt
0.660%

water Bentonite
Other
76.000% 7.082%
24.000% Barite
16.152%
NaOH
0.024%
Polyanionic
cellulose
0.024%
Strach
0.024%

soda Ash
0.020%

Xanthan
0.010%
Others
0.004%

FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP


Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Primary Emulsifier - calcium soaps
are the primary emulsifier in oil muds.
These are made in the mud by the
reaction of lime and long chain (C-16 to
C-22) fatty acids. Soap emulsions are
very strong emulsifying agents but take
some reaction time before emulsion is
actual formed. Wetting agents prevent
solids from becoming water wet while the
emulsion is forming. Emulsifiers surround
the water droplets and prevent their
coalescence.

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives

Secondary emulsifiers - very


powerful oil wetting chemicals.
Generally these products do not
form emulsions as well as the
primary emulsifiers, but this oil wet
solids before the emulsion is
formed. Used to readily emulsify any
water intrusions quickly. Typically,
these additives are polyamides or
imidazolines

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Organophilic lignites - used as
high temperature fluid loss
additives. They also will aid in the
emulsification of water especially at
high temperatures. A lignite is
treated with an amine to make it oil
dispersible. It controls fluid loss by
plugging and can be used at high
concentrations without causing
excessive viscosities (20 lb/bbl +/-).

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Asphaltic fluid loss additives -
generally consist of gilsonite or
asphalt derivatives. Gilsonite has
high temperature stability (400F)
whereas asphalt is not as
temperature stable (350F). High
concentrations can cause excessive
viscosity and gelation of the mud.
Treatment level will not usually
exceed 15 lb/bbl

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Organophilic gellants - viscosity builders
that are made from bentonite, hectorite or
attapulgite treated with an amine to make
them oil dispersible. Bentonite is most
commonly used and is compatible with
diesel and mineral oils up to 350F. For
temperatures above 350F, especially in
mineral oil formulations, the hectorite based
clay should be used. Organophilic
attapulgite is used to improve the
suspension properties of packer fluids
without appreciably increasing the viscosity.

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives

Wetting agents - supplemental


additives to quickly and effectively
oil wet solids that become water
wet. Drill solids and weighting
agents will naturally water wet
and the wetting agents will strip
off the water and replace it with
an oil layer.

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Polymeric viscosifiers - additives
that increase the viscosity of oil
muds in the presence of
organophilic bentonite, especially
when the organophilic bentonite
performance is reduced by high
temperatures; they work up to
400F. A high molecular weight
sulfonated polystyrene becomes
effective only when the temperature
exceeds 250F.

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Rheological modifiers - low
molecular weight fatty acid.
Provides increase in viscosity at low
shear rates (3 and 6 rpm). Barite
can sag or slide down the hole,
especially on deviated wells; these
additives will minimize or eliminate
this sag. Increases in total mud
viscosity are avoided when using
these additives..

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Drilling Equipment

Oil Base Mud Additives


Weighting Agents - used to increase the
density of the oil mud. The most commonly
used weighting agent is barite. A mud
weight of around of 21.0 lb/gal is the
highest achievable with barite. Hematite,
with a S.G. of 5.0 can also be used to
increase the density of the oil mud. A mud
weight of around 24.0 lb/gal can be
achieved with hematite. For the same mud
weight, the solids content of the oil mud
weighted with hematite will have a lower
solids content than weighted with barite
because of the higher S.G. of the hematite.

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Drilling Equipment

Preparation of Drilling Mud


Thickened with
polymers to lift
Water- or formation cuttings
oil-based from well
fluid

Weighted with
Treated with
clays and other
other chemicals
materials to
to prevent
increase density
formation
for well control
damage

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Drilling Equipment

Mixing Procedures
1. Add the required quantity of base oil to the mixing tank.
2. Add the primary emulsifier and secondary emulsifier as
required.
3. Add filtration control additives if required.
4. Add lime as required.
5. Add required amount of water to the above mixture. If
brine is to be used, then add brine after the lime
additions.
6. Add organophilic viscosifier as required.
7. Add calcium chloride powder if brine is not used. If
calcium chloride powder is not available, then mix the
calcium chloride flakes into the water and add as a
brine.
8. Mix above for several hours to ensure a good emulsion
is formed.
9. Add weighting material as required for the desired
density.

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Drilling Equipment

Rheology

Rheology is the study of how

matter deforms and flows

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Drilling Equipment

VISCOSITY

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Drilling Equipment

Viscosity
Resistance to flow of a
fluid

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Drilling Equipment

FUNNEL VISCOSITY

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Drilling Equipment

Measurement - Rotational Viscometer

Torsion Spring

Inner Cylinder

Bearing Shaft

Rotor

Bob

Cup

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Drilling Equipment

Viscosity
100 centipoise (cp) = 1 poise

Centipoise is the dimension


used to express:
Plastic viscosity
Apparent viscosity
Effective viscosity

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Drilling Equipment

Apparent Viscosity
Apparent Viscosity (a) - Apparent viscosity, measured by
the VG meter, is the viscosity that a drilling fluid has at 600
RPM (1022 sec-1).

600
AV =
2
AV = Apparent Viscosity,
centipoise
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Drilling Equipment

Effective Viscosity
Effective Viscosity (e) - The effective viscosity from a VG
meter is the viscosity of the drilling fluid at that particular RPM.

300 x Dial Reading


EV =
RPM

EV = Effective Viscosity, centipoise

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Drilling Equipment

Viscosity
The dimensions of lb/100 sq ft are
used for expressing:
Yield point
Initial gel
10-minute gel

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Drilling Equipment

Viscosity
Shear Stress
Shear Rate
Force
Velocity
or
Dial Reading
RPM
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Drilling Equipment

SHEAR STRESS

Internal force that resists flow


System pressure loss
(circulating pressure on the
rig)
Simulated by the dial reading
on a V G meter
Force
Stress=
Area
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Drilling Equipment

SHEAR RATE
The velocity at which one layer of fluid moves past another

Annulus

Drill String

Formation

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Drilling Equipment

SHEAR RATE
Velocity (cm/sec)
Shear rate=
Distance (cm)
Shear rate= Sec-1

1 Sec-1=1.703*RPM (on VG
meter)

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Drilling Equipment

SHEAR RATE
The bulk (average) velocity at
which a fluid is moving

Annular velocity in the circulating


system is an example of bulk
velocity

Velocity is the RPM on a VG


meter

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Drilling Equipment

Factors Influenced by Mud


Rheology
Hole cleaning
Suspension of solids
Hole stability
Solids control
Equivalent circulating densities
Surge / swab pressures
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Drilling Equipment

Effect of Temperature &


Pressure
Temperature reduces
viscosity
Pressure increases
viscosity
High temperature
Breakdown of
polymers
Gelation of solids

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Drilling Equipment

Plastic Viscosity

Resistance to flow due to


mechanical friction
PV 600 300
Affected by:
Solids concentration
Size and shape of the solids
Viscosity of the fluid phase

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Drilling Equipment

Plastic Viscosity Increased


by:
Hydratable Drill Solids
Clays, shales

Inert Drill Solids


Sand, limestone, etc.

Colloidal Matter
Starch, CMC

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Drilling Equipment

Plastic Viscosity Increased


by:
Particles breaking, thus
increasing surface area and
more friction

Weight material to increase


density

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Drilling Equipment

Area Increase by Breaking of


Solids

6-inch cube

1-inch cube
1-foot cube
VOLUME SURFACE AREA
1 cu ft = 1728 cu in 1 cu ft = 864 sq in
8 6-in cubes = 1728 cu in 8 6-in cubes = 1728 sq in
1728 1-in cubes = 1728 cu in 1728 1-in cubes = 10,368 sq in
10,368 - 864 = 9504 sq in increase

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Drilling Equipment

Effect of Particle Size


on Viscosity
Apparent Viscosity, cP
200

160
0-3 Barite

120
Regular Barite

80

40
10 11 12 13 14 15
Mud Weight, ppg
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Drilling Equipment

PV, YP vs Mud Wt. ppg

PV & YP v . Mud W t, lbs /gal

50
Pla sti c Visc osi ty, Yield Poi nt & MBT

45

40
M ax Reco mm ende d P V
35

30

25

20 Ma x R ec om me nded MB T

15

10
M ax Reco mm ende d YP
5

0
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Mud W eight, lbs /gal
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Drilling Equipment

Plastic Viscosity Decreased


by:
Removal of Solids
Shale shaker
Desanders, desilters, and
centrifuges
Lowering of gel strength allows
larger particles to settle out
Dilution of solids with water

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Drilling Equipment

How Solids Affect Mud


Viscosity Viscosity No Alternative -
Water must be
added because
chemical is not
effective

Add Add More


Chemical Chemical

Low Gravity Solids


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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point
Resistance to flow due to
dispersion or attraction between
solids
YP 300 PV
Affected by:
Type of solids and associated
charges
Concentration of these solids
Dissolved salts

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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point Increased


by:
Hydratable drilled clay and shale
increasing reactive solids
content

Insufficient concentration of
deflocculants

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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point Increased


by:
Over-treatment with Soda Ash
or Sodium Bicarbonate results
in carbonate/bicarbonate
contamination

Adding inert solids (like barite)


crowds reactive solids closer
together resulting in an increase
of attractive forces
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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point Increased by:


Contaminants
Salt, cement, anhydrite, acid
gases, etc. neutralizes charges of
clay particles causing flocculation

Fracturing clay particles causes


residual forces to be left on
particle edges resulting in
flocculation
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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point Decreased


by:
Neutralizing broken bond
valences on the edges of clay
particles by adsorbing negative
ions from lignite, lignosulfonate,
phosphates, etc.
Removing the contaminating ion
(calcium or magnesium) causing
the flocculation by precipitating
the ion with soda ash, sodium
bicarbonate or phosphates.

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Drilling Equipment

Yield Point Decreased


by:
The addition of water will minimize
flocculation, but is not the solution.
Flocculation is a chemistry problem
and must be treated with a chemical.
Large additions of water also reduces
the mud weight. This may require
large additions of weight material,
which could be very expensive.

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Drilling Equipment

Interpretation of
VG Values
Increasing YP with little or no
change in PV indicates a chemistry
problem, which can be reduced by
adding chemical deflocculants only

Increasing PV with little or no


change in the YP indicated a solids
problem, which can be reduced by
the adding water or proper use of
solids control equipment

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Drilling Equipment

Interpretation of
VG Values

Simultaneous Large Increases in


Both YP and PV usually indicates
an increase in the reactive clay
content of the mud.

This should be treated with


additions of both water and
chemical de-flocculants.

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Drilling Equipment

Gel Strength
1. Gel structure develops when the mud is
static as reactive clay particles slowly
slowly move about (Browning Motion),
seeking out other reactive clay particles
and linking up with each other in a
positive-to-negative manner with respect
to each other to form a gel structure.

2. Gel strength is a function of time,


temperature, concentration and strength
of attractive particles.

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Drilling Equipment

Gel Strength
Gel Strengths decrease the
settling rate of cuttings when
circulation is interrupted

PROGRESSIVE

Gels
FRAGILE

Time
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Drilling Equipment

Problems Attributed to High


Viscosity and Gel Strengths
More pump pressure to break
circulation
Lost circulation by pressure
surges
Swabbing of shale and formation
fluids into wellbore
Abrasive sand being carried in
mud

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Drilling Equipment

Thixotropy
Due to the clay
platelets
arranging
themselves in
positions of
free energy.

Shear Stress
With time a
greater force
than the YP is
required to get Increasing
the fluid Shear Rate
moving again Gel Strength
Decreasing
Gel Strength
(lbs/100ft2) Shear Rate

Yield Point (lbs/100


ft2) Yield Point

Shear Rate

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Drilling Equipment

Types of Fluids
1. Newtonian

2. Non-Newtonian

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Drilling Equipment

Newtonian Fluids

Shear stress is directly proportional


to shear rate,

i.e., viscosity (shear stress/shear rate)


is constant regardless of shear rate.

Yield Point = 0

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Drilling Equipment

Newtonian Fluids
If the 600 dial reading is twice the
300 dial reading, the fluid is
Newtonian

NEWTONIAN
600 DR = 80
300 DR = 40

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Drilling Equipment

Newtonian Fluid Fluids

SHEAR STRESS

SHEAR RATE

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Drilling Equipment

Non-Newtonian Fluids
Viscosity depends on the rate of
shear
Does not exhibit a linear relationship
Shear thinning (as the shear rate is
increased, the shear stress increases
at a lower rate than that of the shear
rate, making it less than a proportional
increase)
When in laminar flow they are thinner
at high shear rates than at low shear
rates

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Drilling Equipment

Non-Newtonian Fluids

If the 600 dial reading is less than


twice the 300 dial reading, the
fluid is shear thinning or Non-
Newtonian

NON-NEWTONIAN
600 DR = 68
300 DR = 40
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Drilling Equipment

Non-Newtonian Fluids

SHEAR STRESS

SHEAR RATE

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Drilling Equipment

Rheological Models

Bingham Plastic

Power Law

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Drilling Equipment

Bingham Plastic Model


FANN DIAL READING
40
PV= Slope
600 = 40
25 300 = 25
PV = 15
YP = 10
10 YP

0
300 600
RPM

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Drilling Equipment

Bingham Plastic Equation


R
F = YP + PV
300

PV = Plastic Viscosity
YP = Yield Point
R = RPM Rotary Speed
F = Dial Reading at Speed R
FAQ REFERENCES ABOUT HELP
Drilling Equipment

Bingham Fluids

Bingham Plastic Fluids: These


fluids yield a straight-line
relationship between shear
stress and shear rate that does
not pass through the origin. A
finite shear stress is required to
initiate flow. The value of this
shear stress is called the Yield
Point

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Drilling Equipment

Pseudo plastic and dilatant


fluid behavior
PseudoPlastic: When the shear stress/shear
rate plot of such fluids is made on logarithmic
scale, a straight line is obtained. The effective
viscosity of a pseudoplastic fluid decreases
with increasing shear rates.

Dilatant Fluids: The behavior of dilatant fluids


is characterized by the flow curve. The
effective viscosity of a dilatant fluid increases
with increasing shear rate. This is not a
desirablecharacteristic for drilling fluids and
such fluids are rarely encountered

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Drilling Equipment

Power Law Model

SHEAR STRESS

k SHEAR RATE
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Drilling Equipment

Power Law Equation


F = K (RPM)n

F = Shear Stress, dial units


RPM = Shear Rate, pump speed
K = Consistency Index
n = Power Law Index

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Drilling Equipment

n Value
Power law index

Indicates the shear thinning


ability of a fluid

As n decreases, the fluid


becomes more shear thinning

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Drilling Equipment

n Value for Drill Pipe

np = 3.32 log (R600/R300)

n Value for Annulus

na = .657 log (R100/R3)

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Drilling Equipment

What Causes n to Increase

Removal of reactive solids

Addition of chemical thinners

(i.e., anything that will reduce


the Yield Point)

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Drilling Equipment

What Causes n to Decrease

Addition of reactive solids

Chemical contamination

(I.e., anything that will increase


the Yield Point)

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Drilling Equipment

K Value
Consistency Index

Indicates a systems viscosity


at low shear rates (1 reciprocal
second)

Influenced by viscosifier and


solids concentration

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Drilling Equipment

K Value for Drill Pipe

5.11 R300
Kp = pn
511
K Value for Annulus

5.11 R3
Ka = na
5.11

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Drilling Equipment

What Causes K to
Increase

Addition of both reactive and


non-reactive solids

Chemical contamination

(i.e., anything that will result in


an increase in viscosity)

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Drilling Equipment

What Causes K to
Decrease

Removal of reactive and non-


reactive solids

Addition of chemical
deflocculants

(i.e., anything that will result in a


reduction in viscosity)

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Drilling Equipment

Rheological Models
VG Meter Dial Readings
80
Bingham Plastic

60
Typical Drlg. Fluid

40
Power Law

20

Newtonian

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600

RPM
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Drilling Equipment

Flow Regime
Determination

Reynolds number

Wellbore geometry

Fluid properties

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Drilling Equipment

Reynolds Number

Function of:

Mud weight

Hole geometry

Flow rate

Fluid viscosity

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Drilling Equipment

928 DV (MW)
RN =
m

D = Hydraulic diameter, in
V = Velocity, ft/sec
MW = Mud weight, lb/gal
m = Viscosity, cp

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 1: No Flow

Annulus

Drill String
Formation

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 2: Plug Flow


Annulus

Drill String
Formation

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 3: Transition
(Plug to Laminar)

Annulus

Drill String Formation

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 4: Laminar
(Streamline) Flow
Annulus

Formation
Drill String

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 5: Transition (Laminar to


Turbulent)

Annulus

Drill String
Formation

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Drilling Equipment

Stage 6: Turbulent Flow


Fully developed eddy currents

Annulus

Drill String
Formation

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Drilling Equipment

Reynolds Number

< 2100 Laminar


2100 - 4100 Transitional
> 4100 Turbulent

Normally we assume turbulent


flow when the Reynolds Number >
2100
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Drilling Equipment

Type of Flow
Dye Laminar Flow
Water

Dye Turbulent Flow


Water

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Drilling Equipment

Mud Balance Test


To determine mud density, the mud engineer
or helper uses a mud balance.
The person weighing the mud puts a small
amount of mud in the mud container at left on
the balance. He then slides the adjustable
counterweight to the right or left until the arm
balances on the fork room.
The person then reads the mud density at the
point on the arm next to the counterweight. In
many areas, mud density is read in pounds
per gallon but can also be reported in pounds
per cubic foot, milligrams per liter, and other
units. Mud density is usually called mud
weight by the rig crew

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Drilling Equipment

Mud Balance Tests

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Drilling Equipment

Marsh funnel Test


One measure of a muds viscosity is
its funnel viscosity.
That is how many seconds does it
take exactly one quart of mud to flow
out of a special funnel called a Marsh
Funnel. A Marsh Funnel has a hole in
the bottom thats the standard size.
The mud engineer or helper pours
one quart of mud into the funnel and
records the time that it takes to run
out into a pitcher or beaker.

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Drilling Equipment

Marsh funnel Test

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Drilling Equipment

Rotational Viscometer
This device also measures muds
viscosity. It is a more scientific viscosity
measure than the Marsh Funnel.
The Fann V-G Meter works by spinning a
rotor or bob in a sample of mud at two
different speeds. In addition, a Fann V-G
Meter is used to determine a muds yield
point, which is a measure of the muds
resistance to flow. Combined with a
timer, the Meter also measures the
muds gel strength. Gel strength is the
muds ability to temporarily solidify or
gel when its not flowing.

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Drilling Equipment

Rotational Viscometer

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Drilling Equipment

Mud filtration
thats process of loss of FILTRATE
to a porous and permeable formation
which Occurs when the hydrostatic
pressure of the mud exceeds the
formation pressure, and there are
adequate solids in the mud to form a
filter cake which is formed on the
face of the wellbore, and many times
forms inside the formation,
depending upon the characteristics
of the formation and its composition
determined by solids in mud

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Drilling Equipment

Mud filtration

Factors affecting filtration :-


1. TIME
2. TEMPERATURE
3. PRESSURE
4. SOLIDS ( type , hydration ,
Deflocculation and dispersion)
5. Porosity ,permeability and
sorting

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Drilling Equipment

Filter Press
This is a Filter Press. Inside the white
container is a piece of porous paper called
filter paper. Also inside the container is a mud
sample.
The mud engineer puts the mud sample under
100 pounds per square inch of pressure for 30
minutes. The pressure forces the liquid part
of the mud, the filtrate, through the filter
paper and into the graduated cylinder. By
measuring the amount of the filtrate, the mud
engineer can get an indication of the amount
of filtrate that will be lost to down hole
formations and the amount of solids or wall
cake build up on the wall of the hole.

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Drilling Equipment

Filter Press

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Drilling Equipment

Chloride Test
Mud engineers may run other
drilling mud tests. One common
test is for salt or chloride in the
mud filtrate. By adding
Potassium Chromate and other
chemicals, the engineer can
determine if the hole has
penetrated a salt formation. It can
also determine whether salt water
has entered the well bore, which
may be a sign of a kick.

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Drilling Equipment

Chloride Test

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