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HSC Biology: Search for better health

Focus 1

Difficulties in defining health and disease

Discuss the difficulties of defining the terms health and disease

Health (defined by WHO) is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely
the absence of disease and infirmity

Health has a number of components and is very broad


Health is subjective for individuals and relative to others
Unlikely a person has a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being at any one
time difficult to achieve if taken literally
Health is a constantly changing state relative to ourselves and others over a period of time
Advantage with definition: encompasses the whole person

Disease is the impairment of health or any condition that adversely affects the normal functioning of
any part of a living thing, producing specific signs and symptoms often at a specific location.

Normal functioning is subjective


Difficult to define is health itself cannot be defined
Conditions that would not usually be considered a disease e.g. a broken toe would be
classed as a disease if definition is taken literally

Disease (more information)

Non-infectious diseases cannot be transmitted from one person to another via the environment e.g.
nutritional deficiencies (scurvy from vitamin C deficiency), inherited diseases and diseases caused by
environmental agents (lead poisoning and lung cancer caused by smoking)

Infection diseases are those caused by a pathogen e.g. measles, influenza, gonorrhoea and tinea.

A pathogen is a parasite that causes harm or damage to a host. It may be:


a microorganism e.g. a bacterium or fungus
an agent e.g. a virus or prion
a multicellular organism e.g. a worm

Infection refers to a pathogen being present in a host but it doesnt necessarily equate with disease.

A microorganism may be present in an organism but may not be pathogenic some are a part of the
natural flora of the body
e.g. bacterium Escherichia coli is present in large numbers in our alimentary canals but it does no
harm to the human host. However, if E. coli enters the urinogenital system, it is pathogenic.
Most pathogens (and thus the disease they cause) can be transmitted from person to person either
by direct contact or through the air.
A contagious disease is one spread from person to person by contact.

E.g. Diptheria fever is an infectious disease caused by bacteria that infect the tonsils, throat and nose
and extend into respiratory passages that can become blocked so that the patient can suffocate.
Treatment is now available for diptheria but most babies in Australia are immunised against it and
do not develop the disease even if they come into contact with the causative bacteria later on.

Maintenance of health
Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in
the maintenance of health

Genes (hereditary unit) sections of DNA that code for the production of polypeptides (protein
synthesis) proteins control all metabolism and cell growth.
A gene malfunction may disrupt the metabolic pathway and affect the health of a person.*

Mitosis cell division that produces identical cells important for growth and reproduction
Mitosis replaces millions of cells that die each day - failure would lead to impaired functioning
Two types of genes control cell division: proto-oncogenes (stimulates cell division) and tumor
suppressor genes a mutation in either of these genes can interfere with normal cell division,
causing the development of tumors

Cell differentiation and specialization


Cells differentiate into specific cells e.g. muscle, epithelial during early development of the
embryo only genes necessary for function of the specialised cell remains switched on (genes
not required are blocked by proteins)
Differentiation allocates specific functions to specific tissues ensures many complex functions
of the organism can be carried out
E.g. B-cells are a type of white blood cell that differentiate into plasma cells in response to
infection they are specialised cells that produce antibodies to fight infections

* EXAMPLE: cystic fibrosis


o The CFTR protein controls the secretion of body fluids e.g. sweat, mucus, enzymes by controlling
chloride ion transport across cell membranes
o Mutation in the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) gene causes the
production of abnormally concentrated secretions of sticky mucous in the respiratory tract
o CF results when two faulty genes come together (transmitted through families)
Gene expression
Use available evidence to analyse the links between gene expression and maintenance
and repair of body tissues
Gene expression the switching on of a gene so that the DNA is made into polypeptides to control
the structures and function of a cell.
E.g. Gene expression will cause the production of a variety of enzymes to repair DNA if damaged
and can lead to the replacement of some cells.
If a gene is expressed/functioning correctly = normal maintenance and repair of tissues
If there is an error/mutation/damage to gene = functioning impaired e.g. cellular metabolism
Growth and repair in organisms involve cell division controlled by proto-oncogenes and tumor
suppressor genes (work together)
o Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that promote cell division
o Tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that restrict cell division

Mutations in both these genes will affect the way they are expressed and can lead to
uncontrolled cell division, resulting in tumors e.g. Colon cancer occurs when there are
mutation in the proto-oncogene beta-catenin and the tumor suppressor gene APC
Growth and repair also depends upon the correct expression of DNA repair genes (genes which code
for proteins that repair damaged DNA during the first growth stage of the cell cycle)
e.g. the gene p53 codes for a protein that stops the cell cycle at this stage so DNA repair genes can
repair damaged DNA prior to cell division
Another example:
Focus 2

Infectious vs non-infectious disease

Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease

Infectious disease

Those that can be transmitted from one organism to another


Caused by a macroscopic or microscopic pathogens that live on the host organism or invades
its tissue and interferes with its normal body functions
Pathogens are found in water, soil, air and contaminated food & wastes

Non-infectious diseases

Cannot generally be transmitted from one organism to another


May be caused by hereditary, the environment, poor nutrition, chemicals or physiological
malfunction
Pathogens

Identify the conditions under which an organism is described as a pathogen

A pathogen is any organism that causes a disease e.g. parasite (macroscopic or microscopic) or
infective agent (viruses or prions) that lives in or on a host
Organism is described as a pathogen if it causes the disease (needs right conditions to multiply
and be transmitted)
o Direct transmission (contact with source)
o Indirect transmission (pathogen transferred through environ. food/water/air)
o Vector transfer (carried from person to person or by an organism e.g. mosquito

Hygiene

Explain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices assist in control of
disease

Steps need to be taken to prevent the entry, multiplication and dispersal of pathogens transmitted
in air, food, water and hands. Basic hygiene practises to control disease:

Provision of clean drinking water water catchment treatment


Boiling of water
- Wearing gloves
- Washing hands
- Coughing into tissues
o Wash utensils before use + before using diff. foods (prevents transmission of pathogens/
cross contamination)
o Different chopping boards for different foods
o Frozen foods to be thawed in fridge /microwave (to prevent multiplying of bacteria)
o Heating food at a high enough temp to kill pathogens

PRAC microbes in water

Identify data sources, plan and choose equipment or resources to perform a first-hand
investigation to identify microbes in food or in water

Sterile techniques
The nutrient agar plates should be autoclaved (heated in a
pressure cooker)
All surfaces should be wiped with methylated spirits to
minimise risk of contamination
Sterilise inoculating loop in non-luminous blue Bunsen flame
Petri dish should be on table and lid lifted at angle no greater
than 45o when opening, pointing away from anyone
Do not talk at station
Seal dish with sticky tape and label around edge
Place upside down in incubator
Do not open once closed and sealed
Method Results
1. Wipe all surfaces with a cotton swab with Control (unopened) - nothing
methylated spirits. Pond water - yellow, brown and white
2. Sterilise inoculating tube in blue Bunsen colonies (round)
flame Bottled water - range of colonies
3. Pour sample over inoculating loop Bubbler water - cream colonies
4. Open lid of agar at around 45o Tap water - nothing
5. Spread sample onto agar using inoculating Final: bottle and pond water has the most
loop in zigzag motion number of colonies
6. Close dish and seal with sticky tape on
edge Controls
7. Label with a permanent marker Same agar
8. Place dish in oven at 37oC for 48 hours Same sterility methods

Reduce risk of exposure to harmful bacteria: plates remain sealed & destroyed in a pressure cooker.

Treating drinking water

Gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to describe ways in
which drinking water can be treated and use available evidence to explain how these
methods reduce the risk of infection from pathogens

Water from over 16,000 square kilometres of catchment area runs into creeks or streams.

These creeks and streams lead to several main dams managed by the Sydney Catchment Authority.

After the water arrives in the dams, it settles, allowing some of the organic material and other
impurities to separate to the bottom as sediment.

Water then leaves the dams and passes to one of the ten water filtration plants managed by Sydney
Water.

Solids and dissolved materials such as iron and manganese are removed in the filtration plants.

These filtration plants also add chemicals to bind microbes, dirt and other suspended matter
together. The resulting 'clumps' of waste are then removed by filtration. Filters have been improved
since 1998 to trap spores of Cryptosporidium more effectively.

After the filtration processes are completed, fluoride is added to the water. This is a requirement of
the Department of Health, and is a measure that is taken to improve dental health.

Following fluoridation, water is treated with either chlorine or monochloramine (a compound
formed from chlorine and ammonia) to kill most organisms that may still be present after the
filtration process. Any remaining cryptosporidium spores are mostly inactivated by these chemicals.

Samples of Sydney's drinking water are tested through all stages of its treatment. Things usually
tested for include coliform bacteria, colour (drinking water should be almost colourless) and
turbidity (the amount of suspended material in the water).
Focus 3

Pasteur and Koch

Describe the contribution of Pasteur and Koch to our understanding of infectious diseases

Spontaneous generation - living organisms can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter

KOCH'S POSTULATES FOR IDENTIFYING PATHOGEN

1. All diseased organisms identify SAME PATHOGEN e.g. anthrax bacteria


2. ISOLATE + GROW/CULTURE (NOT VIRUSES)
3. INOCULATE healthy animal and it gets same disease
4. Re-isolate + grow pathogen
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Robert Koch (1843-1910)
Created the science of microbiology Developed man bacteriological
Demonstrated that micro-organisms caused the techniques
souring of alcohol Developed the agar plate technique
Development of the process of pasteurisation to kill for growing microorganisms
bacteria in liquids such as milk Identified the bacteria responsible for
Helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation causing anthrax
by carrying out the swan-necked flask experiment Demonstrated that specific
Established the relationship between micro-organisms microorganisms are responsible for
and disease causing different diseases
Developed a vaccine against rabies and used on Identified the bacterium responsible
humans for the first time for causing tuberculosis and cholera
Established the principle of immunity and developed Responsible for developing Kochs
an effective way to prevent infectious disease postulates

Limitations of Kochs Postulates

Some agents (for example, viruses and prions), cannot be grown in a lab dish. They grow only if
given a living cell.

The healthy susceptible host is seldom a human, but rather a lab animal or livestock. Testing the
infectivity of a possible pathogen of humans in lab animals always leaves the question: if the
pathogen doesnt detectably infect the lab animal, does that mean it doesnt infect humans?

Note that a careful scientist always includes uninoculated control animals, so that the only
difference between the test animals and the control animals is the inoculation. This
comparison is included to remove the possibility that the test animals got sick for other reasons,
such as genetic makeup or the conditions during the experiment.

So what tests do you perform to identify and learn about a new virus?

A number of test procedures are done if a new disease is suspected to be caused by a virus:
Tissue and cell samples from infected patients would be fixed and viewed using an electron
microscope. This procedure would allow visualisation of viral particles in the samples. This
method does not require the ability to grow and isolate the virus. However, the
characteristics of the viral particles observed in the samples might suggest the type or group
of viruses causing the disease and what type of isolation systems should be investigated.

Serum from infected patients would also be tested against a battery of known viruses to look
for the presence of specific anti-viral antibodies.

Various samples, based on the type of disease, from the infected patients would be
inoculated into a variety of isolation systems. These systems would include: lab animals
(mice, rats, guinea pigs, etc.), embryonated eggs, and cell culture systems. Lab animals would
be studied to see if death occurs or if disease conditions appear. Tissues from the animals
could be studied by EM. The embryonated eggs and cell culture systems would be observed
for the appearance of viral-specific changes.

Any viruses isolated would be inoculated into new animals to try to reproduce the disease. If
the disease can be reproduced; we can then use these animal models to study the disease.
PRAC Modelling Pasteurs experiment

Perform an investigation to model Pasteurs experiment to identify the role of microbes in


decay

Pasteur's experiments reputes Spontaneous Generation and supports microbes cause decay

PASTEUR'S SWAN-NECKED FLASK EXPERIMENT:


1. 2 identical flasks with broth
2. Sterilises broth (boils)
3. Breaks swan neck off one flask (EXPOSED TO AIR) (control)
4. Swan-necked --> NO AIR CAN ENTER (trapped liquid) NO CELLS
5. EXPT FLASK (swan neck ) --> NO GROWTH = STERILE
6. OPEN FLASK --> GROWTH

Method
1. Pour 100ml preservative-free clear beef broth in a beaker with a swan-necked glass tubing
and a beaker with a straight glass tubing
3. Boil beef broth on hot plate for 15mins to sterilise
4. Ensure that after boiling there is a small amount of water trapped in the swan-neck
(condensation)
5. Store for a week in warm conditions away from direct sunlight
6. Make observation every 2 days (look for cloudiness, scum, bubbles and fungal colonies)

Results: (Microbes cause decay) decay occurred in the straight glass tubing flask only (cloudy)

Independent variable: type of glass tubing


Dependent variable: growth of micro-organisms
Controlled variables: amount of broth, amount of air in flask, sterilising process, length tubing,
time of boiling
Control: straight necked

Hazards: Boiling - spit - hot hands, eye glasses

Effectiveness of model:
Very effective model very similar to Pasteur's - kept everything the same except the shape of
tubing e.g. sterilisation, broth, left for a period of time & can see through flask to see decay,
very obvious (broth clear to cloudy - visual)

Benefits: we can see experiment, visual, broth will grow bacteria


Limitations: did not do it exactly to his e.g. dint have 2 swan necks and break one
Pathogens

Distinguish between prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi, macro-parasites and


name one example of a disease caused by each type of pathogen

Pathogen Example of Disease caused Features of Group


Prion Kuru Do not contain any genetic material (DNA
CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob or RNA)
disease) Non-cellular
Mad cow disease Altered proteins
Smallest
Reproduction: must come into contact
with normal prion and converts them into
infectious prion protein
Resistant to normal methods of
breakdown (heating or chemicals)
Virus Influenza Non-cellular
Measles Contain genetic material - pass on
AIDS (HIV) hereditary information
Herpes Protein coat that encloses genetic
Glandular fever material (nucleic acid)
SARS Unable to reproduce on their own -
Rabies replicate in host cells
Smaller than bacteria but bigger than
prions
Treatment with anti-viral drugs
Bacteria Tetanus Single celled prokaryotic organisms
Meningococcal disease Have a cell wall
Food poisoning No membrane bound nucleus or
Anthrax organelles
Pneumonia Genetic material: single large
Cholera chromosome
Pneumonia Larger than virus, smaller than protozoan
Tonsillitis Reproduce by binary fission
Treatment with antibiotics
Protozoan Malaria Single celled eukaryotic organisms
African sleeping sickness No cell wall
Amoebic dysentery Membrane bound nucleus and organelles
Giardiasis Reproduce asexually
Fungi Thrush Eukaryotic
Tinea (athlete's foot) Possess a cell wall of chitin but do not
contain chlorophyll and not capable of
producing own food
Unicellular or multicellular
Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Treatment: anti-fungal drugs
Macro- Endoparasites: tapeworm Larger than other pathogens
parasite disease, elephantiasis, liver Produce sexually
fluke disease Multicellular eukaryotic organisms:
Flea is vector for bacteria Endoparasites (live in hosts body)
that causes the bubonic e.g. roundworms, flatworms
plague (tapeworms and flukes)
Ectoparasites (live outside body)e.g.
mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, leeches, lice

Cholera (infectious disease)

Identify data sources, gather process and analyse information from secondary sources to
describe one named infectious disease in terms of its cause, transmission, host response,
major symptoms, treatment, prevention and control

Cause: Vibrio bacteria - Vibrio cholera

Transmission
Bacteria ingested in contaminated food or water (sewage infected water etc)
Bacteria infects bowel of human and gets into their faeces
Direct life cycle (no animal host or insect vector)

Host response
The toxin produced by the bacteria causes antibodies to be produced
Antibodies provide resistance to same strain of bacteria
Major symptoms
Na and K transport systems in intestine interrupted
Bacteria attached to microvilli lining in guy and there is excessive secretion of fluids and
electrolytes
Lining of intestine is broken down by bacterial enzymes (no reabsorption of fluids, nutrients
etc)
Cramps
Inflamed bowel with diarrhoea
Dehydration
Blood pressure fails

Treatment
Fluids and salts replaced
Antibiotics in very early stages
Glucose (helps patients reabsorb fluid)
ORS (oral rehydration solution)

Prevention (type of control) and prevents people from being infected


Vaccines (effective for 6 months)
Avoidance of drinking water/eating contaminated food

Control
Laws, infrastructure and economics to create an environment where the pathogen can't
survive or be transmitted
1. Chlorination of water and effective sewerage system
Notifiable disease with WHO

Malaria

Gather and process information to trace the historical development of our understanding
of the cause and prevention of malaria

One of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world


Over 300 million cases & kills over 1 million people annually, especially African children under 5
Vector: Anopheles mosquito
Symptoms: immediate - violent chills, intense fevers, severe headaches, convulsions, delirium
Problem: resistance to antimalarial drugs increased malaria incidence in mid 1980s

Historical development of understanding of:

Cause: Prevention/treatment:
Recognition of symptoms hypothesising Destruction of malaria parasite using drugs
cause Destruction of mosquito vector or
Discovering responsible micro-organism prevention of breeding
Determining lifecycle and transmission Prevention

Timeline

Key:
Time Development
270 BC Chinese first recognised the disease (symptoms)
240 Anti-fever properties of Qinghao plant described
2000 ya Greeks described symptoms of disease and called it malaria
2000 ya Greeks and Romans built drains to take away stagnant water (recognised significance
of water)
1880 Charles Laveran discovered the malaria causing pathogen (protozoa plasmodium)
Late 1800s Ronald Ross discovered the main steps in the transmission of malaria and identified
the Anopheles claviger mosquito as the vector of the malaria parasite (understanding
of lifecycle)
Late 1800s Preventative measures such as draining stagnant water, spraying oil on water to stop
breeding of mosquitos and the wearing of protective clothing were implemented
1930 Antimalarial drug developed
Late 1950s WHO implemented a program to try and eradicate malaria DDT spraying, protective
measures, biological control of mosquitoes e.g. sterilising male mosquitoes
1981 Start of search of malaria vaccine
2000s Developing new treatments genetic engineering genetically modify parasites with
the gene responsible for transferring proteins manipulated so it can be switched off
denying the parasite the proteins it needs to survive

Antibiotics

Identify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious disease


Chemicals which destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria (and sometimes fungi) e.g.
Penicillin

Antibiotic Resistance

Process information from secondary sources to discuss problems relating to antibiotic


resistance

Some bacteria in a population have resistance to an antibiotic



Those without resistance die on administration of the antibiotic

Those with resistance survive & multiply, passing on the resistant gene

Process continues until resistance is evident in majority of the population

Antibiotic no longer effective

Causes:
Widespread use of antibiotics increases the chance of this happening
Often used for viral disease (cold, flu) which have no effect
People often do not take the antibiotics for the whole course (more bacteria survive)
- person stops antibiotic early (some resistant and some not resistant bacteria alive GENE
TRANSFER - gene of resistance passed to bacterial without it)
Food-producing animals are given antibiotics (overexposure to antibiotics on consumption)
Cleaning products containing antibacterial ingredients
Problems caused by resistance:
Some bacterial infections are becoming very difficult to treat e.g. superbugs Golden Staph
and TB having to resort to very expensive, strong antibiotics

Focus 4 Defence against disease


NB 1st and 2nd line of defence Innate (born with them) NON SPECIFIC Defence Mechanism

Antigens

Identify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response

Antigen any molecule the body recognises as foreign and that trigger the immune response (may
be part of a pathogen or toxic molecule) ie foreign marker

Defence Barriers 1st line of defence

Identify defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in humans: skin, mucous


membranes, cilia, chemical barriers, other body secretions
Defence adaptations 2nd line of defence

Identify defence adaptations including inflammation response, phagocytosis, lymph


system, cell death to seal off pathogens

Inflammation response
Damaged/infected cells produce HISTAMINES which stimulate blood flow to area of
infection (blood vessels dilate)
increased blood flow brings phagocytes (white blood cells) to area to destroy pathogens
Localised increase in temp (hot & swollen) decreases survival of pathogens

Phagocytosis
Specialised white blood cells (macrophages & neutrophils) engulf foreign particles and
destroy them with the enzyme lysozyme

Lymph System
Lymph = fluid that bathes our cells
Pathogens present in fluid are collected into lymph ducts & transported to lymph nodes
where they are filtered out and killed

Cell Death to seal off pathogen


Layer of dead cells forms around pathogen, sealing it off this is then surrounded by
macrophages (pathogen eventually dies & is digested by macrophages)

Organ Transplants

Explain why organ transplants should trigger an immune response

Outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ transplant
patients

Donor organ will have marker molecules on its surface different from those on the cells in
the recipients body they act as antigens that identify the organ as foreign material
initiates an immune response (rejection)
Cytotoxic T cells activated and move to the transplanted organ to attack and destroy its cells
Immunosuppressant drugs given to suppress immune system to lower risk of rejection
reduces activity of T cells but much greater risk of infections (need to be taken for the
remainder of the recipients life)
Tissue typing: tissue of donor and recipient matched as closely as possible to reduce severity
of immune response

Imbalance of microflora - THRUSH

Gather, process and present information from secondary sources to show how a named
disease results from an imbalance of microflora in humans

Thrush is a disease caused by the excessive growth of a yeast-like fungus Candida albicans
Cause:

The fungus occurs naturally in bowel and vagina


Healthy person: fungus is in balance with other microflora causes no problems
Change in environment balance disturbed overgrowth of fungus
e.g. contraceptive pill, diabetes, pregnancy, taking antibiotics, sickness, change in vaginal pH,
use of spermicides or feminine hygiene products

Symptoms: vaginal itch or general discomfort, thick discharge, redness, swelling, stinging or burning
sensation when passing urine

Diagnosis: swab of affected area examined for Candida fungus presence under microscope

Treatment: antifungal cream e.g. Canesten or insertion of suppositories e.g. micronazole

Prevention: careful washing and drying, avoidance of some antibiotics, wiping from front to back

Focus 5 The immune response

Macfarlane Burnet one of the founders of immunology

Spent most of his life studying viruses and how the body defends itself against infection by
microorganisms esp viruses
Investigated mechanisms by which the body is able to recognise its own cells and uses its
immune system to defend itself against invasion by foreign material e.g. viruses without
attacking itself in the process
Developed the clonal selection theory gained understanding of immune system & role of
B and T cells lead to the development of vaccines

Components of the immune response

Identify the components of the immune response: antibodies, T cells and B cells

Antibodies Proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by plasma cells in response to the presence of


antigen in the body seek out specific antigen & bind to it (antigen-antibody
complex) which destroys the antigen by immobilising it or blocking its active site.
Also clump antigens to be more easily recognised by macrophages & destroyed by
phagocytosis.
T cells helper, cytotoxic, memory, suppressor
Lymphocytes (special types of white blood cells) each with a particular surface
receptor protein that recognises a specific antigen
Control cell-mediated immunity (help destroy infected body cells)
Produced in bone marrow and matures in thymus gland
B cells plasma, memory
Lymphocytes which produce plasma cells when they recognise an antigen. The plasma
cells in turn produce antibodies to destroy or inactivate the antigen (different antibody
on surface for specific antigen)
Control antibody mediated immunity
Made and mature in bone marrow
The 3rd Line of Defence the immune response

Describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of:

interaction between B and T lymphocytes


the mechanisms that allow interaction between B and T lymphocytes

When a macrophage comes across a foreign particle with an antigen attached to its surface, it
surrounds and engulfs it in the process of phagocytosis.

As a part of this process, the antigen is moved to the surface of the macrophage, which then takes it
to the lymph nodes.

The antigen-presenting macrophage is then presented to the helper T-cells, which has the T cell
receptor that corresponds to that particular antigen and causes the helper T-cell to be activated.

The helper T cell can also be activated by the B-cell that have attached the specific antigen to the
matching antibodies on the surface of their cell. This is then presented to the helper T-cell.

When the helper T cells are activated they release cytokines that activate more of the same helper
T-cells and also the production of clones of the B cells that are specific to that antigen.

The cytokines released by the helper T cells also activate the production of clones of the cytotoxic T
cells that have that particular antigen receptor on their surface.

When the immune response has successfully defeated the infection, suppressor T cells stop the
activity of B cells and cytotoxic T cells.

the range of T lymphocyte types and the difference in their roles

Type of T cell Role


Memory Remain in the body to respond quickly to future invasions by the same antigens
Suppressor Stop the action of the immune response when the infection has been defeated
Cytotoxic Once activated, they move to the site of infection and release chemicals that
destroy the infected cells and pathogens that are inside the cell
Helper After they recognise the antigen, they release special chemicals called cytokines
that activate the cloning of specific B cells and T cells

Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity B-cells

1. Antigen-presenting B cells or macrophages move to the lymph nodes


2. These antigen-presenting cells are inspected by helper T cells that have the antigen receptor
that corresponds to the antigen being presented
3. Helper T cells release cytokines to stimulate the cloning of millions of B cells that are specific
to the antigen being presented
4. Millions of memory B cells that are specific for that antigen are also cloned
5. The activated B cells produce plasma cells that remain in the lymph nodes
6. Plasma cells secrete antigen-specific antibodies that then move via the blood and lymph to
the infected areas
7. The antibodies then combine with antigens to form the antigen-antibody complex, which
inactivates the pathogen or its toxin
8. The pathogen is then destroyed in a variety of ways depending on its type
9. The inflammatory response is activated, attracting phagocytes and leading to the clearing of
the debris

Cell-mediated immunity (T-cells)

Summary
Vaccinations

Outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection

Primary Response - when antigen first encountered by immune system


Long time to fight infection b/c takes time for appropriate B & T cells need to be activated + cloned,
cytotoxic T cells to kill infected cells, B cells to produce plasma cells which produce antibodies and
sufficient antibodies to destroy all antigens.

Memory B & T cells specific to antigen are produced and remain in body if same antigen re-
enters body in future: secondary response (destroy antigens before numbers are large enough to
cause symptoms):

More rapid Produce a much greater quantity of antibodies


Requires less antigen to initiate it Lasts for a longer period of time

Immunity the ability of an organism to resist infection by the prior introduction of a pathogen into
the body

Vaccination a method of providing artificially acquired immunity without the need for a person to
have suffered the disease initially

Active immunisation

stimulates a person to make their own antibodies


involves the introduction of killed bacteria or viruses, attenuated/weakened live form of
pathogen (e.g. polio syrup, measles, whooping cough vaccines) or modified toxins in body
memory cells produced and stored in lymphatic system
Longer term immunity

Passive

Injection of antibodies produced by another person


No memory cells produced
Short term immunity (when exposed to antigen, antibodies circulating blood stream form
antigen-antibody complex and deactivate antigen)
E.g. injection of immune serum globulin as temporary protection against hepatitis
Vaccination programs

Process, analyse and present information from secondary sources to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the
spread and occurrence of once common diseases including smallpox, diphtheria and polio

Disease Before vaccination program First vaccine Vaccine program/ when After Vaccination Program Effectiveness
Occurrence Spread produced/used introduced Occurrence Spread of vaccine
program
Small 1/10 of all deaths in World wide 1796 Jenner 1967 1979 WHO Not present Highly
Pox Europe (19th century) 33 countries developed vaccine Routine mass immunisation declared diseases anywhere successful
Over 300 million in 1967 (not widely used) Supplementary doses given eliminated from (eradicated
deaths (20th c) 1967 WHO mass on special immunisation days world population
10-15 million cases immunisation Targeted people who missed
each year until 1968 program out
(2 million deaths) Teams for surveillance sent
out for cases of small pox
Diptheria Thousands of cases World wide 1923 not widely EPI aimed to increase % of Incidence Spread through Very effective
(e.g. 1921-206000 1980 most used kids vaccinated infants decreased to many countries (drop in global
cases in US + 15500 cases in SE 1930-1940 Australia given 3 injections of triple approx. 8000 (6000 of 8000 incidence from
deaths) Asia (rapid decrease in antigen vaccine (tetanus, cases worldwide cases in SE Asia) 100 000 in 1980
1980 100 000 cases incidence) diphtheria. whooping cough) in 2005 (mostly Low incidence to 8000 in 2005)
worldwide 1974 only 5% at 2, 4 + 6 months old kids under 5) in developed but need to
children immunised countries maintain
in WHO EPI vaccination
(extended program rates as disease
of immunisation) still present in
SE Asia
Polio Thousands of cases Many 1955 Salk Original vaccine by Salk 60-70% decrease Rare in Effective in
per year countries 1997 oral vaccination caused problems in number of industrialised industrialised
1988 350 000 cases (125 Sabin vaccine safer cases countries nations but
world wide countries on Global Polio Eradication 2000 719 cases Problem in needs greater
5 initiative (a 99% reduction developing participation to
continents) 450 million kids immunised in cases since nations (esp be as effective
on National Immunisation 1988) India) as small pox
Days
"Discuss how our understanding of the functioning of the immune system has led to the development and application of vaccination programs to
prevent disease, and assess its impact on society and the environment".
Focus 6: Epidemiological studies

Epidemiology

Identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer as an example

Epidemiology the scientific study of the distribution/ patterns of occurrence of diseases in different
groups of human populations and factors that affect these patterns using statistical analysis

An epidemiological study needs to:

Over a long period of time (over 10 years)


Determine possible contributing factors e.g. age, sex, diet, occupation, lifestyle and then survey a
large number of people (thousands) who have and have not been affected by this disease - broad
range of society
Statistically analyse the collected large amounts of relevant data e.g incidence, prevalence,
mortality & morbidity rates to identify trends and patterns and differences/similarities between
the affected/non-affected groups
Identify a possible cause and risk factors
Develop a management plan with possible cure, treatments and strategies for control e.g.
educate public with public health/vaccination programs
Monitor population for effectiveness strategies evaluate programs
Have a control group

Three ways epidemiological studies are done:

1. Randomised trials

2. Cohort Studies
e.g. Doll and Hill study 1951

Questionnaire sent to all British doctors to determine smoking habits


Over 25 years, death certificates were collected from the group
Diseases recorded on certificates linked to smoking habits
Cause-effect relationship found between smokers & lung cancer cases
Death rate for lung cancer in smokers much greater than non-smokers

3. Case-control study

e.g. Doll and Hill 1947 study

To determine if there was a link between smoking and lung cancer


Looked at hospital patients with different types of cancer and those with no cancer
Findings showed that cigarette smokers had more lung cancer than non-smokers

Cause and effect relationship action taken that influences a second action to occur. Criteria:

Must be a high risk disease develops when a person is exposed to the possible cause
Must be consistency in results found by researchers in each study
Must be shown that higher levels of the cause lead to a greater risk of developing the disease
Must be a particular time relationship cause occurs before the disease

Lung Cancer

Gather, process and analyse information to identify the cause and effect relationship of
smoking and lung cancer

Many epidemiological studies link smoking and lung cancer


Data is analysed and many reports are available to the public e.g. the NSW Health Department
reports on causes of death and death due to smoking in NSW
It is now generally recognised that there is a link with smoking and lung cancer e.g. legislation for
the large print notices and gruesome pictures on packets of cigarettes
Most statistics show a decrease in the total number of smokers in the population that relates to
people giving up rather than people not beginning smoking
Smoking is now linked with certain age groups, occupations and the consumption of alcohol

Non-infectious diseases

Identify causes of non-infectious disease using an example from each of the following
categories:

inherited diseases
nutritional deficiencies
environmental diseases

Type of non- Description Example of diseases


infectious disease
Inherited Genetically transmitted Down syndrome (extra 21)
caused by errors in genetic Klinefelter syndrome (extra X)
information e.g. change in Cystic fibrosis
chromosome no. OR defect Haemophilia
in a single gene
Nutritional Caused by diets lacking Scurvy (lack of vit. C)
proper balance and amount Anaemia (lack of iron or folic acid)
of nutrients e.g. vitamin or Beri-beri (lack of vit. B1)
mineral Kwashiorkor (deficiency of protein)
Anorexia (psychological basis, resulting in
behavioural disorder)

Environmental Lifestyle diseases Cardiovascular, alcoholism etc


Physical factors in Skin cancer
environment e.g. UV Lung cancer
Exposure to chemicals Mesothelioma

Addisons Disease

Identify data sources, plan and perform a first-hand investigation or gather information
from secondary sources to analyse and present information about the occurrence,
symptoms, cause, treatment/management of a named non-infectious disease

Type of non-infectious disease Endocrine disorder (genetic or auto-immune or from cancer)


Occurrence 6 in 100 000
Symptoms Decreased reabsorption of sodium from the kidney tubule into
the blood (ie low sodium levels in the blood) which means less
water follows by osmosis (blood volume decreases)
Low blood pressure (filtration out of the glomerulus slows
down and wastes accumulate)
Increased reabsorption of potassium
Sweats, weight loss, pigmented skin, exhaustion
NB Addisons crisis = low blood pressure, low blood sugar, high
potassium (life threatening)
Cause Adrenal glands not making aldosterone (hormone that controls
salt concentration and blood pressure). Some patients still make
low levels of aldosterone and medications are adjusted.
Treatment/Management Take Florinef (Fludroscortisone acetate) once a day which
replaces the hormones that the adrenal glands are not making
Increase salt intake
If patient in crisis then standard therapy is intravenous
injections of hydrocortisone, saline, sugar until the crisis is over
and then maintenance therapy
Chronic condition, which means daily medication can never be
stopped
Management involves proper maintenance treatment (visits to
doctor, blood tests etc)

Focus 7: Modern Strategies

Quarantine

Discuss the role of quarantine in preventing the spread of disease, plants and animals into
Australia or across regions of Australia

Department responsible: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) formerly AQIS
(Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service)

Role: to prevent spread of disease and entry of disease causing organisms (plants & animals) in Aus
Protects the rural industry (food source & source of employment)
Protects national trade in plant and animal products (exports)
Protects biodiversity (Australian flora & fauna) killing organisms damages food chains

Strategies
Pests carried through people, animal, fruit products and soil (must undergo inspection)
They screen, inspect and clear people, parcels, baggage, ships, animals, plants and cargo using X-
ray machine, surveillance and detector dogs
No animals or animal products into the country e.g. to avoid foot and mouth virus animals
entering country spend time in quarantine stations before being released
No uninspected fruit or plant products allowed may contain e.g. red banded mango caterpillar
or citrus canker bacteria
Quarantine officers monitor reports from plane & ship captains about health of passengers
Residual sprays used in planes when no passengers are on board
Mosquito trapping programs at Australias international airports

Points for Quarantine Points against Quarantine


Cheaper in long run (reduces cost of restoring biodiversity) Restriction of new varieties of
Prevents disease + spread of disease organisms entering country, esp.
Protects biodiversity in regards to agricultural goods
Protects national & international industries (Aus relies on Costs (expensive
exportation of raw materials) protection of jobs programs/techniques)
Effectiveness of Quarantine

Process and analyse information from secondary sources to evaluate the effectiveness of
quarantine in preventing the spread of plant and animal disease into Australia or across
regions of Australia

e.g. movement of grape plant material from phylloxera infected areas (QLD & VIC) to non-infected
areas is prohibited and machinery must be disinfected highly effective program

e.g. plum pox (sharka) is a virus that infects stone fruit spread throughout Europe, Africa, UK,
USA, Canada & Middle East (but not in Australia) importation of fresh stone fruit prohibited,
seeds must be screened & stone fruits heat treated highly effective program

Foot and mouth disease (viral) not lethal but causes production losses free of this since 1872
highly effective program

Rabies fatal viral disease usually spread by a bit from infected animal with symptoms of foaming
at the mouth (occurrence: 55,000 die per year with 15 million people receiving post exposure
treatment) in most countries except Aus, NZ, UK, Japan and a few small islands strict controls
on entry of animals has helped prevent the disease highly effective

Plant Prac

Perform an investigation to examine plant shoots and leaves and gather first-hand
information of evidence of pathogens and insect pests

Aim: to gather first-hand information of evidence of pathogens and insect pests in plants

Method (Primary & secondary sources looked at a variety of plants and pictures)

1. Using secateurs, plant specimens (healthy and diseased) were collected.


2. Detailed observations were made of healthy and diseased specimens using a magnifying glass
3. Secondary sources; Gardening Australia website and the Royal Botanical Gardens were used to
identify the cause of the disease
4. Specimens were sealed in a plastic bag and disposed of in landfill

Risk Assessment

Identify Assess likelihood Assess severity Control


Skin irritation due to sap Low Low Wear gloves
Cuts from secateurs Medium Medium Hold specimen well away
from cutting site

Orchid: leaf mottled, yellowing of leaves with a bit of browning less chlorophyll produced
mosaic pattern mosaic virus
Rose: aphids (insects suck plant sap) clustered around upper, younger shoots, leaves
wrinkled/folded up should be flat and insect free
Cabbage: margins damaged, holes in leaf body, evidence of small droppings, small green
caterpillar present cabbage white butterfly caterpillar/ black rot (bacteria) shrivel +
yellowing
Powdery Mildew fungus on grapes, eucalyptus white powdery residue/tinge
Scale insect bottlebrush white circle around insect, discolouration of leaf (yellowing)

Public Health Programs

Explain how one of the following strategies has controlled and/or prevented disease:

public health programs - occurrence of disease. has reduced using many strategies
pesticides
genetic engineering to produce disease resistant plants and animals

Prevention of a disease involves stopping the occurrence of the disease in individuals.

Control of a disease involves regulating the incidence of the disease in the population and stopping
any further spread of disease.

Vaccination programs highly effective e.g. diphtheria, polio (very few people in Aus get it
as it is given at 2, 4, 6 & 18 months, preschool and early high school) preventing disease in
the Australian population. Also eradicated small pox worldwide.
Sewage systems/water treatment access to clean water provided to public using effective
sewage treatment prevention of water borne diseases e.g. cholera
slip, slop, slap campaign decrease in melanoma, skin cancer - encouraging sun protection
Anti-smoking campaigns to prevent lung cancer decreases rates e.g. Quit for life, public
education programs, advertisements, legislation preventing smoking in public places
Safe sex campaigns decrease in STD occurrence e.g. AIDS
Quarantine prevention of foot and mouth disease

Changing methods of dealing with plant/animal diseases (from treatment to prevention)

Gather and process information and use available evidence to discuss the changing
methods of dealing with plant and animal diseases, including the shift in emphasis from
treatment and control to management or prevention of disease

Preventative measures decrease the incidence rate of the disease and eliminates the disadvantages
of treatment. For example:

Cotton bollworm pest that eats leaves of cotton plants

Treatment (originally) = spraying of pesticides


Advantages: Disadvantages:
Controls the spread of vectors and insect Detrimental effect on the environment
pests by killing them e.g. DDT kills mosquito Development of resistant strains of the
vector of malaria vector or the pest

Prevention (now) = genetic engineering production of Bt cotton that produces a natural


insecticide that kills the larvae of the caterpillar that feeds on the cotton
Advantages: Disadvantages:
Reduces the need for spraying crops with Effects of transgenic species on the
large amounts of pesticide good for the environment and biodiversity in the long
environment term is unknown and could be detrimental
Infectious diseases e.g. bacterial infections

Treatment = medicine antibiotics


Advantages: Disadvantages:
Destroy the Overuse and wrongful use leads to the development of resistant strains
bacteria that of bacteria, some now resistant to all antibiotics
cause the disease More money must be spent on the development of new types of
and cures the antibiotics or on the supply of more expensive types to successfully
individual treat disease

Prevention = vaccinations
Advantages: Disadvantages:
Prevents the individual from contracting the disease Very small percentage of
Decreases the prevalence of the disease in the pop. individuals may suffer
Lower treatment costs side effects
Less suffering better quality of life
Decreased rate of development of resistant strains of bacteria

Non-infectious diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, STIs, skin cancer (melanomas)

Treatment = medical procedures e.g. cancer radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, drugs


Advantages: Disadvantages:
Cancer eliminated Side effects of treatments are often sever and further increase the
from body if suffering of the individual and decreases their quality of life
successful and There is no guarantee of the success of the various treatments e.g. low
patient is cured success rate of melanoma

Prevention in great numbers = public health programs educates and encourages people to change
lifestyle to prevent disease
Advantages: Disadvantages:
The occurrence of disease in the population is reduced using a Costly although reduces
wide range of strategies cost in the long term

Another preventative measure = QUARANTINE


Prevents the entry of disease into AUs and management procedures prevent the spread of
disease across regions in the country
Decreases the incidence of disease in the population
Protects the agricultural industry from devastating diseases and allows them entry to export
markets with disease free products
Protects our environment, flora, fauna and our health
E.g. prevention of the spread of foot and mouth disease into Australia