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An ACI Handbook

The Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook


A Companion to ACI 318-14

Volume 3: Design Aids


SP-17(14)
ACI SP-17(14)

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK


A Companion to ACI 318-14

VOLUME 1 VOLUME 2

BUILDING EXAMPLE RETAINING WALLS

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS SERVICEABILITY

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL

DURABILITY ANCHORING TO CONCRETE

ONE-WAY SLABS

TWO-WAY SLABS

BEAMS

DIAPHRAGMS

COLUMNS

STRUCTURAL REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS

FOUNDATIONS
ACI SP-17(14)
Volume 3

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE


DESIGN HANDBOOK
A Companion to ACI 318-14

Editors:
Andrew Taylor
Trey Hamilton III
Antonio Nanni
First Printing
September 2015

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK


Volume 3 ~ Ninth Edition
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VOLUME 3: CONTENTS
APPENDIX AREFERENCE TABLES 1

APPENDIX BANALYSIS TABLES 11

APPENDIX CSECTIONAL PROPERTIES 25

APPENDIX DCOLUMN INTERACTION


DIAGRAMS 27
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 1

APPENDIX AREFERENCE TABLES

Table A-1Nominal cross section area, weight, and nominal diameter of ASTM standard reinforcing bars
Bar size designation Nominal cross section area, in.2 Weight, lb/ft Nominal diameter, in. Nominal perimeter, in.
No. 3 0.11 0.376 0.375 1.18
No. 4 0.20 0.668 0.500 1.57
No. 5 0.31 1.043 0.625 1.96
No. 6 0.44 1.502 0.750 2.36
No. 7 0.60 2.044 0.875 2.75
No. 8 0.79 2.670 1.000 3.14
No. 9 1.00 3.400 1.128 3.54
No. 10 1.27 4.303 1.270 3.99
No. 11 1.56 5.313 1.410 4.43
No. 14 2.25 7.650 1.693 5.32
No. 18 4.00 13.600 2.257 7.09
Note: The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a plain bar having the same mass per foot as the deformed bars.

Table A-2Area of bars in a section 1 ft wide


Cross section area of bar As (or As ), in.2
Bar size
Spacing, Spacing,
in. #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 in.
4.0 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68 4.0
4.5 0.29 0.53 0.83 1.17 1.60 2.11 2.67 3.39 4.16 6.00 4.5
5.0 0.26 0.48 0.74 1.06 1.44 1.90 2.40 3.05 3.74 5.40 9.60 5.0
5.5 0.24 0.44 0.68 0.96 1.31 1.72 2.18 2.77 3.40 4.91 8.73 5.5
6.0 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12 4.50 8.00 6.0
6.5 0.20 0.37 0.57 0.81 1.11 1.46 1.85 2.34 2.88 4.15 7.38 6.5
7.0 0.19 0.34 0.53 0.75 1.03 1.35 1.71 2.18 2.67 3.86 6.86 7.0
7.5 0.18 0.32 0.50 0.70 0.96 1.26 1.60 2.03 2.50 3.60 6.40 7.5
8.0 0.17 0.30 0.47 0.66 0.90 1.19 1.50 1.91 2.34 3.38 6.00 8.0
8.5 0.16 0.28 0.44 0.62 0.85 1.12 1.41 1.79 2.20 3.18 5.65 8.5
9.0 0.15 0.27 0.41 0.59 0.80 1.05 1.33 1.69 2.08 3.00 5.33 9.0
9.5 0.14 0.25 0.39 0.56 0.76 1.00 1.26 1.60 1.97 2.84 5.05 9.5
10.0 0.13 0.24 0.37 0.53 0.72 0.95 1.20 1.52 1.87 2.70 4.80 10.0
10.5 0.13 0.23 0.35 0.50 0.69 0.90 1.14 1.45 1.78 2.57 4.57 10.5
11.0 0.12 0.22 0.34 0.48 0.65 0.86 1.09 1.39 1.70 2.45 4.36 11.0

TABLES
11.5 0.11 0.21 0.32 0.46 0.63 0.82 1.04 1.33 1.63 2.35 4.17 11.5
12.0 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56 2.25 4.00 12.0 REF.
13.0 0.10 0.18 0.29 0.41 0.55 0.73 0.92 1.17 1.44 2.08 3.69 13.0
14.0 0.09 0.17 0.27 0.38 0.51 0.68 0.86 1.09 1.34 1.93 3.43 14.0
15.0 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.35 0.48 0.63 0.80 1.02 1.25 1.80 3.20 15.0
16.0 0.08 0.15 0.23 0.33 0.45 0.59 0.75 0.95 1.17 1.69 3.00 16.0
17.0 0.08 0.14 0.22 0.31 0.42 0.56 0.71 0.90 1.10 1.59 2.82 17.0
18.0 0.07 0.13 0.21 0.29 0.40 0.53 0.67 0.85 1.04 1.50 2.67 18.0

Example: #9 bar spaced 7-1/2 in. apart provides 1.60 in.2/ft of section width.

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2 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)

Table A-3Minimum beam web widths required for two or more bars in one layer for cast-in-place non-
prestressed concrete
Reference: ACI 318-11, Sections 7.2.2, 7.6.1, 7.7.1(c), and AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (17th
edition, 2002) Division I, Sections 8.17.3.1, 8.21.1, 8.22.1, 8.23.2.2, and Table 8.23.2.1. For use of this Design Aid, see Flexure
Example 1.
Minimum beam width = 2(A + B + C) + (n 1)(D + db) where A + B + C - 1/2 db 2.0 in. cover required for longitudinal bars
and these assumptions are made:
for ACI 318
B = 0.375 in. for #3 stirrups
= 0.500 in. for #4 stirrups
D = 1 db
1 in.
1-1/3 nominal aggregate size

For both ACI and AASHTO For AASHTO


A = 1-1/2 in. concrete cover to stirrup B = 0.375 in. for #3 stirrups (minimum
B = 0.635 in. for #5 stirrups stirrup size for #10 and
smaller longitudinal bars)
= 0.750 in. for #6 stirrups
= 0.500 in. for #4 stirrups (minimum
stirrup size for #11 and larger
C = stirrup bend radius of 2 stirrup longitudinal bars)
bar diameter for #5 and smaller
D = 1-1/2db
stirrups
1-1/2 in.
= stirrup bend radius of 3 stirrup 1-1/2 nominal aggregate size
bar diameters for #6 stirrups
1/2db of longitudinal bars

ACI 318-11 ACI 318-11 AASHTO requirements


3/4-in. aggregate 1-in. aggregate cast-in-place concrete
interior exposure interior exposure 1-in. aggregate
#3 stirrups #3 stirrups exposed to earth or weather
Minimum Increment for Minimum Increment for Minimum Increment for
web width for each added bar, web width for each added bar, web width for each added bar,
Bar size 2 bars, in. in. 2 bars, in. in. 2 bars, in. in.
#4 6 3/4 1 1/2 7 1/8 1 7/8 7.25 2.000
#5 6 7/8 1 5/8 7 1/4 2 7.37 2.125
#6 7 1 3/4 7 3/8 2 1/8 7.50 2.250
#7 7 1/8 1 7/8 7 1/2 2 1/4 7.62 2.375
#8 7 1/4 2 7 5/8 2 3/8 7.75 2.500
#9 7 1/2 2 1/4 7 3/4 2 1/2 8.32 2.820
#10 7 7/8 2 1/2 7 7/8 2 5/8 8.68 3.175
TABLES

#11 8 1/8 2 7/8 8 1/8 2 7/8 9.52 3.525


REF.

#14 8 7/8 3 3/8 8 7/8 3 3/8 10.23 4.232


#18 10 1/2 4 1/2 10 1/2 4 1/2 11.90 5.642

Notes 2. ACI cover requirements: For exterior 5. Example: Find the minimum web width for a
1. Stirrups: For stirrups larger than those used exposure with use of #6 or larger stirrups, add 1 in. beam reinforced with two #8 bars; a beam
for table above, increase web width by the follow- to web width. reinforced with three #8 bars; a beam reinforced
ing amounts (in.): 3. AASHTO cover requirements: For interior with three #9 and two #6 bars.
exposure, 1/2 in. may be deducted from beam
Main 2 #8 3 #8 3 #9 + 2 #6
reinforcement #4 #5 #6 widths.
Source size stirrup stirrup stirrup 4. Bars of different sizes: For beams with bars ACI (3/4 in. aggregate) 7 1/4 9 1/4 13 1/4

#4 through #11 3/4 1 1/2 2 1/4 of two or more sizes, determine from table the beam ACI (1 in. aggregate) 7 5/8 10 14 1/2
ACI web width required for the given number of largest AASHTO 7.75 10.25 15.64
#14 1/2 1 1/4 2
requirements
#18 1/4 3/4 1 1/2 size bars; then add the indicated increments for each
smaller bar.
#4 through #10 0.75 1.50 2.25
AASHTO
#11 through #14 0.75 1.50
requirements
#18 0.49 1.24

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 3

Table A-4Minimum beam web widths for various bar combinations (interior exposure)
Reference: ACI 318-11 Sections 7.2.2, 7.6.1, and 7.7.1(c)

ACI min. bw, in. Columns at left headed 1-5 and 6-10 bars are
for minimum web width bw of beam having bars
of one size only. Remaining columns are for
combinations of 1 to 5 bars of each of two sizes.
Calculated values of beam web width bw
rounded upward to nearest half inch.
Where bars of two sizes are used, larger
bar(s) assumed to be placed along outside
face(s) of beam.
Aggregate size assumed 3/4 in.
No. of Bar 1 to 5 6 to 10
bars size bars bars
1 5.5 12.5 A = clear cover of 1-1/2 in.
2 7.0 13.5 ACI min. bw, in. B = 3/4 in. diameter of #3 stirrups
C = for #11 and smaller bars: twice diameter
3 #3 8.0 15.0 Size of #3 stirrups; for #14 and #18 bars: 1/2
of diameter of bar
4 9.5 16.5 smaller No. of smaller bars
D = 1/2 diameter of larger bar
5 11.0 18.0 bars 1 2 3 4 5 E = 1/2 spacing for larger bar plus 1/2 spac-
1 5.5 13.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 11.0 12.5 ing for smaller bar (spacing is db for #9
2 7.0 14.5 8.5 9.5 11.0 12.5 14.0 ACI min. bw, in. and larger bars, 1 in. for #8 and smaller
bars)
3 #4 8.5 16.0 #3 10.0 11.0 12.5 14.0 15.5 Size
of
4 10.0 17.5 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.5 17.0 smaller No. of smaller bars
5 11.5 19.0 13.0 14.0 15.5 17.0 18.5 bars 1 2 3 4 5
1 5.5 13.5 7.0 8.5 10.0 11.5 13.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 11.0 12.5
2 7.0 15.0 8.5 10.0 11.5 13.0 14.5 8.5 10.0 11.0 12.5 14.0 ACI min. bw, in.
3 #5 8.5 17.0 #4 10.0 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.0 #3 10.0 11.5 13.0 14.0 15.5 Size
of
4 10.5 18.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.0 17.0 smaller No. of smaller bars
5 12.0 20.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 13.5 14.5 16.5 17.5 19.0 bars 1 2 3 4 5
1 5.5 14.0 7.0 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 7.0 8.5 10.0 11.5 13.0 7.0 8.5 10.0 11.0 12.5
2 7.0 16.0 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.5 8.5 10.0 11.5 13.0 14.5 8.5 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0
3 #6 9.0 17.5 #5 10.5 12.0 14.0 15.5 17.0 #4 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 #3 10.5 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.0
4 10.5 19.5 12.5 14.0 15.5 17.0 19.0 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.0 17.5
5 12.5 21.0 14.0 15.5 17.5 19.0 20.5 14.0 15.5 17.0 18.5 20.0 14.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5
1 5.5 15.0 7.5 9.0 11.0 12.5 14.5 7.0 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 7.0 8.5 10.0 11.5 13.0
2 7.5 16.5 9.0 11.0 12.5 14.5 16.0 9.0 10.5 12.0 14.0 15.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0
3 #7 9.0 18.5 #6 11.0 12.5 14.5 16.0 18.0 #5 11.0 12.5 14.0 15.5 17.5 #4 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5
4 11.0 20.5 13.0 14.5 16.5 18.0 20.0 12.5 14.5 16.0 17.5 19.0 12.5 14.0 15.5 17.0 18.5
5 13.0 22.5 14.5 16.5 18.0 20.0 21.5 14.5 16.0 18.0 19.5 21.0 14.5 16.0 17.5 19.0 20.5
1 5.5 15.5 7.5 9.5 11.0 13.0 15.0 7.5 9.0 11.0 12.5 14.5 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 14.0
2 7.5 17.5 9.5 11.0 13.0 15.0 17.0 9.0 11.0 12.5 14.5 16.0 9.0 10.5 12.5 14.0 15.5
3 #8 9.5 19.5 #7 11.5 13.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 #6 11.0 13.0 14.5 16.5 18.0 #5 11.0 12.5 14.5 16.0 17.5
4 11.5 21.5 13.5 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 13.0 15.0 16.5 18.5 20.0 13.0 14.5 16.5 18.0 19.5
5 13.5 23.5 15.5 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 15.0 17.0 18.5 20.5 22.0 15.0 16.5 18.5 20.0 21.5
1 5.5 17.0 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 15.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.0 15.0 7.5 9.0 11.0 12.5 14.5
2 8.0 19.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 9.5 11.5 13.5 15.5 17.0 9.0 11.5 13.0 15.0 16.5
3 #9 10.0 21.5 #8 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 #7 12.0 14.0 15.5 17.5 19.5 #6 12.0 13.5 15.5 17.0 19.0
4 12.5 23.5 14.5 16.5 18.5 20.5 22.5 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 21.5 14.0 16.0 17.5 19.5 21.0
5 14.5 26.0 16.5 18.5 20.5 22.5 24.5 16.5 18.5 20.0 22.0 24.0 16.5 18.0 20.0 21.5 23.5
1 5.5 18.0 8.0 10.0 12.5 14.5 17.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 15.0
2 8.0 20.5 10.5 12.5 15.0 17.0 19.5 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 10.0 12.0 13.5 15.5 17.5
3 #10 10.5 23.5 #9 13.0 15.0 17.5 19.5 22.0 #8 12.5 14.5 16.5 18.5 20.5 #7 12.5 14.5 16.0 18.0 20.0
4 13.0 26.0 15.5 17.5 20.0 22.0 24.5 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 15.0 17.0 18.5 20.5 22.5

TABLES
5 15.5 28.5 18.0 20.0 22.5 24.5 27.0 17.5 19.5 21.5 23.5 25.5 17.5 19.5 21.5 23.0 25.0
1 5.5 19.5 8.0 10.5 13.0 15.5 18.0 8.0 10.5 12.5 15.0 17.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 REF.
2 8.5 22.5 11.0 13.5 16.0 18.5 21.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 19.5 10.5 12.5 14.5 16.5 18.5
3 #11 11.0 25.0 #10 13.5 16.0 19.0 21.5 24.0 #9 13.5 15.5 18.0 20.0 22.5 #8 13.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0
4 14.0 28.0 16.5 19.0 21.5 24.0 26.5 16.0 18.5 20.5 23.0 25.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0
5 17.0 31.0 19.5 22.0 24.5 27.0 29.5 19.0 21.5 23.5 26.0 28.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0
1 5.5 22.5 8.5 11.5 14.5 17.0 20.0 8.5 11.0 13.5 16.0 18.5 8.5 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5
2 9.0 26.0 12.0 14.5 17.5 20.5 23.0 11.5 14.0 16.5 19.0 22.0 11.5 13.5 16.0 18.0 20.5
3 #14 12.5 29.5 #11 15.5 18.0 21.0 23.5 26.5 #10 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 #9 14.5 17.0 19.0 21.5 23.5
4 16.0 33.0 18.5 21.5 24.5 27.0 30.0 18.5 21.0 23.5 26.0 28.5 18.0 20.5 22.5 25.0 27.0
5 19.0 36.0 22.0 25.0 27.5 30.5 33.5 22.0 24.5 27.0 29.5 32.0 21.5 23.5 26.0 28.5 30.5
1 6.5 29.0 10.0 13.5 16.5 20.0 23.5 9.5 12.5 15.0 18.0 21.0 9.5 12.0 14.5 17.0 19.5
2 11.0 33.5 14.0 17.5 21.0 24.5 27.5 13.5 16.5 19.0 22.0 25.0 13.5 16.0 18.5 21.0 23.5
3 #18 15.5 38.0 #14 18.5 22.0 25.5 29.0 32.0 #11 18.0 21.0 23.5 26.5 29.5 #10 18.0 20.5 23.0 25.5 28.0
4 20.0 42.5 23.0 26.5 30.0 33.5 36.5 22.5 25.5 28.5 31.0 34.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5
5 24.5 47.0 27.5 31.0 34.5 38.0 41.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 35.5 38.5 27.0 29.5 32.0 34.5 37.0
Examples: For 2 #6 bars, minimum bw = 7.0 in. For 8 #6 bars, minimum bw =17.5 in. For 2 #7 bars plus 3 #6 bars, minimum bw = 12.5 in.
For 3 #6 bars plus 5 #4 bars, minimum bw = 16.5 in.

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4 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)

Table A-5Properties of bundled bars


Reference: ACI 318-11 Section 7.6.6.5.

4
Equivalent diameter, d be = --- A s

Centroidal distance, x

For the bundled bars configuration


shown here, the centroidal distance is
calculated by the following equation:
5
--- A si d b1 + A s2 ( d b1 + d b2 /2 )
2
x = ---------------------------------------------------------------
A si

Bars Combination of bars


Equivalent diameters dbe, in.
#8 1.42 1.74 2.01 #7 #6 1.15 1.37 1.45 1.56 1.63 1.69
9 1.60 1.95 2.26 7 5 1.08 1.25 1.39 1.40 1.52 1.64
10 1.80 2.20 2.54 8 7 1.33 1.59 1.67 1.82 1.88 1.94
11 1.99 2.44 2.82 8 6 1.25 1.46 1.60 1.64 1.77 1.89

9 8 1.51 1.81 1.88 2.07 2.13 2.20


9 7 1.43 1.67 1.82 1.89 2.02 2.14
10 9 1.70 2.04 2.12 2.33 2.40 2.47
10 8 1.62 1.90 2.06 2.15 2.29 2.42
11 10 1.90 2.28 2.36 2.61 2.68 2.75
11 9 1.81 2.13 2.29 2.41 2.55 2.69
Centroidal distance x, from bottom of bundle, in.
#4 0.25 0.39 0.50 #4 #3 0.23 0.38 0.33 0.43 0.40 0.46
5 0.31 0.49 0.62 5 4 0.29 0.47 0.43 0.55 0.53 0.58
6 0.37 0.59 0.75 5 3 0.28 0.46 0.37 0.49 0.44 0.55
6 5 0.35 0.57 0.53 0.67 0.66 0.71
7 0.44 0.69 0.87 6 4 0.34 0.55 0.47 0.61 0.57 0.67
8 0.50 0.79 1.00
9 0.56 0.89 1.13 7 6 0.41 0.67 0.62 0.80 0.78 0.83
7 5 0.39 0.65 0.56 0.73 0.69 0.79
10 0.63 1.00 1.27 8 7 0.47 0.77 0.72 0.93 0.90 0.95
11 0.70 1.11 1.41 8 6 0.46 0.75 0.66 0.86 0.81 0.92
TABLES

9 8 0.54 0.86 0.82 1.05 1.03 1.08


REF.

9 7 0.52 0.85 0.75 0.98 0.94 1.04


10 9 0.60 0.98 0.92 1.19 1.16 1.22
10 8 0.58 0.95 0.86 1.11 1.07 1.18
11 10 0.67 1.08 1.03 1.32 1.31 1.36
11 9 0.65 1.06 0.96 1.24 1.20 1.31
Example: Find the equivalent diameter of a single
bar for 4 #9 bars. For 4 #9 bars, read dbe = 2.26 in.,
and the centroidal distance x equals 1.13 in.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 5

Table A-6Minimum beam web widths bw for various combinations of bundled bars (interior exposure)
Reference: ACIACI 318-11 SectionsSections 7.2.2, 7.6.6.7.6.6.1,1, 7.6.6.2, 7.6.6.3,7.6.6.3, 7.6.6.7.6.6.5,
5, andand 77.7.1.7.1

Calculated values of beam width bw rounded


upward to nearest half-inch.

Assumptions:
Aggregate size: 3/4 in.
Clear cover of 1-1/2 in.
No. 3 stirrups

Minimum beam web width bw, in.*

Bar size
Two bundles
#8 10.0 10.0 10.5
#9 10.5 11.0 11.0
#10 11.0 11.5 12.0
#11 11.5 12.0 12.5
Three bundles
#8 13.5 14.0 14.5
#9 14.5 15.0 15.5
#10 15.5 16.0 17.0
#11 16.5 17.5 18.0
Four bundles
#8 17.0 17.5 18.5
#9 18.0 19.0 20.0
#10 20.0 21.0 22.0
#11 21.5 22.5 24.0
*For beams conforming to AASHTO specifications, add 1 in. to tabulated beam web
width. Fore example, for two bundles of three #10, minimum bw = 11.5 in.

TABLES
REF.

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6 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)

Table A-7Basic development length ratios of bars in tension


Reference: ACI 318-11 Sections 12.2.2 and 12.2.4

Development length ratios:

l t e fy
----d- = ------------ ---------
db fc

For: t = 1.0; e = 1.0; and = 1.0 (see notes below).


Basic development length ratios of bars in tension

fy 40,000 psi 60,000 psi 80,000 psi


fc
Bar 3000 4000 5000 6000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 10,000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 10,000
size Category psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi psi

#3 to I 1/25 29 25 23 21 44 38 34 31 27 24 58 51 45 41 36 32
#6 II 3/50 44 38 34 31 66 57 51 46 40 36 88 76 68 62 54 48

#7 to I 1/20 37 32 28 26 55 47 42 39 34 30 73 63 57 52 45 40
#18 II 3/40 55 47 42 39 82 71 64 58 50 45 110 95 85 77 67 60
Notes:
1. See category chart for Categories I and II.
2. t = bar location factor (1.3 for bars placed such that more than 12 in. of fresh concrete is cast below the development length or splice; 1.0 for other bars).
e = coating factor (1.5 = epoxy-coated reinforcement with cover < 3db or clear spacing < 6db; 1.2 = all other epoxy-coated reinforcement; and 1.0 =
uncoated and zinc-coated [galvanized] reinforcement).
= lightweight-aggregate concrete factor (0.75 for lightweight concrete, and 1.0 for normalweight concrete).
3. Minimum development length ld 12 in.
TABLES
REF.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 7

Table A-7Basic development length ratios of bars in tension (cont.)

CATEGORY CHART

Clear spacing d b

Category I: Clear cover d b

Code minimum stirrups or ties throughout l d

or

Clear spacing 2d b

Clear cover d b

Category II: All other cases

TABLES
REF.

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8 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)

Table A-8Basic development length ldh of standard hooks in tension


Reference: ACI 318-11 Sections 7.1 and 12.5.1 to 12.5.3
Development length, ldh* = ldh 8db,
less than 6 in., where represents
modifiers from Note 1 below and ldh is
basic development length of standard
hooks in tension

0.02 e f y
l dh = --------------------
- db
f c

This table is calculated with e = 1.0 and = 1.0.


Basic development length ldh, in., of standard hooks in tension
fy 60,000 psi 80,000 psi
fc

Bar size db, in. 3000 psi 4000 psi 5000 psi 6000 psi 8000 psi 10,000 psi 3000 psi 4000 psi 5000 psi 6000 psi 8000 psi 10,000 psi 8db , in.
#3 0.375 8.2 7.1 6.4 5.8 5.0 4.5 11.0 9.5 8.5 7.7 6.7 6.0 3
#4 0.5 11.0 9.5 8.5 7.7 6.7 6.0 14.6 12.6 11.3 10.3 8.9 8.0 4
#5 0.625 13.7 11.9 10.6 9.7 8.4 7.5 18.3 15.8 14.1 12.9 11.2 10.0 5
#6 0.75 16.4 14.2 12.7 11.6 10.1 9.0 21.9 19.0 17.0 15.5 13.4 12.0 6
#7 0.875 19.2 16.6 14.8 13.6 11.7 10.5 25.6 22.1 19.8 18.1 15.7 14.0 7
#8 1 21.9 19.0 17.0 15.5 13.4 12.0 29.2 25.3 22.6 20.7 17.9 16.0 8
#9 1.128 24.7 21.4 19.1 17.5 15.1 13.5 33.0 28.5 25.5 23.3 20.2 18.0 9
#10 1.27 27.8 24.1 21.6 19.7 17.0 15.2 37.1 32.1 28.7 26.2 22.7 20.3 10
#11 1.41 30.9 26.8 23.9 21.8 18.9 16.9 41.2 35.7 31.9 29.1 25.2 22.6 11
#14 1.693 37.1 32.1 28.7 26.2 22.7 20.3 49.5 42.8 38.3 35.0 30.3 27.1 14
#18 2.257 49.5 42.8 38.3 35.0 30.3 27.1 65.9 57.1 51.1 46.6 40.4 36.1 18
*
Note 1: To compute development length ldh for a standard hook in tension, multiply basic development length ldh from table above by applicable modifica-
tion factors:
= 0.7 for #11 and smaller bars with side cover normal to plane of hook not less than 2-1/2 in.; and for 90-degree hook, cover on bar extension
beyond hook not less than 2 in.
= 0.8 for #11 and smaller bars with a 90-degree hook enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties or stirrup ties spaced along the full develop-
ment length not greater than 3db, where db is diameter of hooked bar.
= 0.8 for #11 and smaller bars with 180-degree hook that are enclosed within ties or stirrups perpendicular to the bar being developed, spaced
not greater than 3db along ldh.
TABLES
REF.

= As required / As provided
Note 2: Values of basic development length ldh above the heavy line are less than the minimum development length of 6 in. Development length ldh shall not
be less than 8db, nor less than 6 in., whichever is greater.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 9

Table A-8Basic development length ldh of standard hooks in tension (cont.)

Reference: ACI 318-11 Sections 7.1 and 7.21

Bar size #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18

ldh, in. 6 7 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 19 25

Example: Find minimum embedment depth ldh that will provide 2 in. cover over the tail of a standard 180-degree end hook
in a #8 bar. For #8 bar, read ldh = 10 in.

TABLES
REF.

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10 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
TABLES
REF.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 11

APPENDIX BANALYSIS TABLES


Reproduced with permission from the Canadian Portland Cement Association.

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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12 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 13

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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14 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 15

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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16 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 17

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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18 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 19

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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20 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 21

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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22 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 23

ANALYSIS
TABLES

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24 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)
ANALYSIS
TABLES

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14) 25

APPENDIX CSECTIONAL PROPERTIES

Table C-1Properties of sections

Dash-and-dot lines are drawn through centers of gravity


A = area of section; I = moment of inertia; R = radius of gyration
2
A = d
2
4 d 2
d A = -------- = 0.7854d
I 1 = ------ 4
12
4
4 vd 4
d I = -------- = 0.0491d
I 2 = ----- 64
3
d
R 1 = 0.2887d R = ---
4
R 2 = 0.57774d
2
A = d
2
y = 0.7071d A = 0.8660d
4
d
4 I = 0.060d
I = ------
12 R = 0.264d
R = 0.2887d
A = bd
3
bd
I 1 = --------
12 A = 0.8284d
2

3 4
bd
I 2 = -------- I = 0.055d
3
R = 0.257d
R 1 = 0.2887d
R 2 = 0.5774d
A = bd bd
A = ------
2
bd
y = -------------------- 3
2 2
b +d bd
I 1 = --------
3 3
36
b d
I = ------------------------
2 2 bd
3
6(b + d ) I 2 = --------
12
bd
R = ----------------------------- R 1 = 0.236d
2 2
6(b + d )
R 2 = 0.408d
d
A = --- ( b + b )
2

A = bd d ( 2b + b )
y = --------------------------
3 ( b + b )

bsin + d cos d ( b + 2b )
y = -------------------------------------- y = --------------------------
2 3 ( b + b )
2 2 2
d ( b + 4bb + b )
I = -----------------------------------------------
36 ( b + b )
2 2 2 2
b sin ( + d cos )
R = -------------------------------------------------------- d 2 2
R = ---------------------- 2 ( b + 4bb + b )
12 6 ( b + b )
PROP.
SECT.

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26 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-14SP-17(14)

Table C-2Properties of sections

Dash-and-dot lines are drawn through centers of gravity


A = area of section; I = moment of inertia; R = radius of gyration
Section of parabola
A = bt + b c 2
2 b
2 2 y = ----- x
d b + t ( b b ) d
y = ---------------------------------------
2 ( bt + b c ) For parabola: For compliment:
y1 = d y 2bd bd
A = --------- A = ------
3
by 1 + by ( b b ) ( y t )
3 3 3 3
I = --------------------------------------------------------------------
-
3 8 3 37 3
I 1 = --------- bd I 1 = ------------ bd
175 2100
I
R = --- 19 3 1 3
A I 2 = --------- b d I 2 = ------ b d
480 80
A = bt + b c
2 2
d b + t ( b b ) 2 2
y = --------------------------------------- A = d a
2 ( bt + b c )
4 4
y1 = d y d a
I = ----------------
12
3 3 3
by 1 + by ( b b ) ( y t )
I = --------------------------------------------------------------------
- d +a
2 2
3 R = ----------------
12
I
R = ---
A
c ( a + b )
A = bt + ----------------------
2
2
3bt + 3bc ( d + t ) + c ( a b ) ( c + 3t ) A = bd ac
y = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 [ 2bt + c ( a + b ) ] 3 3
bd ac
I = ----------------------
y1 = d y 12
2 3 3 3
4bt + c ( 3b + a ) 2 bd ac
I = -------------------------------------------- A ( y t ) R = -----------------------------
12 12 ( bd ac )
I
R = ---
A
Ellipse
A = 0.7854bd 2
( d d1 )
2
2 2
A = ------------------------ = 0.7854 ( d d 1 )
wbd
3
3
4
I 1 = ------------- = 0.0491bd
64 4
( d d1 )
4
4 4
I = ------------------------ = 0.0491 ( d d 1 )
wb d
3
3
64
I 2 = ------------- = 0.0491b d
64 2 2
R = 1 4 d + d1
d
R 1 = ---
4
b
R 2 = ---
4
2 2
A = 0.8284d 0.7854d 1
Parabola 2 2
= 0.7854 ( 1.055d d 1 )
Equation:
4 4
2 I = 0.0547d 0.0491d 1
2b
y = --------x 4 4
4d = 0.0491 ( 1.115d d 1 )
2bd = 0.0491 [ ( 1.056 ) d d 1 ]
2 4 4
A = ---------
3
2 2
R = 1 4 1.056d + d 1
PROP.
SECT.

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APPENDIX DCOLUMN INTERACTION DIAGRAMS (DESIGN AIDS)
D.1Columninteractiondiagrams

The column axial loadbending moment interaction diagrams illustrated in D.5 conform to ACI 31814. The

equations used to generate data for plotting the interaction diagrams were originally developed for ACI SP7

(EverardandCohen1964).Inaddition,completederivationsoftheequationsforsquareandcircularcolumnshaving

the steel arranged in a circle have been published in the ACI Structural Journal (Everard 1997). The interaction

diagrams contained in SP7 were subsequently published in SP17A (ACI Committee 340 1970). The related

equationswerederivedconsideringthefollowing:

(a) Forrectangularandsquarecolumnshavingsteelbarsplacedontheendfacesonly,reinforcementwasassumed

toconsistoftwoequalthinstripsparalleltothecompressionfaceofthesection;

(b) Forrectangularandsquarecolumnshavingsteelbarsequallydistributedalongallfourfaces,thereinforcement

wasconsideredtoconsistofathinrectangularorsquaretube;and

(c) Forsquareandcircularsectionshavingsteelbarsarrangedinacircle,thereinforcementwasconsideredto

consistofathincirculartube.

Theinteractiondiagramsweredevelopedusingtherectangularstressblock(ACI31814,Section22.2.2.4).In

allcases,forreinforcementwithinthecompressedportionofthedepthperpendiculartothecompressionfaceof

theconcrete(a=1c),thecompressionstressinthesteelwasreducedby0.85fctoaccountfortheconcretearea

thatisdisplacedbythereinforcingbarswithinthecompressionstressblock.

The interaction diagrams were plotted in nondimensional form. The vertical coordinate [Kn = Pn / (fcAg)]

representsthenondimensionalformofthenominalaxialloadstrengthofthesection.Thehorizontalcoordinate

[Rn = Mn / (fcAgh)] represents the nondimensional nominal bending moment strength of the section. The

nondimensionalformswereusedsothattheinteractiondiagramscouldbeusedwithanysystemofunits(SIorin.

lb units). Because ACI 31814 contains different factors in Chapter 21, the strength reduction factor was

consideredas1.0sothatthenominalvaluesintheinteractiondiagramscouldbeusedwithanysetoffactors.

NotethatthefactorsprovidedinChapter21ofACI31814arebasedonstrainvaluesinthetensionreinforcement

farthestfromthecompressionfaceofamember,oratthecentroidofthetensionreinforcement.
Alsonotetheeccentricityratios(e/h=M/P),sometimesincludedasdiagonallinesoninteractiondiagrams,are

notincludedintheinteractiondiagrams.UsingtheeccentricityratioasacoordinatewithKn orRn couldleadto

inaccuraciesbecausethee/hlinesconvergerapidlyatthelowerendsofthediagrams.Straightlinesforthetension

steelstressratiosfs/fyhavebeenplottedtoassistindesigningsplicesforthereinforcement.Further,theratiofs/fy

=1.0representssteelstrainy=fy/Es,whichistheboundarypointforthecompressioncontrolfactor,andthe

beginningofthetransitionzoneforlinearincreaseofthefactortothatfortensioncontrol.

To provide interpolation for the factor, other strain lines were plotted. The strain line for t = 0.005, the

beginningofthezonefortensioncontrol,hasbeenplottedonalldiagrams.Theintermediatestrainlinefort=

0.0035hasbeenplottedforsteelyieldstrength60.0ksi.Theintermediatestrainlinefort=0.0038hasbeenplotted

for steel yield strength 75.0 ksi. Note that all strains refer to the reinforcing bar or bars farthest from the

compressionfaceofthesection.Discussionsandtablesrelatedtothestrengthreductionfactorsarecontainedin

twopublicationsinConcreteInternational(Everard2002a,b).

Straight lines for Kmax are also provided on each interaction diagram. Here, Kmax refers to the maximum

permissiblenominalaxialload,Pn,max,onacolumnthatislaterallyreinforcedwithtiesorhoops(ACI31814,Section

22.4.2.1).

Pn,max 0.8 0.85 f c Ag Ast f y Ast (D.1a)


Then,

K max pmax / f c Ag (D.1b)

Forcolumnswithspirals,valuesofKmaxfromtheinteractiondiagramsaremultipliedby0.85/0.80ratio.

Thenumberoflongitudinalreinforcingbarsisnotlimitedtothenumbershownontheinteractiondiagrams.The

diagramsonlyillustratethetypeofreinforcementpatterns.However,forcircularandsquarecolumnswithsteel

arrangedinacircle,andforrectangularorsquarecolumnswithsteelequallydistributedalongallfourfaces,12

barsarepreferred;usingatleast8barsisgoodpractice.Althoughsidesteelwasassumedtobe50percentofthe

totalsteelforcolumnshavinglongitudinalsteelequallydistributedalongallfourfaces,accurateandconservative

designscanresultwhensidesteelisonly30percentofthetotalsteel.Themaximumnumberofbarsusedinany

columncrosssectionislimitedbythemaximumallowablesteelratioof0.08,thecover,andspacingbetweenbars.
Tensionaxialloadsarenotincludedintheinteractiondiagrams.

REFERENCES

ACI Committee 340, 1970, Ultimate Strength Design Handbook, V. 2, Columns, ACI Special Publication 17-

A, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 226 pp.

Bresler, B., 1960, Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Column under Axial Load and Biazial Bending, ACI

JOURNAL Proceedings, V. 57, No. 5, Nov. pp. 481-490.

Column Research Council, 1966, Guide to Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members, second edition,

Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 217 pp.

Concrete Design Handbook, 2005, third edition, Cement Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Everard, N.J., 1997, Axial Load-Moment Interaction for Cross-Sections Having Longitudinal Reinforcement

Arranged in a Circle, ACI Structural Journal, V. 94, No. 6, Nov.-Dec., pp. 695-699.

Everard, N. J., 2002a, Designing With ACI 318-02 Strength Reduction Factors, Concrete International, V. 24,

No. 7, July, pp. 71-74.

Everard, N. J., 2002b, Strain-Related Strength Reduction Factors () According to ACI 318-02, Concrete

International, Aug, V. 34, No. 8, pp. 91-93.

Everard, N. J., and Cohen, E., 1964, Ultimate Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns, SP-7,

American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 152-182.

MacGregor, J. G., 1997, Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design, third edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood

Cliffs, New Jersey, 939 pp.

Parma, A. L.; Nieves, J. M.; and Gouwens, A., 1966, Capacity of Reinforced Rectangular Columns Subject to

Biaxial Bending, ACI JOURNAL Proceedings, V. 63, No. 9, Sept., pp. 911-923.

D.2Columnssubjecttobiaxialbending

D.2.1GeneralMostcolumnsaresubjectedtosignificantbendinginonedirectionwhilesubjectedto

relativelysmallbendingmomentsintheorthogonaldirection.Thesecolumnsaredesignedusingtheinteraction
diagramsdiscussedintheprecedingsectionforuniaxialbendingand,whenrequired,checkedforstrengthinthe

orthogonaldirection.Othercolumns,suchascornercolumns,aresubjectedtoequallysignificantbending

momentsintwoorthogonaldirectionsand,therefore,mighthavetobedesignedforbiaxialbending.

Acircularcolumnsubjectedtomomentsabouttwoaxesmaybedesignedasauniaxialcolumnacteduponby

theresultantmoment

M x M 2ux M 2uy M n M 2 nx M 2 ny (D.2.1)

Forthedesignofrectangularcolumnssubjectedtomomentsabouttwoaxes,thisHandbookprovidesdesign

aidsfortwomethods:Thereciprocalload(1/Pi)method(Bresler1960)andtheloadcontourmethod(Parmeetal.

1966).Thereciprocalloadmethodisconvenientformakingatrialsectionanalysis.Theloadcontourmethodis

suitableforselectingacolumncrosssection.Bothmethodsuseafailuresurfacetoreflecttheinteractionofthree

variables:thenominalaxialloadPnandthenominalbiaxialbendingmomentsMnxandMny.Incombination,these

variablescausefailurestrainattheextremecompressionfiber;thatis,thefailuresurfacereflectsthestrengthof

shortcompressionmemberssubjecttobiaxialbendingandcompression.FigureD.2.1aillustratesthebending

axes,eccentricities,andbiaxialmoments.

Fig.D.2.1aNotationusedforcolumnsectionssubjectedtobiaxialbending.

AfailuresurfaceS1mayberepresentedbyPn,ex,andey,asinFig.D.2.1b,oritmayberepresentedbysurface

S2representedbyPn,Mnx,andMny,asshowninFig.D.2.1c.NotethatS1isasinglecurvaturesurfacehavingno

discontinuityatthebalancepoint,whereasS2hasdiscontinuity.

NotethatwhenbiaxialbendingexistswithanominalaxialforcesmallerthanthelesserofPbor0.1fcAg,itis

sufficientlyaccurateandconservativetoignoretheaxialforceanddesignthesectionforbendingonly.

Fig.D.2.1bFailuresurfaceS1.
Fig.D.2.1cFailuresurfaceS2.

D.2.2ReciprocalloadmethodInthereciprocalloadmethod,S1isinvertedbyplotting1/Pnasthevertical

axis,givingS3,showninFig.D.2.2a.AsFigureD.2.2bshows,atruepoint(1/Pn1,exA,eyB)onthisreciprocalfailure

surfacecanbeapproximatedbyapoint(1/Pni,exA,eyB)onaplaneS3passingthroughpointsA,B,andC.Each

pointisapproximatedbyadifferentplane,thatis,theentirefailuresurfaceisdefinedbyaninfinitenumberof

planes.

PointArepresentsthenominalaxialloadstrengthPnywhentheloadhasaneccentricityofexAwithey=0.

PointBrepresentsthenominalaxialloadstrengthPnxwhentheloadhasaneccentricityofeyBwithex=0.PointC

isbasedontheaxialstrengthPowithzeroeccentricity.Theequationoftheplanepassingthroughthethreepoints

is

1 1 1 1
(D.2.2a)
Pni Pnx Pny P0

where

Pni = approximationofnominalaxialloadstrengthateccentricitiesexandey

Pnx = nominalaxialloadstrengthforeccentricityeyalongtheyaxisonly(xaxisisaxisofbending)

Pny = nominalaxialloadstrengthforeccentricityexalongthexaxisonly(yaxisisaxisofbending)

P0 = nominalaxialloadstrengthforzeroeccentricity

Fig.D.2.2aFailuresurfaceS3whichisreciprocalof

surfaceS1.

Fig.D.2.2bGraphicalrepresentationofreciprocal

loadmethod.

Fordesignpurposes,whenisconstant,1/PniinEq.(D.2.2a)canbeused.ThevariableKn=Pn/(fcAg)canbe

useddirectlyinthereciprocalequation,asfollows(D.2.2b)

1 1 1 1
(D.2.2b)
K ni K nx K ny K 0

wheretheKvaluesrefertothecorrespondingPnvaluesasdefinedabove.

Onceapreliminarycrosssectionwithanestimatedsteelratiogisselected,calculateRnxandRnyusingthe

actualbendingmomentsaboutthecrosssectionxandyaxes.ObtainthecorrespondingvaluesofKnxandKny

fromtheinteractiondiagramspresentedinthischapterastheintersectionofRnvalueandtheassumedsteelratio

curveforg.Then,obtainthetheoreticalcompressionaxialloadstrengthK0attheintersectionofthesteelratio

curveandtheverticalaxisforzeroRn.

D.2.3LoadcontourmethodTheloadcontourmethodusesthefailuresurfaceS2(Fig.D.2.1c)andworkswith

aloadcontourdefinedbyaplaneataconstantvalueofPn(Fig.D.2.3a).Theloadcontourdefiningtherelationship

betweenMnxandMnyforaconstantPncanbeexpressednondimensionallyas


M nx M ny
1 (D.2.3a)
M nox M noy
Fig.D.2.3bNondimensionalloadcontouratconstant

Pn.

Fig. D.2.3aLoad contour constant Pn on failure

surface.

Fordesign,wheneachtermismultipliedby,theequationisunchanged.Thus,Mux,Muy,Mox,andMoy,which

should correspond to Mnx, Mny, Mnox, and Mnoy, are used in the remainder of this section. To simplify the

equation for application, a point on the nondimensional diagram (Fig. D.2.3b) is defined such that the biaxial

momentcapacitiesMnxandMny areinthesameratioastheuniaxialmomentcapacitiesMoxandMoy;thus

M nx M ox
(D.2.3b)
M ny M oy

or

M nx M ox and M ny M oy (D.2.3c)

In a physical sense, the ratio is the constant portion of the uniaxial moment capacities that may act

simultaneouslyonthecolumnsection.TheactualvalueofdependsontheratioPn/Pog,aswellaspropertiesof

thematerialandcrosssection.Theusualrangeis0.55to0.70andanaveragevalueof0.65issuggestedfordesign.

Theloadcontourequation(Eq.(D.2.3a))maybewrittenintermsof,asshown

log 0.5/ log l og 0.5/ log


M nx M ny
1 (D.2.3d)
M
M nox noy
FigureD.2.3billustratestherelationshipusing.ThetruerelationshipbetweenPointsA,B,andCisacurve,

but for design purposes, it may be approximated by straight lines. The load contour equations as straight line

approximationare

M ny M oy M oy 1
For , M oy M ny M nx (D.2.3e)
M nx M ox M ox

M ny M oy M 1
For , M ox M nx M ny ox (D.2.3f)
M
M nx M ox oy

Forrectangularsectionswithreinforcementequallydistributedonallfourfaces,theaboveequationscanbe

approximatedby

b 1
M oy M ny M nx (D.2.3g)
h

M ny M oy M ny b
For or (D.2.3f)
M nx M ox M nx h

wherebandharedimensionsoftherectangularcolumnsectionparalleltoxandyaxes,respectively.Using

thestraightlineapproximationequations,thedesignproblemcanbesolvedbyconvertingnominalmomentsinto

equivalentuniaxialmomentcapacitiesMoxorMoy.Thisisaccomplishedby:

(a)Assumingavalueforb/h

(b)Estimatingas0.65

(c)CalculatingtheapproximateequivalentuniaxialbendingmomentusingEq.(D.2.3e)or(D.2.3f)

(d)Choosingthetrialsectionandreinforcementusingthemethodsforuniaxialbendingandaxialload.

Thetrialsectionshouldbeverifiedusingtheloadcontourmethodorthereciprocalloadmethod.
D.3Columnexamplesusinginteractiondiagrams(D.5)

D.3.1ColumnExample1Determinationofrequiredareaofsteelforarectangulartiedcolumnwithbarsonfour
faceswithslendernessratiobelowcriticalvalue.

Forarectangulartiedcolumnwithbarsequallydistributedalongfour
faces,findsteelarea.

Given:
Loading
Pu=560kip,andMu=3920in.kip
Assume=0.70
NominalaxialloadPn=560kip/0.70=800kip
NominalmomentMn=3920in.kip/0.70=5600in.kip

Materials
Compressivestrengthofconcretefc=4ksi
Yieldstrengthofreinforcementfy=60ksi
Normalizedmaximumsizeofaggregateis1in.

Designconditions
Shortcolumnbracedagainstsidesway

ACI31814
section Discussion Calculation Designaid
Determinecolumnsectionsize. Given:h=20in.andb=16in.
Determinereinforcementratiog Pn=800kip
usingknownvaluesofvariablesonMn=5600in.kip
appropriateinteractiondiagrams h=20in.
andcomputerequiredcross b=16in.
sectionareaAstoflongitudinal Ag=bh=2016=320in.2
reinforcement.
P 800
Compute K n n Kn 0.625
f c Ag (4)(320)
Mn 5600
Compute Rn Rn 0.22
f c Ag h (4)(320)(20)
h5 20 5
Estimate 0.75
h 20
10.5 Determinetheappropriate Forarectangulartiedcolumnwithbarsalongfour
interactiondiagrams. faces,fc=4ksi,fy=60ksi,andanestimatedof
0.75,enterdiagramR460.7andR460.8with
Kn=0.625andRn=0.22,respectively.
ReadgforKnandRnvaluesfrom Readg=0.041for=0.7andg=0.039for R460.7
appropriateinteractiondiagrams. =0.8.Interpolatingg=0.040for=0.75 R460.8
ComputerequiredAstfrom
Ast=gAg. RequiredAst=0.040320in.2=12.8in.2

D.3.2ColumnExample2Foraspecifiedreinforcementratio,selectionofacolumnsectionsizeforarectangular
tiedcolumnwithbarsonendfacesonly.

For minimum longitudinal reinforcement (g= 0.01) and column section


dimensionh=16in.,selectthecolumndimensionbforarectangulartied
columnwithbarsonendfacesonly.

Given:
Loading
Pu=660kipandMu=2790in.kip
Assume=0.70
NominalaxialloadPn=660kip/0.70=943kip
NominalmomentMn=4200in.kip/0.70=3986in.kip

Materials
Compressivestrengthofconcretefc=4ksi
Yieldstrengthofreinforcementfy=60ksi

Nominalmaximumsizeofaggregateis1in.

Designconditions
Slendernesseffectsmaybeneglectedbecauseku/hisknowntobebelow
criticalvalue.

ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Determinetrialcolumndimension Pn=943kip
bcorrespondingtoknownvalues Mn=3986in.kip
ofvariablesonappropriate h=16in.
interactiondiagrams. g=0.039
Assumeaseriesoftrialcolumn
sizesb,ininches,andcompute b 24 26 28
Ag=bxh,in.2 Ag
384 416 448

Compute Pn 943 943 943
K
n
0.61 0.57 0.53
f c Ag (4)(384) (4)(416) (4)(448)

Compute Mn 3986 3986 3986
Rn 0.16 0.15 0.14
f c Ag h
(4)(384)(16) (4)(416)(16) (4)(448)(16)

h5
Estimate 0.7 0.7 0.7
h


10.5 Determinetheappropriate Forarectangulartiedcolumnwithbarsalongfour
interactiondiagrams. faces,fc=4ksi,fy=60ksi,andanestimatedof0.70,
usediagramL460.7.
ReadgforKnandRnvaluesfor
=0.7,selectdimension
0.018 0.014 0.011 L460.7
correspondingtognearest

desiredvalueofg=0.01.
Therefore,trya16x28in.column

D.3.3Example3Selectionofreinforcementforasquarespiralcolumn(slendernessratioisbelowcriticalvalue).

Forthesquarespiralcolumnsectionshown,selectreinforcement.

Given:
Loading
Pu=660kipandMu=2640in.kip
Assume=0.70
NominalaxialloadPn=660kip/0.70=943kip
NominalmomentMn=2640in.kip/0.70=3771in.kip

Materials
Compressivestrengthofconcretefc=4ksi
Yieldstrengthofreinforcementfy=60ksi
Nominalmaximumsizeofaggregateis1in.

Designconditions
Columnsectionsizeh=b=18in
Slendernesseffectsmaybeneglectedbecauseku/hisknowntobe
belowcriticalvalue

ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Determinereinforcementrationg Pn=943kip
usingknownvaluesofvariableson Mn=3771in.kip
appropriateinteractiondiagram(s) Ag=bxh=18x18=324in.2
andcomputerequiredcross
sectionareaAstoflongitudinal
reinforcement.
Pn 943
Compute Kn Kn 0.73
f c Ag (4)(324)
Mn 3771
Compute Rn Rn 0.16
f c Ag h (4)(324)(18)
h5 18 5
Estimate 0.72
h 18
10.5 Determinetheappropriate Forasquarespiralcolumn,fc=4ksi,fy=60ksi,andan
interactiondiagrams. estimatedof0.72,usediagramS460.7andS460.8.
ReadgforKnandRn. ForKn=0.73andRn=0.16,andfor:
=0.70 g=0.035
S460.7
=0.80 g=0.031
S460.8
=0.72 g=0.034
Ast=0.034x324in.2=11in.2
D.3.4Example4Designofsquarecolumnsectionsubjecttobiaxialbendingusingresultantmoment

Selectcolumnsectionsizeandreinforcementforasquarecolumnwithg0.04
andbarsequallydistributedalongfourfaces,subjecttobiaxialbending.

Given:
Loading
Pu=193kip,Mux=1917in.kip,andMuy=769in.kip
Assume=0.65
NominalaxialloadPn=193kip/0.65=297kip
NominalmomentaboutxaxisMnx=1917in.kip/0.65=2949in.kip
NominalmomentaboutyaxisMny=769in.kip/0.65=1183in.kip

Materials
Compressivestrengthofconcretefc=5ksi
Yieldstrengthofreinforcementfy=60ksi
Nominalmaximumsizeofaggregateis1in.

ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Assumeloadcontourcurveat
constantPnisanellipse,and
determineresultantmomentMnx
from Forasquarecolumn:h=b
M nr M 2 nx M 2 ny M nr 29492 11832 3177 in.-kip

Assumeaseriesoftrialcolumn
14 16 18
sizesh,ininches.

Compute Ag h 2 , in.2
196 256 324
Pn 297 297 297
Compute Kn 0.30 0.23 0.18
f c Ag (5)(196) (5)(256) (5)(324)


Mn 3177 3177 3177
Compute Rn 0.23 0.16 0.11
f c Ag h (5)(196)(14) (5)(256)(16) (5)(324)(18)


h5
Estimate 0.64 0.69 0.72
h


10.5 Determinetheappropriate Forasquaretiedcolumn,fc=5ksi,fy=60ksi,use
interactiondiagrams. diagramR560.6,R560.7andR560.8.
ReadgforKnandRnvaluesfor 0.064 0.030 0.012
R560.6
=0.60,0.70,and0.08. 0.048 0.026 0.011
R560.7

R560.8
Interpolate 0.058 0.026 0.012
Therefore,tryh=15in.
Determinereinforcementratiog Ag=h2=152=225in.2
usingknownvaluesofvariablesonPn=297kip
appropriateinteractiondiagrams Mn=3177in.kip

andcomputerequiredcross
sectionareaAstoflongitudinal
reinforcement.
Pn 297
Compute Kn Kn 0.264
f c Ag (5)(225)
ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Mn 3177
Compute Rn Rn 0.188
f c Ag h (5)(225)(15)
h5 15 5
Estimate 0.67
h 15
10.5 Determinetheappropriate Forasquaretiedcolumn,fc=5ksi,fy=60ksi,use
interactiondiagrams. diagramR560.6andR560.7.
ReadgforKnandRnvaluesfor ForKn=0.264andRn=0.188:
=0.60and0.70. =0.60 g=0.043 R560.6
=0.70 g=0.034 R560.7
=0.37 g=0.037
ComputerequiredAstfrom RequiredAst=0.037x225in. =8.32in.2
2

Ast=gAgandaddabout15
percentforskewbending. UseAst=9.50in.2
D.3.5Example5Designofcircularspiralcolumnsectionsubjecttoverysmalldesignmoment

For a circular spiral column, select column section diameter h and choose
reinforcement.Userelativelyhighproportionoflongitudinalsteel.

Given:
Loading
Pu=940kipandMu=480in.kip
Assume=0.70
NominalaxialloadPn=940kip/0.70=1343kip
NominalmomentMn=480in.kip/0.70=686in.kip

Materials
Compressivestrengthofconcrete f c =5ksi
Yieldstrengthofreinforcementfy=60ksi
Nominalmaximumsizeofaggregateis1in.

Designcondition
Slendernesseffectsmaybeneglectedbecauseku/hisknowntobebelowcritical
value

ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Determinetrialcolumndimension Pn=1343kip
bcorrespondingtoknownvalues Mn=686in.kip
ofvariablesonappropriate g=0.04
interactiondiagrams.
Assumeaseriesoftrialcolumn
12 16 20
sizesb,ininches.

Compute Ag h 2 , in.2
113 201 314

Mn 686 686 686
Compute Rn 0.10 0.04 0.02
f c Ag h (5)(113)(12) (5)(201)(16) (5)(314)(20)

h5
Estimate 0.58 0.69 0.75
h

10.5 Determinetheappropriate Foracircularcolumn,fc=5ksi,fy=60ksi,usediagram


interactiondiagrams. C560.6,C560.7andC560.8.
ReadKnandRnandgvaluesfor Nochart 1.08 1.23
C560.6
=0.60,0.70,and0.08. 0.9 1.18 1.25
C560.7

C560.8
Interpolate 0.9 1.17 1.24

Pn
Compute Ag 298 229 217
f c K n


Ag
Compute h2 19.5 17.1 16.6

Therefore,try17in.diametercolumn.
Determinereinforcementratiog
usingknownvaluesofvariableson
2
appropriateinteractiondiagrams 17
Ag 227 in.2
andcomputerequiredcross 2
sectionareaAstoflongitudinal
reinforcement.
ACI31814 Design
section Discussion Calculation aid
Pn 1343
Kn Kn 1.18
Compute f c Ag (5)(227)(17)

Mn 1343
Compute Rn Rn 0.0356
f c Ag h (5)(227)(17)
h5 17 5
Estimate 0.71
h 17
10.5 Determinetheappropriate Foracircularcolumn,fc=5ksi,fy=60ksi,usediagram
interactiondiagrams. C560.7.
ReadgforKnandRnvalues. ForKn=1.18andRn=0.0356:
C560.7
=0.70 g=0.040
ComputerequiredAstfrom

Ast=gAg. RequiredAst=0.04x227in.2=9.08in.2
D.4Columndesignaids

TableD.4.1EffectiveLengthFactor,JacksonandMorelandalignmentchartforcolumnsinbraced(nonsway)
frames(ColumnResearchCouncil1966)

TableD.4.2EffectiveLengthFactor,JacksonandMorelandalignmentchartforcolumnsinunbraced(sway)
frames(ColumnResearchCouncil1966)
TableD.4.3Recommendedflexuralrigidities(EI)foruseinfirstorderandsecondorderanalysesofframesfor
designofslendercolumns(ACI31814,Section6.6.3.1.1,)

Secondorderanalysisofframesfordesignofslendercolumns
fc,ksi 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ec,ksi 3120 3605 4031 4415 4769 5098 5407 5700

EcI/Ig,ksi I/Ig
Beams 1092 1262 1411 1545 1669 1784 1892 1995 0.3

Columns 2184 2524 2822 3091 3338 3569 3785 3990 0.7

Walls(uncracked) 2184 2524 2822 3091 3338 3569 3785 3990 0.7

Walls(cracked) 1092 1262 1411 1545 1669 1784 1892 1995 0.3
Flatplates
780 901 1008 1104 1192 1275 1352 1425 0.2
Flatslabs

Notes:

1. Alternatively,thefollowingmorerefinedvaluesofIcanbeused:
Forcolumns:

A Mu P
I 0.8 25 st 1 0.5 u I g 0.5 Ig
Ag
Pu h Po

WherePuandMuarefortheparticularloadcombinationsunderconsideration,orthecombinationofPuand
MuthatleadstothesmallestvalueofI,Ineednotbelessthan0.35Ig.

Forbeams:

0.10 25 1.2 0.2 0.5

Forcontinuousbeams,Icanbetakenastheaverageofvaluesforthecriticalpositiveandnegativemoment
sections.Ineednotbelessthan0.25Ig.
2. Whensustainedlateralloadsareapplied,Iforcolumnsshouldbedividedby(1+ds),wheredsistheratioof
maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored story shear for the same load
combination.dsshallnotbetakengreaterthan1.0.
3. Theabovevaluesareapplicabletonormaldensityconcretewithwcbetween90and155lb/ft3.
4. ThemomentofinertiaofaTbeamshouldbebasedontheeffectiveflangewidthasshowninFlexure6.Itis
generallyaccuratetotakeIgofaTbeamastwotimestheIgfortheweb.
5. Memberareawillnotbereducedforanalysis.
TableD.4.4Effectivelengthfactorkforcolumnsinbracedframes(ConcreteDesignHandbook2005)

TOP

Hinged
Elastic

Elastic
Stiff

TableD.4.5Momentofinertiaofreinforcementaboutsectionalcentroid(BasedonTable121,MacGregor1997)

istheratioofthedistancebetweenthecentersoftheoutermostbarstothecolumndimensionperpendicularto
theaxisofbending.

D.5Interactiondiagrams
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R3-60.6 h
h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2 g = 0.08
fy = 60 ksi
= 0.6
0.07
2.0
Kmax

0.06
1.8 Pn
e

0.05
1.6

0.04
1.4 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.03
1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02 0.25
1.0
0.01

0.8 0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4

t = 0
t t = 0.0.0035
0.2 = 0 04 1.0
. 00
5

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R3-60.7 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.7
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
1.6
0.04 fs/fy = 0
1.4
0.03
Ag

1.2
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0
0.01
0.50
0.8

0.75
0.6

0.4
1.0
t t = 0.00
t = 0.00435
= 0.
0.2 005 0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R3-60.8 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.8
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
1.6
fs/fy = 0
0.04
1.4
0.03
Ag

1.2 0.25
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0
0.01 0.50

0.8
0.75

0.6

0.4 1.0
t = 0.0
t = 0.0 0305
t = 0.0004
5
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R3-60.9 h
g = 0.08 / h
f c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05

1.6 fs/fy = 0
0.04

1.4
0.03
0.25
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0 0.50
0.01

0.8
0.75

0.6
1.0

0.4
t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
t = 0.0050
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R4-60.6 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
g = 0.08
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.6
0.07
1.6 Kmax

0.06
e Pn
1.4 0.05

0.04
1.2 fs/fy = 0
0.03
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6

0.75
0.4

t t = 0.00
= 0.
t 0 35 1.0
0.2 = 0. 040
005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R4-60.7 h
/ h
f c = 4 ksi
g = 0.08
1.8 fy = 60 ksi

0.07
= 0.7

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
1.4 0.05

0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.2
0.03
Ag

1.0 0.02
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0
t t = 0.0
t = 0.004035
= 0.
0.2 005 0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R4-60.8 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.8

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
0.05
1.4

0.04 fs/fy = 0

1.2
0.03
Ag

0.25
1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.50
0.8

0.6 0.75

1.0
0.4
t =
t = 0.0035
t = 00.0040
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R4-60.9 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9

1.6 0.06
Kmax

e Pn
0.05
1.4
fs/fy = 0
0.04

1.2
0.03
0.25
Ag

0.02
1.0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01 0.50
0.8

0.75
0.6

1.0
0.4
t = 0.003
t = 0.00405
t = 0.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R5-60.6 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 fy = 60 ksi
g = 0.08
= 0.6
0.07
1.4 Kmax
0.06
e Pn

0.05
1.2
0.04

0.03
fs/fy = 0
1.0
0.02
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8 0.25

0.6 0.50

0.4 0.75


t t = 0.0
= 0. 035 1.0
t 0
0.2 = 0. 040
005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R5-60.7 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.7
0.07

1.4 Kmax
0.06
e Pn
0.05

1.2
0.04

fs/fy = 0
0.03
1.0
0.02
Ag c

0.25
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8

0.50
0.6

0.75

0.4
t 1.0
t = = 0.0035
t = 0.0040
0.2 0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R5-60.8 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.8
0.07

1.4 0.06
Kmax

e Pn
0.05

1.2
0.04
fs/fy = 0
0.03
1.0
Ag

0.02
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4 1.0
t = 0.0
t = 0.004035
t = 0.005 0
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R5-60.9 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.6
= 0.9
0.07

Kmax
1.4 0.06

e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04 fs/fy = 0

0.03

1.0
0.02 0.25
Ag c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8 0.50

0.6 0.75

1.0
0.4
t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
t = 0.005 0
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R6-60.6 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
0.07
1.4 = 0.6
0.06
Kmax
0.05
1.2 Pn
e
0.04

0.03

1.0 0.02

0.01 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4
0.75


t t = 0.0
= 0. 035
t 0 1.0
0.2 = 0. 040
005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R6-60.7 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.7
0.07

0.06 Kmax

1.2 0.05 Pn
e

0.04

1.0 0.03
fs/fy = 0
0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/

0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.50

0.75
0.4

1.0
t =t = 0.0035
t = 0.0040
0.2 0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R6-60.8 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.8
0.07

0.06 Kmax

1.2 0.05 Pn
e

0.04

0.03
1.0 fs/fy = 0
0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8 0.25
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50
0.6

0.75

0.4
1.0
t
t = =0 0.0035
.0
t = 0 040
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R6-60.9 h
h
g = 0.08
f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07 = 0.9
0.06 Kmax

1.2 0.05 Pn
e
0.04

fs/fy = 0
0.03
1.0
0.02

0.25
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4 1.0

t =
t = 0 0.0035
t = 0 .0040
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R9-75.6 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 g = 0.08 = 0.6
0.07

0.06
1.2 Kmax Pn
0.05 e

0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02

0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0

0.6
0.25

0.4
0.50


t = 0 0.75
0.2 t t = 0.00.0038
= 0.
005 40
1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R9-75.7 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.7
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 Pn
0.06 Kmax e

0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/

fs/fy = 0
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50
0.4

0.75

t=
t t = 0.00.0038
0.2 = 0.
005 040
0 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R9-75.8 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.8
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 Pn
0.06 Kmax e

0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8 fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6

0.50

0.4
0.75

t = 0
t t = 0.0.0038 1.0
0.2 = 0. 040
005
0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R9-75.9 h
/ h
f c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.9
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn
e
0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02
fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4 0.75

t = 0.0038 1.0
t = 0.0
0.2 t = 0.00504
0
0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R12-75.6 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.6
0.07

0.06
0.05
Kmax Pn
e
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0
0.6

0.25

0.4
0.50


t = 0.75
0.2 t t = 0.00.0038
= 0.
005 040
0
1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R12-75.7 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.7
0.07

0.06
0.05 Kmax
e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag

fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.4 0.50

0.75

t = 0
t t = 0.0 .0038
0.2 = 0. 0
005 40
0 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R12-75.8 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.8
0.07
0.06
0.05
Kmax Pn
0.04 e
1.0
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag

fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.50
0.4
0.75


t = 0.0
t =t = 0.004038 1.0
0.2 0.005 0
0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM R12-75.9 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.9
0.07
0.06
0.05
Kmax Pn
0.04 e
1.0
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
fs/fy = 0
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50

0.4
0.75

t 1.0
t == 0.0 038
0.2 t = 0.00.0
050
040

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L3-60.6 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 3 ksi
2.2 fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.6
2.0
Kmax

0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
1.6
0.04
1.4 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.03
c
/

1.2
Kn = Pn / f

0.02
0.25
1.0
0.01

0.8 0.50

0.6
0.75
0.4

t = 0.0
t t = 0.00035
= 0.
0.2 005 4 1.0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60
Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L3-60.7 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.7
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
1.6
0.04

1.4 fs/fy = 0

0.03
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02 0.25

1.0
0.01
0.50
0.8

0.6 0.75

0.4
t = 1.0
t 0.0035
t ==0 0.004
0.2 .005

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L3-60.8 h
g = 0.08
h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.8
2.0
0.06 Kmax

1.8 Pn
e
0.05

1.6
0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.4
0.03
Ag

1.2
c
/

0.02 0.25
Kn = Pn / f

1.0
0.01
0.50
0.8

0.6 0.75

0.4
t = 0.0035 1.0
t 0.004
t ==0.0 05
0.2

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
g = 0.08 INTERACTION DIAGRAM L3-60.9 h
h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
0.07 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.9
2.0
0.06 Kmax

1.8 Pn
0.05 e

1.6 0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.4 0.03
Ag

1.2
c

0.02 0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

1.0 0.01
0.50
0.8

0.75
0.6

0.4 1.0
t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
t = 0.005
0.2

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L4-60.6 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
g = 0.08
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.6
0.07

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
0.05
1.4

0.04
1.2
0.03 fs/fy = 0
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6

0.75
0.4

tt = 0.00
t = 0.00435
= 0.
0.2 005 1.0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L4-60.7 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.7

1.6 0.06
Kmax

e Pn
0.05
1.4
0.04

1.2 fs/fy = 0
0.03
Ag

0.02
1.0
c
/

0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
t 1.0
t == 0.0035
t = 0 0.004
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L4-60.8 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.8

1.6 0.06 Kmax

e Pn
0.05
1.4
0.04

fs/fy = 0
1.2
0.03
Ag

0.02
1.0 0.25
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
t = 0.003 1.0
t = 0.004 5
t = 0.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L4-60.9 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.9
1.6 0.06 Kmax

0.05 e Pn
1.4
0.04
fs/fy = 0

1.2 0.03
Ag

0.02 0.25
1.0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01

0.8 0.50

0.6 0.75

0.4 1.0
t = 0.0035
t = 0.00
t = 0.0054
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L5-60.6 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08
= 0.6
0.07

1.4 Kmax
0.06
e Pn
0.05

1.2
0.04

0.03
1.0 fs/fy = 0
0.02
Ag c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8 0.25

0.6 0.50

0.4 0.75


t = 0.0
t t = 0.00035
= 0.
005 4
1.0
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L5-60.7 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.6
= 0.7
0.07

1.4 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04

0.03
fs/fy = 0
1.0
0.02
Ag c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.8

0.50
0.6

0.75

0.4
t = 1.0
t = 0.0035
t = 0 0.004
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L5-60.8 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.6
= 0.8
0.07

1.4 0.06 Kmax

e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04

0.03 fs/fy = 0

1.0 0.02
Ag c
/

0.01 0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.8

0.50
0.6
0.75

0.4
t = 0.0035 1.0
t = 0.004
t = 0.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L5-60.9 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08
1.6 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9

0.06
1.4 Kmax

e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04

fs/fy = 0
0.03

1.0 0.02
Ag

0.25
c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0
t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
t = 0.0 05
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6 h
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L6-60.6
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.6
0.07

Kmax
0.06

1.2 0.05 e Pn

0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02
fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4
0.75

t
t = 0.00
t = 0.00 35 1.0
= 0.
0.2 005 4

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L6-60.7 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.7
0.07

0.06 Kmax

1.2 0.05 Pn
e

0.04

0.03
1.0
0.02 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.75
0.4

t = 1.0
0.0035
t =t 0= 0.004
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L6-60.8 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07 = 0.8
0.06 Kmax

1.2 0.05 Pn
e
0.04

0.03
1.0
fs/fy = 0
0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/

0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.50

0.75
0.4

t = 0.0035 1.0
t = 0.0
t = 0.00504
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L6-60.9 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07 = 0.9
0.06
Kmax

1.2 0.05
Pn
e
0.04

0.03
1.0 fs/fy = 0
0.02

0.01
Ag

0.8
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50
0.6

0.75

0.4
1.0
t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
t = 0.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L9-75.6 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 g = 0.08 = 0.6
0.07

0.06
1.2 Kmax Pn
0.05 e

0.04

0.03
1.0
0.02

0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0

0.6
0.25

0.4
0.50


t = 0.0
t =t = 0.000438
0.75
0.2
0.005

1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L9-75.7 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.7
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn
e
0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/

fs/fy = 0
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50
0.4

0.75
t
= 0.0
0.2 t =t = 0.000438
0.005
1.0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L9-75.8 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.8
g = 0.08

0.07

1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn


e
0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02
Ag

0.01 fs/fy = 0
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6

0.50

0.4
0.75

t
= 0.0038
0.2 t =t 0= 0.004 1.0
.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L9-75.9 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.9
g = 0.08

0.07

1.2 0.06
Pn
Kmax e
0.05

0.04
1.0 0.03

0.02

fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6
0.50

0.4 0.75

t
= 0.00
t =t = 0.00438 1.0
0.2 0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L12-75.6 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.6
0.07
0.06
0.05
Kmax Pn
0.04 e
1.0
0.03

0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0
0.6

0.25

0.4
0.50


t = 0 0.75
0.2 t t = 0.0.0038
= 0. 0
005 4
1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L12-75.7 h
/ h
f c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08
1.2 = 0.7
0.07
0.06
0.05
Kmax Pn
0.04 e
1.0
0.03
0.02

0.01

0.8
Ag c

fs/fy = 0
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.4 0.50

0.75
t
t = 0.0038
0.2 t = 0= 0.004
.005 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L12-75.8 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 = 0.8
g = 0.08

0.07
0.06
Kmax Pn
0.05 e
1.0
0.04

0.03
0.02

0.8 0.01
Ag

fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.50
0.4
0.75

t = 0.0038
t = 0.004 1.0
0.2 t = 0.00 5

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM L12-75.9 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 g = 0.08
= 0.9
0.07
0.06
Kmax Pn
0.05 e
1.0
0.04

0.03

0.02

0.8 0.01
fs/fy = 0
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50

0.4
0.75

t = 0.0038 1.0
t = 0.004
0.2 t = 0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
g = 0.08 INTERACTION DIAGRAM C3-60.6 h
/ h
f c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.6
2.0
Kmax
0.06

1.8 Pn
e
0.05

1.6
0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.4
0.03
Ag

1.2
c
/

0.02
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

1.0 0.01

0.8 0.50

0.6
0.75
0.4

t = 0 .0
t = 0 03
0.2 5
t = 0 .0 0 4 1.0
.0 0
5
0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C3-60.7 h
/ h
g = 0.08
f c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
= 0.7
2.0 0.07
Kmax

1.8 0.06
Pn
e

0.05
1.6
fs/fy = 0

0.04
1.4
Ag

0.03
c

1.2 0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02
1.0
0.01 0.50

0.8

0.75
0.6

0.4
t 1.0
t = 0.00
0.2 t = 0.0 35
= 0 04
.00
5

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C3-60.8 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.8
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e

0.05 fs/fy = 0
1.6
0.04
1.4
0.03 0.25
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0 0.50
0.01

0.8
0.75

0.6
1.0
0.4
t =
t = 0.0035
0.2 t = 0.004
0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C3-60.9 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05 fs/fy = 0
1.6
0.04

1.4 0.25
Ag

0.03
c

1.2
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02
0.50
1.0
0.01

0.8 0.75

0.6
1.0

0.4
t = 0.0
t = 0.00035
0.2 t = 0.0054

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C4-60.6 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.6
1.6 0.06 Kmax

e Pn
0.05
1.4
0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.2 0.03

0.02
Ag

1.0
c
/

0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.01

0.8
0.50

0.6

0.75
0.4
t
=0
t .00
0.2 t = 35 1.0
= 0 0.004
.00
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C4-60.7 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.7
0.07
1.6 Kmax

0.06
e Pn
1.4 0.05
fs/fy = 0
0.04
1.2
0.03
0.25
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8 0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0
t
=
t 0.0035
= 0.
0.2 t 004
= 0.
0 05

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C4-60.8 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
g = 0.08
1.8 fy = 60 ksi

0.07
= 0.8

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
1.4 0.05
fs/fy = 0

0.04
1.2
0.03
0.25
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01 0.50
0.8

0.75
0.6

1.0
0.4
t =
t = 00.0035
0.2 t = 0 .004
.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C4-60.9 h
h
g = 0.08
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
0.05 fs/fy = 0
1.4

0.04

1.2
0.25
0.03
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50
0.01
0.8
0.75

0.6
1.0

0.4
t = 0
.0
t = 0 035
.004
t = 0
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C5-60.6 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08
1.6 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.6

0.06 Kmax
1.4
e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04

0.03
fs/fy = 0
1.0 0.02
Ag

0.01
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.8 0.25

0.6 0.50

0.4 0.75

t
=
0.2 t 0.0035
= 0. 1.0
t 004
= 0.
005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C5-60.7 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 fy = 60 ksi
g = 0.08
= 0.7
0.07
1.4 Kmax
0.06
e Pn

0.05
1.2
0.04 fs/fy = 0

0.03
1.0
Ag

0.02
c
/

0.25
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8

0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0

t t== 0.0035
0.2 t = 0.004
0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C5-60.8 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.8
0.07
Kmax
1.4
0.06
e Pn
0.05
1.2 fs/fy = 0
0.04

0.03
1.0
0.25
0.02
Ag c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4 1.0

t = 0
.0
t = 0 0 3 5
0.2 .004
t = 0
.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C5-60.9 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.9
0.07

1.4 Kmax
0.06
e Pn
0.05
fs/fy = 0
1.2
0.04

0.03
1.0 0.25
0.02
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8 0.50

0.75
0.6

1.0
0.4
t = 0
.0
t = 0 0 3 5
.0
0.2 t = 0 04
.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C6-60.6 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07 = 0.6
0.06
Kmax

0.05
1.2 Pn
e
0.04

0.03
1.0
0.02
fs/fy = 0
0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4
0.75

t
t = 0.0
0.2 t = 03
= 0 0.004 5 1.0
.00
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C6-60.7 h
h
g = 0.08 /
f c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07
= 0.7
0.06
Kmax
0.05
1.2 Pn
e
0.04

0.03
1.0 fs/fy = 0
0.02

0.01
Ag

0.8 0.25
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.50

0.75
0.4

t 1.0
=
t 0.0035
0.2 t = 0.
004
= 0.
005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C6-60.8 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4
= 0.8
0.07
Kmax
0.06
1.2 Pn
0.05 e

0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.0 0.03

0.02

0.25
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0

t = 0
.0
t = 0 0 3 5
0.2 t = 0
.004
.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C6-60.9 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4
0.07
= 0.9
Kmax
0.06

1.2 0.05 Pn
e
fs/fy = 0
0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02
0.25
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4 1.0

t = 0.0035
t = 0.004
0.2 t = 0.005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C9-75.6 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4
= 0.6
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn
e
0.05

0.04
1.0 0.03

0.02
0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0

0.6
0.25

0.4
0.50

0.2 t = 0.75
0
t t = 0.0 .0038
= 0. 0
005 4
1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C9-75.7 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4
= 0.7
g = 0.08

0.07

1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn


e
0.05

0.04

1.0 0.03
0.02

0.01
Ag

0.8
c

fs/fy = 0
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.4 0.50

0.75
t
0.2 t = 0.00
t = 38
= 0 0.004
.00 1.0
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C9-75.8 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4
g = 0.08 = 0.8
0.07

1.2 0.06
Kmax Pn
e
0.05

0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02
0.01
Ag

fs/fy = 0
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6

0.50
0.4
0.75

t =
0.2 0.00
t =t = 0.00 38 1.0
0.005 4

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C9-75.9 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4
= 0.9
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 Kmax Pn
0.06 e

0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.8 0.01
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4
0.75

t = 0 1.0
0.2 t = .0038
t = 0 0.004
.005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C12-75.6 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 = 0.6
g = 0.08
0.07
0.06
Kmax
0.05 e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.8
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0
0.6

0.25

0.4

0.50

0.2 0.75
t t = 0.
t = 0 0 03
=0 .00 8
. 00 4
5 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C12-75.7 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 g = 0.08
= 0.7
0.07
0.06
Kmax
0.05 e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.8
Ag

fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6

0.25

0.4
0.50

0.75

0.2 t t = 0.
t = 0 003
=0 . 00 8
. 00 4 1.0
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C12-75.8 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 g = 0.08 = 0.8
0.07
0.06
0.05 Kmax Pn
e
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.8
fs/fy = 0
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.50
0.4

0.75


t t = 0.
0.2 t = 0 003
.00 8 1.0
=0 4
. 00
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h

1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM C12-75.9 h
/ h
f c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
g = 0.08 = 0.9
1.2
0.07
0.06
0.05 Kmax
e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.8 fs/fy = 0
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6

0.50

0.4
0.75


t t = 0. 1.0
0.2 t = 0 003
=0 .00 8
.00 4
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S3-60.6 h
/ h
f c = 3 ksi
2.2 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.6
2.0 0.07
Kmax

1.8 0.06 Pn
e

1.6 0.05

0.04
1.4 fs/fy = 0

0.03
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02 0.25
1.0
0.01

0.8 0.50

0.6
0.75
0.4

t t = 0
t = 0.0.0035
0.2 = 0 04
. 00 0
1.0
5

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S3-60.7 h
/ h
f c = 3 ksi
2.2 g = 0.08
fy = 60 ksi
= 0.7
2.0 0.07
Kmax

1.8 0.06
Pn
e

1.6 0.05

fs/fy = 0
0.04
1.4
0.03
Ag

1.2
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0
0.01
0.50

0.8

0.75
0.6

0.4
t 1.0
= 0.
t 003
t = 0.00 5
0.2 = 0. 4
005 0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S3-60.8 h
/ h
g = 0.08 f c = 3 ksi
2.2 fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.8
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
1.6 fs/fy = 0

0.04
1.4
0.03 0.25
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02

1.0 0.50
0.01

0.8
0.75

0.6
1.0
0.4
t = 0
t = 0 .0035
.0
t = 0 040
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S3-60.9 h
g = 0.08 h
f /c = 3 ksi
2.2
fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9
2.0
Kmax
0.06
1.8 Pn
e
0.05
fs/fy = 0
1.6
0.04
1.4
0.25
0.03
Ag

1.2
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.02
0.50
1.0
0.01

0.8 0.75

0.6 1.0

0.4 t = 0
t = 0 .0035
.0040
t = 0
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S4-60.6 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
g = 0.08
= 0.6
0.07 Kmax
1.6
0.06 Pn
e
1.4 0.05

0.04
1.2 fs/fy = 0
0.03
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.01
0.8
0.50

0.6

0.75
0.4

t t = 0
.
t = 0.000035
0.2 =0 4 1.0
.00 0
5

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S4-60.7 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.7
0.07
Kmax
1.6
0.06
e Pn
1.4 0.05

0.04 fs/fy = 0
1.2
0.03
Ag

0.25
1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8 0.50

0.6 0.75

0.4
1.0
t t = 0.0
t = 0. 035
= 0. 0040
0.2 005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S4-60.8 h
h
f /c = 4 ksi
g = 0.08
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.8
0.07

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
1.4 0.05
fs/fy = 0
0.04
1.2
0.03
0.25
Ag

1.0 0.02
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01 0.50
0.8

0.75
0.6

1.0
0.4
t =
t = 0 0.0035
.0
t = 0 0 4 0
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
2.0
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S4-60.9 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 4 ksi
1.8 fy = 60 ksi
0.07 = 0.9

1.6 Kmax
0.06

e Pn
0.05
1.4 fs/fy = 0

0.04
1.2
0.03 0.25
Ag

0.02
1.0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50
0.01

0.8
0.75

0.6
1.0

0.4
t = 0
t = 0 .0035
t = 0.0040
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S5-60.6 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
g = 0.08
1.6 fy = 60 ksi
0.07
= 0.6

0.06 Kmax
1.4
e Pn
0.05

1.2 0.04

0.03
fs/fy = 0
0.02
1.0
Ag

0.01
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.8

0.50
0.6

0.4 0.75


t t = 0.0
t = 0.00 035 1.0
0.2 =0
. 00 0
4
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S5-60.7 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.6
g = 0.08
= 0.7
0.07
Kmax
1.4
0.06
e Pn

0.05
1.2
0.04
fs/fy = 0
0.03
1.0
0.02
Ag

0.25
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8
0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0

t t = 0.00
= 0.
t 0 35
0.2 = 0. 040
005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S5-60.8 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08
= 0.8
0.07
Kmax
1.4
0.06
e Pn
0.05
1.2
0.04 fs/fy = 0

0.03
1.0
0.02 0.25
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.01
0.8
0.50

0.6 0.75

0.4 1.0

t = 0
t = 0 .0035
t = 0 .0040
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.8
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S5-60.9 h
h
f /c = 5 ksi
1.6 g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
= 0.9
0.07
Kmax
1.4 0.06
e Pn
0.05

1.2 fs/fy = 0
0.04

0.03
1.0 0.25
0.02
Ag c
/

0.01
Kn = Pn / f

0.8 0.50

0.75
0.6

1.0

0.4
t =
t = 0.0035
t = 00.0040
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S6-60.6 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07 = 0.6
0.06 Kmax

0.05
1.2 Pn
e
0.04

0.03
1.0 0.02
fs/fy = 0
0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4 0.75


t t =
t = 0 0. 00
.
0.2 = 0 004035 1.0
.00
5

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S6-60.7 h
h
g = 0.08 f /c = 6 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
1.4 0.07
= 0.7
0.06 Kmax

0.05
1.2 Pn
e
0.04

0.03

1.0 0.02 fs/fy = 0

0.01
Ag

0.8
c

0.25
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50
0.6

0.75
0.4

1.0
t t = 0.0
= 0
t 0.0040 35
0.2 = 0.
005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S6-60.8 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.8
0.07
Kmax
0.06

1.2 0.05 Pn
e

0.04
fs/fy = 0
1.0 0.03

0.02
Ag

0.01 0.25
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50

0.6
0.75

0.4
1.0
t = 0
t = 0 .0035
.0
t = 0 0 4 0
0.2 .005

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
/
Rn = Pn e / f c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S6-60.9 h
h
f /c = 6 ksi
g = 0.08 fy = 60 ksi
1.4 = 0.9
0.07
Kmax
0.06

1.2 0.05 Pn
e

0.04
fs/fy = 0

1.0 0.03

0.02
0.25
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.50

0.6
0.75

1.0
0.4
t = 0
t = 0 .0035
t = 0 .0040
.005
0.2

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S9-75.6 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.6
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn
e
0.05
0.04
1.0 0.03
0.02
0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0

0.6
0.25

0.4 0.50


t t = 0 0.75
0.2 t = 0 .00
= 0 .004038
.00
5
1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S9-75.7 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.7
g = 0.08

0.07

1.2 0.06 Kmax Pn


e
0.05

0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02
0.01
Ag

0.8
c
/

fs/fy = 0
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50
0.4

0.75

t t = 0.0
0.2 t = = 0.004038
0.005 0 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S9-75.8 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.8
g = 0.08

0.07

1.2 0.06
Kmax e Pn
0.05

0.04

1.0 0.03

0.02

0.01
Ag

fs/fy = 0
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25
0.6

0.50

0.4
0.75

t
t = = 0.0038 1.0
0.2 t = 0 0.0040
.005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.6
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S9-75.9 h
h
f /c = 9 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.4 = 0.9
g = 0.08

0.07
1.2 Kmax Pn
0.06 e

0.05

0.04
1.0
0.03

0.02 fs/fy = 0
Ag

0.01
0.8
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.25

0.6
0.50

0.4 0.75

1.0
t =t =0 0.0038
.0040
0.2 t = 0
.005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S12-75.6 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 = 0.6
g = 0.08
0.07
0.06 Kmax
0.05
e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.8
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

fs/fy = 0
0.6

0.25

0.4
0.50


t t = 0.00 0.75
0.2 t =
= 0. 0. 0040 8
3
005
0 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S12-75.7 h
/ h
f c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 = 0.7
g = 0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05 Kmax Pn
e
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag c

fs/fy = 0
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.4 0.50

0.75

t t = 0.0
0.2 t = 0.004038
= 0.
005 0 1.0

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S12-75.8 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 g = 0.08 = 0.8
0.07
0.06
0.05 Kmax
e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
Ag

fs/fy = 0
c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6
0.25

0.50
0.4
0.75

t =
t = 0.0038 1.0
0.2 t = 0.0040
0.005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
1.4
INTERACTION DIAGRAM S12-75.9 h
h
f /c = 12 ksi
fy = 75 ksi
1.2 g = 0.08 = 0.9
0.07

0.06
0.05 Kmax
e Pn
1.0 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.8
fs/fy = 0
Ag c
/
Kn = Pn / f

0.6 0.25

0.50

0.4
0.75

1.0
t =t 0= 0.0038
.0040
0.2 t = 0
.005

0.0
0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225

Rn = Pn e / f / c Ag h
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