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VAPOUR-COMPRESSION

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

This case study demonstrates the modeling of a vapour compression


refrigeration system using R22 as refrigerant. Both a steady-state and
a transient simulation will be considered.

HVAC INDUSTRY
GENERAL INDUSTRY

CHALLENGE:

The primary objective of the simulation is to determine the steady-state


performance of the system given the design of all the components together
with appropriate boundary conditions.

The secondary objective is to investigate the dynamic performance of the


system under varying operating condition.

BENEFITS:
This case study demonstrates the modeling of a vapour compression
refrigeration system using R22 as refrigerant. Both a steady-state and a transient
simulation will be considered.

SOLUTION:
Flownex was used to simulate a vapour compression refrigeration system using
R22 as refrigerant. First a steady-state simulation was done and the results of
this simulation were used as initial conditions for a transient simulation.

Flownex was used to simulate a vapour compression refrigeration system


using R22 as refrigerant. First a steady-state simulation was done and the
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results of this simulation were used as initial conditions for a transient


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simulation.

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VAPOUR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
This case study demonstrates the modeling of a vapour
compression refrigeration system using R22 as refrigerant. Both a
steady-state and a transient simulation will be considered. The primary objective
of the simulation is to
determine the steady-
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
state performance of
The lay-out of the system is shown in Figure 1. the system given the
Condenser design of all the
10 9 components together
Pipe
3 2
with appropriate
boundary conditions.
4

Expansion valve Compressor


The secondary
1 objective is to
investigate the
dynamic performance
5 6 Pipe

7 8 of the system under


Evapourat varying operating
or
condition.
Figure 1: Layout of the R22 vapour-compression refrigeration system.

Refrigerant (R22) vapour enters a positive displacement compressor


at a slightly superheated state (1) and is then compressed to state
2. From 2 the high pressure high temperature vapour is first
sensibly cooled to saturation, then condensed and ultimately sub-
cooled to state 3. From 3 to 4 the liquid refrigerant flows through a
tube to the inlet of the expansion valve in an adiabatic process. The
expansion valve is a restrictor that causes a large pressure drop with
an accompanying adiabatic temperature drop. From 5 to 6 all the
liquid is evapourated in the evapourator and then slightly
superheated to state 6. From there the vapour refrigerant flows
through a tube to the inlet of the compressor (1) to close the cycle.
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Figure 2 shows the process on a temperature entropy diagram.

OBJECTIVE OF SIMULATION
The primary objective of the simulation is to determine the steady-
state performance of the system given the design of all the
components together with appropriate boundary conditions.

The secondary objective is to investigate the dynamic performance


of the system under varying operating condition.

2 Constant
pressure line

Temperature Sub-cooled liquid


region
Superheated
vapour region
3, 4
Two-phase region

Constant
pressure line

1, 6
5

Entropy

Figure 2: Vapour compression cycle on a T-s diagram.

FLOWNEX MODEL
The Flownex model of the system is shown in Figure 3.
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DESCRIPTION OF SIMULATION
The compressor is modeled with Flownexs Positive Displacement
Compressor (PDC) element while the evapourator and condenser is
modeled with Flownexs discretized parallel or counter flow heat Two simulations are
exchanger element. Each heat exchanger element is subdivided in done. The first is a
20 increments. Flownexs Restrictor with Discharge (RD) element is steady-state simulation
used to model the expansion valve. This type of element use
and the second is the
accurate relationships to model choking.
transient simulation
Two simulations are done. The first is a steady-state simulation and that uses the steady-
the second is the transient simulation that uses the steady-state
results of the first case as initial conditions. The condition that is
state results of the first
varied in the transient simulation is the temperature at node 9. case as initial
conditions.
The following boundary conditions are specified for the steady-
state case:

Node Boundary condition


number
4 Quality = -0.03 (to make sure that the refrigerant is
in the sub-cooled liquid region)
6 Quality = 1.03 (to make sure that the refrigerant is
in the superheated vapour region)
7 P = 100 kPa, T = 15 C
8 Mass flow = 3.09 kg/s
9 P = 100 kPa, T = 30 C
10 Mass flow = 1.7 kg/s

Flownexs Designer capability is used to determine the diameter of


the restrictor (element 8) as well as the pressures at nodes 1 and 4
so as to ensure that the quality conditions at nodes 4 and 5 is
satisfied as well as continuity at node 4.
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The time increment for
the transient simulation
is 50 ms.

Figure 3: Flownex network of the vapour compression refrigeration system.

In the transient case the temperature at node 9 is reduced from 30


C to 20 C during a 10 second period. At the start of the transient
simulation the boundary conditions are set such that the total mass
of refrigerant in the system is kept constant. The time increment for
the transient simulation is 50 ms.
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RESULTS
STEADY-STATE CASE
Some important results of the steady-state case are summarized in
This is due to the
the following table.
decrease in
Parameter Value compressor discharge
Condenser heat transfer 118.13 [kW] pressure. Both
Evapourator heat transfer 94.04 [kW] compressor power and
Compressor power 24.12 [kW]
quality to the inlet of
the compressor also
Refrigerant mass flow 0.616 [kg/s]
decrease during the
Pressure at node 1 512 [kPa]
transient.
Pressure at node 2 1959 [kPa]
Temperature at node 2 84.4 [C]

TRANSIENT CASE
Figure 4 to Figure 7 show some results for the transient case. From
Figure 4 it can be seen that the mass flow increases during the
transient. This is due to the decrease in compressor discharge
pressure. Both compressor power and quality to the inlet of the
compressor also decrease during the transient.

0.650
0.645
0.640
Mass flow [kg/s]

0.635
0.630
0.625
0.620
0.615
0.610
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time [s]

Figure 4: Refrigerant mass flow.


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2000
1950

Flownex was used to


1900
Pressure [kPa]

1850
simulate a vapour
1800
1750
compression
1700 refrigeration system
1650 using R22 as
1600 refrigerant. First a
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time [s]
steady-state simulation
was done and the
Figure 5: Compressor discharge pressure. results of this
24.5
simulation were used
24.0 as initial conditions for
23.5 a transient simulation.
Power [kW]

23.0

22.5

22.0

21.5

21.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time [s]

Figure 6: Compressor power.

1.04
1.03
1.03
1.02
Quality []

1.02 Q

1.01
1.01
1.00
1.00
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time [s]

Figure 7: Quality at inlet to compressor.


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CONCLUSION
Flownex was used to simulate a vapour compression refrigeration
system using R22 as refrigerant. First a steady-state simulation was
done and the results of this simulation were used as initial
conditions for a transient simulation.
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