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IOT - Analysis and Metering of Industrial Waste Water

Abstract
Industrial wastes generated through various industrial operations are different and complex.
These wastes on discharge affect the normal life of a stream or normal functioning of
sewerage and sewage treatment plants, unless pre-treated at the source point itself. The waste
water from industries have high proportion of suspended solids, dissolved organic and
inorganic solids, BOD, alkalinity or acidity and their different constituents may not be in
same proportion as they exist in a normal domestic sewage. This industrial waste water
cannot always be treated easily by the normal methods used for treating domestic waste and
certain specially designed methods or sequence of methods may be necessary.
The treatment of effluents before discharge is necessary to reduce pollution and hence the
project is proposed. In this project the analysis and metering of water is been carried out
randomly by collecting water samples at different time using sensors and storing the
measured values in a cloud via GPRS for further use by the government.

Introduction
Surface water is being polluted by anthropogenic activities. The discharge from various
industries such as dairy, cane sugar, brewery, petrochemical, textile, paper and pulp have
been increasing at an alarming rate making it one of the main sources of severe pollution
worldwide. The important pollutants in all these waste effluents are chiefly recalcitrant,
organics, colors and toxicants. The waste water possesses a huge variety of chemicals from
the various stages of operations which include printing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The
waste effluent from these units and industries are discharged in open land, agriculture land,
water bodies, thus causing an adverse effect on the flora, fauna and general health of
residents residing around the sites and villages.

The quality of wastewater effluents is responsible for the degradation of the receiving water
bodies, such as lakes, rivers, streams, etc. The potential deleterious effects of polluted
wastewater effluents on the quality of receiving water bodies are manifold and depend on
volume of the discharge, the chemical and microbiological concentration/composition of the
effluents. It also depends on type of the discharge, whether it is the suspended solids or
organic matter or hazardous pollutants like heavy metals and organochlorines.
The aim of the project is to characterize the waste water of industries and volume of waste
water discharge and study the level of pollutants being discharged by these units. The
necessity of treatment of water before its release from industries needs to be recognized. This
is essential to reduce pollution inputs, particularly toxicants, to restore natural productivity
and to promote sustainable development of the surroundings as well as regulate the quality of
the effluent released into the environment.
In this project the analysis of water is done by sensors like PH sensor, temperature sensor.
Metering is done by water level / flow sensor. The measured sensor values is uploaded to
cloud/server via GPRS. The analysis of water is done by collecting water sample at random
time without prior intimation to industry and uploading the measured sensor values to the
cloud/server. The metering is done by measuring the flow of waste water via level sensor
across pipes and uploading data to cloud. Based on the sensors value on the cloud the
government takes required action against industries such has more charges, notice or license
cancel.
Description
Many embedded systems have substantially different designs according to their
functions and utilities. In this project design, structured modular design concept is adopted
and the system is mainly composed of a single microcontroller, LCD, PH sensor, temperature
sensor, water level sensor, solenoid and GSM/GPRS.

The microcontroller located at the centre of the block diagram forms the control unit
of the entire project. Embedded within the microcontroller is a program that helps the
microcontroller to take action based on the inputs provided by the output of the sensors.

In this project the analysis of water is done by sensors like PH sensor, temperature
sensor. Metering is done by water level / flow sensor. The measured sensor values is
uploaded to cloud/server via GPRS. The analysis of water is done by collecting water sample
at random time without prior intimation to industry and uploading the measured sensor values
to the cloud/server. The metering is done by measuring the flow of waste water via level
sensor across pipes and uploading data to cloud. Based on the sensors value on the cloud the
government takes required action against industries such has more charges, notice or license
cancel.

Demo points:
A prototype module will be developed for the project. It includes individual PCB
boards for all interfaces according to the block diagram. Every PCB will be inter-
connected with jumper wires.

The collection of waste water is done via solenoid, the waste water is collected at
random time , for demo purpose time is considered in terms of seconds 10,20 etc..

For demo purpose the PH level and temperature level is considered for analysis of
waste water.

To monitor the volume of waste water discharge water level sensor is used for
metering and billing.

The monitored sensor value is uploaded to cloud via GPRS for further use.

Features

Analysis of industrial waste water using PH and Temperature sensor.


Metering based on volume of waste water discharge.

Block diagram

LCD

PH sensor

Renesas Relay Solenoid


valve
Microcontroller
LM35

GPRS

Water level
or flow
sensor

Amazon
Cloud
Server (Web
Services)
Components used
Hardwares used
Microcontroller RL78
LCD
PH sensor
LM35
Water level sensor
Relay
Solenoid valve
GPRS/GSM

Softwares used
Cubesuite+
Renesas flash programmer
Dotnet

Literature survey
Water withdrawal statistics indicate that annual global water withdrawals have increased by
more than six times and the rate of increase in developing countries is 8% . Water is a very
basic requirement for the well-being of human kind, vital for economic development and
essential for the healthy functioning of all the worlds ecosystems. Reasons for limited
availability of resources to use for people include: lack of distribution networks, excessive
extraction of groundwater resource and risk from the contamination by the pollutants. Many
freshwater resources have become increasingly polluted, resulting in the shrinking of
freshwater availability. In some places groundwater levels continue to fall and the options for
increasing supplies have become costly and are often environmentally damaging [79]. Water
conflicts are worsening around the world, rivers are drying up and pollution is unabated. The
root cause of these problems is poor water governance, which has often been neglected in the
past. Rapid urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the squeeze on freshwater
supplies for agricultural uses and this necessitates reliable, alternative sources of supply.
Consequently, the water crisis situation has engendered new directions for water governance
and development and use of urban wastewater as an alternative source of supply.
Methodology

Block
Diagram

Hardware
testing as per
project

Test Code
preparation for
Peripherals

Logic
Development
as per project

Final Testing of the


project as per
Conditions

Applications

Industrial waste water treatment can be performed on the spot.


Encourage industry to take control pollution.
Thermal pollution can be controlled by creating cooling ponds or cooling towers.

Advantages

Pollution is controlled
Recycling of water can be done.
Future Scope
For project demo concern, we have developed a prototype module. In future, this project can
be taken to the product level. To make this project as user friendly and durable, we need to
make it compact and cost effective. Going further, most of the units can be embedded along
with the controller on a single board with change in technology, thereby reducing the size of
the system

Conclusion

The high pollution load of effluents affects the water quality which in turn leads to
significant environmental problems and health risks to the rural communities which rely
directly on the water available in the nearby water bodies for domestic purposes without its
treatment. Therefore, it is recommended that the effluents of textile industries must be treated
well before their discharge into the surrounding water bodies.
Reference

Patel H. and Pandey S., Physico-chemical characterization of textile chemical sludge


generated from various CETPS in India, J.Environ.Res. Develop.,2(3), 329-339,
(2008).
Naik D.J., Desai K.K. and Vashi R.T., Physico chemical characteristics of chemical
sludge generated from treatment of combined waste water of dyes and dye
intermediate manufacturing industries, J.Environ. Res. Develop., 4(2), 413-416,
(2009).
LadwaniKiran D., Ladwani Krishna D., ManikVivekS.andRamtekeDilip S., Impact
of Industrial Effluent Discharge on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Agricultural
Soil, International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 1(3), 32-36, (2012).
Vigneshpriya, D., and Shanthi,E., Physicochemical characterization of textile waste
water, International. J. Innovative research &development ,4 (10),(2015).
Ademoroti, C M A, Standard Method for water and effluents analysis,Foludex press
Ltd, Ibadan 22-23, 44-54, 111-112,(2011).