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Her an bir ruhu vardr ve bu ruh o an Every era has a soul and that soul imposes a * stanbul ehir

* stanbul ehir niversitesi

devlet sahiplerine benzer ekiller verir, onlar similar form on the owners of the states, shaping
birer heykel gibi yontarak zamana uyakl klar. them like a statue and setting the tone for the
Mesela, XVI. yzyl sadece Osmanl era. For example, the 16th century in the
mparatorluunda Muhteem Sleymann gl Ottoman Empire was not just an era in which
bir kiilik olarak kl kuand bir devre Sleyman the Magnificent girded the sword as a
deildir. Bu asr btn dnyada demir bileklerin powerful person; this was an era in which all the
imparatorluklar ynettii bir byk hkmdarlar mighty empires were governed by great rulers. In
devri olmutur. 1520de padiah olan the age of Sleyman the Magnificent, who
Kanunnin anda ngilterede VIII. Henry ve succeeded to the throne in 1520, Henry VIII
I. Elizabeth, Fransada I. Fransuva, spanyada and Elizabeth I reigned in England and France
arlken, sonra Rusyada Korkun van tahta was ruled by Francois; Charles V governed
gemitir. Douda randa ah smail ve Spain and Ivan the Terrible stormed over
Tahmasb, Hindistanda Babr ve Ekber ahlar Russia. To the east, Shah Ismail and Tahmasb
hkm srmtr. Bylece yarm asr boyunca, ruled, in India Babur Shah and Akbar Shah
ilim ve sanatta bir yenilenme yaayan eski reigned. Thus, for half a century, magnificent
dnyann kaderine muhteem muktedirler, kings and ambitious victors imposed their stamp
muhteris muzafferler mhr vurmutur. te on the fate of the old world, which was
II. Abdlhamid dnemini (1876-1909) de byle undergoing innovations in science and art. We
bir kyas zaviyesinden grmek ve an ruhunu must examine the later era of Abdlhamid II
endmyla gsteren prizmadan bakarak anlamak (1876-1909) from a similar comparative angle and
lazmdr. from a prism that reflects the soul of the age, as well.

Padiahlnn ilk zamanlarnda evresindeki Abdlhamid, who when coming to the throne
devlet adamlarna merutiyeti kabul ettirmekte insisted that the statesmen surrounding him
srar eden Abdlhamid, sadece mecliste cereyan accept a constitutional monarchy, not only did
eden sert tartmalar veya halkn buna hazr not display such an autocratic attitude over the
olmad yolundaki vesayeti tavr yznden government merely because of the severe
deil, dier imparatorluklarda olan bitenlerden arguments that took place in the councils or
dolay da daha otoriter bir tarz- idareye because the people were not ready for more
kaymtr. Abdlhamidin ehzade olarak freedom, but also took up a more authoritative
yetitii devirde ngiltereden baka yerde style of administration due to events in other
S U L T A N I I . A B D L H A M D
M P A R A T O R L U U N S O N N E F E S

merutiyet yoktur, yani hkmdarlarn yetkileri empires. In the era in which Abdlhamid was
yazl anayasalarla snrlandrlmamtr henz. raised as a prince (ehzade) the only constitutional
Avrupadaki byk imparatorluk olan monarchy was England; that is, the authority of
Almanya, Avusturya ve Rusya birer otokrasidir; the rulers had not, as yet, been limited by
Lui Napolyonun Fransadaki monarisi constitutions. Germany, Austria and Russia, the
istikrarszdr; talya bir millet olarak henz three great empires in Europe, were autocracies,
birlemitir. Dolaysyla Abdlhamid dnemi while the monarchy in Napoleons France had
kendisi gibi otokratlarn hkmferm olduu bir no power and Italy had not yet united as a
adr. 1832 Reform Actinden sonra nation. Therefore, the era of Abdlhamid was

W
demokrasinin yeerdii ngilterede bile, t one in which autocratic rulers like himself
1901de tahta geen Kral VII. Edward zellikle prevailed. Even though democracy sprouted in
d ilikileri hkmetlere brakmayan bir England after the 1832 Reform Act, King
monarktr. Edward VII, coming to the throne in 1901, did
not leave foreign affairs to the government.
D ilikileri tekeline alm bir hkmdarn
baka devletlerin bakentlerine sk ziyaretler e would expect that a ruler who enjoyed a
yapm olmasn beklersiniz. Ancak tarz- idare monopoly on foreign affairs would frequently
bakmndan benzerleri bulunan Abdlhamidin visit the capital cities of other stategs. However,
adalarna en benzemez taraflarndan biri, where Abdlhamid most differed from his
padiahl srasnda imparatorluun bakenti contemporaries with similar styles of
stanbuldan dar hi kmam olmasdr. administration was that he never left Istanbul
Hibir ada onun kadar bakentine demir during his sultanate. No other contemporary
atm deildi. Kendisinden Almanca belgelerde anchored himself in the capital to the same
hep saygyla Effendimis eklinde bahsettiini extent. His friend the German Kaiser Wilhelm
bildiimiz dostu Alman Kayzeri II. Wilhelm sk II, who always referred to the Sultan in German
sk seyahat ettii iin Reisekaiser olarak anlrd, documents as Effendimis, was ridiculed with
neredeyse her sene ngiltereyi ziyaret ederdi. the title of Reisekaiser due to his frequent
ada olan hkmdarlarn seyahatlerine voyages and visited England almost every year.
verilecek rneklerin sonu gelmez. The examples of journeys made by other
contemporary rulers are endless.
Elbette bu gidi gelilerde Avrupadaki
hanedanlar arasndaki akrabalk Naturally the familial relationships between the
mnasebetlerinin de etkisi vardr. Alman rulers in Europe had an effect on this coming
Kayzeri ngiltere Kraliesi Viktoryann torunu, and going. The German Kaiser was the grandson
yani daha sonra 1901de tahta geecek olan Kral of Queen Victoria, that is, he was the nephew of
Edwardn yeeni idi. Danimarka Kral IX. King Edward, who would come to the British
Christian Kral Edwardn kaynpederi, 1863te throne in 1901. The Danish king, Christian IX,
-1913te bir suikaste kurban gidinceye kadar- was the father-in-law of King Edward and the
Yunan Kral olan I. Georg da kaynbiraderiydi. brother-in-law of George I, the king of Greece
Baldz Dagmar, ar III. Aleksander ile evliydi. after 1863, ruling until he died in 1913, the
Bulgaristan Prensi Ferdinandn babas Kralie victim of an assassination. Christian IXs sister-
Viktoriann kuzeni, annesi ise Fransa Kral Lui in-law, Dagmar, was married to Czar Alexander
Filipin kzyd. Romanyann ilk ve en uzun III. The Bulgarian Prince Ferdinands father was
sreli kral (1881-1914) I. Karol Fransa the cousin of Queen Victoria and his mother
mparatoru III. Napolyonun kuzeniydi ve saire. was the daughter of Frances king, Louis
Bu akrabalk ilikileri diplomaside ittifaklar Phillipe. Romanias first and longest reigning
veya anlamazlklar derinden etkileyebiliyordu. king, Karol I (1881-1914), was the cousin of the
Abdlhamid ise hkmdarlar liginde slam French emperor, Napoleon III. The list goes on.
dnyasn temsil eden bir sultan olarak oyunu These relationships could seriously affect
tek bana oynamak zorundayd. Byle olunca, alliances and conflicts in diplomacy.
Sultan II. Abdlhamidin bu padiahn nasl yetitiini ve yaadn, nasl Abdlhamid had to play the game as the sole
ehzadelik mhr
bir karaktere ve ruh haline sahip olduunu sultan representing the Islamic world. Thus,
The seal Sultan Abdlhamid
II used as ehzade (prince) bilmek, oyunda gsterdii performans daha iyi knowing how this sultan was raised and how he
(TSM) deerlendirme imkn verecektir. lived, what kind of character and spiritual state

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A B D L H A M D I I
T H E L A S T B R E A T H O F T H E E M P I R E

Sultan II. Abdlhamid devri Trkiye ve komu he had, will give us a chance to better evaluate
topraklar iin hl canl bir tarihtir. Padiahn his performance in this game.
ahsiyeti ve politikalar gncel tartmalarda bile
yank bulmaya devam ediyor. Ancak, ulu hakan- The era of Sultan Abdlhamid is still a lively
kzl sultan kutuplamalarnn tozu duman one for Turkey and her neighboring territories.
arasnda gerek Abdlhamidi tanmak The sultans personality and policies continued
isteyenlerin, siyasi ve ideolojik durulardan to cause reverberations, even in daily discus-
kaynaklanan bilgi kirlilii arasnda doru sions. However, for those who want to discern
kaynaklara ulamalar kolay olmuyor. the real Abdlhamid among the dust of the
polarizations of ulu hakan (sublime emperor)
Hatrat ve otobiyografiler tarihte iz brakan and kzl sultan (red/murderous-sultan), it is not
ahslar tanmak iin belki de en nemli easy to find reliable sources that are free of
kaynaklardr. Ancak Sultan Abdlhamide ait information that has been sullied by political
bir hatrat yoktur, ona atfedilenler ise gerekte and ideological stances.
onun deildir. Ali Birinci tarihi kulislerinde
dinmeyen bir tartma konusu olan Memoirs and autobiographies are perhaps the
Abdlhamidin hatrat meselesini her ynyle most important resources for learning about the
akla kavuturmutur (Dvn, 10/19, 2005/2). personalities who have left their traces in
Buna gre, Sultan Abdlhamidin Hatra Defteri history. However, no memoir was written by
olarak yllarca ok satan kitap ona deil, Sultan Abdlhamid; that which has been
kendisinden sonra lkeyi yneten ttihat ve attributed to him was not written by him. Ali
Terakki Frkasnn politikalarndan rahatszlk Birinci has clarified the matter about
duyan Sleyman Nazife ait bir metindir. Kitap Abdlhamids memoirs, putting an end to the
iinde verilen bilgilerin doruluu yanll never-ending argument which has been raging
deildir buradaki mesele; bakasnn yazd bir in the backstages of history (Dvn, 10/19,
metin uydurma bulunu hikyeleriyle 2005/2). According to this author, the book
Abdlhamide atfedilmitir. that has sold so many copies in the last decades
as Sultan Abdlhamidin Hatra Defteri (Sultan
Abdlhamid hatrat yazmamtr; tahttayken Abdlhamids Memoirs) is not his, but rather a
vakti yoktu, Selanikte srgndeyken ise text that belonged to Sleyman Nazif, one who
ttihatlar mani oldu. Anlatt hatralar was upset by the policies of the ttihat ve Terakki
kaleme alan katibi Ali Muhsin Beyi muhafz Frkas (the Committee of Union and Progress),
zabitler Abdlhamidle bir daha grmemesi which ruled the country after the sultan. The
iin Alatini Kknn bodrumuna subject here is not whether the information in
hapsetmilerdi, hem de Ramazan aynda. Yine the book is correct or incorrect; it is rather that
de baka kaynaklarda, eitli hatrat, gnlk ve the stories that others made up and wrote have
muhtra yaynlarnda Abdlhamidden sdr olan been attributed to Abdlhamid.
szler bulmak mmkndr. Tahttan
indirildikten sonra lnceye kadar Abdlhamid did not write memoirs; he had no
Abdlhamidin zel doktorluunda bulunan Atf time when he was on the throne or when he
Hseyin Beyin Hatrat bu bakmdan nemli was in exile in Salonica; the ttihat partisans
bilgiler veren bir gnlktr. Nerinde birok prevented him from doing so. His scribe Ali
kusur varsa da, kendisini sevmeyen bir ttihat Muhsin Bey, who took up the pen to record the
tarafndan yazld iin iinde Abdlhamide sultans memoirs, was locked in the basement of
atfedilen konumalarn shhatinde phe yoktur. the Alatini Manor so that he would not be able
Bu metinde Abdlhamidin eitimi ve kltr to meet with Abdlhamid again, even though it
hakknda kendi azndan anlatlanlar bize pek was the month of Ramadan. However, it is
renkli bir portre sunuyor: possible to find words from Abdlhamid in a
variety of memoirs, diaries and memoranda, as
Abdlhamid ehzadeliinde zel hocalardan well as other sources. The memoir Atf Hseyin
tahsil grmtr. Selanikte srgnken Halley Beyin Hatrat, written by Abdlhamids private II. Abdlhamidin ahsi armas
kuyrukluyldznn geiini izlemek amacyla bir doctor, recording the time the sultan was Abdlhamid IIs personal coat
gecesini pencere nnde geirdii iin ten removed from the throne until he died, provides of arms
Abdlhamid yldzlara merakldr; ilm-i ncm important information. Although there are (BOA)

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II. Abdlhamidin arabas ve arabasndaki devlet armas / Abdlhamid IIs carriage and the state coat of arms on the
carriage (YSM)
S U L T A N I I . A B D L H A M D
M P A R A T O R L U U N S O N N E F E S

many faults in the transliterated text, there can


be no doubt about the authenticity of the
speeches attributed to Abdlhamid; this work
was written by a Unionist who did not like the
former sultan. In this text Abdlhamid himself
presents us a very colorful portrait about his
education and culture.

Abdlhamid was educated by private tutors


when he was a prince. He was an avid
astronomer, one night catching cold as he stood
in front of the window to watch Halleys Comet
in his exile in Salonica. He had also studied
some astronomy. How interesting that he
selected a palace called Yldz (star) as a base to
reign over the empire. He was good at
mathematics and had even written a treatise on
determining the distance for firearms, telling of
what he had discovered in simple style; if only
this treatise was to hand today. His medical
knowledge was surprisingly wide; in fact he had
read Ibn Sina in the Arabic. He was so interested
in medical knowledge that he would visit the
operating theaters from time to time. He would
constantly ask famous doctors questions.

That he studied Quranic commentary is clear


from the verses he sprinkles throughout his
speeches. It has been said a number of times
that Abdlhamid read Bukhari constantly. He
was devoted to the traditional implementations
of the religion; during the battle at Gallipoli he
completed reading Delil-i Hayrt and if-i erf.
He was familiar with religious sciences and the
occasions on which he would interject and
make a comment when the narrators were
unable to provide an answer during tafseer
(commentary) lessons in Ramadan were many.
He was confident enough in this matter to say
If I were to wear a turban and give sermons and
lectures, I would be respected.
II. Abdlhamidin tren
elbisesi, fesi, ayakkabs ve
elbise dmeleri
He read the diwan of Shirazi in Persian. He even
Abdlhamids ceremonial
wrote poetry and made excellent drawings. From
uniform, fez, shoes and some of his expressions it can be understood
buttons that he was a member of the Qadiri sect. He
(YSM)
boasted about providing services for the Pirs
(Sa sayfa / Facing page)
tomb in Baghdad. He could speak northern
Albanian, and he tells us himself that he
understood Circassian; however, it is clear that
he knew French, Arabic and Persian well, as we
can confirm this from other sources.

As Abdlhamid was concerned with saving


A B D L H A M D I I
T H E L A S T B R E A T H O F T H E E M P I R E

okumuluu vardr. mparatorluu ynetecei s time, he would have the newspapers read to him
olarak ad Yldz olan bir saray tercih etmesi ne while he ate. He earned a great deal of money
ilgin bir tevafuktur. Matematikte iyidir, hatta from trade when he was a ehzade, raising animals
tahdd-i mesha, yani ateli silahlar iin mesafe on the farm in Maslak and selling them. As he
tayini hususunda bir risalesi olduunu, burada was fond of animals and raised a number of
kendi kefettii basit bir usul kaleme aldn animals, he was as knowledgeable about animal
syler; keke bu risale elimizde olsayd. Tp diseases as a veterinarian. He had a cat, a dog, a
bilgisi de alacak derecede genitir; hatta bn parrot, horses and pigeons. In his youth he took
Snnn kitabn Arapadan okumutur. care of a snake, and even tried caring for a lion and
Hekimlie o derece merakldr ki, tigers, but later found that he did not enjoy this.
ameliyathanelere ara sra devam edermi.
Mehur doktorlara srekli sorular sorarm. He was fond of his gardens, and the garden in
Tefsir okuduu, konumalar arasnda his pavilion in Yeniky when he was a ehzade
serpitirdii ayetlere getirdii aklamalardan was so well-known that the doors would be
bellidir. Her daim Buhr-i erf okuduunu sk opened on Fridays and Sundays to allow the
tekrarlar Abdlhamid. Halk dininin geleneksel people to walk around them. He was a good
uygulamalarna baldr; anakkale Sava hunter when he was a ehzade, and this had led
srasnda Delil-i Hayrt ve if-i erf hatimleri to a slight deafness in his right ear. He had
indirmitir. Din ilimlere vkftr, hatta learned to use a sword and had a collection of
Ramazanlarda huzurunda yaplan tefsir antique weapons. He was a good swimmer and
derslerinde sorulara cevap veremeyen would boast of this. His carpentry skills were
mukarrirlerin yerine mdahale edip yorum famous and he had a workshop in the Yldz
getirdii oktur. Bama sark sarsam, vaz Palace; this place was a center for skilled artists.
nasihat etsem itibar bulurum diyecek derecede bu
konularda kendisine gvenir. Culture requires time. The primary thing that
is preventing us from progressing is the army,
Farsadan rz divann okumu. Hatta iir de said Abdlhamid. The primary reason why our
yazm ve dahi resim yapm. Birok ifadesinden country is not developing like the European
Kadir olduu anlalyor. Prinin Badattaki countries and that our people have remained
trbesine hizmet etmi olmakla vnyor. ignorant is the army. At this time the period
imal Arnavuta konuabildiini, erkezce one had to serve in the army was very long; it
anladn kendisi sylyor; ancak Franszca, was for this reason that Abdlhamid reduced
Arapa ve Farsay iyi bildii kesindir, bunu the seven to eight year compulsory service to
baka kaynaklardan da teyit edebiliyoruz. three years. He returned the years that had been
stolen from the youth, a generation that wanted
Vaktine dkn olduundan, gazeteleri yemek to develop themselves. In fact, he wanted to
yerken kendisine okuturmu. Ticaretten ok reduce the military service to two years, but the
para kazanmtr ehzadeliinde, Maslaktaki military command was worried about the
iftliinde hayvanat yetitirip satarm. Hayvan problem of under-population; therefore this
merakls olduundan, ok hayvan beslemi decision was not ratified.
olduundan, adeta bir baytar kadar hastalklar
bilir. Kedisi, kpei, papaan, atlar ve According to Abdlhamid, love novels
gvercinleri vardr. Genliinde ylan bile destroyed morals; one rather should read
beslemi, hatta arslan ve kaplan beslemeyi de travelogues and murder stories. In contrast to
denemi, ama bunlar sonra houna gitmemi. this he was interested in Western music, and
had four pianos brought to the palace from
Bahelerine dkndr, ehzadelii zamannda Germany for his children. Abdlhamid, who
Yenikydeki kknn bahesi yle mehurmu could play the piano and other instruments,
ki, Cuma ve Pazar gnleri kaplar atrrm, said: It is necessary to be able to read music,
ahali gezmeye gelirmi. ehzadeliinde iyi bir and I know how to do this well. If you want the
avcdr, o yzden sa kula iyi iitmezmi. Kl truth, I am a Turk, but I prefer European
kullanmay renmi ve eski silahlardan oluan melodies and operas to Turkish melodies.
bir koleksiyonu varm. yi bir yzcym, Turkish music is in a minor key and sends
bununla vnr. Marangozluu zaten nldr, people to sleep. And these melodies that we call

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II. Abdlhamidin ahsi Yldz Saraynda atlyesi vardr; buraya Turkish are not actually Turkish. They have
armasnn ilendii klc
yetenekli zanaatlar celbederdi. been taken from Greece and Persia. The
Abdlhamids sword and the
coat of arms on the sword
Turkish instruments are the drum and the
(YSM)
Kltr zaman ister. Bizi balca terakkiden men zurna. His daughter, Aye Sultan, would
eden askerliktir diyor Abdlhamid, sometimes play the piano, violin or harp for her
Memleketimizde Avrupa memleketleri gibi imar father. Abdlhamid was proud of the little
olunamamasna, halkn cahil kalmasna sebep theater in Yldz, and brought Italian actors
balca askerliktir. Tabi o zamanlar askerlik ok there. He was particularly fond of Verdis operas.
uzundur, Abdlhamid askerlik sresini bu All this information, which can be found in Atf
yzden yedi-sekiz seneden seneye indirmitir. Hseyins memoirs, confirms many other
Kendisini yetitirmek isteyen genlere devletin recollections about Abdlhamid.
gasp edecei yllar geri vermitir. Aslnda
askerlii iki seneye indirmek istiyordu, fakat While in his youth Abdlhamid was a person
genelkurmay nfusu yeterli bulmadndan bu who loved traveling and adventure, that is, he
karar verememitir. was a person who loved life, during his thirty-
three year sultanate (1876-1909) he never left
Abdlhamide gre akl mekli romanlar ahlak Istanbul. This sultan, who never went to the
bozar, seyahatnameleri ve cinayet romanlarn provinces, had the provinces brought to him via
okumak lazmdr. Buna karn Bat mziine the photographs and telegraphs from the
merakldr, Almanyadan ocuklar iin drt inspectors and governors who provided him
tane piyano getirtmitir saraya. Piyano ve sair with provincial reports. He left the country only
sazlardan bazlarn kendisi de alabilen twice when he was a ehzade, and this was on
Abdlhamid yle der: Nota bilmek arttr, gzel the trips that his uncle Sultan Abdlaziz took to
bilirim. Dorusunu isterseniz ben Trkm ama Egypt and Europe.
Trke havalardan ziyade alafranga havalar,
operalar houma gider. nk Trke minrdr, The reason why the sultan never left Istanbul
insana uyku getirir. Hem de bizim Trke dediimiz was his fear of assassination; this was also the
makamlar Trke deildir, Yunandan Acemden driving force behind many of his other
alnmtr. Trk algs davul zurnadr. Kz Aye characteristics. If we examine what he and the
Sultan piyano, keman ve arp alard zaman other members of the imperial family
zaman babasna. Yldzdaki kk tiyatrosuyla experienced in the second half of the 19th
gurur duyan Abdlhamid talyadan oyuncular century, can we say that he was wrong to arrive
getirtmitir. zellikle Verdinin operalarn at such a conclusion? It is known that
sever. Atf Hseyinin hatratnda yer alan btn Abdlhamid, who had come to the throne after
bu bilgileri, Abdlhamidi anlatan birok baka two of his predecessors were dethroned in rapid
hatrat teyit ediyor. succession, one losing their life, had narrowly
escaped being dethroned and assassinated a
Abdlhamid ehzadeliinde gezmeyi, maceray, number of times. His sister Seniha Sultan was
ksaca hayat seven bir insanken, otuz yllk even involved in conspiracy theories to bring
padiahlnda (1876-1909) stanbul dna hi her other brother, residing in raan Palace, to
II. Abdlhamidin kmamtr. Taraya gitmeyen bu padiah the throne. These events caused Abdlhamid to
atnn eyeri
fotoraflarla, telgraflarla, mfettilerle ve be on edge and suspicious with even his closest
The tack of
Abdlhamids horse valilerden srekli isteyedurduu vilayet environment. Even after he had been removed
(YSM) raporlaryla taray kendisine getirmitir. lke from the throne there were attempts on his life.

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dnaysa sadece ehzadelii zamannda iki defa While in Salonica, Krt Salim, one of his
kmt ki, bunlar da Sultan Abdlaziz guards, shot at him. While Abdlhamid was
amcasyla yapt Msr ve Avrupa seyahatleridir. under house arrest in Beylerbeyi Palace, the idea
Hkmdarlnn birok zellii gibi, stanbul of killing him was contemplated. When
dna kmamas da vehmine, suikast korkusuna Mahmud evket Pasha was assassinated it was
dayandrlr. Kendisinin ve dier hkmdar thought that this action had been carried out by
ailelerinin XIX. asrn ikinci yarsnda the supporters of Abdlhamid in order to stage a
yaadklarna baklrsa Sultan Abdlhamidin coup dtat. Enver Pasha gave orders to one of
vehmini hakl grmemek mmkn mdr? Ksa the guards in the Beylerbeyi Palace that if he
zaman iinde hal edilen ve biri ldrlen iki were to observe anything that should confirm
seleften sonra tahta kan Abdlhamidin this suspicion he should immediately murder
defalarca drlme ve suikast tehlikesi atlatt Abdlhamid.
biliniyor. Ablas Seniha Sultan bile raandaki
dier aabeyini tahta geirmek iin kendisini It is known that in the years before the Young
devirme komplolarna girmiti. Bu olaylar Turks came to power, European organizations
Abdlhamidi en yakn evresine kar bile were used as examples not only for institutions,
srekli tetikte ve phe iinde olmaya sevk but also for movements in the provinces. For
etmitir. Tahttan indirildikten sonra dahi example, the idea of propagande par le fait
kendisine suikast teebbsleri olmutur. (propaganda of the deed) was defended by
Selanikteyken muhafz zabitlerden Krt Salim anarchists like Bakunin and Brousse during the
kendisine kurun skmt. Abdlhamidin time Abdlhamid II was alive. The most desirable
Beylerbeyindeki zorunlu ikameti srasnda bir action for anarchists was regicide. The most
ara ldrlmesi bile dnlmtr: Mahmud violent actions were those carried out by the
evket Paa suikaste kurban gidince, bu cinayeti Russian nihilists. Prince Kropotkin, the
Abdlhamid taraftarlarnn bir hkmet darbesi Governor of Kharkov, was shot in 1879, and in
yapmak maksadyla ilemi olduklar 1880 a part of the tsars winter palace was blown
vehmedilmiti. Enver Paa Beylerbeyindeki up (8 soldiers were killed and 45 were wounded).
muhafzlardan birine, bu pheyi dorulayan bir The greatest action was the murder of the great
izlenimi olursa derhal Abdlhamidi ldrmesi tsar in Russia: ironically, the victim was not
grevini vermiti. Nicholas I, who was known as the Don
Quixote of Absolutism, but the reformer
Jn Trklerin iktidara gelmeden nceki yllarda Alexander II, the Tsar Liberator, who by
sadece tekilatlanmalarnda deil, tasarladklar abolishing serfdom in 1861 and institutionalizing
eylemlerde de Avrupadaki rgtlerden rnek the provincial councils had essentially
aldklar biliniyor. Mesela eylem yoluyla established a new Russia. He was assassinated in
propaganda (propagande par le fait) dncesi, 1881, after being saved from four assassination
Bakunin ve Brousse gibi anaristler tarafndan attempts. This event certainly affected
tam da II. Abdlhamidin yaad zamanda Abdlhamid IIs ideas on reforms.
savunulmutur. Anaristler iin eylemlerin en
makbul hkmdarlarn ldrlmesi (regicide) idi. Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1878, the Belgian King
Bu ynde en iddetli eylemleri nihilist olarak Leopold in 1902, and the Spanish king and his
anlan Rus anaristler yapt. 1879da Kharkov wife in 1906 were all saved from assassination
Valisi Prens Kropotkin vuruldu, 1880de arn attempts. In 1887 in Britain a plot by Irish
klk saraynn bir ksm havaya uuruldu (8 terrorists to assassinate Queen Victoria at her

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II. Abdlhamidin tra asker ld ve 45 tanesi yaraland). Eylemlerin en Golden Jubilee was uncovered. In 1896 the
takm
by koca arn ldrlmesiydi: Rusyada Iranian shah was murdered. In 1898 Empress
Abdlhamid IIs
shaving set
Mutlakiyetiliin Don Kiotu olarak anlan I. Elizabeth, the wife of the Austrian Kaiser, was
(TSM)
Nikolann deil de, 1861de serflii kaldrarak assassinated, in 1900 the Italian king Umberto,
deta yepyeni bir Rusya kuran, bu yzden Tsar and in February 1908 the Portuguese king also
Liberator olarak bilinen, vilayet meclislerini were killed. This wave of murders was not only
kurumsallatran reformist ardl II. Aleksanderin directed at the royal families; the French
(kurtulduu drt suikastten sonra) 1881de president, Carnot (1894) and the Spanish prime
katledilmesi, II. Abdlhamidin reformlar minister, Canovas (1897), were victims of such
konusundaki fikirlerini etkilemi olmaldr. plots. In the United States four presidents were
assassinated; if we remove Kennedy from among
1878de Kayzer I. Wilhelm, 1902de Belika these, the other three were killed during the
Kral Leopold, 1906da spanya Kral ve ei lifetime of Abdlhamid: Lincoln in 1865,
suikastten kurtulmutu. ngilterede 1887de Garfield in 1881, and McKinley in 1901.
Kralie Viktoryann altn jbilesinde rlandal
terristlerce hazrlanan suikast plan ortaya Another significant factor that fueled the fires
karlmt. 1896da ran ah ldrld. of fear in Abdlhamid was the spying and
1898de Avusturyada Kayzer Franz Josefin kars denouncing activities that had been magnified;

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T H E L A S T B R E A T H O F T H E E M P I R E

mparatorie Elizabet ldrld, 1900de talya these were carried out by the men and officials,
Kral Umberto, 1908 ubatnda Portekiz Kral. men he had himself employed, to grab official
Bu cinayet furyasndan sadece kraliyet aileleri posts. What actually gave the Yldz Centrality
etkilenmedi, Fransa Cumhurbakan Carnot System its bad name was this intelligence
(1894) ve spanya Babakan Canovas (1897) da system, which snaked its way through the
nasiplendi. ABD tarihinde drt bakan bureaucracy. In the words of an official who was
ldrld; ok bilinen Kennedy haricindekilerin working in close contact with the palace in this
Abdlhamid yaarken suikaste urad: period, Abdlhamid was in a state of worry, day
Lincoln 1865te, Garfield 1881de, McKinley and night, as the fears, doubts and conjectures
1901de ldrld. were enflamed by the reports of the informers
(Ahmet Semih Mmtaz, p. 23).
Abdlhamidin iindeki korku ateini The intelligence reports, which at first were sent
krkleyen baka bir byk etken ise, bizzat as memoranda, were encouraged by the sultan;
kendi adamlarnn ihdas ettii ve memurlarn over time this destroyed his own reputation and
klah kapmak iin byttkleri hafiyecilik ve authority. Later, as many of these reports started
jurnalcilik messesesi idi. Yldz Merkeziyet to be collected in sacks, without being read, the
Sistemine asl kt hretini veren de, sultan employed a judge to oversee these matters
neredeyse btn brokrasinin bir ekilde dhil as part of the mabeyn administration. For
olduu bu haberalma sistemiydi. O dnemde Abdlhamid, the actual function of the
saraya yakn grevlerde alan bir memurun intelligence reports was probably to speed up the
ifadesiyle, Abdlhamidin korkularn, bir de bureaucracy and to reduce the possibilities of
phesini ve vehmini tahrik edici jurnaller beslemekte betrayal. In the same way that he used the
olduu iin gece gndz tela her eyden ziyade hal European states against one another in
keyfiyeti zerinde toplanyordu (Ahmet Semih diplomacy, the sultan manipulated the pashas
Mmtaz, s. 23). Jurnal tabir edilen istihbarat against each other.
pusulalarn gnderenlere balangta yz veren
padiah zamanla kendi nmn ve shhatini In fact, in later years Abdlhamid was not happy
zedeledi. Kendisini vehim krizlerine mptela with the absolutist-centralist administrative
eden bu jurnalcilikten muzdarip ve mteki system that wearied his stamina. Like any supporter
oldu. Sonralar bu jurnallerin ounu okumadan of progress and modernization imposed from
uvallarda biriktiren padiah, Mabeyn idaresinde above, Abdlhamid thought that the people had
bunlar tahkik edecek bir kad istihdam etti. not digested the constitutional monarchy and
Abdlhamid iin jurnallerin galiba asl ilevi, that they were not ready for it: As you know
brokratlarnn hizipler iinde ihanet I promulgated the First Merutiyet
senaryolarna giriebilme ihtimallerini (Constitutional Monarchy) and have always
azaltmakt. Diplomaside nasl Avrupa remained its supporter. However, we are not a
devletlerini birbirine kar kullandysa, paalarn millet-i vhide (nation of one people), like the
da bu ekilde idare etmitir. Japanese. In our empire, which consists of a
variety of components, the danger was so great
Aslnda son zamanlarnda Abdlhamid de that we were truly frightened. For this reason it
tktini zorlayan mutlakiyeti-merkeziyeti idare was seen necessary to abolish this measure at
sisteminden memnun deildi. Tipik bir one time. These words, uttered during the first
ilerlemeci ve yukardan modernleme yanls days of the Second Merutiyet, continue as
olarak, Abdlhamid milletin I. Merutiyeti follows: The nation is no longer as ignorant as
hazmedemediini, buna hazr olmadn it used to be. They have made great advances.
dnyordu: Biliyorsunuz ki lk Merutiyeti ben Schools have been opened, officers have been
iln etmitim ve daima Merutiyet taraftar olarak trained and the constitutional monarchy can
kaldm. Lkin biz Japonlar gibi millet-i vhide now be put into operation. It matters not that
deiliz. Muhtelif unsurlardan mteekkil olan the newspapers are opposed to us; inshallah I am
mparatorluumuzda yklmak tehlikesi bizi ok determined and resolute that the administration II. Abdlhamidin
korkutmutu. Bu sebeple bir zaman iin kaldrmaya of the constitutional monarchy will be bastonu, kams
lzum grld. II. Merutiyetin ilk gnlerinde implemented. I will confront all difficulties Abdlhamids cane, whip
sarf ettii bu szlere yle devam ediyordu: (Aye Osmanolu, p. 136). (YSM)

Millet bugn eskisi gibi cahil deildir. Olduka

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terakki etmitir. Mektepler alm, zbitler yetimi, The events that resulted in the promulgation of
merutiyeti idrk edecek hle gelmitir. Gazeteler ne the Second Merutiyet coincided with a time
kadar aleyhimizde bulunursa bulunsunlar, inaallah when Abdlhamid was designing limitations for
merutiyet idaresini yrtmek azm kararndaym. his own power with a constitution and a
Her trl glklere gs gereceim. (Aye parliament. In fact, before the promulgation of
Osmanolu, s. 136). the Merutiyet, the constitutional laws of all the
states were being translated and we wanted to
II. Merutiyetin ilanyla sonulanan olaylar, tam select the most suitable one, thus introducing a
da Abdlhamidin kendi iktidarn bir constitutional law that would save the state
anayasayla ve bir meclisle snrlamay tasarlad from disintegration; it was our desire to promulgate
sralara denk gelmitir: Esasen merutiyetin the Merutiyet in this way. What can I do? God
ilanndan nce btn devletlerin kaanun-i esslerini did not desire this to happen. (Aye Osmanolu,
tercme ettiriyor, bize en uygun olann intihap p. 173) In the memoirs of Hasan Srr Bey, who
etmek, bu suretle devleti dalmaktan kurtaracak bir served the sultan as state translator for a quarter
kanun-i essye mlik olmak, merutiyeti bu suretle of a century, he writes that a few months before
ilan etmek istiyordum. Ne yapalm. Allah nasib the promulgation of the Merutiyet he presented
etmedi diyor kendisi (ayn, s. 173). Padiaha him with a translation of the current
eyrek asr mabeyn mtercimlii ile hizmet eden constitutional laws of the European states.
Hasan Srr Bey de hatralarnda Abdlhamidin According to this author the sultan was
II. Merutiyetin ilanndan birka ay evvel bir preparing a revision of the constitution that, if
gn sarayda Avrupa devletlerince mer kanun- nothing else, would not make him more
esaslerin celbi ile bit-tercme takdim irade ettiini comfortable (rikaaszade, p. 122). It is
yazyordu. Ona gre, padiah Kanun- Esasyi hi necessary to produce further documentary
olmazsa kendisini bsbtn bhuzur etmeyecek bir evidence of this statement, which appears in
ekilde tashih ettirerek ilana hazrlanyordu zaten two different memoirs. In the memoirs of another
(rikaaszade, s. 122). ki farkl hatratta geen daughter, adiye Sultan, Abdlhamid had long
bu paralel bilgiler belgesel bir aratrmayla since made up his mind to renounce the throne,
derinletirilmeye muhtatr. Yine baka bir kz, and he had told this to his milieu; however, as
adiye Sultann hatratnda naklettiine gre they resisted this idea he had been dissuaded:
Abdlhamid oktan mevkiini terk etmei because their welfare was only possible with
hatrna koyduunu, bunu bendegnna my sultanate. (p. 59) This last sentence is important
sylediini, ancak onlarn daima mukavemet as it shows that Abdlhamid was aware that the

H
ederek onu bu fikirden caydrdn sylyordu: bureaucracy could maneuver behind his back,
nk refahlar saltanatmla kimdi (s. 59). Bu directing and deceiving him, leaving him devoid of
son cmle nemli, nk Abdlhamidin information in important events.
brokratlar hakikaten kendisini
ynlendirebiliyor, kandrabiliyor, nemli vukuat asan Srr Bey describes the many contradictory
hakknda bilgisiz brakabiliyorlard. faces of Abdulhamid: he acted of his own accord
in state matters and ignored the bureaucratic
Brokratik hiyerariyi ineterek devlet ilerini hierarchy, a number of ignorant people were
resen grd sarayda byk hizmetlerde birok employed in important posts in the palace, he
chely istihdam etmesi, arzu etmedii kiileri sent undesirable people to far provinces on some
birer vazife ile taraya gndermesi, zelzele duty; however during the earthquake the sultan
srasnda gsterdii metanet ve huzuruna displayed fortitude and those who went into his
girenleri byleyen cazibe kuvveti gibi elikili presence were aware of a bewitching attraction.
ynlerini nakleden Hasan Srr Bey, padiah In the end, Hasan Srr Bey qualifies the sultan
yle vasfediyordu: Ayn zamanda cesur ve as follows: He was brave and cowardly, intelligent
korkak, kil ve mecnun, efik ve zalim, hsl and mad, compassionate and cruel, he was a cmil-
cmil-ezdd idi (ayn, s. 126). Yani sultan ezdd (a man containing many contradictions
birbiriyle zt zellikleri ahsnda toplamt. within himself) (rikaaszade, p. 126).

Aslnda Abdlhamid tipik bir Baak burcu In fact, Abdlhamid was a typical Virgo male. In
erkeidir. Burlar edbne vasfeden Jacques the words of Jacques Bertrand, who explains the
Bertrandn kelimeleriyle Baak kk tutkularla character of Virgo in a literary way, Virgos

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sarho olur, dakiktir, eczacdr, akll ve become intoxicated with small passions, they are II. Abdlhamidin verdii
Murassa Nin- l-i
dzenlidir; paradan btn karr, btn punctual, healing, intelligent and organized; they mtiyaz emsesi
paralara ayrmay iyi bilir; imla yanllarn, can understand the whole from just one part, The Murassa Nin- l-i
hesap hatalarn ve dzgn balanmam and know how to separate the pieces. There is mtiyaz emse of
kravatlar fark etmekte stne yoktur. Dzeltir, no one better for spotting spelling mistakes, Abdlhamid II

temize eker, rtular, mkemmelletirir. nce miscalculations or a badly tied tie. They will
eleyip sk dokur, her ite bir bityenii arar. organize, clean up, retouch and perfect. They are
Bcekleri ve yldzlar inceler. Dosdorudur, very thorough and will look for a hidden blemish
rahatsz etmeye gelmez, kibarlk ister. in everything. They will examine insects and the
Harcamaktan ekinir, yokluktan korkar. Saknr, stars. They are honest, will not cause discomfort,
ac ekmekten korkar. Endieyle kendine but demand courtesy. They are wary of spending
kapanr, kabzdr, barsaklar tkanr, telalanr, and fearful of poverty. They are afraid of pain.
kaslr, mtekidir. Esrarn korur, They can become caught up in worry, are
mkemmeliyetidir, yanlmaz, her zaman constipated, anxious, constrained and complaining.
hakldr, ok abuk ekilmez olur. Baaklktan They protect a secret, are perfectionists, are
nefret ettii zaman akrebe dnr. Bu never in the wrong, always right and quickly
zelliklerin her biri ayr ayr ele alnarak ilgin become unbearable. When they dislike being a
bir Abdlhamid portresi ina edilebilir. Virgo they become a Scorpio. When we examine
these qualities, one by one, we can build an
Abdlhamid, bu en stanbullu padiah, interesting portrait of Abdlhamid.
hkmdarlndan sonra yllna Selanikli
olmutur. Osmanl tarihinde ok padiahlar Abdlhamid, the most Istanbulian of the sultans,
devrilmi ve ldrlm, ama hibiri spent three years of his late life in Salonica.
imparatorluun bir tara vilayetinde srgn Many sultans in Ottoman history were dethroned

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II. Abdlhamid'in hali
Abdlmecid Efendi Sultan
II. Abdlhamidin Hali adl
tablosunu nasl yaptn, kendi
maiyetinde bulunan smail
Baykaln sorusu zerine yle
anlatr: Evvela grdnz bu
ahslarn hepsini saraya davet
ettim. Abdlhamidin hal kararn
tebli ettikleri gn karsnda
duru ve vaziyetlerini tesbit ettim.
Esasen Abdlhamidin simasn
o kadar iyi bilirim ki, grmeden
dahi izebilirim ve nitekim de
yaptm. Yalnz bunlar arasnda
Karasu Efendinin duruunda, bir
aleti gsne sokarcasna vaziyet
almas dikkatimi ekti, izmekle
beraber kendisinden sual
ettiimde Efendimiz
biliyorsunuz, Abdlhamid atc bir
zat idi. Ve eli de cebinde olduuna
gre, behemahal (mutlaka) her iki
elinde de birer tabanca olduunu
zannederek bende de var fikrini
vermek zere byle hareket ettim
demiti.
The dethronement of
Abdlhamid II
Ablmecid Efendi, when asked by
one of his retinue, smail Baykal,
how he had made the painting
The Dethronement of Sultan
Abdlhamid II, gave the following
answer: First of all I invited all of
these people to the palace.
I determined the stance and
condition of them when the
decision to dethrone him was
communicated to Abdlhamid.
In fact, I know Abdlhamids face
so well that I can draw it without
looking, and this is what I did.
However, when I was drawing the
stance of Karasu Efendi I noticed
that he was trying to hide an
instrument in his breast; while
continuing to draw I asked him
about this. He answered, Sir, you
know that Abdlhamid was a
hunter. And as one hand is in his
pocket, I think we can assume
that he had a gun in each hand,
and I wanted to give the same
impression.
G. Sevin, Ressam ehzade Abdlmecid
Efendi'nin Sultan II. Abdlhamid'in Tahttan
indirilii (Hal'i) Adl Tablosuna Dair
zmlemeler, Trkiyede Sanat, 45 (2000)

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II. Abdlhamide tahttan
indirildiinin bildirilii. Sultan
II. Abdlhamid dnda
resimde yer alan ahslar
srasyla: Bahriye Feriki Arif
Hikmet Paa, Selanik Mebusu
Emanuel Karasu, Dra Mebusu
Esad Toptani Paa,
Senatr Aram Efendi ve
Miralay Galip Efendi
The communique announcing
the dethronment of
Abdlhamid II. The people in
the photograph other than
Abdlhamid II are the naval
commander, Arif Hikmet
Pasha, the Thessalonica
deputy, Emanuel Karasu, the
Dra deputy, Esad Toptani
Pasha, Senator Aram Efendi
and Colonel Galip Efendi

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II. Abdlhamidin Beylerbeyi olarak yaamamt. Tarihte bu durumu ilk defa and killed, but none of them were exiled to the
Sarayndaki alma odasnda
kendi yapt dolap, masa, tecrbe eden Abdlhamid olmutu. ttihat ve provinces. Abdlhamid was the first sultan to
sandalye Terakki idaresi altnda yaanan Balkan experience this. When this territory was about to
The cupboard, table and harpleriyle oras da elden gitmek zereyken be lost during the Balkan Wars, waged by the
chairs that Abdlhamid II
made in Beylerbeyi Palace
stanbula geri getirildi ve Beylerbeyi Sarayna ttihat ve Terakki administration, the sultan was
yerletirildi. Burada hane hapsi yaayan sbk brought back to Istanbul and placed in Beylerbeyi
sultan 10 ubat 1918de, yani Cihan Harbinin Palace. Here the former sultan was under house
bittiini gremeden vefat edecektir. arrest; he died on 10 February, 1918, that is
before the end of the First World War.
raan Saraynda alnan ilk nefes,
Beylerbeyinde verilen son nefes: 33 yln He was a sultan who took his first breath in the
hkmdar 75 yldan fazla yaad. Sanki gzn raan Palace and breathed his last in
bitirip k mevsimine giren imparatorluun Beylerbeyi Palace; he ruled for 33 years and lived
kaderini yaam gibi, Abdlhamid 22 Eyllde for more than 75. Just like the empire, which had
balad hayat 10 ubatta bitirdi. Her a come to the end of autumn and had entered its
devlet sahiplerine ruhunu fler, dedik. Acaba winter, Abdlhamid started his life on 22
tam tersi midir, aa o ruhu fleyen devlet September and died on 10 February. It is said that
sahiplerinin ta kendileri midir? Solunan her every age breathes its spirit into the state ruler.
nefesin geri verilmesi gibi, belki de devlet However, I wonder if the reverse could be true?

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sahiplerinin mtekbilen verdikleri nefeslerdir Could it be that it is the rulers who breathe their II. Abdlhamidin Beylerbeyi
Sarayndaki yatak odas
alara ekil veren... state into the age, as if giving back every breath
The bedroom of Abdlhamid
they took? Perhaps it is the mutual breaths of the II in Beylerbeyi Palace
II. Abdlhamid Yllar state rulers that give shape to the era.
1842: Doumu. Babas Sultan Abdlmecid 19,
Aabeyi Murad 2 yanda. The Life of Abdlhamid
1844: Kardei Mehmed Readn doumu. 1842: Birth. His father Sultan Abdlmecid was
19, his older brother Murad was 2.
1847: Aabeyi Murad ile beraber snnet oldu,
Haydarpaada trenle Kurana balad. 1844: His brother Mehmed Read was born.
1853-56: Krm Harbi 1847: He and his older brother Murad were
circumcised; he started Quran lessons after a
1856: Islahat Ferman ceremony in Haydarpaa.
1861: Babas Sultan Abdlmecidin vefat 1853-56: Crimean War
1863: Msr seyahati, Amcas Sultan Abdlaziz 1856: Imperial Reform Decree
ile zmir zerinden 1861: His father Sultan Abdlmecid dies
1867: Avrupa seyahati, Amcas Sultan Abdlaziz ile 1863: Egyptian journey with his uncle, Sultan
1868: lk kz Ulviye Sultan dodu. Abdlaziz, leaving from zmir
1870: lk olu Mehmed Selim Efendi dodu. 1867: European journey with his uncle, Sultan Abdlaziz

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Selanike Gidi
stanbula Dn

Babamn bamabeyncisi Tahsin Paa azlolmu, onun yerine ktiplerden Jn Trklerin itimat ettii ttihat ve
Terakki mensubu Cevat Bey tayin olunmutu. Tesadfen o gn babama gitmitim. lk defa huzura kan
Cevat Bey "Ah efendiciim, ben sizin sdk bendenizim. Tahsin Paa beni uzun zaman huzurunuza
karmad. Byk bir mzayaka iindeyim" diye yalvarr gibi konuuyordu. Babam hareme girdi. zntl
idi. Btn saray halknca dalkavukluk ve mrailii ile isim yapm byle bir adamn kendisine husus ktip
olarak verilmesinden duyduu ye'si gizlemeye alyordu. ekmecesinden bir deste banknot alarak,
selmlkta bekleyen Cevat Bey'e gtrp verdi. Fakat bu zengin ihsan grnce yerlere kapanp ayaklarn
pmeye alan Cevat Bey'i, bu teebbsnden dolay hayatnn en buhranl nnda dahi tekdir ve takbih
etmeyi ihml etmemitir:
"Rica ederim! Secdeler Allah'a mahsustur. Bu gibi hareketlerde bulunmamanz ve ikinci ihtara lzum
brakmamanz rica ederim" demitir.
Birka gn sonra, babamn hl'ine ve Read Efendinin clusuna ait Meb'uslar Meclisi karar tebli edildi.
Babam gayet serin kanllkla: "Madem ki, otuz sene memnun edemedim, kimi isterlerse hayrl etsin.
Yalnz rica ederim, btn ailemle beraber biraderimin oturduu raan Sarayna beni gtrnz," dedi.
Tebli heyeti "Meb'uslar Meclisinde, Selanik'te hazrlanan kke gitmeniz iin karar alnmtr," cevabn
verdi. Babam: "Yorgunum ve yam da uzun yolculuklara msait deildir. Allah'a kasem ederim ki,
saltanatta gzm yoktur, fakat ailemle raan Saraynda ikametimi rica ediyorum" dedi. Tebli heyeti,
Meclise yeniden arzedileceini ve alnacak cevabn yeni bamabeynci Cevat Bey ile bildirileceini syleyip
ayrld. Bir iki saat sonra cevap geldi. Derhal Selanik'e hareket iin hazrlanlmas hakknda Meclis kararn
Cevat Bey, maalesef birka gn nce bir deste banknotu ald vakit yerlere kapanarak ayaklarn pt
babama, ok ar szler sarfederek bildirdi.
Azna ald kelimeler terbiye d idi, alelade bir adama dahi sylenmesi aypt. te babam o zaman ok
mahzun oldu. kbalde iken en yakn, dt vakit en insafsz hasm kesilmiti. Babam ok nzik bir ed ile:
"Hangi vicdan elverir ki, sarayda bu kadar masum ve gnahsz kadnlar a ve emniyetsiz braklsnlar. ahsma
gelince, ehemmiyeti yok," dedi. Cevat Bey de: "Banza gelen ve gelecekleri evvelce dnseydiniz!" eklinde
cevap verdi. Babam: "Denin yardmcs Allah'tr. Elbette benim mazlum kalbimin h bir gn kacaktr," diye
mukabele etti. O zaman babacmn gzleri yala dumanlanmt. Bunu grdm vakit kalbime bir haner
soksalar kat'iyen ac duymayacaktm. erden bir lk duyduk. Pencereye kotuk. Sarayn kaps ardna kadar
alm, eli sngl askerler hareme giriyorlard.

adiye Osmanolu, Babam Abdlhamid Saray ve Srgn Yllar, st. 2009, s. 52-53.

***
Sadrazam Ahmed Muhtar Paa'dan Sultan II. Abdl-hamid'in Selanik'ten kmak istemediini duyan
erif Paa, vali ile beraber kendilerini istikbale ve ziyarete gelen Mevki Kumandan Muhiddin Paa'ya "Siz
kendilerini evvelce Bursa'ya gitmek zere Selanik'ten ayrlmaya davet ettiiniz zaman size ne dedilerdi?" diye
sordu ve u cevab ald: "... Bir gece idi, iptida ben gittim. Bursa'ya nakilleri hakkndaki iradeyi tebli ettim.
'Katiyen yerimden kmldanmam,' cevabn verdi. Tehlikeyi gsterdim. 'mmet-i Muhammed'e ne olursa
bana da olur, bundan ne kar?' dedi. Uratm, bir trl iknaya muvaffak olamadm...
imdi Mehmet erif Paa'y dinleyelim: "Kkn ikinci katna kan mermer merdivenin sahanlnda hakan-
sabk bizi istikbal etti. Elbise zerine her zaman yapt gibi boz renkli paltosunu giymiti. Ayanda da potin
stne glse kunduralar vard. Titrek ve heyecanl bir sesle iptida bana hitap etti ve kendisine mahsus
halavetli bir eda ile ve kaln bir sada ile 'Sizi buraya hangi rzgr getirdi?' hitabnda bulundu. nmze
dt, bizi ikinci katta bir salona gtrd; bir kanepeye oturdu, bize de emretti, karsndaki sandalyelere
oturduk. Benim yzme bakt, zmnen sebeb-i vrudumuzu sorar gibi oldu. Derhal Sultan Mehmet Read'n
beyanatn aynen arz ettim. Ve ilveten Yunan donanmasnn Selanik'i bombardman etmesi ihtimali vardr.

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Hatta Yunan askeri de karadan sekiz on saatlik mesafeye kadar gelmitir, dedim. Mahzun mahzun dnd II. Abdlhamidi Selanikten
stanbula getiren gemi
ve bana u cevab verdi: Bir kere Bursa'ya git dediler, katiyen gitmem dedim. Kuvve-i cebriye ile dahi
The ship that took
kmayacam syledim. ekildik, burada oturuyoruz. Uradm felket bana yetiir. imdi de hokka gibi Abdlhamid II from
oradan oraya gitmekte ne mana var? Amma imdi dman bombardman edecekmi! Ne yapaym? Kaderim Thessalonica to Istanbul
neyse onu grrm. Selanik'te bu kadar ehl-i slm ve o kadar halk var. Onlarn bana ne gelirse bana da (Nuran Yldrm Arivi)

gelir. Ben de bir silah alrm, askerle beraber mdafaada bulunurum. lrsem ehit olurum, stanbul'da
tehlike yok mudur? Ben Bulgarlar iyi bilirim hedefleri stanbul'dur. Etrafmda muhafzlar olmasa bile ben
hl-i skndan kmam merak etmesinler beni rahat braksnlar, burada rahat oturaym.

Bu cevab aldktan sonra ben yine tekrar ettim ve efendimiz ikamet-i ahaneleri iin stanbul'dan baka bir yer
tahsis olunmayacana dair bendenizde bir de tezkere var, takdim edeyim dedim verdim. Gzln takt,
okudu. nanmad m nedir bilmem? kmam gitmem demekle srar etti. Ben daha ileri gittim. Maazallah
dmann esaretine dmek ihtimalini telmih ederek mahza kendisinin temin-i syanet ve selameti iin geldik
dedim. Bu srada Arif Hikmet Paa da beni teyit etti. Etti amma Sultan II. Abdlhamid inadndan
vazgemiyordu. Bunun zerine sylemediimiz kalmad, son derece ricalarda bulunduk. 'ayan- teem-
mldr. Bakaym dneyim. Bana msaade ediniz' dedi. Huzurundan ktk.

Bir mddet sonra bizi bir daha kabul etti. 'Mademki stanbul'a gitmemi istiyorlar pekl giderim'
muvafakatn verdi. Bu defa bizi kk bir sofada ve ayakta kabul etmiti. Giderim dedikten sonra da unlar
syledi: 'Ben zaten raan'da dodum. Byk birader (Sultan Murad) de orada oturdu; ben de otururum.
Fakat eyam beraber gtrmeliyim. br defa geldiim zaman yirmi gn bir kat amarla kaldm. Kanepe
zerinde yattm. Size bir ey daha syleyeyim: Yakn bir yerden iskeleye giderek vapura binmeliyim. Arabalar
da kapal olsun. Yarn saat e kadar hazrlanmaya alrz.' Bunun zerine arz- teekkr ettik ve istedii
eylerin hepsinin temin edileceini syledik."

Hakan- sabk Selanik'ten stanbul'a davete memur olan paalar geceyi vapurda geirdiler ve ertesi sabah
nc zabit kumandasnda bulunan sandallarla Alatini Deirmen skelesi'ne ktlar, oradan da kke gittiler.
kinci sandal vapurun hekimi igal ediyordu. Sultan II. Abdlhamid, paalar huzuruna artt. skelede
sandallarn hazr olduunu arz ettiler. "Benimle ocuum (Abid Efendi) bir de iki haremim bineriz. Siz
yabanc deilsiniz, familyadansnz, bizimle beraber binersiniz" teklifinde bulunur. Ve iki haremiyle olunu
beraber alp bir lndo arabasna rakip olur. Mehmed erif ve Arif Hikmet paalarla vali Nzm ve kumandan
paalar kendisine kapda selam dururlar ve arabay baka bir arabaya binerek takip ederler. skeleye varrlar.
Gene erif Paa'y dinleyelim: "skeleye gelir gelmez vapurun nc svarisini takdim ettim. Zabite iltifat
etti ve sandala bindi. Bize de emretti sandala girdik musahip Nuri Aa'y da aldk. Bu srada vali paann
rhtmda bulunduunu arz ettim. Hemen sandalda ayaa kalkt, selam verdi, sizi ve memleketi Allah'a emanet
eyledim, dedi.
Ahmet Semih Mmtaz, Sultan Abdlhamid ve Zaman, haz. smail Derviolu, st. 2008, s. 139-140.

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1872: Kz Zekiye Sultan dodu. 1868: His eldest daughter Ulviye Sultan is born.
1875: lk kz Ulviye Sultan vefat etti. Bosna- 1870: His eldest son Mehmed Selim Efendi is born.
Hersek syan. 1872: His daughter Zekiye Sultan is born.
1876: Kz Naime Sultan dodu. Amcas 1875: His eldest daughter Ulviye Sultan dies.
Abdlaziz tahttan indirildi. Aabeyi V. Muradn The Bosnia-Herzegovina Rebellion.
clsu. Yunanistan ve Karadala sava. 1876: His daughter Naime Sultan is born. His
V. Muradn hali, kendisinin tahta kmas, uncle Abdlaziz is dethroned. His brother
Kanun- Esasnin ilan. Murad V is placed on the throne. War with
1877: Osmanl-Rus Harbi. Hilal-i Ahmer Greece and Montenegro. Murad V is dethroned,
(Kzlay) Cemiyeti kuruldu. Sultan Yldz and he ascends the throne himself, promulgating
Sarayna tand. the Kanun- Esas (constitutional law).
1877: Ottoman-Russian War. The Hilal-i
1878: Oullar Abdlkadir ve Ahmed Nuri
Ahmer (Red Crescent) Society is estab lished.
efendiler dodu. Edirne Atekesi, Meclis-i The sultan moves to Yldz Palace.
Mebusann datlmas, Ayastefanos Anlamas.
1878: His sons Abdlkadir Efendi and Ahmed
Ali Suavinin darbe teebbs.
Nuri Efendi are born. The Edirne Ceasefire is
Kbrsn ngiltereye braklmas. Berlin Kongresi. signed, the Meclis-i Mebusan (parliament) is
1879: Adli slahatlar. eyh Ubeydullah syan. dissolved, the Treaty of San Stefano. The Ali
1880: Kendinden yedi ay byk ablas Refia Suavi coup dtat attempt. Cyprus is handed
Sultann vefat. Mekteb-i Hukuk ald. over to Britain. Berlin Congress.
1879: Justice reforms. The Sheikh Ubeydullah
1881: Fransann Tunusu igali. Muharrem
Rebellion.
Kararnamesi. Dyn-i Umumiyenin kurulmas.
1880: His sister, seven months older than he,
1882: ngilterenin Msr igali. Bayezid Refia Sultan, dies. The Mekteb-i Hukuk (Law
Ktphanesi kuruldu. School) is opened.
1883: Sanayi-i Nefise (Gzel Sanatlar) Mektebi ve 1881: France invades Tunisia. The Muharrem
Beyolu Nis (Emrz- Zhreviye) Hastanesi ald. Decree. The establishment of the Dyn-i
1884: Kz Naile Sultan dodu. Baka bir kz Umumiye (Public Debt).
(Seniyye) doumda ld. Midhat Paa Taifte 1882: Great Britain invades Egypt.
ldrld. The establishment of the Bayezid Library.
1885: Kz Seniha Sultan doumda ld. Olu 1883: The Sanayi-i Nefise (Fine Arts) School
Burhaneddin Efendi dodu. Dou Rumeli and the the Beyolu Nis (Emrz- Zhreviye)
Eyaletinin Bulgar Prensliine iltihak. Yldz Hospital are opened.
Camii inaat. 1884: His daughter Naile Sultan is born.
Another daughter, (Seniyye) is stillborn.
1886: Kz adiye Sultan dodu. Kuduz asn Midhat Paa is murdered in Taif.
bulan Pasteure nian, Pasteur Enstitsne
ba gnderdi. Yldz Asker Hastanesi kuruldu. 1885: His daughter Seniha Sultan is stillborn.
His son Burhaneddin Efendi is born. Eastern
Hnak cemiyeti Cenovada kuruldu.
Rumelia joins the Bulgarian Principality. Yldz
1887: Kz Aye Sultan dodu. lk torunu Mosque is constructed.
Mehmed Efendi dodu. Dnyann nc kuduz 1886: His daughter adiye Sultan is born. He sends
enstits olan Dlkelp Ameliyathanesi a medal to Pasteur, who developed an immunization
kuruldu. Paris-stanbul demiryolu hatt for rabies, and sends a donation to the Pasteur
ald. Namk Kemal ld. Institute. The Yldz Military Hospital is estab-
1889: Alman mparatorunun ilk ziyareti. Dilsiz lished. The Hnak Society is established in Genoa.
Mektebi ald. Askeri Tbbyede ttihad- Osman 1887: His daughter Aye Sultan is born. His first
Cemiyeti kuruldu. Ahmed Rza Parise kat. grandchild Mehmed Efendi is born. The
1890: Lalas ve Mabeyncisi (semte adn veren) Dlkelp Surgery, the third rabies institute in
the world, is established. The railway from Paris
Osman Bey ve ilk torunu Mehmed Efendi
to Istanbul is opened. Namk Kemal dies.
ld. Tanak Cemiyeti kuruldu.
1889: The first visit from the German emperor.
1891: Kz Refia Sultan dodu. Hamidiye The Dilsiz Mektebi (School for the Mute) is
Alaylar kuruldu. Sr- Hitn- Hmyun (9656 opened. The ttihad- Osman Society is
ocuun snnet edildii byk len). mlar established in the Askeri Tbbiye (Military
Mektebi ald. Ahmed Vefik Paa ld. Medical School). Ahmed Rza flees to Paris.

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II. Abdlhamid
1892: Dads Nergis-Misal ld. Airet Mektebi, 1890: His tutor and chamberlain Osman Bey
(TSM)
ve iek as reten ilk Telkihhane kuruldu. (whom the area in Istanbul was named after)
1893: Peyveste Hanmefendi ile evlendi. dies, as does his first grandson Mehmed Efendi. The
Tanak Society is established.
stanbulda kolera salgn. Hfzsshha Komisyonu
kuruldu. Makedonya Devrimci rgt 1891: His daughter Refia Sultan is born. The
kuruldu. Hamidiye Troops are established. The Sr-
Hitn- Hmyun (A great celebration that
1894: Olu Abdrrahim Efendi dodu. stanbul provides the circumcision for 9,656 boys) takes
depremi. Sason Ayaklanmas. Bakteriyolojihane place. The mlar Mektebi (school for the
kuruldu. blind) is opened. Ahmed Vefik Pasha is killed.

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1895: Ahmed Cevdet Paa, Mabeyn Bakatibi 1892: His nanny, Nergis-Misal, dies. The Airet
Sreyya Paa ve Nzik-ed Bakadnefendi ld. Mektebi (tribal school) and the first
Galata Rhtm ald. Hnaklarn Babli Telkihhane, which produces immunization for
nnde gsterisi. Jn Trklerin ilk byk smallpox, is established.
eylemleri. 1893: He marries Peyveste Hanmefendi. There
1896: Fatma Pesend Hanm ile evlendi. Giritte is an outbreak of cholera in Istanbul.
The Hfzsshha (Hygiene) Commission is
Rum syan. Tanaklarn Osmanl Bankas
established. The Inner Macedonian
Baskn. Servet-i Fnn kuruldu. Darlaceze ald. Revolutionary Organization is established.
1897: Kz Hatice Sultan dodu. Yunanllara 1894: His son Abdrrahim Efendi is born. There
kar asker zafer. Girite zerklik. is an earthquake in Istanbul. The Sason Uprising.
1898: Kz Hatice Sultan sekiz aylkken vefat A bacteriology laboratory is established.
etti. Alman mparatorunun ikinci ziyareti. 1895: Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, State Chief
Glhane Tababet-i Askeriye Tatbikat Mektebi Secretary Sreyya Pasha and Nzik-ed
(bugnk GATA) ve ac yetitirmek Bakadnefendi die. The docks at Galata are
zere A Dershanesi ald. opened. The Hnaks demonstrate in
front of the Sublime Porte. The first great
1899: Kz Hatice Sultana ithafen Hamidiye demonstration of the Young Turks.
(ili) Etfal Hastanesi ald. Badat Demiryolu
1896: He marries Fatma Pesend Hanm. The
imtiyaz Almanlara verildi. Haydarpaa Liman
Greek Uprising in Crete. The Tanaks
inaat balad. raid the Ottoman Bank. The Servet-i Fnn
1900: Clsun 25. yl kutlamalar; Hicaz (Science Fund) is established. The Darlaceze
Demiryolu inaat balad; Darlfnun ald. (poorhouse) is opened.
Franszlarn Midilliyi igali. Gazi Osman Paa 1897: His daughter Hatice Sultan is born. Military
ld. Padiah kzlar Aliye ve Cemile victory against the Greeks. Autonomy for Crete.
sultanlar birka gnlkken vefat etti. 1898: His daughter Hatice Sultan dies when she
1901: kiz oullar Nureddin ve Bedreddin is only eight months old. The second visit of the
efendiler dodu. Dilpesend 3. Kadnefendi ld. German emperor. The Glhane Tababet-i
Theodor Herzlin Filistin iin grmesi Askeriye Tatbikat Mektebi (todays GATA
military hospital) and the A Dershanesi
1902: Pariste Jn Trk Kongresi. Hseyin Hilmi (immunization school) were opened.
Paa Makedonyaya Umumi Mfetti oldu.
1899: The Hamidiye (ili) Etfal Hospital,
1903: azeli eyh Zfirin vefat. Makedonyada dedicated to his daughter Hatice Sultan is
Bulgar Ayaklanmas. Mrzteg Reform Program. opened. The concessions for the Baghdad
1904: emseddin Sami ve V. Muradn vefat. Railway are given to the Germans. The
Yemen syan. construction of Haydarpaa Port begins.
1900: Silver Jubilee; construction of the Hijaz
1905: En kk olu Mehmed Abid Efendi
Railway begins; the Darlfnun (school of sciences)
dodu. Yemende asilerin Sanay ele geirmesi. is opened. The French invade Lesbos. Gazi Osman
Cuma selamlnda suikast teebbs. Pasha dies. His daughters Aliye Sultan and Cemile
1906: St kardei ve Esvapbas smet Bey Sultan die when they are a few days old.
ld. Akabe-Taba krizi. 1901: Twin sons Nureddin Efendi and
1907: Pariste ikinci Jn Trk Kongresi, ttihat Bedreddin Efendi are born. Dilpesend, the third
ve Terakki Cemiyetinin bymesi. kadnefendi, dies. Meetings with Theodor Herzl
about Palestine.
1908: Son kz Samiye Sultan dodu. Reval
1902: The Young Turks meeting in Paris.
bulumas, Jn Trk htilali, Kanun- Esasnin
Hseyin Hilmi Pasha is appointed as
tekrar ilan. Hicaz Demiryolu bitti. General Inspector for Macedonia.
Bulgaristann bamszl, Bosna-Hersekin
1903: azeli Sheikh Zfir dies. The Bulgar Uprising
Avusturya-Macaristanca ilhak, Giritin
in Macedonia. The Mrzteg Reform Program.
Yunanistana iltihak.
1904: emseddin Sami and Murad V die. The
1909: Son kz Samiye Sultan (1 ya) ve Mezde Yemen Uprising.
Padiahm ok yaa
Mestn 3. Kadnefendi ld. Rifa eyhi
Sandalye 1905: His youngest son Mehmed Abid Efendi is
Long live the Sultan
Ebl-Hdnn vefat. 31 Mart Vakas, Adana born. The rebels in Yemen capture Sana. There
Chair Vakas, Abdlhamidin hali ve is an assassination attempt during the Friday
(YSM) Selanike srgn, V. Mehmed Readn clsu. Procession.

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kinci Abdlhamidin Defni


Sultan bdlhamid, kendisini haledip devletin bana bir kbus gibi
musallat olan Makedonya komitecilerinin o muazzam devleti on sene
iinde nasl yele verip inkraza srklediklerini Mirsd- ibretten tem ederek lmtr. Birinci cihan
harbinde kumandanlkla Trablusgarba gnderilmi olan shak Paann anlatt bir htray burada tarihe
aynen tevdi etmeyi vazife bilirim. O meum harbin en buhranl gnlerinden birinde devletin hayatiyle
alkadar ok mhim bir mesele hakknda Sultan Hamidin malmatndan istifde iin her naslsa fikrini
anlamak istiyen Talat ve Enver Paalar shak Paay Beylerbeyi sarayna gndermilerdir. O zamanki
tabiriyle Hkan- sbkn verdii cevap aynen yledir: Bu vaziyette artk benim verebileceim hi bir fikir
ve tavsiye edebileceim hi bir tedbir kalmamtr: nk bu zavall devlet harb-i-umumye srklendii gn
mnkariz olmutur! Sizi bana gnderenler o lgnl irtikb etmeden evvel gndermeliydiler: Btn dnya
denizlerine hkim olan devletlere kar Almanya ve Avusturya gibi kara hudutlar iinde mahbus yayan iki
devletle beraber atee atlmak tarihin kaydettii en byk hamkattir. Sultan Hamidin son nefesine kadar
yannda bulunmu olan drdnc refikas Mfika Kadn-Efendi bir gn bana Beylerbeyi sarayna gelen
Envere de Sultan Hamidin ayni mealde szler sylemi olduundan bahsetmitir.

Sultan Hamidin cenazesi Topkapu sarayna nakledilerek tehiz ve tekfini orada yapldktan sonra, Sultan
Readm iradesiyle lmnn ertesi gn pdihlara mahsus muazzam merasimle Sultanmahmut trbesine
defnedilmitir. Bizzat hid olduum bu muhteem merasim esnasnda Ayasofyadan trbeye kadar iki sra
asker dizilmiti; cadde ile caddeye kan sokaklar, pencereler, damlar, aalar ve hatt trbe mezarlnn
etrafndaki duvarlar maher gibi halk ktleleriyle dolmutu. Btn halk derin bir teessr iindeydi.
Alyanlar, hkranlar ve hatt: Bizi brakp nereye gidiyorsun? diye haykranlar oluyordu. Bu heybetli ve
umum teessr iinde lbl tavrl tek bir kii vard: Sarkamn hazin kahraman Enver Paann elleri
arkasndayd!

Abdurrahman eref merhum halkn bu derin ve hakl teessrn pervasz bir ifdeyle yle tasvir etmiti:
Hengm- ikblinde (Ne kendi eyledi rahat, ne halka verdi huzur) msran okuyanlardan bir ounun
cenaze namaznda Bknin: Kadrini seng-i musallada bilp ey Bak / Durup el balayalar karna yaran saf saf
beytini hatra getirmeleri hsn-i hatimeye dl garib-i mukadderattandr.

Eski Dhiliyye nazrlarndan Ebubekir Hazm Bey bir gn Abdlhak Hamidin salonunda Sultan Hamidin
lmyle alkadar bir htrasn anlatmt. O srada ry--Devlet direlerinden birinin reisliinde bulunan
Hazm Bey, Sultan Hamidin terekesini tesbit iin Enver Paann riyasetinde tekil edilen heyete dahilmi;
merhumun irtihalinden birka gn sonra Beylerbeyi sarayna gidilip lm gn mhrlenmi olan yatak odas
alm; Ebubekir Hazm Bey bir ok kymetli eya iinde pek ehemmiyetsiz bir eye dikkat etmi: Sultan
Hamidin btn hayatnda boynuna asl ve teninin stnde sakl bulundurduu bir muska varm, keli
bir gm mahfaza iinde bulunan bu muska alm: Mavi bir mektup kd km; i yzndeki iki
sahifesinin birincisinde krmz mrekkeple yle bir sual yazlym:

-yi adam nasl olur? Bu sulin altnda iyi adamn btn klsik tarifleri sralanm; mukabil sahifedeki
-Fena adam nasl olur? sulinin altnda da mdhi bir zlim tasvir ediliyormu! Bu iki sahife Sultan Hamidin
kendi el yazsyla yazlm ve hatt bz silikler bile varm: frklere, bylere, efsunlara mutekd ve hatt
mptel zannedilen zavall kinci Abdlhamidin mehur muskas ite byle bir muskaym! - Eer Ftih,
Yavuz ve Kanun 15 inci ve 16 nc asrlarda gelmeyip de Sultan Hamidin zamannda gelmi olsalard, ne
yapabilirlerdi? Bu byk pdihn ahsiyyetini tesbit etmek istiyenler iin byle bir sulin cevabn ok iyi
dnmek gerektir. Her halde tarih, kinci Abdlhamidi dima hrmet ve rahmetle yd edecektir.
(smail Hami Danimend, zahl Osmanl Tarihi Kronolojisi, 4, st., ts. s. 438-439.)

Hazrlayan: Enes Gl

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S U L T A N I I . A B D L H A M D
M P A R A T O R L U U N S O N N E F E S

II. Abdlhamidin sandukas


ve defnedildii dedesi
II. Mahmudun Trbesi
(Divanyolu)
The coffin of Abdlhamid II
and the mausoleum of his
grandfather, Mahmud II
(Divanyolu)

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T H E L A S T B R E A T H O F T H E E M P I R E

1910: Arnavutluk ve Yemende isyan. 1906: His milk-brother and esvapba smet
1911: Babli Yangn. Trablusgarbin Bey dies. The Akabe-Taba crisis.
talyanlarca igali. 1907: The second Young Turks congress in Paris,
growth of the ttihat ve Terakki Society.
1912: talyanlarn adalar igali, Balkan Harbi,
Abdlhamidin Beylerbeyine nakli. 1908: His youngest daughter Samiye Sultan is
Arnavutlukun istiklali. Ahmed Midhat born. Meeting of Reval, the Young Turk
Revolution, the re-promulgation of the Kanun-
Efendinin vefat.
Esas (constitutional law). Completion of the Hijaz
1913: Olu Mehmed Bedreddin Efendi (2 ya) Railway. Independence of Bulgaria, annexation of
ld. Babli Baskn. Mahmud evket Paa Bosnia-Hezergovinia by the Austro-Hungarian
suikasti. II. Balkan Harbi, Edirnenin geri Empire, annexation of Crete by Greece.
alnmas. Kamil Paann vefat. 1909: His youngest daughter Samiye Sultan
1914: Cihan Harbi balad. Said Paann vefat. (1 year old) and the third kadnefendi,
Mezde Mestn, die. Rifa Sheikh Ebl-Hd
1915: Sarkam, anakkale, Ermeni tehciri. dies. Incident of 31 March, the Adana Incident,
1916: Arap syan balad. eyhlislam the dethronement of Abdlhamid and exile to
kabineden karld. Salonica, ascension of Mehmed Read V.
1917: Arap topraklar dt. 1910: Rebellion in Albania and Yemen.
1918: Abdlhamidin vefat, V. Mehmed 1911: Fire at the Sublime Porte. The invasion of
Readn vefat, VI. Mehmed Vahdeddinin Tripoli by the Italians.
clsu 1912: Italians invade the islands, the Balkan
War, Abdlhamid is transferred to Beylerbeyi
Palace. Albania declares independence. Death of
Ahmed Midhat Efendi.
1913: His son Mehmed Bedreddin Efendi
(2 years old) dies. Invasion of the Sublime
Porte. Mahmud evket Pasha is assassinated. 2nd
Balkan War, Edirne is reclaimed. Kamil Pasha.
1914: First World War begins. Said Pasha dies.
1915: Sarkam, anakkale, Armenian relocation.
1916: The Arab rebellions begin. The sheikh-ul-
Islam is removed from the cabinet.
1917: Arab lands are lost.
1918: Death of Abdlhamid, death of Mehmed
Read V, ascension of Mehmed Vahdeddin VI.

Translation: Zeynep (Jane Luis) Kandur

KAYNAKLAR / SOURCES

Ahmet Semih Mmtaz, Sultan II. Abdlhamid ve Zaman, rikaaszade Hasan Srr Bey, Sultan Abdlhamid Devri
haz. smail Derviolu, st. 2008. Hatralar ve Saray daresi, haz. A. Adem Yrk, st. 2007.
Ali Birinci, Sultan Abdlhamidin Hatra Defteri Meselesi, Simon Heffe, Power and Place: The Political Consequences of
Dvn lm Aratrmalar, 10/19, (2005/2), s. 177-194. King Edward VII, London 1998.
Jacques Bertrand, Terazinin Hzn, st. 1990. adiye Osmanolu, Babam Abdlhamid, st. 2009.
Sultan II. Abdlhamidin Srgn Gnleri (1909-1918): Hususi Wolfgang J. Mommsen, War der Kaiser an allem Schuld?
Doktoru Atf Hseyin Beyin Hatrat, haz. Metin Hlag, st. 2003. Wilhelm II. und die Preussisch-Deutschen Machteliten, Berlin
Aye Osmanolu, Babam Sultan Abdlhamid, Ank. 1986. 2005.
Franois Georgeon, Sultan Abdlhamid, ev. Ali Berktay, st.
2006.

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