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SENR6553-02

April 2001

Disassembly and
Assembly
3100 HEUI Diesel Truck Engine
8WL1-Up (Engine)
1WM1-Up (Engine)
4ES1-Up (Engine)
2CW1-Up (Engine)
8HW1-Up (Engine)
7LZ1-Up (Engine)
i01097883

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most
current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Crankshaft Rear Seal - Remove ........................... 45


Crankshaft Rear Seal - Install ............................... 45
Crankshaft Rear Seal Carrier - Remove and
Install ................................................................... 46
Disassembly and Assembly Section Flywheel Housing - Remove and Install ............... 48
Vibration Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install
Fuel Filter Base - Remove and Install .................... 5
............................................................................. 49
Fuel Transfer Pump - Remove ................................ 6
Crankshaft Front Seal - Remove ........................... 50
Fuel Transfer Pump - Install .................................... 7
Crankshaft Front Seal - Install .............................. 51
Fuel Pressure Regulator - Remove and Install ....... 8
Front Cover - Remove ........................................... 52
Unit Injector - Remove ............................................ 9
Front Cover - Install ............................................... 52
Unit Injector - Install .............................................. 10
Gear Group (Front) - Remove ............................... 53
Unit Injector Sleeve - Remove .............................. 10
Gear Group (Front) - Install ................................... 53
Unit Injector Sleeve - Install .................................. 11
Housing (Front) - Remove ..................................... 57
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Housing (Front) - Install ........................................ 57
Remove ............................................................... 12
Camshaft Idler Gear - Remove and Install ............ 58
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Valve Mechanism Cover - Remove and Install ..... 60
Disassemble ....................................................... 12
Rocker Shaft and Pushrod - Remove ................... 61
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Rocker Shaft - Disassemble ................................ 62
Assemble ............................................................ 13
Rocker Shaft - Assemble ..................................... 63
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Rocker Shaft and Pushrod - Install ....................... 63
Install ................................................................... 13
Cylinder Head - Remove ....................................... 64
Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump - Remove ................ 14
Cylinder Head - Install .......................................... 65
Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump - Install .................... 15
Lifter Group - Remove and Install ......................... 66
Turbocharger - Remove ........................................ 15
Camshaft - Remove .............................................. 68
Turbocharger - Disassemble ................................ 16
Camshaft - Install .................................................. 69
Turbocharger - Assemble ..................................... 17
Camshaft Gear - Remove and Install ................... 70
Turbocharger - Install ............................................ 17
Camshaft Bearings - Remove and Install ............ 70
Exhaust Manifold - Remove and Install ............... 18
Engine Oil Pan - Remove and Install ................... 72
Air Inlet Heater - Remove and Install ................... 19
Piston Cooling Jets - Remove and Install ............. 74
Air Inlet Heater Solenoid - Remove and Install .... 20
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Remove .............. 75
Air Inlet Cover - Remove and Install ..................... 20
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Disassemble ....... 76
Inlet and Exhaust Valves - Remove and Install ..... 21
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Assemble ........... 77
Inlet and Exhaust Valve Guides - Remove and
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Install .................. 79
Install ................................................................... 23
Crankshaft Main Bearings - Remove .................... 81
Inlet and Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts - Remove and
Crankshaft Main Bearings - Install ........................ 82
Install ................................................................... 24
Crankshaft - Remove ............................................ 83
Engine Oil Filter Base - Remove ........................... 26
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) - Remove (If
Engine Oil Filter Base - Disassemble ................... 26
Equipped) ............................................................ 84
Engine Oil Filter Base - Assemble ........................ 27
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) - Install ............... 84
Engine Oil Filter Base - Install .............................. 28
Crankshaft - Install ................................................ 85
Engine Oil Filter Bypass Valve - Remove and Install
Crankshaft Gear - Remove and Install ................. 86
............................................................................. 28
Bearing Clearance - Check ................................... 87
Engine Oil Cooler Bypass Valve - Remove and Install
Ether Atomizer - Remove and Install .................... 88
............................................................................. 29
Idler Pulley - Remove ............................................ 89
Engine Oil Cooler - Remove ................................. 30
Idler Pulley - Disassemble .................................... 89
Engine Oil Cooler - Install ..................................... 31
Idler Pulley - Assemble ......................................... 90
Engine Oil Pump - Remove .................................. 32
Idler Pulley - Install ............................................... 90
Engine Oil Pump - Disassemble ........................... 33
Belt Tensioner - Remove and Install ..................... 91
Engine Oil Pump - Assemble ................................ 34
Belt Tightener - Remove ....................................... 91
Engine Oil Pump - Install ...................................... 36
Belt Tightener - Disassemble ................................ 91
Water Pump - Remove ......................................... 36
Belt Tightener - Assemble .................................... 92
Water Pump - Disassemble ................................. 37
Belt Tightener - Install ........................................... 93
Water Pump - Assemble ...................................... 38
Fan Drive - Remove ............................................. 93
Water Pump - Install ............................................. 39
Fan Drive - Disassemble ...................................... 94
Water Temperature Regulator Housing - Remove and
Fan Drive - Assemble .......................................... 94
Install .................................................................. 40
Fan Drive - Install .................................................. 95
Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and Install
Engine Control Module - Remove and Install ....... 96
............................................................................. 41
Alternator - Remove and Install ........................... 96
Engine Lifting Bracket - Remove and Install ........ 43
Electric Starting Motor - Remove and Install ....... 97
Engine Support (Front) - Remove and Install ....... 43
Air Compressor - Remove and Install .................. 98
Flywheel - Remove ............................................... 44
Air Compressor Drive Gear - Remove ................ 101
Flywheel - Install ................................................... 44
Air Compressor Drive Gear - Install .................... 102
4
Table of Contents

Index Section
Index ................................................................... 103
5
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Disassembly and Assembly 2. Place an identification mark (5) on crankcase


breather (3) and fuel filter base (9). This will aid
Section in installation purposes.

3. Loosen clamp (2) and remove hose (7) from


i01205005 crankcase breather (3).
Fuel Filter Base - Remove and 4. Remove bolt (1) and the washer. Remove
Install crankcase breather (3) and the O-ring seal from
fuel filter base (9).
SMCS Code: 1262-010
5. Disconnect tubes (6) and (8) from fuel filter base
Removal Procedure (9). Cap the tubes immediately.

Table 1 6. Remove four bolts (4) and the washers. Remove


fuel filter base (9) and the gasket from the
Required Tools engine.
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
Strap Wrench Installation Procedure
A 2P-8250 1
Assembly
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
NOTICE during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- nent containing fluids.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies products.
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

g00644400
Illustration 2
g00644400
Illustration 1
1. Inspect the condition of the gasket and the
O-ring seals. Replace the gasket and the seals,
1. Use Tool (A) to remove fuel filter (10). if necessary.
6
Disassembly and Assembly Section

2. Position the gasket and fuel filter base (9) on the


engine.

3. Install the washers and four bolts (4).

4. Connect tubes (6) and (8) to fuel filter base (9).

5. Install the O-ring seal and crankcase breather (3)


on fuel filter base (9). Align identification mark
(5). Position crankcase breather (3) at 30 5
degrees away from the cylinder head.

6. Install the washer and bolt (1). Tighten the bolt


to a torque of 7 2 Nm (62 18 lb in).
g00612458
7. Install hose (7) on crankcase breather (3) and Illustration 3
tighten clamp (2).
1. Remove fuel outlet line (1) from fuel transfer
8. Install fuel filter (10). pump (3). Immediately cap all openings or plug
all openings in order to prevent contamination.

i01153675 2. Cut nylon strap (2) that fastens the wiring


harness to the unit injector hydraulic pump.
Fuel Transfer Pump - Remove
SMCS Code: 1256-011

Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained g00612496
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- Illustration 4
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- 3. Remove the bolts, clip (4) and fuel transfer pump
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- (3) from the unit injector hydraulic pump.
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00612507
Illustration 5
7
Disassembly and Assembly Section

4. Remove O-ring seal (5) from the unit injector 1. Clean all components and the mating surfaces.
hydraulic pump. Inspect O-ring seal (5) for Inspect all components. If any component is worn
wear or damage. If the O-ring seal is worn or or damaged, use a new part for replacement.
damaged, use a new part for replacement. Install the elbows for the fuel inlet port and the
fuel outlet port on the fuel transfer pump.

2. Install the O-ring seal (6).

g00612518
Illustration 6

5. Remove the elbows for the fuel inlet port and the
g00612507
fuel outlet port from the fuel transfer pump. Illustration 8

6. Remove O-ring seal (6) from the elbow. Inspect 3. Install O-ring seal (5) on the unit injector
O-ring seal (6) for wear or damage. If the O-ring hydraulic pump.
seal is worn or damaged, use a new part for
replacement.

i01153818

Fuel Transfer Pump - Install


SMCS Code: 1256-012

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
g00612496
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Illustration 9
component life.
4. Position fuel transfer pump (3) on the unit injector
hydraulic pump.

5. Install the bolts and clip (4). Tighten the bolts for
the fuel transfer pump to a torque of 25 3 Nm
(18 2 lb ft).

g00612518
Illustration 7
8
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00612458 g00618383
Illustration 10 Illustration 12

6. Install fuel outlet line (1). Tighten the connectors 2. Remove O-ring seal (2) from fuel pressure
for the fuel inlet port and the fuel outlet port to a regulator (1).
torque of 17.5 2 Nm (13 1.5 lb ft).

7. Secure the wiring harness to the fuel transfer


Installation Procedure
pump with a nylon strap.

i01161376

Fuel Pressure Regulator -


Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1715-010

Removal Procedure

g00618383
Illustration 13

1. Ensure that the orifice in fuel pressure regulator


(1) is open and clean. Install a new O-ring seal
(2) on fuel pressure regulator (1).

g00618385
Illustration 11

1. Remove fuel pressure regulator (1) from the rear


of the cylinder head.

g00618385
Illustration 14

2. Install fuel pressure regulator (1) in the rear of


the cylinder head at a 10 degree angle from the
horizontal centerline.
9
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01205071

Unit Injector - Remove


SMCS Code: 1290-011

Removal Procedure
Table 2
Required Tools
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
A 1U-7587 Pry Bar 1

g00644457
Start By: Illustration 16

a. Remove the rocker arms and the pushrods. 2. Remove unit injector (2) by hand, when possible.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Twist unit injector (2).
Shaft and Pushrod - Remove.
3. Use Tool (A) to loosen unit injector (2), if
necessary. Remove unit injector (2) from the
NOTICE
cylinder head.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies g00644459
Illustration 17
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
4. Ensure that two O-ring seals (3) and (4) are on
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and unit injector (2).
mandates.

g00644454
Illustration 15

1. Disconnect wiring harness (1) from the unit


injector.
10
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01205271

Unit Injector - Install


SMCS Code: 1290-012

Installation Procedure
Table 3
Required Tools
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
164-5927 Wire Brush 1
9U-6862 Tapered Brush 1 g00644454
A Illustration 19
4C-5552 Large Bore Brush 1
9U-6102 Reamer 1 6. Install a new weather pack connector on wiring
harness (1). Connect wiring harness (1) to the
B 173-1530 Injector Seating Tool 1 unit injector.

End By:
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
a. Install the rocker arms and the pushrods. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Shaft
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
and Pushrod - Install.
component life.

i01496518
1. Use Tool (A) to clean the sleeve of the unit
injector. Unit Injector Sleeve - Remove
SMCS Code: 1713-011

Removal Procedure
Table 4
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 143-2099 Unit Injector Tool Group 1

Start By:
g00644459
Illustration 18
a. Remove the unit injector. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Unit Injector - Remove.
2. Install new O-ring seals (3) and (4).

3. Lubricate the O-ring seals with clean engine oil. NOTICE


Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
4. Position unit injector (2) in the cylinder head.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
5. Use Tool (B) to properly seat unit injector (2). component life.
Refer to the Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0738,
Using the 173-1530 Injector Seating Tool on
3114, 3116, and 3126 MUI or 3116 3126 HEUI
2-Valve Engines for the proper procedure.
11
Disassembly and Assembly Section

NOTICE NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- component life.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00627676
Illustration 21

1. Inspect the injector sleeve for pitting and for


carbon tracking. Used injector sleeves do not
need to be reamed unless the seated area
is pitted or eroded. Ream the used injector
sleeves if the seated area has excessive carbon
deposits. Ream the sleeve, if necessary. Refer to
Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0675, Using the
143 - 2099 Sleeve Replacement Tool Group on
g00627676
Illustration 20 3114, 3116, and 3126 Engines. Use Tool (A) to
ream injector sleeves.
1. Use Tool (A) to remove unit injector sleeve (1)
from the cylinder head. Refer to Tool Operating New injector sleeves should not be reamed.
Manual, NEHS0675, Using the 143-2099 Refer to Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0738,
Sleeve Replacement Tool Group on 3114, 3116, Using the 173 -1530 Injector Seating Tool
and 3126 Engines for the correct procedure. Group on 3114, 3116, and 3126 Engines for
the remaining steps on installing new injector
sleeves.
i01345407

Unit Injector Sleeve - Install End By:

SMCS Code: 1713-012 a. Install the unit injector. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Unit Injector-Install.
Installation Procedure
Table 5
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
Injector Sleeve
A 143-2099 1
Replacement Tool Group
12
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01180574 3. Use Tool (A) and an extension in order to remove


the injection actuation pressure control valve
Injection Actuation Pressure from the unit injector hydraulic pump.
Control Valve - Remove
i01180668
SMCS Code: 5051-011
Injection Actuation Pressure
Removal Procedure Control Valve - Disassemble
Table 6 SMCS Code: 5051-015
Required Tools
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty Disassembly Procedure
A 5P-0333 Crowfoot Socket 1 Start By:

NOTICE a. Remove the injection actuation pressure control


Keep all parts clean from contaminants. valve. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Remove.
component life.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00644654
Illustration 22

1. Disconnect wiring harness plug (2) from injection


actuation pressure control valve (1).
g00632173
2. Remove nut (3), the spacer, and the solenoid Illustration 24
valve from injection actuation pressure control (1) O-ring seal
valve (1). (2) Nut
(3) Backup ring
(4) O-ring seal
(5) Solenoid valve
(6) Spacer

1. Remove O-ring seals (1) and (4), and backup


ring (3) from the injection actuation pressure
control valve. Inspect the components of the
injection actuation pressure control valve for
wear or damage. If any part is worn or damaged,
use a new part for replacement.

g00644655
Illustration 23
13
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01180694
NOTICE
Injection Actuation Pressure Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Control Valve - Assemble
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
SMCS Code: 5051-016 component life.

Assembly Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

1. Clean the injection actuation pressure control


valve and the components for the injection
actuation pressure control valve.

g00644655
Illustration 26

1. Use Tool (A) in order to install the injection


actuation pressure control valve on the unit
injector hydraulic pump. Tighten the injection
actuation pressure control valve to a torque of
50 5 Nm (37 4 lb ft).

g00632173
Illustration 25
(1) O-ring seal
(2) Nut
(3) Backup ring
(4) O-ring seal
(5) Solenoid valve
(6) Spacer

2. Install new O-ring seals (1) and (4), and backup


ring (3) on the injection actuation pressure Illustration 27 g00644654
control valve. Lubricate the O-ring seals with
clean engine oil. 2. Install the solenoid valve, the spacer, and nut (3)
on the injection actuation pressure control valve
i01180663 (1). Tighten nut (3) to a torque of 5.5 1.5 Nm
(49 13 lb in).
Injection Actuation Pressure
3. Reconnect wiring harness plug (2) to the
Control Valve - Install injection actuation pressure control valve.
SMCS Code: 5051-012

Installation Procedure
Table 7
Required Tools
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
A 5P-0333 Crowfoot Wrench 1
14
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01205391

Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump -


Remove
SMCS Code: 1714-011

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the fuel transfer pump. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel Transfer Pump
- Remove.
g00644692
Illustration 28
b. Remove the injection actuation pressure control
valve. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, 1. Disconnect tubes (4) and (6) from unit injector
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve - hydraulic pump (1). Cap the tubes immediately.
Remove.
2. Remove three bolts (5) from unit injector hydraulic
NOTICE pump (1). Remove unit injector hydraulic pump
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. (1).

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened 3. Remove oil inlet port (2) and oil outlet port (3)
component life. from unit injector hydraulic pump (1).

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
g00644693
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and Illustration 29
mandates.
4. Remove bolt (8) and the washer from gear (9).
Remove O-ring seal (7).

Hot oil and components can cause personal in-


jury.

Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.


15
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01205479 5. Install the washers and three bolts (5).


Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump 6. Install new O-ring seals on tubes (4) and (6) and
- Install install the tubes in unit injector hydraulic pump
(1).
SMCS Code: 1714-012
End By:
Installation Procedure a. Install the injection actuation pressure control
valve. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
NOTICE Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Install.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened b. Install the fuel transfer pump. Refer to
component life. Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel Transfer Pump
- Install.

i01160174

Turbocharger - Remove
SMCS Code: 1052-011

Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


Illustration 30 g00644693 component life.

1. Install gear (9) with the washer and bolt (8).


Tighten the bolt to a torque of 110 14 Nm NOTICE
(80 10 lb ft). Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
2. Install new O-ring seal (7) and lubricate the seal ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
with clean engine oil. collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00644692
Illustration 31

3. Install oil inlet port (2) in unit injector hydraulic


pump (1). Tighten the port to a torque of
26 3 Nm (19 2 lb ft).

4. Install oil outlet port (3) in unit injector hydraulic


pump (1). Tighten the port to a torque of
17 2 Nm (13 1 lb ft).
16
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01160562

Turbocharger - Disassemble
SMCS Code: 1052-015

Disassembly Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
g00617515
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
Illustration 32 nent containing fluids.
1. Remove bolts (1) and the gasket. Remove bolts Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
(3) and tube assembly (2) from the turbocharger. Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00617565
Illustration 33

2. Remove the bolts and the gasket in order to


disconnect oil supply tube assembly (5) from the
turbocharger.
g00617691
Illustration 34
3. Remove four nuts (4), turbocharger (6) and the
gasket from the exhaust manifold.
17
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00617944 g00617944
Illustration 35 Illustration 36

1. Place alignment marks on the two housings and


the cartridge assembly for the correct alignment
during assembly.

2. Remove line (3) from compressor housing (6).

3. Remove clip (4) on waste gate (7).

4. Remove bolts (1) and waste gate (7) from turbine


housing (5). Remove turbine housing (5).

5. Remove bolts (2) from compressor housing (6).


Remove compressor housing (6).
g00617691
6. Inspect cartridge assembly (8) for wear or Illustration 37
damage. If cartridge assembly (8) is worn or
damaged, use a new part for replacement. 1. Position compressor housing (6) on cartridge
assembly (8) and align the marks on the
Note: The cartridge for the turbocharger is not components. Install bolts (2) that fasten
serviced. Replace the cartridge for the turbocharger compressor housing (6) to cartridge assembly
as an assembly. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer (8).
for more information on the cartridge assembly.
2. Position turbine housing (5) on cartridge
assembly (8) and align the marks on the
i01161232 components. Install bolts (1) that fasten turbine
housing (5) to cartridge assembly (8).
Turbocharger - Assemble
3. Install clip (4) on waste gate (7).
SMCS Code: 1052-016
4. Install line (3) on compressor housing (6).
Assembly Procedure
i01317027
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Turbocharger - Install
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened SMCS Code: 1052-012
component life.
Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
18
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Note: For information on the reusability of 4. Inspect the gaskets for oil supply tube assembly
components of the turbocharger, refer to Guideline (5) and tube assembly (2). If the gaskets are worn
For Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, or damaged, use a new part for replacement.
SEBF8018, Turbochargers. For information on
the salvage of components of the turbocharger, 5. Position tube assembly (2) and the gasket
refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage on turbocharger (6). Install bolts (1) on the
Operations, SEBF8071, Procedures to Salvage turbocharger and install bolts (3) on the cylinder
Turbocharger Components. block.

1. Inspect the turbocharger gasket for wear or 6. Install the gasket for oil supply tube assembly
damage. If the turbocharger gasket is worn or (5) and connect oil supply tube assembly (5) to
damaged, use a new part for replacement. turbocharger (6).

2. Apply 5P-3931 Anti-Seize Compound on


i01160570
the threads of the mounting studs for the
turbocharger. Exhaust Manifold - Remove
and Install
SMCS Code: 1059-010

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Turbocharger - Remove.

g00617565
Illustration 38

3. Position the turbocharger gasket and


turbocharger (6) on the exhaust manifold. Install
nuts (4) and tighten nuts (4) to a torque of
54 5 Nm (40 4 lb ft).

g00617696
Illustration 40

1. Remove bolts (1), locks (3), exhaust manifold


(2), and the gaskets from the cylinder head
assembly.

2. Disassemble exhaust manifold (2) into three


pieces.

3. Remove mounting studs (4) from exhaust


manifold (2), if necessary.

Installation Procedure
1. Inspect the condition of the gasket. Replace the
g00617515 gasket, if necessary.
Illustration 39
19
Disassembly and Assembly Section

End By:

a. Install the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Turbocharger - Install.

i01205762

Air Inlet Heater - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1090-010

Removal Procedure
g00617696
Illustration 41

2. Apply 5P-3931 Anti-Seize Compound to the


threads of mounting studs (4).

3. Install mounting studs (4). Tighten mounting


studs (4) to a torque of 35 5 Nm (26 4 lb ft).

4. Install new exhaust manifold gaskets.

5. Apply a thin coat of 2P-2333 High Temperature


Sealer to the male ends of exhaust manifold (2).
Coat the inside of the female ends of exhaust
manifold (2) with clean engine oil. Assemble
exhaust manifold (2) and remove the excess Illustration 43 g00644927
sealer from the joints.
1. Disconnect the hoses from air inlet elbows (5).
6. Apply 5P-3931 Anti-Seize Compound to the
threads of bolts (1). Position the gaskets and 2. Disconnect wire (1) from the air inlet heater.
exhaust manifold (2) on the cylinder head
assembly. Install locks (3) and bolts (1). 3. Remove nut (4) that secures the ground strap
to the air inlet heater.

4. Remove eight bolts (3) and the washers. Remove


air inlet elbows (5) and air inlet heater (2).

Installation Procedure

g00617739
Illustration 42

7. Tighten bolts (1) in a numerical sequence to a


torque of 4 1 Nm (35 9 lb in).

8. Tighten bolts (1) in a numerical sequence to a


torque of 45 5 Nm (33 4 lb ft). g00644927
Illustration 44
9. Bend the locking tab over the flat of each bolt
head. 1. Clean the face of air inlet heater (2) with solvent.
Apply 4C-9500 Quick Cure Primer to the face.
The primer must dry for three to five minutes.
20
Disassembly and Assembly Section

2. Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the face of air inlet Installation Procedure


heater (2). The air inlet heater (2) and air inlet
elbows (5) must be installed within ten minutes
of application of the sealant.

3. Install the washers and eight bolts (3).

4. Connect the ground strap to air inlet heater (2)


with nut (4).

5. Connect wire assembly (1) to air inlet heater


(2). Tighten the nut to a torque of 13 1 Nm
(10 1 lb ft).

i01176781
g00629847
Illustration 46
Air Inlet Heater Solenoid -
Remove and Install 1. Position air inlet heater solenoid (3) on the
engine.
SMCS Code: 1090-010-OD
2. Install two bolts (2) in air inlet heater solenoid (3).
Removal Procedure 3. Connect two wires (1) to air inlet heater solenoid
(3).

i01161352

Air Inlet Cover - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1087-010-CH

Removal Procedure
Start By:
g00629847
Illustration 45 a. Remove the air inlet heater. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Air Inlet Heater - Remove and
Note: The air inlet heater solenoid is located just Install.
above the turbocharger on the air inlet manifold.
b. Remove the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly
1. Disconnect two wires (1) from air inlet heater and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
solenoid (3). Install.

2. Remove two bolts (2) and remove air inlet heater


solenoid (3) from the engine.

g00618364
Illustration 47
21
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Disconnect plug (2) for the boost sensor. Start By:

2. Remove four bolts and mounting bracket (1) for a. Remove the cylinder head assembly. Refer to
the fuel filter base. Disassembly and Assembly, Cylinder Head -
Remove.
3. Remove four bolts and air inlet cover (3).
NOTICE
Installation Procedure Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: For information on the reusability of the inlet


valves, the exhaust valves and the springs, refer
to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8002, Valves, Valve Springs,
Valve Rotators, and Locks, Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8034, Valve
and Valve Spring Specifications, and Guideline For
Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8162,
Procedure to Measure and Salvage Cylinder Head
Assemblies and Related Components.
g00618364
Illustration 48

1. Inspect the gasket for air inlet cover (3). Replace


the gasket, if necessary.

2. Position air inlet cover (3), mounting bracket (1)


for fuel filter base, and the wiring clip on the
cylinder head. Install eight bolts.

3. Connect plug (2) for the boost sensor.

End By:

a. Install the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
Install.

b. Install the air inlet heater. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Air Inlet Heater - Remove and
Install.
g00653424
Illustration 49
i01488867

Inlet and Exhaust Valves - Note: The following components of the exhaust
valves are different from the components of the inlet
Remove and Install valves: spring retainer (3), valve spring (1), and
valve (5).
SMCS Code: 1105-010

Removal Procedure
Table 8
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 5S-1330 Valve Spring Compressor 1
22
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00676566
Illustration 50

1. Use Tool (A) to compress valve spring (1).


Remove retainer lock (2).

2. Remove Tool (A).


g00653424
Illustration 51
3. Remove spring retainer (3). Remove valve spring
(1).
1. Lubricate valve (5) with clean engine oil. Install
4. Remove valve seal (4) and valve (5). valve (5) in the cylinder head assembly. Install
new valve seal (4) against the valve guide.
5. Repeat Steps 1 through 4 in order to remove the
remaining inlet valves and exhaust valves. 2. Place the following items on the valve stem:
valve spring (1) and spring retainer (3).

Installation Procedure
Table 9
The valve keepers can be thrown from the valve
Required Tools
when the valve spring compressor is released. En-
Part sure that the valve keepers are properly installed
Tool Part Description Qty
Number on the valve stem. To help prevent personal injury,
A 5S-1330 Valve Spring Compressor 1
keep away from the front of the valve keepers and
valve springs during the installation of the valves.

NOTICE Note: A small amount of grease can be used to hold


Keep all parts clean from contaminants. the retainer locks in position during installation.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.

Note: For information on the reusability of the inlet


valves, the exhaust valves and the springs, refer
to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8002, Valves, Valve Springs,
Valve Rotators, and Locks, Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8034, Valve
and Valve Spring Specifications, and Guideline For
Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8162,
Procedure to Measure and Salvage Cylinder Head
Assemblies and Related Components.
g00676566
Illustration 52

3. Use Tool (A) to compress valve spring (1). Install


retainer lock (2).
23
Disassembly and Assembly Section

4. Repeat Steps 1 through 3 in order to install the


remaining inlet valves and exhaust valves.

End By:

a. Install the cylinder head assembly. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Cylinder Head -
Install.

i01496529

Inlet and Exhaust Valve Guides


- Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1104-010

Removal Procedure
Table 10
Required Tools g00745735
Illustration 53
Part Typical example
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 1U-7793 Valve Guide Driver(1) 1 1. Use Tool (A) to remove the inlet valve guides
(1)
from the cylinder head assembly. Use Tool (A)
Part of 1U-6685 Valve Guide Tool Kit
to remove the exhaust valve guides from the
Start By: cylinder head assembly.

a. Remove the inlet valves and the exhaust valves. Installation Procedure
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Inlet and
Exhaust Valves - Remove and Install. Table 11
Required Tools
NOTICE
Part
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Tool
Number
Part Description Qty

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened A 1U-7793 Valve Guide Driver(1) 1
component life. B 1U-7792 Guide Collar(1) 1
(1) Part of 1U-6685 Valve Guide Tool Kit
Note: For information on the reusability of the valve
guides, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
NOTICE
Salvage Operations, SEBF8218, Specifications
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
for Cylinder Head Assemblies 3114, 3116, and
3126 Engines and Guideline For Reusable Parts
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
And Salvage Operations, SEBF8162, Procedure to
component life.
Measure and Salvage Cylinder Head Assemblies
and Related Components.
Note: For information on the reusability of the valve
guides, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8218, Specifications
for Cylinder Head Assemblies 3114, 3116, and
3126 Engines and Guideline For Reusable Parts
And Salvage Operations, SEBF8162, Procedure to
Measure and Salvage Cylinder Head Assemblies
and Related Components.
24
Disassembly and Assembly Section

4. Use Tool (A) and Tool (B) to install exhaust valve


guide (2). Install the exhaust valve guide until the
protrusion is 23.0 0.5 mm (0.90 0.02 inch)
above the cylinder head assembly.

End By:

a. Install the inlet valves and the exhaust valves.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Inlet and
Exhaust Valves - Remove and Install.

i01414262

Inlet and Exhaust Valve Seat


Inserts - Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1103-010

Removal Procedure
g00745782 Table 12
Illustration 54
Typical example Required Tools

1. Position inlet valve guide (1) and tap on the top Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
of inlet valve guide (1). This is done in order to
start inlet valve guide (1) into the cylinder head A(1) 6V-4194 Valve Seat Extractor 1
assembly.
B(1) 6V-4193 Valve Seat Extractor 1
2. Use Tool (A) and Tool (B) to install inlet valve C(1) 6V-4804 Handle 1
guide (1). Install inlet valve guides (1) until the
protrusion is 23.0 0.5 mm (0.90 0.02 inch) D(1) 6V-4192 Shaft 1
above the cylinder head assembly. E(1) 6V-4199 Lifting Bracket 1
(1) Part of the 6V-4805 Valve Seat Extractor Tool Group

Start By:

a. Remove the inlet and exhaust valves. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Inlet and Exhaust
Valves - Remove and Install.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: For information on the reusability of the valve


seats, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8218, Specifications for
Cylinder Head Asseblies 3114, 3116, and 3126
Engines.
g00775866
Illustration 55

3. Position exhaust valve guide (2) and tap on the


top of exhaust valve guide (2). This is done in
order to start the exhaust valve guide into the
cylinder head assembly.
25
Disassembly and Assembly Section

3. Install Tool (E) on the cylinder head under


Tool (C). Hold Tool (D) while you turn Tool (C).
Remove valve seat (1).

Installation Procedure
Table 13
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
Guide and Insert Tool
A 1U-6685 1
Group

g00615519
Illustration 56
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: For information on the reusability of the valve


seats, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8218, Specifications for
Cylinder Head Assemblies 3114, 3116, and 3126
Engines.

1. Cool the valve seat inserts for easier installation.

g00656459
Illustration 57

Note: Replace Tool (A) with Tool (B) for the removal
of the inlet valve seat insert.

1. Install Tool (A) in the exhaust valve seat insert.

2. Install Tool (C) and Tool (D) in Tool (A). Hand


tighten Tool (D). Tool (A) will expand below the
edge of valve seat insert (1).

g00656469
Illustration 59

2. Turn Tool (A) upside-down and use Tool (A) and


a press to install the valve seat inserts in the
cylinder head assembly.

3. After the valve seat inserts are installed, grind


the inserts to the final specification. Refer to
Guideline for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operation, SEBF8218 for the specifications.

g00656462
Illustration 58
26
Disassembly and Assembly Section

End By:

a. Install the inlet valves and exhaust valves.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Inlet and
Exhaust Valves - Remove and Install.

i01156939

Engine Oil Filter Base -


Remove
SMCS Code: 1306-011

Removal Procedure Illustration 60 g00614994

Table 14
1. Remove oil filter assembly (1) with Tool (A).
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 2P-8250 Strap Wrench Assembly 1

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained g00614997
Illustration 61
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- 2. Disconnect tube (2) from the elbow assembly.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. 3. Remove the bolts that hold engine oil filter base
(3) to the cylinder block. Remove engine oil filter
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar base (3).
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar i01522331
products.
Engine Oil Filter Base -
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Disassemble
SMCS Code: 1306-015

Disassembly Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the engine oil filter base. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Filter
Base - Remove.
27
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01522336

Engine Oil Filter Base -


Assemble
SMCS Code: 1306-016

Assembly Procedure

g00528968
Illustration 62

1. Remove two plugs (1) and (2) from oil filter base
(3).

g00528969
Illustration 64

1. Install O-ring seals (4) onto plugs (1) and (2).


Install valves(6) and springs (5).

g00528969
Illustration 63

2. Remove springs (5) and valves (6). Remove


O-ring seals (4) from plugs (1) and (2). Inspect
the parts for wear or damage. If the parts
are worn or damaged, use new parts for
replacement.

g00528968
Illustration 65

2. Install two plugs (1) and (2) onto oil filter base (3).

End By:

a. Install the engine oil filter base. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Filter
Base - Install.
28
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01522339 3. Install oil filter assembly (1) with Tool (A). Follow
the instructions with the oil filter assembly for the
Engine Oil Filter Base - Install correct installation.
SMCS Code: 1306-012
i01177007

Installation Procedure Engine Oil Filter Bypass Valve


Table 15 - Remove and Install
Required Tools
SMCS Code: 1308-010-BV
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
Removal Procedure
A 2P-8250 Strap Wrench Assembly 1
NOTICE
NOTICE Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.
component life.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.
g00614997
Illustration 66

1. Position the gasket and engine oil filter base


(3) over the engine oil cooler. Install the bolts
that hold engine oil filter base (3) to the cylinder
block.

2. Connect tube (2) to engine oil filter base (3).

g00630032
Illustration 68

g00614994
Illustration 67
29
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Inspect the condition of the O-ring seal. Replace


the seal, if necessary.

2. Install bypass valve (3) and valve spring (2) in


the engine oil filter base.

3. Install plug (1) in the engine oil filter base.

i01176960

Engine Oil Cooler Bypass


Valve - Remove and Install
g00629985
SMCS Code: 1314-010
Illustration 69

1. Remove plug (1) and the O-ring seal from the Removal Procedure
engine oil filter base.
NOTICE
2. Remove valve spring (2) and bypass valve (3) Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
from the engine oil filter base.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Installation Procedure
NOTICE NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
component life. collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00630032
Illustration 70

g00629979
Illustration 72

g00629985
Illustration 71
30
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00629985 g00629979
Illustration 73 Illustration 75

1. Remove plug (1) and the O-ring seal from the 1. Inspect the condition of the O-ring seal. Replace
engine oil cooler. the seal, if necessary.

2. Remove valve spring (2) and bypass valve (3) 2. Install bypass valve (3) and valve spring (2) in
from the engine oil cooler. the engine oil cooler.

Installation Procedure 3. Install plug (1) in the engine oil cooler.

NOTICE i01156915
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Engine Oil Cooler - Remove
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life. SMCS Code: 1378-011

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the engine oil filter base. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Filter
Base - Remove.

g00629985
Illustration 74
31
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam


and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot


and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to


relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
touch with your bare hand.
g00614985
Illustration 77
Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing 2. Remove O-ring seals (2) from the cylinder block.
burns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali. i01156926


Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Engine Oil Cooler - Install
NOTICE SMCS Code: 1378-012
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Installation Procedure
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- component life.
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00614985
Illustration 78

1. Inspect the condition of O-ring seals (2). Replace


O-ring seals (2), if necessary. Install O-ring seals
(2) in the cylinder block.

g00614981
Illustration 76

1. Remove engine oil cooler (1).


32
Disassembly and Assembly Section

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

g00614981 Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


Illustration 79
mandates.
2. Put the gasket and engine oil cooler (1) in the
cylinder block. Note: For information on the reusability of the engine
oil pump, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
End By: Salvage Operations, SEBF8167, Reconditioning
Procedures 3114 and 3116 Engines.
a. Install the engine oil filter base. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Filter
Base - Install.

i01286670

Engine Oil Pump - Remove


SMCS Code: 1304-011

Removal Procedure
Start By:
g00614391
a. Remove the engine oil pan. Refer to Disassembly Illustration 80
and Assembly, Engine Oil Pan - Remove and
Install. 1. Remove two bolts (1) and bolt (2).

NOTICE 2. Remove the engine oil pump.


Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
3. Remove the O-ring seal that is located between
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened the cylinder block and the outlet elbow.
component life.
33
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01286652

Engine Oil Pump - Disassemble


SMCS Code: 1304-015

Disassembly Procedure
Table 16
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
5P-7311 Chain Puller 1
g00614664
A 7S-7786 Puller Leg 2 Illustration 81

5F-7345 Screw 1 1. Remove the two bolts, oil pickup tube (2), and
the gasket from the engine oil pump. Remove
Start By: one bolt and outlet elbow (1) from the engine
oil pump.
a. Remove the engine oil pump. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump -
Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to g00614677
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- Illustration 82
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. 2. Remove bolt (3), washer (4), and idler gear (5)
from the engine oil pump.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

Note: For information on the reusability of the engine


oil pump, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8167, Reconditioning
Procedures 3114 and 3116 Engines.

g00614683
Illustration 83

3. Remove the bearing from idler gear (5) with Tool


(A).

4. Remove shaft (6) of engine oil pump from oil


pump body assembly (7).
34
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Use Tool (A) to remove drive gear (8).

g00614696
Illustration 86
g00614689
Illustration 84
8. Remove the following items from oil pump body
6. Remove four bolts (10). Separate oil pump body assembly (7): bolt and washer, spring (14), and
(9) from oil pump body assembly (7). oil pressure relief plunger (13)

i01286632

Engine Oil Pump - Assemble


SMCS Code: 1304-016

Assembly Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
g00614694
Illustration 85

Note: For information on the reusability of the engine


NOTICE
oil pump, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Before removing the drive shaft from the pump hous-
Salvage Operations, SEBF8167, Reconditioning
ing, be sure that no burrs exist on the drive shaft. If
Procedures 3114 and 3116 Engines.
the drive shaft has burrs on it, the bores in the pump
housing may be scratched.
1. Ensure that all of the parts of the engine oil pump
are thoroughly clean prior to assembly.
7. Remove shaft assembly (11) and shaft assembly
(12) from oil pump body (9). Note: Lubricate all internal parts of the engine oil
pump with clean engine oil.
35
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00614696 g00614683
Illustration 87 Illustration 90

2. Install oil pressure relief plunger (13) and spring 6. Press drive gear (8) on shaft assembly (11)
(14) in oil pump body assembly (7). Install the until drive gear (8) is flush with the end of shaft
washer and the bolt. assembly (11).

7. Install oil pump shaft (6). Install the bearing


in idler gear (5). Install the bearing so the
distance between the hub bolt face of idler
gear (5) and the bearing is 0.75 0.25 mm
(0.030 0.010 inch).

g00614694
Illustration 88

g00614677
Illustration 91

8. Install idler gear (5) on oil pump shaft (6). Install


washer (4) and bolt (3). Tighten bolt (3) to
70 15 Nm (52 11 lb ft).

g00614689
Illustration 89

3. Install shaft assembly (12) in oil pump body (9).

4. Install shaft assembly (11) in oil pump body (9).

5. Position oil pump body (9) on oil pump body


assembly (7) and install bolts (10).

g00614664
Illustration 92
36
Disassembly and Assembly Section

9. Check the condition of the gasket that is used in End By:


oil pickup tube (2). If the gasket is damaged,
replace the gasket. Install the gasket and oil a. Install the engine oil pan. Refer to Disassembly
pickup tube (2). and Assembly, Engine Oil Pan - Remove and
Install.
10. Check the condition of the O-ring seal that is
used in outlet elbow (1). If the O-ring seal is
i01155966
damaged, replace the O-ring seal. Install the
O-ring seal and outlet elbow (1). Water Pump - Remove
End By: SMCS Code: 1361-011
a. Install the engine oil pump. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Install. Removal Procedure
Start By:
i01156435
a. Remove the belt tensioner. Refer to Disassembly
Engine Oil Pump - Install and Assembly, Belt Tensioner - Remove and
Install.
SMCS Code: 1304-012

Installation Procedure
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
NOTICE and alkali.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
component life. to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
Note: Ensure that the mounting surfaces for the
engine oil pump are thoroughly clean. Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
1. Inspect the condition of the O-ring seal. Replace cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
the seal, if necessary. touch with your bare hand.

2. Install the O-ring seal. Position the engine oil Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
pump on the cylinder block. the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.


Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00614391
Illustration 93

3. Install two bolts (1) and bolt (2).


37
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01156239
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Water Pump - Disassemble
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
SMCS Code: 1361-015
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- Disassembly Procedure
nent containing fluids.
Table 17
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar Required Tools
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar Part
Tool Part Description Qty
products. Number
A 1P-0510 Driver Group 1
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. B 1P-0520 Driver Group 1

1. Drain the coolant from the cooling system into a Start By:
suitable container for storage or disposal.
a. Remove the water pump. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Water Pump - Remove.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
g00614170
products.
Illustration 94
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
2. Remove water pump V-belt (1). mandates.
3. Loosen hose clamps (4) and remove hose (3).

4. Disconnect hose (2) from the water pump elbow.

g00614231
Illustration 96

1. Remove two O-ring seals (1) from the rear cover


g00614173 of the water pump. Remove four bolts (2) and the
Illustration 95
washers. Remove the rear cover and the gasket.
5. Remove four bolts (6) that hold water pump (5) to
the front of the engine. Remove water pump (5).

6. Remove the O-ring seals from water pump (5),


if necessary.
38
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Remove seal (5) from the water pump housing


with the handle from Tool (B) and a press.

g00614234
Illustration 97

2. Position the water pump in a press. Use spacer Illustration 100


g00614261
plates to level the water pump.
6. Remove the shaft and the bearing from pulley
3. Push the shaft and pulley (3) out of impeller (4) (3) with a press.
with a suitable drive plate from Tool (A) and a
press. Remove the impeller.
i01275986

Water Pump - Assemble


SMCS Code: 1361-016

Assembly Procedure
Table 18
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 5P-9722 Seal Driver 1
g00614238
Illustration 98
NOTICE
Note: Do not allow the shaft and the pulley to fall to Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
the floor when the shaft and the pulley are removed.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
4. Continue to push the shaft and pulley (3) out of component life.
seal (5) and the water pump housing.

g00614283
g00614253 Illustration 101
Illustration 99
39
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Install the shaft and the bearing into pulley (3) 4. Install impeller (4) on the shaft of the water
with a press. Install the shaft until the shaft is pump with a press. Install the impeller until the
flush with the end of pulley (3). distance between the impeller and the machined
surface of the water pump is 0.75 0.25 mm
2. Press the shaft, the bearing, and pulley (3) as a (0.030 0.010 inch).
unit into the water pump housing. The distance
between the front of pulley (3) and the machined
surface of the water pump housing must be
103.8 0.3 mm (4.09 0.01 inch).

Note: For information on the reusability of pulley


(3), refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8046, Cast Iron and
Steel Pulleys.

g00614231
Illustration 104

5. Install a new gasket between the rear cover of


the water pump and the water pump housing.
Position the gasket and the cover on the water
pump housing. Install four bolts (2) and the
washers.

6. Install two new O-ring seals (1) in the rear cover.


g00614294
Illustration 102
End By:
3. Install seal (5) in the water pump housing with
Tool (A). a. Install the water pump. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Water Pump - Install.

i01156113

Water Pump - Install


SMCS Code: 1361-012

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00614288
Illustration 103
40
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Connect hose (3) to water pump (5) and to the


water temperature regulator housing. Install two
clamps (4).

6. Install hose (2) to the water pump elbow.

7. Install V-belt (1) and adjust V-belt (1). Refer to


the Specifications Module, Belt Tension Chart.

8. Fill the cooling system with coolant to the correct


level. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the correct filling procedure.

End By:
g00614182
Illustration 105 a. Install the belt tensioner. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Belt Tensioner - Remove and
1. Clean surface (7). Install.
2. Inspect the condition of the O-ring seals. Replace
the seals, if necessary. i01162614

Water Temperature Regulator


Housing - Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1393-010

Removal Procedure

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam


and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot


g00614173
Illustration 106 and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
3. Install the O-ring seal on water pump (5). steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
4. Position water pump (5) on the front of the Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
engine. Install four bolts (6). relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
touch with your bare hand.

Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when


the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.


Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


g00614170
Illustration 107 component life.
41
Disassembly and Assembly Section

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and g00619513


Illustration 109
mandates.
1. Position a new gasket and water temperature
1. Drain the coolant from the cooling system into a regulator housing (2) on the cylinder block.
suitable container for storage or disposal.
2. Install three bolts (1).

3. Fill the cooling system with coolant to the correct


level. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the correct filling procedure.

i01181083

Water Temperature Regulator -


Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1355-010

Illustration 108
g00619513 Removal Procedure
2. Remove three bolts (1) from water temperature
regulator housing (2).
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
3. Remove water temperature regulator housing and alkali.
(2). Remove the gasket from water temperature
regulator housing (2). At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
Installation Procedure steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
NOTICE Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened touch with your bare hand.
component life.
Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.


Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
42
Disassembly and Assembly Section

3. Remove water temperature regulators (4) from


NOTICE water temperature regulator housing (3). Remove
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. the gasket from water temperature regulator
housing (3).
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life. Installation Procedure
NOTICE NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- component life.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

1. Drain the coolant from the cooling system into a


suitable container for storage or disposal.

g00613961
Illustration 112

1. Place water temperature regulators (4) in water


temperature regulator housing (3).

g00613949
Illustration 110

2. Remove bolts (1) and pipe (2) from water


temperature regulator housing (3).

g00613949
Illustration 113

2. Install a new gasket and pipe (2) in water


temperature regulator housing (3).

3. Install bolts (1).

4. Fill the cooling system with coolant to the correct


level. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the correct filling procedure.

g00613961
Illustration 111
43
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01181076 3. In order to install the front engine lifting bracket,


refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Fan Drive -
Engine Lifting Bracket - Install.
Remove and Install
i01180175
SMCS Code: 1122-010
Engine Support (Front) -
Removal Procedure Remove and Install
Start By: SMCS Code: 1154-010-FR
a. Remove the fan drive in order to remove the front
engine lifting bracket. Refer to Disassembly and Removal Procedure
Assembly, Fan Drive - Remove.

g00631943
Illustration 116
g00632253
Illustration 114
1. Attach a suitable lifting device to the engine and
slightly lift the engine.
1. Remove four bolts (4) and the washers from rear
engine lifting bracket (5).
2. Remove six bolts (1) and the washers from
engine support (2).
2. Remove rear engine lifting bracket (5) from the
engine.
3. Remove engine support (2) from the engine.

Installation Procedure Installation Procedure

g00632253
Illustration 115 g00631943
Illustration 117

1. Position rear engine lifting bracket (5) on the


1. Clean the surface of the engine and the surface
engine.
of engine support (2).
2. Install the washers and four bolts (4) that hold
2. Position engine support (2) on the engine and
rear engine lifting bracket (5).
install six bolts (1).
44
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01286611 i01286597

Flywheel - Remove Flywheel - Install


SMCS Code: 1156-011 SMCS Code: 1156-012

Removal Procedure Installation Procedure


Table 19 Table 20
Required Tools Required Tools
Part Part
Tool Part Description Qty Tool Part Description Qty
Number Number
A 138-7573 Link Bracket 2 A 138-7573 Link Bracket 2

Note: For information on the reusability of the Note: For information on the reusability of the
flywheel on 3116 engines, refer to Guideline For flywheel on 3116 engines, refer to Guideline For
Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8207, Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8207,
Flywheel Specifications for 3116 Engines. Flywheel Specifications for 3116 Engines.

1. Support the engine with blocks or a suitable Note: Drill and tap the new flywheel ring gear if the
lifting device. outer bolt holes of the flywheel are used . Use the
flywheel as a template and drill twelve holes to a
2. Install Tool (A) on the flywheel. Fasten a suitable diameter of 8.2 mm (0.32 inch). Thread the holes
lifting device to the flywheel. with a tap.

1. Heat the flywheel ring gear to a maximum


temperature of 204 C (400 F). Do not use a
torch to heat the flywheel ring gear. Install the
flywheel ring gear on the flywheel. Position the
flywheel ring gear with the part number toward
the crankshaft. Allow the flywheel ring gear to
cool. Use a soft hammer in order to seat the
flywheel ring gear against the shoulder of the
flywheel.

g00613482
Illustration 118

3. Remove top bolt (1) and the washers. Install a


guide bolt that is longer than top bolt (1). Remove
seven remaining bolts (1) and the washers.

4. Remove flywheel (2) from the guide bolt. The


weight of flywheel (2) is 23 kg (50 lb).

5. Inspect the flywheel ring gear. Replace the ring


g00613482
gear, if necessary. Place the flywheel on a wood Illustration 119
block. Use a hammer and a punch in order to
remove the flywheel ring gear. 2. Install Tool (A) on flywheel (2). Fasten a suitable
lifting device to flywheel (2).

3. Place flywheel (2) in the original position on the


guide bolt. Align the arrows on flywheel (2) and
the crankshaft.
45
Disassembly and Assembly Section

4. Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the


threads of eight bolts (1).

5. Install seven bolts (1) and the washers. Remove


the guide bolt and install remaining bolt (1) and
the washer. Tighten the bolts evenly to a torque
of 120 20 Nm (90 15 lb ft).

6. Check the flywheel runout. Refer to Testing


and Adjusting, Basic Block for the correct
procedure.

i01406721

Crankshaft Rear Seal - Remove Illustration 120 g00613243

SMCS Code: 1161-011 Note: Do not damage the flange on the crankshaft
when the crankshaft rear seal is removed.
Removal Procedure
Note: Tool (B) is equipped with three screw tips. Use
Table 21 the screw tips with Tool (B) to remove crankshaft
Required Tools rear seal (1).

Part 2. Carefully remove crankshaft rear seal (1) by


Tool Number Part Description Qty alternating the position of Tool (B) from hole to
A 1U-8145 Drill Bit 1 hole. This will allow crankshaft rear seal (1) to
be removed evenly without damage to the rear
B 1U-7600 Slide Hammer Puller 1 flange surface of the crankshaft.

Start By: Note: New engines from the factory do not have
a wear sleeve. Engines with seals that have been
a. Remove the flywheel. Refer to Disassembly and replaced will be equipped with a wear sleeve. If
Assembly, Flywheel - Remove. the crankshaft of the engine is equipped with a
wear sleeve, refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) - Remove in order
NOTICE to remove the wear sleeve.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened i01509332


component life.
Crankshaft Rear Seal - Install
NOTICE SMCS Code: 1161-012
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- Installation Procedure
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- Table 22
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
Required Tools
nent containing fluids.
Part
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar Tool Number Part Description Qty
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
A(1) 132-8772 Seal Locator 1
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. B(1) 1U-7596 Bolt 2
C(1) 1U-7597 Sleeve Ring 1
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. D(1) 1U-7594 Seal Installer 1
E(1) 9S-8858 Nut 1
1. Use Tool (A) to drill three evenly spaced holes in (1) Part of the 1U-7598 Seal Installer
the crankshaft rear seal.
46
Disassembly and Assembly Section

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: Replacement rear seals are supplied with a


wear sleeve. This wear sleeve must be installed
with the rear seal. New engines from the factory do
not have a wear sleeve. Do not install the rear seal
if any of the following conditions exist:

The crankshaft rear seal has been separated g00614109


from the wear sleeve. Illustration 122
Typical example
The rear seal group appears to be damaged.
4. Position Tool (D) over Tool (A) and Tool (C).
The crankshaft rear seal has been lubricated. The Install Tool (E). Tighten Tool (E) in order to install
seal is designed to be installed dry. the crankshaft rear seal and the crankshaft wear
sleeve.
1. Ensure that the rear of the crankshaft is
thoroughly clean and dry prior to the installation 5. Remove Tool (E), Tool (D), and Tool (C). Turn
of the crankshaft rear seal. over Tool (C). Install Tool (C), Tool (D), and Tool
(E). Tighten Tool (E) in order to complete the
installation of the crankshaft rear seal and the
crankshaft wear sleeve.

6. Remove Tool (E) and Tool (D). Check Tool (C)


and Tool (A). The faces of Tool (C) and Tool (A)
will be flush if the crankshaft rear seal and the
crankshaft wear sleeve are properly installed.
Refer to the Specifications Module for more
information.

7. Remove Tool (C), Tool (B), and Tool (A).

End By:
g00613561
Illustration 121 a. Install the flywheel. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Flywheel - Install.
2. Fasten Tool (A) to the rear of the crankshaft with
Tool (B). Hand tighten Tool (B).
i01216259
3. Position the crankshaft rear seal and crankshaft
rear sleeve (1) on Tool (A). Position Tool (C) on Crankshaft Rear Seal Carrier -
Tool (A). Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1161-010-C3

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the flywheel housing. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Flywheel Housing
- Remove and Install.
47
Disassembly and Assembly Section

2. Apply 4C-9500 Quick Cure Primer to the joint


NOTICE face of crankshaft rear seal carrier (3). Allow the
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. primer to air dry for three to five minutes.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Note: 1U-8846 Sealant is used on the joint face of
component life. the crankshaft rear seal carrier. Do not allow the
sealant to get into the oil passage in the mounting
face of the cylinder block.

3. Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the joint face of


crankshaft rear seal carrier (3). Spread the
sealant uniformly. Crankshaft rear seal carrier
(3) must be installed within ten minutes of
application of the sealant.

4. Position crankshaft rear seal carrier (3) on the


dowels in the rear of the cylinder block. Use a
soft faced hammer to position crankshaft rear
seal carrier (3) against the cylinder block, if
necessary.

g00613081
Illustration 123

1. Remove bolts (2) for the engine oil pan and


carefully lower the engine oil pan away from the
cylinder block.

2. Remove eight bolts (1) and the washers that hold


the crankshaft rear seal carrier to the cylinder
block.

3. Carefully pry the crankshaft rear seal carrier off


of the two dowels in the cylinder block.

Installation Procedure Illustration 125


g00613081

NOTICE 5. Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound on the


Keep all parts clean from contaminants. threads of eight bolts (1). Install eight bolts (1)
that hold the crankshaft rear seal carrier (3) to
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened the cylinder block.
component life.
6. Install a new gasket on the engine oil pan. Install
the engine oil pan on the cylinder block. Install
bolts (2).

End By:

a. Install the flywheel housing. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Flywheel Housing - Remove and
Install.

g00613107
Illustration 124

1. Clean the joint face of crankshaft rear seal


carrier (3) and cylinder block (4) with 8T-9011
Component Cleaner.
48
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01406916 1. Fasten Tool (A) and a hoist to flywheel housing


(1).
Flywheel Housing - Remove
and Install 2. Remove twelve bolts (2) and bolt (3) that fastens
the flywheel housing to the cylinder block.
SMCS Code: 1157-010
3. Remove flywheel housing (1). The weight of
flywheel housing (1) is approximately 32 kg
Removal Procedure (70 lb).
Table 23
Required Tools
Installation Procedure
Part Table 24
Tool Number Part Description Qty Required Tools
A 138-7573 Link Bracket 2 Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
Start By: A 138-7573 Link Bracket 2

a. Remove the flywheel. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Flywheel - Remove. NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
NOTICE
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
component life.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00740507
Illustration 127
Correct installation of O-ring seal (3). Do not install the O-ring seal
in location (4).

Note: On wet flywheel housings that have rear seal


carriers, ensure that the 8C-3091 O-Ring Seal is
installed properly. Improper installation will result in
leakage of torque converter oil between the flywheel
housing and the cylinder block.

Note: Ensure that the mating surface of the flywheel


housing and the mounting face of the cylinder block
g00650171 are thoroughly clean.
Illustration 126
49
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the entire mounting


face of the flywheel housing prior to installation. NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.
g00650171
Illustration 128

2. Fasten Tool (A) and a hoist to flywheel housing


(1). Position flywheel housing (1) on the cylinder
block. The weight of flywheel housing (1) is
approximately 32 kg (70 lb).

3. Install twelve bolts (2) and one bolt (3) that


fastens the flywheel housing to the cylinder
block. Refer to the Specification, Flywheel
Housing for the torque specification.

4. Remove Tool (A) and the hoist from flywheel


housing (1).
g00691836
Illustration 129
5. Check the flywheel housing runout. Refer to
the Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, 1. Remove eight bolts (2), crankshaft vibration
Flywheel and Flywheel Housing. damper (3), and two spacers from the crankshaft
pulley.
End By:
Note: For information on the reusability of the
a. Install the flywheel. Refer to Disassembly and vibration damper on 3114 and 3116 engines, refer
Assembly, Flywheel - Install. to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8220, Specifications for Damper
i01309362 Inspection 3114 and 3116 Engines.

Vibration Damper and Pulley - 2. Loosen the tension on water pump drive belt (1).
Remove the belt from the crankshaft pulley.
Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1205-010

Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00691831
Illustration 130

3. Remove four bolts (4) and the washers.


50
Disassembly and Assembly Section

4. Remove crankshaft pulley (5). Note: Check the alignment marks on the rubber
vibration dampers for proper alignment. The rubber
Note: For information on the reusability of the vibration damper should be replaced if the rubber
crankshaft pulley, refer to Guideline For Reusable vibration damper is out of alignment. Refer to
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8046, Cast Specifications, Vibration Damper.
Iron and Steel Pulleys.
3. Install two spacers and crankshaft vibration
damper (1). Tighten eight bolts (2) to a torque of
Installation Procedure 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft).
NOTICE Note: For information on the reusability of the
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. vibration damper on 3114 and 3116 engines, refer
to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Operations, SEBF8220, Specifications for Damper
component life. Inspection 3114 and 3116 Engines.

4. Adjust the tension of water pump drive belt


(3). Refer to the Specifications Module, Belt
Tension Chart. Also, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Belt - Inspect.

i01153831

Crankshaft Front Seal -


Remove
SMCS Code: 1160-011

g00691831 Removal Procedure


Illustration 131
Table 25
1. Position crankshaft pulley (5) on the crankshaft.
Required Tools
Install four bolts (4) and tighten the bolts to a
torque of 160 30 Nm (118 22 lb ft). Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
Note: For information on the reusability of the
A 1U-7600 Slide Hammer Puller 1
crankshaft pulley, refer to Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8046, Cast B 1U-8145 Drill Bit 1
Iron and Steel Pulleys.
Start By:

a. Remove the vibration damper and the pulley.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration
Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00691836
Illustration 132

2. Install water pump drive belt (3).


51
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00612597 g00612634
Illustration 133 Illustration 134

Note: Do not damage the flange of the crankshaft


during the removal of the seal.

1. Use Tool (B) and carefully drill three evenly


spaced holes in crankshaft front seal (1).

2. Alternate between the drilled holes and use Tool


(A) to remove crankshaft front seal (1).

i01153847

Crankshaft Front Seal - Install


SMCS Code: 1160-012 Illustration 135 g00612636

Installation Procedure Note: Refer to the Specifications Module,


Crankshaft Seals for information on the distance
Table 26 between the following items: the front face of the
Required Tools crankshaft front seal and the front face of the front
housing.
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty 1. Position installation sleeve (2). Use Tool (A) to
A 1U-7430 Front Seal Installer 1 install crankshaft front seal (1).

Note: The crankshaft seal is designed to be installed


NOTICE dry.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
2. Remove installation sleeve (2) from the crankshaft
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened front seal. Ensure that the seal surface of the
component life. crankshaft pulley is thoroughly clean and dry.
Ensure that the seal surface of the crankshaft
pulley is in good condition.
Note: Ensure that the flange of the crankshaft and
the front housing are thoroughly clean before you
End By:
install the crankshaft front seal.
a. Install the vibration damper and the pulley.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration
Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install.
52
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01176651

Front Cover - Remove


SMCS Code: 1166-011

Removal Procedure

g00746413
Illustration 137

1. Install a new gasket (3) on the front cover (2).

g00629709
Illustration 136

Note: It is not necessary to remove the vibration


damper and the crankshaft pulley in order to
remove the front cover.

1. Remove bolts (1) from front cover (2).

2. Remove front cover (2) and the gasket from the


front of the engine.
g00629709
Illustration 138
i01423951
2. Install the gasket and front cover (2) on the front
Front Cover - Install of the engine.
SMCS Code: 1166-012 3. Install bolts (1) in front cover (2).

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
53
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01494480 3. Identify the type of idler gear on the engine.


Remove three bolts (1) that hold the idler gear
Gear Group (Front) - Remove to the block.
SMCS Code: 1206-011 4. Remove idler shaft (3) and camshaft idler gear
(2). Separate idler gear (2) from idler shaft
Removal Procedure (3) and remove the sleeve bearing from the
camshaft idler gear.
Table 27
Required Tools
5. Use Tool (A) and a press to remove the bearing.

Tool Part Part Description Qty


Number i01496449

A 1P-0520 Driver Group 1 Gear Group (Front) - Install


Start By: SMCS Code: 1206-012

a. Remove the crankshaft vibration damper. Refer to Installation Procedure


Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration Damper
and Pulley - Remove and Install. Table 28
Required Tools
b. Remove the crankshaft front seal. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Crankshaft Front Part Part Description Qty
Tools
Seal - Remove. Number
A 1P-0520 Driver Group 1
c. Remove the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Camshaft - Remove.
Note: For information on reusability of the camshaft
d. Remove the front housing. Refer to Disassembly idler gear, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts
and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Remove. And Salvage Operations, SEBF8045, Timing Gears
for All Engines.
Note: For information on reusability of the camshaft
idler gear, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts
And Salvage Operations, SEBF8045, Timing Gears
for All Engines.

1. Place the engine at the Top Center position. The


timing marks should be in line with the crankshaft
gear.

g00677884
Illustration 139

2. Identify the location of timing marks (4) and (5)


on the camshaft idler gear. Identify the location
of timing mark (6) on the crankshaft drive gear.
54
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00643979
Illustration 140
Type 1

1. Use Tool (A) and a suitable press to install the


sleeve bearing in the camshaft idler gear.

2. Install the bearing sleeve to a depth of


0.40 0.25 mm (0.016 0.010 inch) below the
front face of the gear.

3. Place the idler shaft (3) on the cylinder block.


Install three bolts (1) that hold the idler shaft to
the cylinder block. Tighten the bolts to a torque
of 70 15 Nm (51 11 lb ft).

4. Install camshaft idler gear (2) on idler shaft (3).


The timing marks should face outward.

5. Align the timing marks on camshaft idler gear


(2) with the timing marks on the crankshaft drive
gear.
55
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00644057
Illustration 141
Type 2

1. Use Tool (A) and a suitable press and install the


sleeve bearing in the camshaft idler gear.

2. Install plate (4) on the back of idler shaft (3).


Position idler gear assembly on the cylinder
block. Install the three bolts that hold the idler
gear to the engine block. Tighten the bolts to a
torque of 70 15 Nm (51 11 lb ft).

3. Install camshaft idler gear (2) on idler shaft (3).


The timing marks should face outward.

4. Align the timing marks on camshaft idler gear


(2) with the timing marks on the crankshaft drive
gear.
56
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00644128
Illustration 142
Type 3

1. Position idler shaft (3) on the cylinder block. End By:


Install the shortest bolt in the recessed hole in
idler shaft (3). This bolt will hold the shaft in a. Install the front housing. Refer to Disassembly
position on the cylinder block. and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Install.

2. Install camshaft idler gear (2) on idler shaft (3). b. Install the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and
The timing marks should face outward. Assembly, Camshaft - Install.

3. Align the timing marks on idler gear (2) with the c. Install the crankshaft front seal. Refer to
timing marks on the camshaft drive gear. Disassembly and Assembly, Crankshaft Front
Seal - Install.
4. Position plate (4) over the gear and install the
remaining bolts (1). Tighten three bolts (1) to a d. Install the crankshaft vibration damper and
torque of 70 15 Nm (51 11 lb ft). pulley. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Vibration Damper and Pulley -Remove and
Install.
57
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01305434

Housing (Front) - Remove


SMCS Code: 1151-011

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the crankshaft vibration damper. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration Damper
and Pulley - Remove and Install.

b. Remove the crankshaft front seal. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Crankshaft Front
Seal - Remove.

c. Remove the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Camshaft - Remove.
g00691386
NOTICE Illustration 144
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- 4. Remove 18 bolts (3) that fasten front housing (4)
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to to the cylinder block and to the engine oil pan.
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- Remove front housing (4). Clean the sealant from
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- front housing (4) and the cylinder block.
nent containing fluids.
i01305311
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies Housing (Front) - Install
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. SMCS Code: 1151-012

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.
Installation Procedure

1. Remove any external components, if equipped.

g00691429
Illustration 143

2. Remove five bolts (1) and remove front engine


support. g00691386
Illustration 145

3. Remove two bolts (2) and belt tightener (5).


1. Clean the joint face on front housing (4 ) with
8T-9011 Component Cleaner.
58
Disassembly and Assembly Section

2. Apply 4C-9500 Quick Cure Primer to the joint i01158735


face. Allow the primer to dry for at least three to
five minutes. Camshaft Idler Gear - Remove
Note: Do not allow the 1U-8846 Sealant to seal the
and Install
main oil passage on front housing (4). SMCS Code: 1206-010
3. Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the joint face. Spread
the sealant uniformly. The front housing must Removal Procedure
be installed within ten minutes of applying the
Table 29
sealant.
Required Tools
4. Position the front housing on the cylinder block.
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
5. Install bolts (3) that fasten the front housing to
the cylinder block and the engine oil pan. A 1P-0520 Driver Group 1

Start By:

a. Remove the front housing. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Illustration 146
g00691429 Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
6. Position belt tightener (5) and install two bolts (2). ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
7. Position the front engine support and install five ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
bolts (1). nent containing fluids.

8. Install any external components, if equipped. Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
End By: suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
a. Install the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Camshaft - Install. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
b. Install the crankshaft front seal. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Crankshaft Front
Seal - Install.

c. Install the crankshaft vibration damper. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration Damper
and Pulley - Remove and Install.
59
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00616240
Illustration 149

5. Use Tool (A) and a press to remove the bearing


from camshaft idler gear (2).

Installation Procedure
g00616185
Illustration 147
Table 30
1. Rotate the crankshaft until the number one piston Required Tools
is at the top center position. Timing mark (4)
for camshaft idler gear (2) should be in line Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
with timing mark (5) for crankshaft drive gear
(6). Identify the location of timing mark (4) for A 1P-0520 Driver Group 1
camshaft idler gear (2) and timing mark (5) for
crankshaft drive gear (6).
NOTICE
2. Remove the two bolts that fasten plate (1) to idler Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
shaft (3). Remove plate (1).
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.

g00616226
Illustration 148

3. Slide camshaft idler gear (2) from idler shaft (3). g00616240
Illustration 150

4. Remove the bolt and idler shaft (3) from the 1. Use Tool (A) and a press to install the
cylinder block. bearing in camshaft idler gear (2). Install the
bearing until the bearing is 0.40 0.25 mm
(0.016 0.010 inch) below the front face of
camshaft idler gear (2).
60
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01152168

Valve Mechanism Cover -


Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1107-010

Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


g00616246
component life.
Illustration 151

2. Ensure that oil supply passages (7) in the NOTICE


cylinder block and idler shaft (3) are free of Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
contaminants. Position idler shaft (3) on the during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
cylinder block. Install the bolt that holds idler ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
shaft (3) to the cylinder block. Tighten the bolt to collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
a torque of 70 15 Nm (51 11 lb ft). ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

g00616185
Illustration 152

3. Install camshaft idler gear (2) on idler shaft (3). g00611536


Ensure that timing mark (4) for camshaft idler Illustration 153
gear (2) is facing outward. Align the identified
timing mark (4) for camshaft idler gear (2) with 1. Remove breather assembly (2) from valve
the identified timing mark (5) for crankshaft drive mechanism cover (1).
gear (6).
2. Remove the bolts that hold valve mechanism
4. Position plate (1) and install two bolts. Tighten the cover (1) to valve mechanism cover base (3).
bolts to a torque of 70 15 Nm (51 11 lb ft).
3. Remove the seal from the valve mechanism
End By: cover.

a. Install the front housing. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Install.
61
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Installation Procedure i01152050

NOTICE
Rocker Shaft and Pushrod -
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Remove
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened SMCS Code: 1102-011; 1208-011
component life.
Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Valve Mechanism
Cover - Remove and Install.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00611536
Illustration 154 NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.
g00611545
Illustration 155
Bolt tightening sequence for the valve mechanism cover 1. Put identification marks on each rocker arm in
order to identify the proper location in the engine
(A) Rear
(B) Front for installation.

1. Position valve mechanism cover (1) and the seal


on valve mechanism cover base (3). Cut the seal
to length. Apply 4C-9612 Silicone Sealant on
both sides of the seal joint.

2. Install the bolts. Tighten the bolts in a numerical


sequence to a torque of 9 Nm (80 lb in).

Note: Inspect the O-ring seal of the breather


assembly. Replace the O-ring seal, if necessary.

3. Position breather assembly (2) on valve


mechanism cover (1). Tighten the bolt for
breather assembly (2) to a torque of 7 2 Nm g00611428
Illustration 156
(62 18 lb in).
2. Loosen all rocker arm adjustment screws (4) in
order to release the tension on the rocker shaft.
62
Disassembly and Assembly Section

3. Remove two bolts (1), eleven bolts (2), and


rocker shaft (3).

g00744197
Illustration 158

Illustration 157
g00611430 1. Remove support bracket (1) from rocker shaft
assembly (4).
4. Remove inlet valve bridges (5) and pushrods (6).
2. Remove valve rocker arms (2) and unit injector
rocker arm (3) from rocker shaft assembly (4).
i01415176
Note: Do not force the rocker arms from the
Rocker Shaft - Disassemble rocker shaft assembly. If necessary, use a piece of
6V-0083 Emery Polishing Paper to lightly buff the
SMCS Code: 1102-015 surface of the shaft to aid in removal .

Disassembly Procedure 3. Check the adjustment screws on valve rocker


arms (2) and unit injector rocker arm (3) for
Start By: damage.

a. Remove the rocker shaft and the pushrods. Refer 4. Inspect rocker shaft assembly (4) for scratches
to Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Shaft and cracks.
and Pushrod - Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: For information on reusability of components


of the rocker shaft, refer to Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8267, Rocker
Arms and Rocker Arm Shafts for 3114 and 3116
Engines.
g00630277
Illustration 159

5. Inspect bearing (5) on unit injector rocker arm (3).


The bore in the rocker arm is 24.808 0.20 mm
(0.9767 0.0079 inch). Refer to Specification,
Valve Rocker Arm and lifters. Replace the
bearing, if necessary.

6. Ensure that button (6) on unit injector rocker


arm (3) is not damaged. Also ensure that the
retaining ring for button (6) is in place.
63
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01418849 4. Lubricate rocker shaft assembly (4) with clean


engine oil.
Rocker Shaft - Assemble
5. Install valve rocker arms (2) and unit injector
SMCS Code: 1102-016 rocker arm (3) on rocker shaft assembly (4).

Assembly Procedure 6. Install support bracket (1) on rocker shaft


assembly (4).
NOTICE End By:
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
a. Install the rocker shaft and the pushrods. Refer
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened to Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Shaft
component life. and Pushrod - Install.

Note: For information on reusability of components i01496456


of the rocker shaft, refer to Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8267, Rocker Rocker Shaft and Pushrod -
Arms and Rocker Arm Shafts for 3114 and 3116
Engines. Install
SMCS Code: 1102-012; 1208-012

Installation Procedure
Table 31
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 146-2597 Holder - Pushrod 1

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
g00630277
Illustration 160
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
1. Install button (6) and the retaining ring, if component life.
necessary.

2. Place clean engine oil on a new bearing (5) prior Note: For information on reusability of components
to installation. of the rocker shaft, refer to Guideline For Reusable
Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8267, Rocker
3. Ensure that the oil hole in bearing (5) is aligned Arms and Rocker Arm Shafts for 3114 and 3116
with the oil hole in the rocker arm. Hone the Engines.
bearing, if necessary. Refer to the Specifications
Module for the correct dimensions. 1. Install the pushrods in the engine. The base of
the pushrod should be in the seat of the pushrod
lifter.

g00744197
Illustration 161
64
Disassembly and Assembly Section

d. Remove the water temperature regulator housing.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Water
Temperature Regulator Housing - Remove and
Install.

e. Remove the inlet manifold. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Inlet Manifold - Remove.

f. Remove the exhaust manifold. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Exhaust Manifold
- Remove and Install.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
g00629575
Illustration 162
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
2. Position the rocker shaft assembly (2) in the
engine. Line up the pushrods with the rocker
arms. NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
3. Install four bolts (1) in rocker shaft assembly during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
(2). Tighten the bolts to a torque of 33 7 Nm ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
(24 5 lb ft). collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
4. Remove Tool (A) from the pushrods. nent containing fluids.
5. Adjust the valve lash on all of the adjustment Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
screws. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
Module, Air Inlet and Exhaust Sytem for the suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
correct procedure. products.
6. Repeat the procedure for the remaining rocker Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
shaft assemblies. mandates.
End By:
Note: For information on the reusability of the
a. Install the valve mechanism cover. Refer to cylinder head, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts
Disassembly and Assembly, Valve Mechanism And Salvage Operations, SEBF8218, Specifications
Cover - Remove and Install. for Cylinder Head Assemblies 3114, 3116, and
3126 Engines and Guideline For Reusable Parts
And Salvage Operations, SEBF8162, Procedure to
i01496461 Measure and Salvage Cylinder Head Assemblies
and Related Components.
Cylinder Head - Remove
SMCS Code: 1100-011

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
Install.

b. Remove the governor. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Governor - Remove.
g00611341
c. Remove the unit injectors. Refer to Disassembly Illustration 163
and Assembly, Unit Injector - Remove. Typical example
65
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Attach a suitable lifting device to the cylinder


head.

g00611342
Illustration 166

g00654709 2. Install a new cylinder head gasket (3).


Illustration 164

2. Remove bolts (1) and (2) that hold the cylinder


head to the cylinder block. Carefully remove
the cylinder head from the cylinder block. The
cylinder head for the 3116 engine weighs
approximately 85 kg (187 lb).

g00746424
Illustration 167

Note: To avoid damage to the cylinder head gasket,


use guide bolts of an appropriate size to install the
cylinder head.
g00611342 3. Attach a suitable lifting device to the cylinder
Illustration 165
head. Position the cylinder head assembly onto
3. Remove cylinder head gasket (3). the dowels in the cylinder block. Lower the
cylinder head onto the cylinder block.
i01529885

Cylinder Head - Install


SMCS Code: 1100-012

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
g00748574
Illustration 168
1. Thoroughly clean the mating surfaces of the
cylinder head and the cylinder block. 4. Inspect the condition of cylinder head bolts (1)
and (2). Replace cylinder head bolts (1) and (2),
if necessary.
66
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Lubricate cylinder head bolts (1) and (2) with f. Install the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly
clean engine oil. Install cylinder head bolts (1) and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
and (2). Follow Step 6 for the correct tightening Install.
procedure.
i01151741

Lifter Group - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1209-010

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
g00794320 Install.
Illustration 169

b. Remove the rocker arms and pushrods. Refer to


6. Tighten the cylinder head bolts according to the Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Shaft and
following procedure:
Pushrod - Remove.
a. Tighten bolt (1) through bolt (14) in a numerical c. Remove the unit injector hydraulic pump. Refer
sequence to a torque of 150 15 Nm
to Disassembly and Assembly, Unit Injector
(110 11 lb ft).
Hydraulic Pump - Remove.
b. Tighten bolt (1) through bolt (14) again
d. Remove the air compressor. Refer to Disassembly
in a numerical sequence to a torque of
and Assembly, Air Compressor - Remove and
435 20 Nm (320 15 lb ft). Install.
c. Tighten bolt (1) through bolt (14) again
e. Remove the electronic control module (ECM).
in a numerical sequence to a torque of Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
435 20 Nm (320 15 lb ft).
Control Module - Remove and Install.
d. Tighten bolt (15) through bolt (20) in a
numerical sequence to a torque of 55 7 Nm NOTICE
(41 5 lb ft). Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

End By: Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
a. Install the exhaust manifold. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Exhaust Manifold - Remove and
NOTICE
Install.
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
b. Install the inlet manifold. Refer to Disassembly
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
and Assembly, Inlet Manifold - Install.
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
c. Install the water temperature regulator housing.
nent containing fluids.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Water
Temperature Regulator Housing- Remove and
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Install.
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
d. Install the unit injectors. Refer to Disassembly
products.
and Assembly, Unit Injector - Install.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
e. Install the governor. Refer to Disassembly and
mandates.
Assembly, Governor - Install.
67
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Note: Ensure that the sleeves of the side covers


remain in the side covers.

5. Remove four bolts (6) and the dowels that hold


the lifter arms (7) and the lifter shaft (8) to each
side cover. Remove gasket (9).

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
g00611180
Illustration 170

1. Remove bolt (1) that holds the bracket for the


engine speed/timing sensor to the timing gear
housing. Remove two engine speed/timing
sensors (3) and the bracket from the timing gear
housing.

2. Cut the straps that hold the wiring harness to


side cover (2) of the cylinder block.

3. Remove the bolts that hold side cover (2) to the


cylinder block.

g00611184
Illustration 173

1. Install gasket (9).

2. Install lifter arms (7) on lifter shaft (8).

3. Position lifter shaft (8) and the dowels on the


side cover. Ensure that the oil holes in the lifter
shaft are facing the side cover. Apply 9S-3263
Thread Lock Compound on the threads of bolts
(6) that hold lifter shaft (8) to the side cover.
Install bolts (6). Tighten bolts (6) to a torque of
g00611182 13 3 Nm (10 2 lb ft). Tighten the two center
Illustration 171
bolts. Then tighten the end bolts.
4. Remove the bolts and side covers (4) and (5) 4. Lubricate the lifters with clean engine oil.
from the cylinder block.
5. Ensure that the cylinder block and the sealing
surfaces of the side cover are thoroughly clean.
Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the sealing surfaces
of the side cover. The side covers must be
installed on the cylinder block within 10 minutes
of applying the sealant.

g00611184
Illustration 172
68
Disassembly and Assembly Section

d. Install the rocker arms and pushrods. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker Shaft and
Pushrod - Install.

e. Install the fuel filter base. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Fuel Filter Base - Remove and
Install.

i01151060

Camshaft - Remove
SMCS Code: 1210-011

g00611182
Illustration 174 Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the rocker arms and the push rods.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Rocker
Shaft and Pushrod - Remove.

b. Remove the unit injector hydraulic pump. Refer


to Disassembly and Assembly, Unit Injector
Hydraulic Pump - Remove.

c. Remove the side cover. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Lifter Group - Remove and
Install.
g00611180
Illustration 175
d. Remove the front cover. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Front Cover - Remove.
6. Position the gaskets and side covers (2), (4), and
(5) on the cylinder block. Install the bolts and
clips that hold the side covers in position. NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
7. Install two engine speed/timing sensors (3) and
the bracket to the timing gear housing. Install Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
bolt (1). component life.

8. Secure the two plugs of the wiring harness to


the engine speed/timing sensors in the timing NOTICE
gear housing. Use new straps to hold the wiring Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
harness to the side covers of the cylinder block. during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
End By: collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
a. Install the electronic control module (ECM). nent containing fluids.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
Control Module - Remove and Install. Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
b. Install the air compressor. Refer to Disassembly suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
and Assembly, Air Compressor - Remove and products.
Install.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
c. Install the unit injector hydraulic pump. Refer mandates.
to Disassembly and Assembly, Unit Injector
Hydraulic Pump - Install. Note: The air compressor was removed in order to
accommodate the engine repair stand.
69
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Turn the crankshaft to top center compression i01494499


stroke for the No. 1 piston. Install the timing
bolt in the flywheel. This is for timing during Camshaft - Install
installation.
SMCS Code: 1210-012
2. Ensure that the timing marks on the following
gears are aligned: the camshaft drive gear, the Installation Procedure
idler gear, and the crankshaft gear.
NOTICE
Note: It is not necessary to remove the cylinder Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
head for removal of the camshaft.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
3. Wire the valve lifters away from the camshaft. component life.

Note: For information on reusability of the camshaft,


refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8097, Camshaft Measurement,
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8146, Visual Inspection of
Camshafts, and Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8251, Specifications for
Measurement of Camshafts in 3114/3116 Engines.
For information on reusability of the camshaft
gear, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8045, Timing Gears for
All Engines.

1. Lubricate the camshaft and the camshaft


bearings with clean engine oil.

g00611074
Illustration 176

4. Remove two bolts (3) and camshaft retainer plate


(2) from camshaft gear (1).

g00654762
Illustration 178

2. Carefully install camshaft (4) and camshaft gear


(1) in the engine.

NOTICE
When installing the camshaft, make sure the num-
ber one cylinder is at top center of the compression
g00611082 stroke with the timing bolt installed in the flywheel. The
Illustration 177
camshaft timing is very important. The timing mark
5. Remove camshaft (4) from the cylinder block. on the camshaft drive gear must line up with the tim-
ing mark on the idler gear. Refer to the Specifications
Manual for more information.
70
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00677700 g00611152
Illustration 179 Illustration 180
Typical example
NOTICE
3. Ensure that timing mark (5) on the camshaft gear Do not allow the camshaft to fall to the floor when
is aligned with timing mark (6) on the idler gear. pressing it from the drive gear. Also make sure that
the camshaft lobes do not catch on the press plates.
4. Install camshaft retainer plate (2) and two bolts
(3).
2. Place the camshaft and camshaft gear (1) in a
End By: suitable press. Press the camshaft from camshaft
gear (1).
a. Install the front cover. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Front Cover - Install. Installation Procedure
b. Install the side cover. Refer to Disassembly and 1. Heat the camshaft gear to a maximum
Assembly, Lifter Group - Remove and Install. temperature of 315 C (600 F).

c. Install the governor. Refer to Disassembly and 2. Align the key in the camshaft with the groove
Assembly, Governor - Install. (keyway) in the camshaft gear.

3. Install the camshaft gear on the end of the


i01151709
camshaft.
Camshaft Gear - Remove and
End By:
Install
a. Install the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and
SMCS Code: 1210-010-GE Assembly, Camshaft - Install.

Removal Procedure i01199837

Start By: Camshaft Bearings - Remove


a. Remove the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and and Install
Assembly, Camshaft - Remove.
SMCS Code: 1211-010
1. Wrap the camshaft with a protective covering in
order to prevent damage to the camshaft. Removal Procedure
Table 32
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
Camshaft Bearing Tool
A 8S-2241 1
Group
71
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Start By:
NOTICE
a. Remove the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Assembly, Camshaft - Remove.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
NOTICE component life.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

Note: Note the oil hole orientation in each camshaft


bearing prior to removal for assembly purposes.

g00610640
Illustration 182
Rear view of engine

g00610631
Illustration 181

1. Install Tool (A). Use Tool (A) to remove the


camshaft bearings from the cylinder block.

Installation Procedure
Table 33
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
Camshaft Bearing Tool
A 8S-2241 1
Group
72
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01150906

Engine Oil Pan - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1302-010

Removal Procedure

Hot oil and components can cause personal in-


jury.

Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
g00610642 ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
Illustration 183
Front view of engine collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
1. Use Tool (A) to install all of the camshaft bearings nent containing fluids.
except for the front bearing. Locate oil hole (1) in
each bearing so that oil hole (1) is located at the Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
top of the bore. Refer to Illustration 182. Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
2. Use Tool (A) to install the front camshaft bearing. products.
Align oil hole (1) in the front camshaft bearing
with the oil hole in the cylinder block. Locate joint Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
(2) in the front camshaft bearing in the proper mandates.
position. Refer to Illustration 183. Refer to the
Specifications for more information. 1. Drain the engine oil into a suitable container for
storage or disposal.
End By:

a. Install the camshaft. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Camshaft - Install.

g00610543
Illustration 184
Typical example
73
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Note: Do not pry or gouge the sealing surface of


the engine oil pan. If the engine oil pan is difficult to
remove, tap the engine oil pan with a rubber mallet.

2. Remove the bolts for the engine oil pan. Remove


engine oil pan (1).

g00610550
Illustration 186
Typical example

g00610550
Illustration 185
Typical example

3. Remove gasket (2) from the engine oil pan.

4. Remove the drain plug and the O-ring seal from


the engine oil pan.

Installation Procedure
g00610543
NOTICE Illustration 187
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Typical example

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened 4. Place new gasket (2) and engine oil pan (1) on
component life. the cylinder block.

1. Install the drain plug and the O-ring seal on


the engine oil pan. Tighten the drain plug to
25 5 Nm (18 4 lb ft).

2. Inspect the condition of the gasket. Replace the


gasket, if necessary.

3. Clean the mating surface of the engine oil pan


and the cylinder block.

Note: Apply 1U-8846 Sealant to the four places


at the tee joints of the following items: the timing
gear housing to the cylinder block and the flywheel
housing (seal carrier) to the cylinder block. Use
approximately 0.5 mm (0.02 inch) of sealant at each
of the four places. Do not apply liquid gasket on the
gasket for the engine oil pan. Do not apply liquid
gasket to the gasket surface of the engine oil pan.

g00610574
Illustration 188

5. Install the bolts for the engine oil pan. Tighten


the bolts (X). Tighten the bolts to a torque of
31 3 Nm (23 2 lb ft).
74
Disassembly and Assembly Section

6. Start at position (Z) and tighten the remaining


bolts in a counterclockwise direction. Tighten
the remaining bolts to a torque of 31 3 Nm
(23 2 lb ft).

7. Start at position (Z) and tighten the bolts again in


a counterclockwise direction. Tighten the bolts to
a torque of 31 3 Nm (23 2 lb ft).

8. Fill the engine with oil to the correct level. Refer


to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the
correct filling procedure.

i01150877
g00610526
Illustration 189
Piston Cooling Jets - Remove
and Install 1. Remove bolt (1) and piston cooling jet (2) from
each cylinder.
SMCS Code: 1331-010
Installation Procedure
Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Start By: Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

a. Remove the engine oil pump. Refer to Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - component life.
Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. Illustration 190
g00610526

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar 1. Position piston cooling jet (2) in the cylinder
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies block. Ensure that piston cooling jet (2) is seated
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar properly. Hold piston cooling jet (2) and install
products. bolt (1) in each cylinder. Tighten the bolt to a
torque of 28 7 Nm (21 5 lb ft).
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. End By:

a. Install the engine oil pump. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Install.
75
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01286292 Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8063, Visual Inspection of
Pistons and Connecting Rods Connecting Rods
- Remove
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
SMCS Code: 1225-011 Operations, SEBF8064, Salvage of Non-Serrated
Connecting Rods
Removal Procedure Note: For information on reusability of the piston
pins, refer to the following list.
Start By:
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
a. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly Operations, SEBF8051, Piston Pins and Retaining
and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Remove. Rings
b. Remove the engine balancer shaft on the Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
3114 engines only. Refer to Disassembly and Operations, SEBF8303, Procedure to Inspect
Assembly, Engine Balancer Shaft - Remove and Piston Pins
Install.
Note: For information on reusability of the rod eye
c. Remove the engine oil pump. Refer to bushing, refer to the following list.
Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump -
Remove. Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8242, Verification of Connecting
d. Remove the piston cooling jets. Refer to Rod Eye Bushing Retention Using 5P-8639
Disassembly and Assembly, Piston Cooling Jets Connecting Rod Bushing Press Group
- Remove and Install.
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
NOTICE Operations, SEBF8274, Using Rod Eye Bushing
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Installation and Removal Tools

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Note: For information on reusability of the cylinder
component life. block and salvage procedures, refer to the following
list.
Note: For information on reusability of the pistons,
refer to the following list.
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8192, Specifications and
Salvage for Cylinder Blocks on 3114, 3116, 3126
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Engines
Operations, SEBF8049, Pistons
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations, SEBF8261, Installing a 7C-6208
Operations, SEBF8228, Procedure to Clean and Cylinder Sleeve in 3114, 3116 Engines and a
Inspect One and Two-Piece Pistons in 3114/3116 107-7604 Cylinder Sleeve in 3126 Engines
Engines
Special Instruction, SEHS8869, Cylinder Block
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Salvage Procedure Using Belzona Ceramic R
Operations, SEBF8290, Visual Inspection of Metal
Two-Piece Pistons
Special Instruction, GMG00981, Using 1P-3537
Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0775, Using the Dial Bore Gauge Group to Check Cylinder Bore
186-0137 Piston Ring Gauge on Steel Crown, Size
Two-Piece Pistons used in 3126 Engines

Note: For information on reusability of the connecting


Special Instruction, SMHS7606, Use of 1P-4000
Line Boring Tool Group
rods, refer to the following list.
Special Instruction, SEHS8841, Using the
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Ironstitch Procedure for Casting Salvage
Operations, SEBF8206, Specifications for
Connecting Rods on 3116 Engines
Special Instruction, SEHS8919, Salvage Weld
Procedure for Cast Iron Cylinder Blocks
76
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8076, Specifications to Salvage
Cylinder Block Contact Surfaces

g00610272
Illustration 193

4. Push the piston and connecting rod away


Illustration 191
g00610269 from the crankshaft. Remove the upper half of
connecting rod bearing (4) from connecting rod
1. Inspect the connecting rod and connecting (3).
rod cap (2) for the proper identification mark.
The connecting rod and connecting rod cap 5. Remove the piston and connecting rod (3) from
(2) should have an etched number on the side the cylinder block.
that is toward the right side of the engine. The
number should match the cylinder number. Mark 6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for the remaining
the connecting rod and connecting rod cap (2), pistons and connecting rods.
if necessary.
i01336888

Pistons and Connecting Rods


- Disassemble
SMCS Code: 1225-015

Disassembly Procedure
Table 34
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
g00610272
Illustration 192
A 1U-6683 Piston Ring Expander 1
2. Remove connecting rod cap nuts (1), bolts (5), B 1P-1861 Retaining Ring Pliers 1
and connecting rod cap (2).
Start By:
3. Remove the lower half of bearing (4) from
connecting rod cap (2). a. Remove the pistons and the connecting rods.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Pistons
NOTICE and Connecting Rods - Remove.
Install short pieces of rubber hose over both connect-
ing rod bolts in order to protect the crankshaft from the NOTICE
threaded portion of the connecting rod bolts. Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
77
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Note: For information on reusability of the pistons, 1. Use Tool (B) to remove retaining ring (2). Remove
refer to the following list. piston pin (4) and separate piston (1) from
connecting rod (3).
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8049, Pistons

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8290, Visual Inspection of
Two-Piece Pistons

Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0775, Using the


186-0137 Piston Ring Gauge on Steel Crown,
Two-Piece Pistons used in 3126 Engines

Note: For information on reusability of the connecting


rods, refer to the following list.

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage g00610428


Operations, SEBF8063, Visual Inspection of Illustration 195
Connecting Rods
2. Use Tool (A) to remove piston ring (5).
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8064, Salvage of Non-Serrated
i01150791
Connecting Rods

Note: For information on reusability of the piston


Pistons and Connecting Rods
pins, refer to the following list. - Assemble
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage SMCS Code: 1225-016
Operations, SEBF8051, Piston Pins and Retaining
Rings Assembly Procedure
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Table 35
Operations, SEBF8303, Procedure to Inspect
Required Tools
Piston Pins
Part
Note: For information on reusability of the rod eye Tool Number Part Description Qty
bushing, refer to the following list. 1U-6683
A Ring Expander 1

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8242, Verification of Connecting NOTICE
Rod Eye Bushing Retention Using 5P-8639 Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Connecting Rod Bushing Press Group
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage component life.
Operations, SEBF8274, Using Rod Eye Bushing
Installation and Removal Tools
NOTICE
Verify correct assembly of the pistons and the con-
necting rods. Ensure that the etched numbers on the
rod and the rod cap are in the correct positions. The
etched number on the rod and the rod cap correspond
to the cylinder in which it should be installed.

g00610426
Illustration 194
78
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00610428 g00610503
Illustration 196 Illustration 198

1. Check the clearance between the ends of piston 6. The piston is a two-piece assembly. This piston
rings (5). Refer to the Specifications Manual, consists of piston crown (7) and piston skirt (8).
Pistons and Rings topic. Inspect bearing (9) in the piston crown (7). The
piston crown must be replaced if the piston
Note: The oil ring must be installed over the spring crown is worn or damaged. Bearing (9) is not
with the end gap 180 degrees from the oil ring serviced.
spring joint.

2. Install the oil control piston ring with Tool (A).


The ends of the spring should be rotated 180
degrees from the ring end gap.

3. Install the intermediate piston ring with the side


marked UP-2 toward the top of the piston. Use
Tool (A) in order to install the ring.

4. Install the top piston ring with the side marked


UP-1 toward the top of the piston. Use Tool (A)
in order to install the ring.

g00610426
Illustration 199

7. Position piston (1) on connecting rod (3). Coat


pin (4) with clean engine oil and install pin (4).
Ensure that the retainer rings are in the grooves
of piston (1).

End By:

a. Install the pistons and the connecting rods.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Piston and
Connecting Rods - Install.
g00610498
Illustration 197

5. Replace rod bearing (6) by pressing a new


bearing into the connecting rod. Refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS7295 for the correct tooling and
the correct installation procedure.
79
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01459773 Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8242, Verification of Connecting
Pistons and Connecting Rods Rod Eye Bushing Retention Using 5P-8639
- Install Connecting Rod Bushing Press Group

SMCS Code: 1225-012 Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8274, Using Rod Eye Bushing
Installation and Removal Tools
Installation Procedure
Table 36
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 173-5529 Piston Ring Compressor 1

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
g00678193
Illustration 200
Note: For information on reusability of the pistons,
refer to the following list. 1. Install the bolts (5) and the upper half of
connecting rod bearing (4). Ensure that the
bearing tab engages with the slot in connecting
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage rod (3).
Operations, SEBF8049, Pistons

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8290, Visual Inspection of
Two-Piece Pistons

Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0775, Using the


186-0190 Piston Ring Gauge on Steel Crown,
Two-Piece Pistons used in 3126 and 3126B
Engines

Note: For information on reusability of the connecting


rods, refer to the following list.

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8063, Visual Inspection of g00678195
Illustration 201
Connecting Rods
2. Install the lower half of connecting rod bearing
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage (4). Ensure that the bearing tab engages with the
Operations, SEBF8064, Salvage of Non-Serrated
slot in connecting rod cap (2).
Connecting Rods
3. Place clean engine oil on the following items: the
Note: For information on reusability of the piston
pistons, the piston rings, the cylinder bore, the
pins, refer to the following list.
upper half of the connecting rod bearing, and
the lower half of the connecting rod bearing.
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage
Operations, SEBF8051, Piston Pins and Retaining
Rings NOTICE
Install short pieces of rubber hose over both connect-
Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage ing rod bolts in order to protect the crankshaft from the
Operations, SEBF8303, Procedure to Inspect threaded portion of the connecting rod bolts.
Piston Pins

Note: For information on reusability of the rod eye


bushing, refer to the following list.
80
Disassembly and Assembly Section

9. Remove the hoses that were installed in Step 4


from the connecting rod bolts.

g00746584
Illustration 202

4. Install short pieces of rubber hose (6) over both Illustration 204 g00678200
connecting rod bolts.
10. Install connecting rod bearing cap (2) on the
connecting rod (3). Ensure that the number on
connecting rod bearing cap (2) matches the
number on the connecting rod (3). Ensure that
the numbers are on the same side.

11. Lubricate connecting rod cap bolts with


4C-5593 Anti-Seize Compound.

g00634923
Illustration 203

Note: Each piston ring end gap must be positioned


120 degrees from each other.

5. Install Tool (A) in order to compress the piston


rings.

6. With the number one crankshaft throw at the Illustration 205


g00610272
bottom center, install the piston and connecting
rod in the engine. Ensure that the proper piston
NOTICE
and connecting rod are in the corresponding
Loose connecting rod nuts can result in the separation
cylinder with the bearing retainer notch toward
of the rod cap and result in major engine damage.
the right side of the engine.

Note: The etched number on the connecting rod 12. Install connecting rod cap nuts (1). Tighten nuts
must be on the right side of the engine in the (1) to a torque of 54 7 Nm (40 5 lb ft).
corresponding cylinder.

7. Line up the piston and the connecting rod with


the crankshaft. Use a soft hammer and tap the
piston into the cylinder bore until Tool (A) comes
off of the piston.

8. Use a soft hammer in order to tap the piston into


the cylinder bore while you guide connecting rod
(3) onto the crankshaft.
81
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Start By:

a. Remove the engine oil pump. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump -
Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00678202
Illustration 206

13. Place index mark (7) on the connecting rod.


Place index mark (9) on connecting rod cap
nut (1). Index marks (7) and (9) mark the initial
position of the nut. Place index mark (8) on
connecting rod cap nut (1). Index mark (8)
should be 60 5 degrees counterclockwise
from index mark (9). Tighten each nut (1) for
an additional 60 5 degrees (1/6 turn). Index
mark (8) should be lined up with index mark (7).
Repeat the procedure for the other connecting
g00610152
rod cap nut. Illustration 207

14. Repeat Steps 1 through 13 for the remaining 1. Remove bolts (1) that hold crankshaft main
pistons and connecting rods. bearing cap (2). Remove crankshaft main
bearing cap (2).
End By:
2. Remove the lower half of the crankshaft main
a. Install the piston cooling jets. Refer to bearing from crankshaft main bearing cap (2).
Disassembly and Assembly, Piston Cooling Jets
- Remove and Install.

b. Install the engine oil pump. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Install.

c. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Install.

i01150114

Crankshaft Main Bearings -


Remove
g00516920
SMCS Code: 1203-011 Illustration 208
Typical example
Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Table 37 If the crankshaft is turned in the wrong direction, the
Required Tools tab of the crankshaft main bearing will be pushed be-
tween the crankshaft and the cylinder block. this can
Part cause damage to either or both the crankshaft and the
Tool Number Part Description Qty cylinder block.
A 2P-5518 Bearing Tool 1
3. Use the following steps in order to remove the
upper half of crankshaft main bearings:
82
Disassembly and Assembly Section

a. Turn the crankshaft until Tool (A) can be


installed in the crankshaft journal. Install Tool
(A).

b. Turn the crankshaft in order to remove the


upper half of the crankshaft main bearing. In
order to get the tab out first, the crankshaft
must be turned in the correct direction.

c. Check the condition of the crankshaft main


bearings. Refer to the Guideline For Reusable
Parts, SEBF8009, Main and Connecting
Rod Bearings or refer to the Guideline
For Reusable Parts, SEBF0531, Main and
Connecting Rod Bearings. g00516920
Illustration 209

i01496477 1. Use Tool (A) and install the upper halves of the
crankshaft main bearings in the cylinder block.
Crankshaft Main Bearings - Do not put oil on the back of the crankshaft main
Install bearing.

SMCS Code: 1203-012

Installation Procedure
Table 38
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 2P-5518 Main Bearing Tool 1
B 8T-5096 Dial Indicator Group 1

g00610152
NOTICE Illustration 210
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
2. Install the lower halves of the crankshaft main
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened bearings in crankshaft main bearing caps (2).
component life. Do not put oil on the back of the crankshaft main
bearing.
Note: Place clean engine oil on the crankshaft main
bearings prior to assembly. Ensure that the tabs on NOTICE
the back side of the crankshaft main bearings fit in Crankshaft main bearing caps should be installed with
the grooves of the crankshaft main bearing caps the part number toward the right side of the engine.
and the cylinder block. Crankshaft main bearing caps are to be identified by
stamped numbers 1 through 7 located on the bottom
surface. The thrust plate is used on the center crank-
shaft main bearing only.

3. Place crankshaft main bearing caps (2) in


position on the cylinder block. Place clean
engine oil or Molylube on the bolt threads and
on the washer face. Install bolts (1).

4. Tighten bolts (1) to a torque of 54 7 Nm


(40 5 lb ft). Tighten each bolt (1) for an
additional 90 5 degrees (1/4 turn).
83
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00517003 g00609979
Illustration 211 Illustration 212

5. Check the end play of the crankshaft with Tool 1. Fasten lifting slings and a hoist to each end of
(B). The end play must be 0.07 mm (0.003 inch) the crankshaft. Refer to Illustration 212.
to 0.32 mm (0.013 inch).

End By:

a. Install the engine oil pump. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Install.

i01197475

Crankshaft - Remove
SMCS Code: 1202-011

Removal Procedure g00609985


Illustration 213
Start By:
2. Remove bolts (2), the washers, and main bearing
a. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly caps (3). Carefully remove crankshaft (1) from
and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Remove. the cylinder block. The weight of the crankshaft
is approximately 62 kg (137 lb).
b. Remove the front housing. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Remove. 3. Remove the main bearings from the cylinder
block. Remove the main bearings from the main
c. Remove the camshaft idler gear. Refer to bearing caps.
Disassembly and Assembly, Camshaft Idler
Gear - Remove and Install.

d. Remove the pistons and connecting rods. Refer


to Disassembly and Assembly, Pistons and
Connecting Rods - Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
84
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01516597 2. Install Tool (B) between Tool (A) and the


crankshaft wear sleeve. Turn Tool (B) until the
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) edge of Tool (B) makes a crease in the crankshaft
- Remove wear sleeve. Make a crease in the crankshaft
wear sleeve at two other locations around the
(If Equipped) crankshaft wear sleeve until the crankshaft wear
sleeve is loose.
SMCS Code: 1161-011-ZV
3. Remove Tool (B), Tool (A), and the crankshaft
Removal Procedure wear sleeve from the end of the crankshaft.

Table 39
i01216629
Required Tools
Part
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear)
Tool Number Part Description Qty - Install
A 4C-4869 Distorter Ring 1
SMCS Code: 1161-012-ZV
B 5P-7312 Seal Distorter 1
Installation Procedure
Start By:
Table 40
a. Remove the crankshaft rear seal. Refer to Required Tools
Disassembly and Assembly, Crankshaft Rear
Seal - Remove. Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty

NOTICE A(1) 132-8772 Seal Locator 1


Keep all parts clean from contaminants. B(1) 1U-7596 Bolt 2
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened C(1) 1U-7597 Sleeve Ring 1
component life. D(1) 1U-7594 Seal Installer 1
E(1) 9S-8858 Nut 1
(1) Part of the 1U-7598 Seal Installer

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

1. Ensure that the rear of the crankshaft is


thoroughly clean and dry prior to the installation
of the crankshaft rear seal.
g00614029
Illustration 214

Note: Wear sleeves are not installed at the factory.


The wear sleeve is included with the replacement
rear seal.

1. Install Tool (A) in the bore of the crankshaft rear


sleeve.
85
Disassembly and Assembly Section

End By:

a. Install the flywheel. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Flywheel - Install.

i01150032

Crankshaft - Install
SMCS Code: 1202-012

Installation Procedure
Table 41
g00613561
Illustration 215
Required Tools

2. Fasten Tool (A) to the rear of the crankshaft with Part


Tool (B). Hand tighten Tool (B). Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 8T-5096 Dial Indicator Group 1
3. Position the crankshaft rear seal and crankshaft
rear sleeve (1) on Tool (A). Position Tool (C) on
Tool (A). NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Ensure that the crankshaft main bearing tabs engage
with the grooves in the block and the crankshaft main
bearing cap.

1. Check the condition of the main bearings.


Refer to Main and Connecting Rod Bearings,
SEBF8009 and refer to Engine Bearings and
g00614109 Crankshafts, SEBD0531.
Illustration 216

Note: The number six main bearing is the thrust


4. Position Tool (D) over Tool (A) and Tool (C).
bearing.
Install Tool (E). Tighten Tool (E) in order to install
the crankshaft rear seal and the crankshaft wear
2. Clean the bearing surfaces in the cylinder block
sleeve.
for the main bearings. Apply clean engine oil on
the upper main bearing. Do not put engine oil on
5. Remove Tool (E), Tool (D), and Tool (C). Turn
the back side of the bearing surfaces. Install the
over Tool (C). Install Tool (C), Tool (D), and Tool
upper main bearing in the cylinder block. Ensure
(E). Tighten Tool (E) in order to complete the
that the tab on the back side of the bearing
installation of the crankshaft rear seal and the
engages with the groove in the cylinder block.
crankshaft wear sleeve.

6. Remove Tool (E) and Tool (D). Check Tool (C)


and Tool (A). The faces of Tool (C) and Tool (A)
will be flush if the crankshaft rear seal and the
crankshaft wear sleeve are properly installed.
Refer to the Specifications Module for more
information.

7. Remove Tool (C), Tool (B), and Tool (A).


86
Disassembly and Assembly Section

6. Install bolts (2) and the washers for main


bearing caps (3). Tighten bolts (2) to a torque of
54 7 Nm (40 5 lb ft).

7. Turn bolts (2) for an additional 90 5 degrees


(1/4 turn).

g00610100
Illustration 217

3. Put clean engine oil on the journals of the


crankshaft bearing. Fasten lifting straps and
a hoist to crankshaft (1). Carefully install the
crankshaft in the cylinder block.
g00610119
Illustration 219
4. Clean the bearing surface of the main bearing
caps. Install the lower main bearing in the 8. Check the end play of crankshaft (1) with Tool
crankshaft main bearing caps. Ensure that the (A). The end play must be 0.07 mm (0.003 inch)
tab on the back side of the bearing engages to 0.32 mm (0.013 inch).
with the groove in the main bearing cap. Apply
clean engine oil on the lower main bearing. End By:
Do not put engine oil on the back side of the
bearing surfaces. a. Install the pistons and connecting rods. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, Pistons and
5. Install crankshaft main bearing caps with the Connecting Rods - Install.
part numbers toward the right hand side of
the cylinder block. Ensure that crankshaft main b. Install the camshaft idler gear. Refer to
bearing caps have numbers 1 through 7. The Disassembly and Assembly, Camshaft Idler
numbers should start at the front of the engine. Gear - Remove and Install.
Place clean engine oil or Molylube on the bolt
threads and the washers. c. Install the front housing. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Housing (Front) - Install.
Note: When the bolts for the rear main bearing cap
are tightened, slide the main bearing cap as far d. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly
forward as possible until the cap is against the and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Install.
bolts. Hold the main bearing cap in this position
and tighten the bolts.
i01177454

Crankshaft Gear - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1204-010-GE

Removal Procedure
Start By:

a. Remove the front gear group. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Gear Group (Front)
- Remove.
g00609985
Illustration 218
87
Disassembly and Assembly Section

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: For information on reusability of the camshaft


gear, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8045, Timing Gears for
All Engines.

1. Place alignment marks on the crankshaft gear


and on the crankshaft. The alignment marks will
g00630476
ensure that the camshaft gear is aligned properly Illustration 221
during installation.
1. Heat crankshaft gear (1) to a temperature of
316 C (600 F) for installation.

2. Align the timing marks on the crankshaft and on


crankshaft gear (1). Install crankshaft gear (1)
on crankshaft (2).

Note: Ensure that crankshaft gear (1) is flush against


the shoulder of crankshaft. If the gear is not flush
damage to the gear may occur.

End By:

a. Install the front gear group. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Gear Group (Front) - Install.
g00630476
Illustration 220

i01410976
2. Heat crankshaft gear (1). Remove the gear from
crankshaft (2). Bearing Clearance - Check
Installation Procedure SMCS Code: 1203-535; 1219-535

NOTICE Measurement Procedure


Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Table 42
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Required Tools
component life.
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
Note: For information on reusability of the camshaft
A - Plastigage -
gear, refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts And
Salvage Operations, SEBF8045, Timing Gears for
All Engines. NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Note: Caterpillar does not recommend the checking


of the actual bearing clearances particularly on
small engines. This is because of the possibility of
obtaining inaccurate results and the possibility of
damaging the bearing or the journal surfaces. Each
Caterpillar engine bearing is quality checked for
specific wall thickness.
88
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Note: The measurements should be within 3. Carefully remove the cap, but do not remove
specifications and the correct bearings should Tool (A). Measure the width of Tool (A) while Tool
be used. If the crankshaft journals and the bores (A) is in the bearing cap or on the crankshaft
for the block and the rods were measured during journal. Refer to Illustration 222.
disassembly, no further checks are necessary.
However, if the technician still wants to measure 4. Remove all of Tool (A) before you install the
the bearing clearances, Tool (A) is an acceptable bearing cap.
method. Tool (A) is less accurate on journals with
small diameters if clearances are less than 0.10 mm Note: When Tool (A) is used, the readings can
(0.004 inch). sometimes be unclear. For example, all parts of
Tool (A) are not the same width. Measure the major
NOTICE width in order to ensure that the parts are within
Lead wire, shim stock or a dial bore gauge can dam- the specification range. Refer to Specifications,
age the bearing surfaces. Crankshaft for the correct clearances.

i01200681
The technician must be very careful to use Tool (A)
correctly. The following points must be remembered: Ether Atomizer - Remove and
Ensure that the backs of the bearings and the Install
bores are clean and dry.
SMCS Code: 1456-010
Ensure that the bearing locking tabs are properly
seated in the tab grooves. Removal Procedure
The crankshaft must be free of oil at the contact
points of Tool (A).

1. Put a piece of Tool (A) on the crown of the


bearing that is in the cap.

Note: Do not allow Tool (A) to extend over the edge


of the bearing.

2. Use the correct torque-turn specifications in


order to install the bearing cap. Do not use an
impact wrench. Be careful not to dislodge the
bearing when the cap is installed.

Note: Do not turn the crankshaft when Tool (A) is g00642608


Illustration 223
installed.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

1. Remove ether atomizer (1) from the top of the


air inlet manifold.

g00473227
Illustration 222
Typical example
89
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Installation Procedure

g00618473
Illustration 226
g00642608
Illustration 224
2. Remove bolt (2) and idler pulley (3).
Note: Install the ether atomizer so that the direction
of the spray is parallel to the air inlet heater, If
i01161563
equipped. The ether atomizer has an indicator in
order to show the direction of the spray. Idler Pulley - Disassemble
Note: The ether atomizer has two ports that are SMCS Code: 1358-015
separated by 180 degrees. The two ports must be
aimed parallel to the length of the block.
Disassembly Procedure
1. Install ether atomizer (1). The minimum torque for
Table 43
the ether atomizer is 2.8 Nm (25 lb in).
Required Tools

i01161409 Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
Idler Pulley - Remove A 1P-0510 Driver Group 1
SMCS Code: 1358-011 B 1P-1855 Retaining Ring Pliers 1

Removal Procedure Start By:

a. Remove the idler pulley. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Idler Pulley - Remove.

g00618468
Illustration 225

1. Remove cover (1) from the idler pulley. Cover (1)


will be damaged during removal. Illustration 227
g00618635

1. Remove spacer (1) and bolt (5) from idler pulley


(4).

2. Remove retaining rings (2) from each side of


idler pulley (4) with Tool (B).
90
Disassembly and Assembly Section

3. Remove bearings (3) from each side of idler i01161430


pulley (4) with Tool (A).
Idler Pulley - Install
i01161599 SMCS Code: 1358-012
Idler Pulley - Assemble
Installation Procedure
SMCS Code: 1358-016

Assembly Procedure
Table 44
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 1P-0510 Driver Group 1

g00618473
Illustration 229

1. Position idler pulley (3). Install bolt (2) and tighten


bolt (2) to a torque of 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft).

g00618635
Illustration 228

1. Install one retaining ring (2) in idler pulley (4).

2. Install two bearings (3) in idler pulley (4) with


Tool (A). Install the remaining retaining ring (2).

3. Install spacer (1) and bolt (5) in idler pulley (4). g00618468
Illustration 230
End By:
2. Install a new cover (1) on idler pulley (3).
a. Install the idler pulley. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Idler Pulley - Install.
91
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01160976 1. Position belt tensioner (2) on the cylinder block.


Install four bolts (1).
Belt Tensioner - Remove and
Install 2. Install the drive belt. Use a breaker bar to place
the original amount of tension on the drive belt.
SMCS Code: 1358-010
i01162446
Removal Procedure Belt Tightener - Remove
SMCS Code: 1358-011

Removal Procedure

g00614167
Illustration 231

1. Use a breaker bar to release the tension on belt


tensioner (2). Remove the drive belt.

2. Remove four bolts (1) and belt tensioner (2). g00619355


Illustration 233

Installation Procedure 1. Remove two bolts (1) that hold water pump belt
tightener (3) to the timing gear housing.

2. Remove V-belt (2) from the pulley of water pump


belt tightener (3). Remove water pump belt
tightener (3).

i01162490

Belt Tightener - Disassemble


SMCS Code: 1358-015

Disassembly Procedure
Table 45
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 1P-1855 Retaining Ring Pliers 1
g00614167 B 1P-0510 Driver Group 1
Illustration 232
92
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Start By:

a. Remove the water pump belt tightener. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Belt Tightener -
Remove.

g00619412
Illustration 236

1. Check the condition of shaft (4) in idler plate


assembly (5). Replace idler plate assembly (5) if
shaft (4) is worn.
g00619391
Illustration 234

1. Use Tool (A) to remove retaining ring (1). Remove


pulley (2) from the idler plate assembly.

g00619393
Illustration 237

2. Thoroughly clean the following components: the


bearing bore in the pulley, the outside bearing
g00619393 bore of the pulley, and the outside diameter of
Illustration 235
two bearings (3). Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock
2. Remove two bearings (3) from pulley (2) with a Compound in the bearing bore of the pulley
press and Tool (B). and on the outside diameter of two bearings
(3). Install two bearings (3) in the pulley with
Tool (B). Ensure that bearings (3) are centered
i01162522 in the pulley.
Belt Tightener - Assemble
SMCS Code: 1358-016

Assembly Procedure
Table 46
Required Tools
Part
Tool Part Description Qty
Number
A 1P-1855 Retaining Ring Pliers 1
B 1P-0510 Driver Group 1
93
Disassembly and Assembly Section

2. Install two bolts (1) that hold water pump belt


tightener (3) to the timing gear housing.

3. Adjust the tension of V-belt (2). Refer to Operation


and Maintenance Manual, Belt Tension Chart.

i01148551

Fan Drive - Remove


SMCS Code: 1359-011

Removal Procedure
g00619391
Illustration 238 Start By:

3. Install pulley (2) on the idler plate assembly. a. Remove the alternator. Refer to Disassembly and
Install retaining ring (1) with Tool (A) in order to Assembly, Alternator - Remove and Install.
hold pulley (2) to the idler plate assembly.

End By:

a. Install the water pump belt tightener. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Belt Tightener -
Install.

i01162480

Belt Tightener - Install


SMCS Code: 1358-012

Installation Procedure Illustration 240


g00609660

g00609661
Illustration 241

1. Remove two bolts (2) and remove alternator


bracket (1).

2. If equipped, remove three bolts (3), the washers,


Illustration 239
g00619355 and the nuts. Remove refrigerant compressor (4).

1. Position water pump belt tightener (3) and install 3. Remove six bolts (5) and the washers. Remove
V-belt (2) on the pulley of water pump belt fan drive (6) and front lifting group (7) from the
tightener (3). cylinder head assembly.
94
Disassembly and Assembly Section

i01309851

Fan Drive - Disassemble


SMCS Code: 1359-015

Disassembly Procedures
Start By:

a. Remove the fan drive. Refer to Disassembly and


Assembly, Fan Drive Remove.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.
g00693987
Illustration 242
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies 1. Remove six bolts (1) and the fan drive pulley.
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. 2. Remove three bolts (6) and the washers from
the bearing retainer (2).
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. Note: Access to bolts (6) can be made by rotating
the fan drive shaft.

3. Remove fan drive shaft (5) from fan support (3).

4. Remove two bolts (9) and remove thrust plate (4).

5. Remove rolling bearing (8) and bearing retainer


(2 ) from fan drive shaft (5). Remove O-ring seal
(7) from the bearing retainer.

i01309920

Fan Drive - Assemble


SMCS Code: 1359-016

Fan Drive Assembly


NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
95
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Install fan drive shaft (5) in fan support (3). Install


NOTICE the three washers and bolts (6) that hold the
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained unit together.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to Note: Rotate the fan drive shaft in order to access
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- the mounting bolt holes.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. 6. Fill the bearing cavity in the fan drive with 30 g
(1 oz) of 2S-3230 Bearing Lubricant.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies End By:
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. a. Install the Fan Drive. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Fan Drive Install.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
i01148567

Fan Drive - Install


SMCS Code: 1359-012

Installation Procedure

g00609660
Illustration 244

g00693987
Illustration 243

1. Check the condition of O-ring seal (7) that is


used in retainer (2). Check the condition of
the roller bearing (8). If the components are
damaged use new parts for replacement.

2. Install roller bearing (8) in bearing retainer (2).


Install the roller bearing so the lip seal is facing
g00609661
toward the retainer for the roller bearing (2). Illustration 245

3. Install O-ring seal (7) in bearing retainer (2). 1. Position fan drive (6) and front lifting group (7)
Install bearing retainer (2) and the roller bearing on the cylinder head assembly. Install six bolts
(8) as a unit on the fan drive shaft (5). Seat the (5) and the washers.
bearing inner race against the fan drive shaft.
2. If equipped, position refrigerant compressor (4).
4. Use two bolts (9) and install thrust plate (4). Install three bolts (3), the washers, and the nuts.
96
Disassembly and Assembly Section

3. Position alternator bracket (1). Install two bolts 1. Loosen the screw (3) until wiring harness
(2). connector (1) can be disconnected. Disconnect
wiring harness (1) from electronic control module
End By: (2).

a. Install the alternator. Refer to Disassembly and 2. Remove four bolts (4). Remove the electronic
Assembly, Alternator - Remove and Install. control module from the engine.

i01309287 Installation Procedure


Engine Control Module -
Remove and Install
SMCS Code: 1901-010

Removal Procedure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.
g00693487
Illustration 247
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained 1. Position electronic control module (2) on the
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- engine and install four bolts (4).
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- 2. Connect wiring harness (1) to control module (2).
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- Install screws (4) and tighten screws to a torque
nent containing fluids. of 0.9 Nm (8 lb in).

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar i01148408


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar Alternator - Remove and Install
products.
SMCS Code: 1405-010
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Removal Procedure
Table 47
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 1U-7117 Breaker Bar 1

g00693487
Illustration 246
97
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Position alternator (3) on the mounting bracket.


Install bolts (2).

2. Use Tool (A) to install drive belt (4) on the drive


pulley of the alternator.

Note: Adjust the tension on the drive belt if the


engine is not equipped with a belt tensioner. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the
correct adjusting procedure.

3. Connect wires (1) to the alternator. Use the index


marks to correctly connect the wires. Tighten the
mounting bolt for the ground wire to a torque
g00609523
of 6.2 0.6 Nm (54 5 lb in). Tighten the
Illustration 248 mounting bolt for the battery wire to a torque of
Typical Example 11.3 2.3 Nm (100 20 lb in).

Note: Release the tension on the belt at the belt


tightener, if the engine is not equipped with a belt i01012803
tensioner.
Electric Starting Motor -
1. Use tool (A) to release the tension on belt Remove and Install
tensioner (5).
SMCS Code: 1453-010
2. Remove drive belt (4) from the drive pulley on
alternator (3).
Removal Procedure
3. Place an index mark on all electrical wires (1)
1. Place an index mark on all of the electrical wires
that are connected to the alternator. Disconnect
that are connected to the electric starting motor.
electrical wires (1) from the alternator.
Disconnect the electrical wires from the electric
starting motor.
4. Remove two bolts (2).

5. Remove alternator (3) from the mounting bracket.

Installation Procedure
Table 48
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 1U-7117 Breaker Bar 1

g00519372
Illustration 250
Typical example

2. Fasten a suitable lifting device to the electric


starting motor.

3. Remove three bolts (1).

4. Remove the electric starting motor and the


gasket from the flywheel housing. The weight of
the electric starting motor is 29 kg (65 lb).

g00609523
Illustration 249
Typical example
98
Disassembly and Assembly Section

Installation Procedure
NOTICE
1. Inspect the condition of the gasket. Replace the Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
gasket, if necessary.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
2. Install the gasket on the electric starting motor. component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
g00519372
Illustration 251 Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
Typical example mandates.

3. Fasten a suitable lifting device to the electric 1. Remove the air pressure from the air tank and
starting motor. drain the coolant from the cooling system.
4. Place the electric starting motor in the flywheel
housing. Install three bolts (1).

5. Connect all of the electrical wires to the electric


starting motor by using the index marks.

i01331969

Air Compressor - Remove and


Install
SMCS Code: 1803-010

Removal Procedure
Table 49
Required Tools
Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
g00609682
Illustration 252
A 138-7573 Link Bracket 1
2. Disconnect water hose (1) and water hose (3)
from the air compressor.

3. Disconnect air hose (2) and oil hose (4) from the
Do not disconnect the air lines until the air pres- air compressor.
sure in the system is at zero. If hose is disconnect-
ed under pressure it can cause personal injury. 4. Install Tool (A) and a proper lifting device to the
air compressor. The weight of the air compressor
is approximately 23 kg (51 lb).
99
Disassembly and Assembly Section

5. Remove the mounting bracket for a Midland a. Remove bolts (9) that fasten the mounting
EL-740 air compressor by using the following bracket to the air compressor.
procedure:
b. Remove bolts (10) that fasten the mounting
bracket to the cylinder block. Remove the
mounting bracket for the air compressor.

g00609684
Illustration 253

a. Remove bolt (8) and the clip for the oil hose
g00705313
from the bracket for the air compressor. Illustration 255

b. Remove two bolts (5) and bolt (6) that fastens 7. Use two technicians to support air compressor
the bracket for the air compressor to the (12). Remove bolts (11), air compressor (12),
cylinder block. Remove bolt (7) and the and the gasket from the timing gear housing.
spacer between the air compressor and the
bracket for the air compressor. Remove the
bracket for the air compressor.
Installation Procedure
Table 50
6. Remove the mounting bracket for a Bendix Tu-Flo
550 and Bendix Tu-Flo 750 air compressors by Required Tools
using the following procedure: Part
Tool Number Part Description Qty
A 138-7573 Link Bracket 1

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00705242
Illustration 254
Typical example
100
Disassembly and Assembly Section

g00705313 g00609684
Illustration 256 Illustration 257

1. Install Tool (A) and a proper lifting device to the a. Position the bracket for the air compressor
air compressor. The weight of the air compressor and install bolts (5) and (6). Install the spacer
is approximately 23 kg (51 lb). and bolt (7). Hand tighten all bolts.

2. Inspect the condition of the gasket. Replace the NOTICE


gasket, if necessary. Install the gasket between A loose compressor bracket can lead to a broken front
air compressor (12) and the timing gear housing. cover and can cause damage to the front gear train of
the engine.
3. Position air compressor (12) in the front housing.
Ensure that the drive gear engages correctly
with the gear in the front housing. b. Tighten bolt (7) to a torque of 50 10 Nm
(37 7 lb ft). Tighten bolt (5) to a torque of
4. Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft). Tighten bolt (6) to
threads of two bolts (11). Install two bolts (11). a torque of 28 7 Nm (21 5 lb ft). Remove
Tighten bolts (11) to a torque of 100 20 Nm the lifting device and Tool (A).
(75 15 lb ft).
6. Install the mounting bracket for Bendix Tu-Flo
5. Install the mounting bracket for a Midland EL-740 550 and Bendix Tu-Flo 750 air compressors by
air compressor by using the following procedure: using the following procedure:
101
Disassembly and Assembly Section

7. Connect oil hose assembly (4) to the air


compressor. Connect the clip that holds the hose
assembly to the air compressor. Tighten bolt (8)
that holds the clip to a torque of 28 7 Nm
(21 5 lb ft).

8. Connect water hose (1) and (3) to the air


compressor.

9. Connect air hose (2) to the air compressor.

10. Fill the cooling system with coolant to the correct


level. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the correct filling procedure.

i01517187

Air Compressor Drive Gear -


Remove
Illustration 258 g00705242 SMCS Code: 1803-011-GE
Typical example
Removal Procedure
a. Position the bracket for the air compressor
and install bolts (9) and bolts (10) finger tight. Table 51
Required Tools
NOTICE Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
A loose compressor bracket can lead to a broken front
cover and can cause damage to the front gear train of Air Compressor
A 132-5451 1
the engine. Gear Holder

Start By:
b. Tighten bolts (9) to a torque of 55 10 Nm
(40 7 lb ft). Tighten bolts (10) to a torque of
55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft). Remove the lifting a. Remove the air compressor. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Air Compressor - Remove and
device and Tool (A).
Install.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00609682
Illustration 259 g00609907
Illustration 260
Typical example
102
Disassembly and Assembly Section

1. Mount air compressor (1) in a bench vise. 4. Install air compressor drive gear (4) on the air
compressor crankshaft.
2. Install tool (A) on the air compressor drive gear.
5. Install washer (3) and nut (2).
3. Remove nut (2) and washer (3).
6. Install tool (A) on the air compressor drive gear.
4. Remove air compressor drive gear (4).
7. Tighten nut (2) to a torque of 165 10 Nm
(120 7 lb ft).
i01517157

Air Compressor Drive Gear - 8. Place a driver which is slightly larger than the nut
over the nut and tap the driver with a hammer.
Install
9. Tighten the nut again to a torque of 165 10 Nm
SMCS Code: 1803-012-GE (120 7 lb ft).

Installation Procedure End By:

Table 52 a. Install the air compressor. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, Air Compressor - Remove and
Required Tools Install.
Tool Part Number Part Description Qty
A 132-5451 Air Compressor Gear 1
Holder

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

g00609907
Illustration 261
Typical example

1. Use 138-8440 Component Cleaner in order to


clean the inside diameter of gear (4) and the
outside diameter of the drive shaft for the air
compressor.

2. Lubricate washer (3) and the threads on the


drive shaft with clean engine oil.

3. Mount air compressor (1) in a bench vise.


103
Index Section

Index
A Crankshaft Front Seal - Install ............................... 51
Installation Procedure ........................................ 51
Air Compressor - Remove and Install.................... 98 Crankshaft Front Seal - Remove ........................... 50
Installation Procedure ........................................ 99 Removal Procedure ........................................... 50
Removal Procedure ........................................... 98 Crankshaft Gear - Remove and Install .................. 86
Air Compressor Drive Gear - Install..................... 102 Installation Procedure ........................................ 87
Installation Procedure ...................................... 102 Removal Procedure ........................................... 86
Air Compressor Drive Gear - Remove................. 101 Crankshaft Main Bearings - Install......................... 82
Removal Procedure ......................................... 101 Installation Procedure ........................................ 82
Air Inlet Cover - Remove and Install ...................... 20 Crankshaft Main Bearings - Remove..................... 81
Installation Procedure ........................................ 21 Removal Procedure ........................................... 81
Removal Procedure ........................................... 20 Crankshaft Rear Seal - Install................................ 45
Air Inlet Heater - Remove and Install..................... 19 Installation Procedure ........................................ 45
Installation Procedure ........................................ 19 Crankshaft Rear Seal - Remove............................ 45
Removal Procedure ........................................... 19 Removal Procedure ........................................... 45
Air Inlet Heater Solenoid - Remove and Install...... 20 Crankshaft Rear Seal Carrier - Remove and
Installation Procedure ........................................ 20 Install ................................................................... 46
Removal Procedure ........................................... 20 Installation Procedure ........................................ 47
Alternator - Remove and Install ............................. 96 Removal Procedure ........................................... 46
Installation Procedure ........................................ 97 Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) - Install ................ 84
Removal Procedure ........................................... 96 Installation Procedure ........................................ 84
Crankshaft Wear Sleeve (Rear) - Remove (If
Equipped) ............................................................ 84
B Removal Procedure ........................................... 84
Cylinder Head - Install ........................................... 65
Bearing Clearance - Check ................................... 87 Installation Procedure ........................................ 65
Measurement Procedure ................................... 87 Cylinder Head - Remove ....................................... 64
Belt Tensioner - Remove and Install ...................... 91 Removal Procedure ........................................... 64
Installation Procedure ........................................ 91
Removal Procedure ........................................... 91
Belt Tightener - Assemble ..................................... 92 D
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 92
Belt Tightener - Disassemble ................................ 91 Disassembly and Assembly Section........................ 5
Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 91
Belt Tightener - Install............................................ 93
Installation Procedure ........................................ 93 E
Belt Tightener - Remove........................................ 91
Removal Procedure ........................................... 91 Electric Starting Motor - Remove and Install ......... 97
Installation Procedure ........................................ 98
Removal Procedure ........................................... 97
C Engine Control Module - Remove and Install ........ 96
Installation Procedure ........................................ 96
Camshaft - Install................................................... 69 Removal Procedure ........................................... 96
Installation Procedure ........................................ 69 Engine Lifting Bracket - Remove and Install.......... 43
Camshaft - Remove............................................... 68 Installation Procedure ........................................ 43
Removal Procedure ........................................... 68 Removal Procedure ........................................... 43
Camshaft Bearings - Remove and Install .............. 70 Engine Oil Cooler - Install...................................... 31
Installation Procedure ........................................ 71 Installation Procedure ........................................ 31
Removal Procedure ........................................... 70 Engine Oil Cooler - Remove .................................. 30
Camshaft Gear - Remove and Install .................... 70 Removal Procedure ........................................... 30
Installation Procedure ........................................ 70 Engine Oil Cooler Bypass Valve - Remove and
Removal Procedure ........................................... 70 Install ................................................................... 29
Camshaft Idler Gear - Remove and Install ............ 58 Installation Procedure ........................................ 30
Installation Procedure ........................................ 59 Removal Procedure ........................................... 29
Removal Procedure ........................................... 58 Engine Oil Filter Base - Assemble......................... 27
Crankshaft - Install................................................. 85 Assembly Procedure.......................................... 27
Installation Procedure ........................................ 85 Engine Oil Filter Base - Disassemble .................... 26
Crankshaft - Remove............................................. 83 Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 26
Removal Procedure ........................................... 83 Engine Oil Filter Base - Install ............................... 28
Installation Procedure ........................................ 28
104
Index Section

Engine Oil Filter Base - Remove ........................... 26 G


Removal Procedure ........................................... 26
Engine Oil Filter Bypass Valve - Remove and Gear Group (Front) - Install ................................... 53
Install ................................................................... 28 Installation Procedure ........................................ 53
Installation Procedure ........................................ 29 Gear Group (Front) - Remove ............................... 53
Removal Procedure ........................................... 28 Removal Procedure ........................................... 53
Engine Oil Pan - Remove and Install ..................... 72
Installation Procedure ........................................ 73
Removal Procedure ........................................... 72 H
Engine Oil Pump - Assemble................................. 34
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 34 Housing (Front) - Install ......................................... 57
Engine Oil Pump - Disassemble............................ 33 Installation Procedure ........................................ 57
Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 33 Housing (Front) - Remove ..................................... 57
Engine Oil Pump - Install ....................................... 36 Removal Procedure ........................................... 57
Installation Procedure ........................................ 36
Engine Oil Pump - Remove ................................... 32
Removal Procedure ........................................... 32 I
Engine Support (Front) - Remove and Install ........ 43
Installation Procedure ........................................ 43 Idler Pulley - Assemble .......................................... 90
Removal Procedure ........................................... 43 Assembly Procedure.......................................... 90
Ether Atomizer - Remove and Install ..................... 88 Idler Pulley - Disassemble ..................................... 89
Installation Procedure ........................................ 89 Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 89
Removal Procedure ........................................... 88 Idler Pulley - Install ................................................ 90
Exhaust Manifold - Remove and Install ................. 18 Installation Procedure ........................................ 90
Installation Procedure ........................................ 18 Idler Pulley - Remove ............................................ 89
Removal Procedure ........................................... 18 Removal Procedure ........................................... 89
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
F Assemble ............................................................. 13
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 13
Fan Drive - Assemble ............................................ 94 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Fan Drive Assembly ........................................... 94 Disassemble ........................................................ 12
Fan Drive - Disassemble ....................................... 94 Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 12
Disassembly Procedures ................................... 94 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Fan Drive - Install................................................... 95 Install ................................................................... 13
Installation Procedure ........................................ 95 Installation Procedure ........................................ 13
Fan Drive - Remove............................................... 93 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -
Removal Procedure ........................................... 93 Remove ............................................................... 12
Flywheel - Install.................................................... 44 Removal Procedure ........................................... 12
Installation Procedure ........................................ 44 Inlet and Exhaust Valve Guides - Remove and
Flywheel - Remove................................................ 44 Install ................................................................... 23
Removal Procedure ........................................... 44 Installation Procedure ........................................ 23
Flywheel Housing - Remove and Install ................ 48 Removal Procedure ........................................... 23
Installation Procedure ........................................ 48 Inlet and Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts - Remove and
Removal Procedure ........................................... 48 Install ................................................................... 24
Front Cover - Install ............................................... 52 Installation Procedure ........................................ 25
Installation Procedure ........................................ 52 Removal Procedure ........................................... 24
Front Cover - Remove ........................................... 52 Inlet and Exhaust Valves - Remove and Install ..... 21
Removal Procedure ........................................... 52 Installation Procedure ........................................ 22
Fuel Filter Base - Remove and Install ..................... 5 Removal Procedure ........................................... 21
Installation Procedure .......................................... 5
Removal Procedure ............................................. 5
Fuel Pressure Regulator - Remove and Install........ 8 L
Installation Procedure .......................................... 8
Removal Procedure ............................................. 8 Lifter Group - Remove and Install.......................... 66
Fuel Transfer Pump - Install..................................... 7 Installation Procedure ........................................ 67
Installation Procedure .......................................... 7 Removal Procedure ........................................... 66
Fuel Transfer Pump - Remove ................................. 6
Removal Procedure ............................................. 6
105
Index Section

P Vibration Damper and Pulley - Remove and


Install ................................................................... 49
Piston Cooling Jets - Remove and Install .............. 74 Installation Procedure ........................................ 50
Installation Procedure ........................................ 74 Removal Procedure ........................................... 49
Removal Procedure ........................................... 74
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Assemble ............ 77
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 77 W
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Disassemble ....... 76
Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 76 Water Pump - Assemble........................................ 38
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Install................... 79 Assembly Procedure.......................................... 38
Installation Procedure ........................................ 79 Water Pump - Disassemble ................................... 37
Pistons and Connecting Rods - Remove............... 75 Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 37
Removal Procedure ........................................... 75 Water Pump - Install .............................................. 39
Installation Procedure ........................................ 39
Water Pump - Remove .......................................... 36
R Removal Procedure ........................................... 36
Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and
Rocker Shaft - Assemble ....................................... 63 Install ................................................................... 41
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 63 Installation Procedure ........................................ 42
Rocker Shaft - Disassemble .................................. 62 Removal Procedure ........................................... 41
Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 62 Water Temperature Regulator Housing - Remove and
Rocker Shaft and Pushrod - Install ........................ 63 Install ................................................................... 40
Installation Procedure ........................................ 63 Installation Procedure ........................................ 41
Rocker Shaft and Pushrod - Remove .................... 61 Removal Procedure ........................................... 40
Removal Procedure ........................................... 61

Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Assemble ...................................... 17
Assembly Procedure.......................................... 17
Turbocharger - Disassemble.................................. 16
Disassembly Procedure ..................................... 16
Turbocharger - Install............................................. 17
Installation Procedure ........................................ 17
Turbocharger - Remove ......................................... 15
Removal Procedure ........................................... 15

Unit Injector - Install............................................... 10


Installation Procedure ........................................ 10
Unit Injector - Remove ............................................. 9
Removal Procedure ............................................. 9
Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump - Install .................... 15
Installation Procedure ........................................ 15
Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump - Remove................. 14
Removal Procedure ........................................... 14
Unit Injector Sleeve - Install ................................... 11
Installation Procedure ........................................ 11
Unit Injector Sleeve - Remove ............................... 10
Removal Procedure ........................................... 10

Valve Mechanism Cover - Remove and Install ...... 60


Installation Procedure ........................................ 61
Removal Procedure ........................................... 60
106
Index Section
107
Index Section
2001 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.
SENR3130-07
April 2000

Specifications
Torque Specifications
i01097883

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most
current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Specifications Section
General Torque Information .................................. 4
Standard Torque for Metric Fasteners .................. 4
Standard Torque for Inch Fasteners ...................... 5
Standard Torque for O-Ring Face Seal Fittings and
37 Degree Flared Fittings ................................... 5
O-Ring Face Seal Fittings ..................................... 6
Fitting Installation .................................................. 6
Torques for Flared and O-Ring Fittings ................. 8
Air Conditioning Fittings ........................................ 9
Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings ................................ 9
Tightening Other Fittings ...................................... 10
Standard Torque for Worm Drive Band Hose
Clamps ................................................................ 10
Standard Torque for Constant Torque Hose
Clamps ................................................................ 11

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 12
4
Specifications Section

Specifications Section Table 2


Metric Taperlock Studs

i01252954 Thread Size


Standard Torque
Metric
General Torque Information M6 8 3 Nm (6 2 lb ft)
SMCS Code: 7553 M8 17 5 Nm (13 4 lb ft)
M10 35 5 Nm (26 4 lb ft)
M12 65 10 Nm (48 7 lb ft)
Mismatched or incorrect fasteners can result in M16 110 20 Nm (80 15 lb ft)
damage or malfunction, or personal injury.
M20 170 30 Nm (125 22 lb ft)
Take care to avoid mixing metric dimensioned fas- M24 400 60 Nm (300 44 lb ft)
teners and inch dimensioned fasteners.
M30 750 80 Nm (550 60 lb ft)

Exceptions to these torques are given in the Service M36 1200 150 Nm (880 110 lb ft)
Manual, if necessary.

Prior to installation of any hardware, ensure that


components are in near new condition. Bolts and
threads must not be worn or damaged. Threads
must not have burrs or nicks. Hardware must be
free of rust and corrosion. Clean the hardware with
a noncorrosive cleaner. Do not lubricate the fastener
threads except for the rust preventive. The rust
preventive should be applied by the supplier of that
component for purposes of shipping and storage.
Other applications for lubricating components may
also be specified in the Service Manual.

i00621350

Standard Torque for Metric


Fasteners
SMCS Code: 7553
Table 1
Metric Nuts and Bolts
Thread Size
Standard Torque
Metric
M6 12 3 Nm (9 2 lb ft)
M8 28 7 Nm (21 5 lb ft)
M10 55 10 Nm (41 7 lb ft)
M12 100 20 Nm (75 15 lb ft)
M14 160 30 Nm (120 22 lb ft)
M16 240 40 Nm (175 30 lb ft)
M20 460 60 Nm (340 44 lb ft)
M24 800 100 Nm (590 75 lb ft)
M30 1600 200 Nm (1180 150 lb ft)
M36 2700 300 Nm (2000 220 lb ft)
5
Specifications Section

i00621349 i00642843

Standard Torque for Inch Standard Torque for O-Ring


Fasteners Face Seal Fittings and 37
SMCS Code: 7553
Degree Flared Fittings
Table 3 SMCS Code: 7553
Inch Nuts and Bolts
Thread Size
Standard Torque
Inch
1/4 12 3 Nm (9 2 lb ft)
5/16 25 6 Nm (18 4 lb ft)
3/8 47 9 Nm (35 7 lb ft)
7/16 70 15 Nm (50 11 lb ft)
1/2 105 20 Nm (75 15 lb ft)
9/16 160 30 Nm (120 22 lb ft)
5/8 215 40 Nm (160 30 lb ft)
3/4 370 50 Nm (275 37 lb ft)
7/8 620 80 Nm (460 60 lb ft)
1 900 100 Nm (660 75 lb ft)
1 1/8 1300 150 Nm (960 110 lb ft)
g00287842
1 1/4 1800 200 Nm (1320 150 lb ft) Illustration 1

1 3/8 2400 300 Nm (1780 220 lb ft) (A) O-ring face seal. (B) 37 degree flare. (C) O-ring plug with a
hexagon head. (1) O-ring seal. (2) Hexagon head.
1 1/2 3100 350 Nm (2280 260 lb ft)

Table 4
Inch Taperlock Studs
Thread Size
Standard Torque
Inch
1/4 8 3 Nm (6 2 lb ft)
5/16 17 5 Nm (13 4 lb ft)
3/8 35 5 Nm (26 4 lb ft)
7/16 45 10 Nm (33 7 lb ft)
1/2 65 10 Nm (48 7 lb ft)
5/8 110 20 Nm (80 15 lb ft)
3/4 170 30 Nm (125 22 lb ft)
7/8 260 40 Nm (190 30 lb ft)
1 400 60 Nm (300 44 lb ft)
1 1/8 525 60 Nm (390 44 lb ft)
1 1/4 750 80 Nm (550 60 lb ft)
1 3/8 950 125 Nm (700 90 lb ft)
1 1/2 1200 150 Nm (880 110 lb ft)
6
Specifications Section

Table 5 i00643194

Ferrous Straight Thread O-Ring Fitting


Torques for Mating with Ferrous Materials
O-Ring Face Seal Fittings
Outer Diameter SMCS Code: 7553
Thread Size Standard
of the Nominal
Inch Torque
Tube
3.18 mm 5.0 1.5 Nm
5/16 - 24
(.125 inch) (4 1 lb ft)
4.76 mm 12 2 Nm
3/8 - 24
(.188 inch) (9 1 lb ft)
6.35 mm 22 2 Nm
7/16 - 20
(.250 inch) (16 1 lb ft)
7.94 mm 30 3 Nm
1/2 - 20
(.312 inch) (22 2 lb ft)
9.52 mm 48 5 Nm
9/16 - 18
(.375 inch) (35 4 lb ft)
12.70 mm 82 8 Nm g00287959
3/4 - 16 Illustration 2
(.500 inch) (60 6 lb ft)
O-ring face seal fittings
15.88 mm 143 15 Nm (1) O-ring face seal fitting. (2) O-ring groove. (3) Nut for the O-ring
7/8 - 14
(.625 inch) (105 11 lb ft) face seal. (4) O-ring seal. (5) Straight thread O-ring fitting.

19.05 mm 190 20 Nm Table 6


1 1/16 - 12
(.750 inch) (140 15 lb ft)
Ferrous Straight Thread O-Ring Fitting
22.22 mm 250 25 Nm
1 3/16 - 12 Thread Size
(.875 inch) (185 18 lb ft) Standard Torque
Inch
25.40 mm 300 30 Nm
1 5/16 - 12 9/16 - 18 25 3 Nm (18 2 lb ft)
(1.000 inch) (220 22 lb ft)
31.75 mm 350 30 Nm 11/16 - 16 37 4 Nm (27 3 lb ft)
1 5/8 - 12
(1.250 inch) (260 22 lb ft)
13/16 - 16 54 5 Nm (40 4 lb ft)
38.10 mm 430 40 Nm
1 7/8 - 12 1 - 14 86 8 Nm (65 6 lb ft)
(1.500 inch) (320 30 lb ft)
50.80 mm 450 45 Nm 1 13/16 - 12 125 15 Nm (90 11 lb ft)
2 1/2 - 12
(2.000 inch) (330 33 lb ft) 1 7/16 - 12 165 15 Nm (120 11 lb ft)
1 11/16 - 12 200 20 Nm (150 15 lb ft)
Note: Use 50 percent of the torque values from
Table 5 when the fitting, the plug or the port material 2 - 12 225 20 Nm (165 15 lb ft)
is nonferrous.

i00643197

Fitting Installation
SMCS Code: 7553

Note: The tightening sequence of the fasteners that


attach a tube assembly or hose assembly to the
machine is very critical to the proper function of the
machine. The sealing surfaces of the tube assembly
or hose assembly should be secured squarely.
The sealing surfaces of the tube assembly or hose
assembly should be tightened to the serviced
component (control valve, cylinder, hydraulic motor,
etc). Perform this procedure prior to the final
tightening of any clamps or clips that are used
in order to fasten the tube assembly or the hose
assembly to the machine.
7
Specifications Section

Installation of the Hydraulic Line


1. For a metal tube to hose installation, install the
tube and tighten all bolts finger tight at the rigid
end.

2. Install the hose and tighten all bolts finger tight.

3. Put the hose in a position so that the hose does


not make contact with the machine or with
another hose.

4. Tighten the bolts on both connections to the


specified torque.

5. Start the engine.

6. Move the implement control levers to all of the


positions.

7. Look at the hose during movement of the


implement. Ensure that the hose is not in contact Illustration 3 g00288144
with the machine or with other hoses. Elbow body assembly
(1) End of the fitting body that connects to the tube. (2) Fitting
8. Shut off the engine. body. (3) Locknut. (4) Backup washer. (5) O-ring seal. (6) End of
the fitting that goes into the other part.
9. If necessary, put the hose in a new position so
that the hose will not make contact when the 1. Put locknut (3), backup washer (4) and O-ring
machine implement is moved. seal (5) as far back on fitting body (2) as
possible. Hold these components in this position.
Assembly of the Fittings with Turn the fitting into the part that is used for the
fitting. Turn the fitting until backup washer (4)
Straight Threads and O-Ring Seals contacts the surface of the part that is used for
backup washer (4).
This type of fitting is used in many applications.
The tube end of the fitting will be different in 2. To put the fitting assembly in the correct position,
design so that the fitting can be used in many turn fitting body (2) outward to a maximum of
different applications. However, the same installation 360 degrees. Tighten locknut (3) to the torque
procedure for the fitting can be used. If the tube that is shown in the correct chart for the fitting
end of the fitting body and the illustration (elbow or that is used.
straight body) match, it is necessary to assemble
the sleeve on the tube before connecting the tube Note: If the fitting is a connector (straight fitting), the
to the end. hex on the body takes the place of the locknut. To
install this type of fitting, tighten the hex against the
face of the part for the hex.
8
Specifications Section

i00644796 Table 7

Torques for Flared and O-Ring Nuts for 37 Degree Flared Fittings

Fittings Outer Diameter


of the Nominal
Thread Size Standard
Inch Torque
Tube
SMCS Code: 7553
3.18 mm 5.0 1.5 Nm
5/16
The torques that are shown in Table 7 and in Table (.125 inch) (4 1 lb ft)
8 should be used on the nut of the following fittings: 4.76 mm 11 2 Nm
37 degree flared fittings, 45 degree flared fittings, 3/8
(.188 inch) (8 1 lb ft)
inverted flared fittings, O-ring plugs for a recessed
drive, O-ring fittings for the air conditioning, 6.35 mm 16 4 Nm
7/16
and swivel nuts. The torques should be used (.250 inch) (12 3 lb ft)
for applications that allow the following working 7.94 mm 20 5 Nm
pressures: 7750 to 34,450 kPa (1125 to 5000 psi). 1/2
(.312 inch) (15 4 lb ft)
The torque depends on the size of the fitting and
the type of the fitting. 9.52 mm 25 5 Nm
9/16
(.375 inch) (18 4 lb ft)

37 Degree Flared Fittings 9.52 mm 35 5 Nm


5/8
(.375 inch) (26 4 lb ft)
12.70 mm 50 7 Nm
3/4
(.500 inch) (37 5 lb ft)
15.88 mm 65 7 Nm
7/8
(.625 inch) (48 5 lb ft)
19.05 mm 100 10 Nm
1 1/16
(.750 inch) (75 7 lb ft)
g00288204 22.22 mm 120 10 Nm
Illustration 4
1 3/16
(1) 37 degree flared fitting. (2) Swivel nuts.
(.875 inch) (90 7 lb ft)
25.40 mm 135 15 Nm
1 5/16
(1.000 inch) (100 11 lb ft)
31.75 mm 180 15 Nm
1 5/8
(1.250 inch) (135 11 lb ft)
38.10 mm 225 15 Nm
1 7/8
(1.500 inch) (165 11 lb ft)
50.80 mm 320 30 Nm
2 1/2
(2.000 inch) (240 22 lb ft)

Note: Use 50 percent of the torque values from


Table 7 when the fitting, the plug or the port material
is nonferrous.

45 Degree Flared and 45 Degree


Inverted Flare Fittings

g00288205
Illustration 5
(1) 45 degree inverted flared fittings. (2) 45 degree flared fittings.
9
Specifications Section

Table 8 Table 9
45 Degree Flared Fittings and 45 Degree Air Conditioning Fittings
Inverted Flare Fittings
45 Degree Flare Fitting
O-Ring Fitting End
Outer Diameter End
Thread Size Standard
of the Nominal
Inch Torque Steel Aluminum
Tube Thread
Standard Tubes Tubes
Size
3.18 mm 5.0 1.5 Nm Torque Standard Standard
5/16 Inch
(.125 inch) (4 1 lb ft) Torque Torque
4.76 mm 8.0 1.5 Nm 14 4 Nm 30 3 Nm 23 3 Nm
3/8 5/8 - 18
(.188 inch) (6 1 lb ft) (10 3 lb ft) (22 2 lb ft) (17 2 lb ft)
6.35 mm 11 2 Nm 27 4 Nm 52 5 Nm 33 4 Nm
7/16 3/4 - 16
(.250 inch) (8 1 lb ft) (20 3 lb ft) (38 4 lb ft) (24 4 lb ft)
7.94 mm 17 3 Nm 40 4 Nm 60 7 Nm 38 4 Nm
1/2 7/8 - 14
(.312 inch) (13 2 lb ft) (30 3 lb ft) (44 5 lb ft) (28 3 lb ft)
9.52 mm 30 3 Nm 45 5 Nm 75 8 Nm 50 5 Nm
5/8 1 1/16 - 14
(.375 inch) (22 2 lb ft) (33 4 lb ft) (55 6 lb ft) (37 4 lb ft)
11.11 mm 30 3 Nm
11/16
(.438 inch) (22 2 lb ft)
i00644809
12.70 mm 38 4 Nm
(.500 inch)
3/4
(28 3 lb ft) Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings
15.88 mm 50 5 Nm
(.625 inch)
7/8
(37 4 lb ft)
SMCS Code: 7553

19.05 mm 90 8 Nm Table 10
1 1/16
(.750 inch) (65 6 lb ft) Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings
22.22 mm 100 10 Nm Standard Torque
1 1/4
(.875 inch) (75 7 lb ft) Thread Size
of the Pipe Threads with
Threads without
Inch 5P-3413 Pipe
Pipe Sealant
i00644800 Sealant
1/16 - 27 10 Nm (7 lb ft) 10 Nm (7 lb ft)
Air Conditioning Fittings
1/8 - 27 16 Nm (12 lb ft) 16 Nm (12 lb ft)
SMCS Code: 7553
1/4 - 18 20 Nm (15 lb ft) 25 Nm (18 lb ft)
3/8 - 18 35 Nm (26 lb ft) 45 Nm (33 lb ft)
1/2 - 14 45 Nm (33 lb ft) 60 Nm (44 lb ft)
3/4 - 14 60 Nm (44 lb ft) 75 Nm (55 lb ft)
1 - 11 1/2 75 Nm (55 lb ft) 90 Nm (65 lb ft)
1 1/4 - 11 1/2 90 Nm (65 lb ft) 110 Nm (80 lb ft)
g00288301
Illustration 6
1 1/2 - 11 1/2 110 Nm (80 lb ft) 130 Nm (95 lb ft)
(1) O-ring seal. (2) 45 degree flare fitting.
2 - 11 1/2 130 Nm (95 lb ft) 160 Nm (120 lb ft)

Note: Use 50 percent of the torque values from


Table 10 when the fitting, the plug or the port
material is nonferrous.
10
Specifications Section

i00645384 Put the nut and the sleeve over the tube. The head
of the sleeve or the shoulder end of the sleeve
Tightening Other Fittings should be next to the nut. Push the tube into the
counterbore of the fitting body as far as possible.
SMCS Code: 7553 Turn the nut clockwise until the sleeve holds the
tube and until the sleeve prevents the tube from
Hi Duty Tube Fittings (Shear Sleeve) moving. Tighten the nut for an additional 1 1/4 turns.
The sleeve should be seated and the sleeve should
give a locking action. When it is necessary to
assemble the tube fitting again, put the sleeve over
the tube and tighten the nut until a sudden increase
in torque is felt. Next, tighten the fitting for an
additional 1/6 to 1/3 turn in order to seat the sleeve.

Flex Fittings
g00288323
Illustration 7

After the tube has been put through the nut and
after the tube makes contact against the tube
shoulder in the fitting body, turn the nut with a
wrench until a small decrease in torque is felt. The
small decrease in torque indicates that the sleeve
has been broken off of the nut. Hold the tube in
order to prevent the tube from turning. Tighten the Illustration 10
g00288326
nut for an additional 1 1/2 turns.
Put the nut and the sleeve over the tubing and push
Hi Seal Fittings the tube into the counterbore of the fitting body
as far as possible. Tighten the nut until the nut is
against the hex part of the fitting body.

i01206505

Standard Torque for Worm


Drive Band Hose Clamps
g00288324
Illustration 8 SMCS Code: 7553
Put the nut and the sleeve over the tubing so that
the end of the sleeve that is short and heavy is
facing the end of the tubing. Put the tube end
against the counterbore in the body of the fitting and
tighten the nut until the nut is over the last thread
on the body. The remainder of the space is used
whenever the fitting is removed and installed again.
g00280501
Illustration 11
Tube Fittings that are Not Flared

g00288325
Illustration 9
11
Specifications Section

Table 11
Initial Installation Torque
Width of Clamp
On New Hose
7.9 mm (0.31 inch) 0.9 0.2 Nm (8 2 lb in)
13.5 mm (0.53 inch) 4.5 0.5 Nm (40 4 lb in)
15.9 mm (0.63 inch) 7.5 0.5 Nm (65 4 lb in)
Reassembly or Retightening
Width of Clamp
Torque
7.9 mm (0.31 inch) 0.7 0.2 Nm (6 2 lb in)
13.5 mm (0.53 inch) 3.0 0.5 Nm (27 4 lb in)
15.9 mm (0.63 inch) 4.5 0.5 Nm (40 4 lb in)

i01206414

Standard Torque for Constant


Torque Hose Clamps
SMCS Code: 7553

Use a constant torque hose clamp in place of any


standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
hose clamp. Due to extreme temperature changes,
the hose will heat set. Heat setting can cause hose
clamps to loosen. Loose hose clamps can result
in leaks. There have been reports of component
failures that have been caused by hose clamps that
have loosened. The constant torque hose clamp will
help prevent these failures.

g00279591
Illustration 12

Use a torque wrench for proper installation of the


constant torque hose clamps. The constant torque
hose clamp is installed correctly under the following
conditions:

Screw tip (1) extends 6.35 mm (0.25 inch) (X)


beyond the housing.

The belleville washers are collapsed nearly


flat after screw (2) is tightened to a torque of
11 1 Nm (98 9 lb in).
Index
A

Air Conditioning Fittings......................................... 9

Fitting Installation................................................... 6
Assembly of the Fittings with Straight Threads and
O-Ring Seals.................................................... 7
Installation of the Hydraulic Line ........................ 7

General Torque Information................................... 4

Important Safety Information ................................. 2

O-Ring Face Seal Fittings ..................................... 6

Specifications Section ........................................... 4


Standard Torque for Constant Torque Hose
Clamps................................................................. 11
Standard Torque for Inch Fasteners ...................... 5
Standard Torque for Metric Fasteners ................... 4
Standard Torque for O-Ring Face Seal Fittings and
37 Degree Flared Fittings .................................... 5
Standard Torque for Worm Drive Band Hose
Clamps................................................................. 10

Table of Contents................................................... 3
Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings ................................ 9
Tightening Other Fittings ....................................... 10
Flex Fittings........................................................ 10
Hi Duty Tube Fittings (Shear Sleeve) ................. 10
Hi Seal Fittings................................................... 10
Tube Fittings that are Not Flared........................ 10
Torques for Flared and O-Ring Fittings ................. 8
37 Degree Flared Fittings .................................. 8
45 Degree Flared and 45 Degree Inverted Flare
Fittings.............................................................. 8

2000 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.
RENR1270-06
March 2001

Specifications
3126B and 3126E Truck Engines
BKD1-Up (Engine)
1AJ1-Up (Engine)
8YL1-Up (Engine)
CKM1-Up (Engine)
CRP1-Up (Engine)
7AS1-Up (Engine)
8SZ1-Up (Engine)
9SZ1-Up (Engine)
i01097883

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most
current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (If Equipped) ........


Inlet Air Temperature Sensor ................................
36
36
Speed and Timing Sensor ................................... 37
Electronic Control Wiring Group ........................... 37
Specifications Section Air Inlet Heater ...................................................... 37
Air Compressor (Midland Air Compressors) ......... 38
Engine Design ....................................................... 4
Air Compressor (Bendix Tu-Flo Air
Fuel Transfer Pump (Fuel Transfer Pump and High
Compressors) ..................................................... 38
Pressure Oil Pump) ............................................... 4
Fuel Filter Lines ...................................................... 5
Fuel Filter Base ...................................................... 5 Index Section
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve ............. 6
Unit Injector ............................................................. 6 Index ..................................................................... 40
Valve Rocker Arms, Lifters, and Bridges ............... 7
Valve Mechanism Cover ........................................ 7
Cylinder Head Valves .............................................. 7
Cylinder Head ........................................................ 9
Turbocharger ........................................................ 11
Air Inlet Elbow ....................................................... 12
Exhaust Manifold ................................................. 12
Exhaust Elbow ..................................................... 12
Exhaust Brake ...................................................... 13
Camshaft ............................................................. 13
Engine Oil Filter Base .......................................... 14
Engine Oil Cooler Bypass Valve ........................... 14
Engine Oil Pump .................................................. 15
Engine Oil Pan ..................................................... 15
Crankcase Breather ............................................. 16
Water Temperature Regulator .............................. 16
Water Temperature Regulator .............................. 17
Water Pump ......................................................... 17
Cylinder Block Cover Group ................................ 18
Cylinder Block ...................................................... 18
Crankshaft ........................................................... 20
Crankshaft Seals ................................................. 20
Rear Seal Carrier (If Equipped) ............................ 21
Vibration Damper ................................................. 22
Connecting Rod Bearing Journal ......................... 22
Main Bearing Journal ............................................ 22
Connecting Rod ................................................... 22
Piston and Rings .................................................. 23
Piston and Rings .................................................. 24
Piston Cooling Jet ................................................. 26
Piston Cooling Jet ................................................. 26
Front Housing and Covers ................................... 27
Gear Group (Front) ............................................... 28
Flywheel ............................................................... 29
Flywheel Housing ................................................ 29
Engine to Transmission Adapter (If Equipped) ..... 30
Crankshaft Pulley ................................................. 30
Belt Tension Chart ............................................... 30
Belt Tensioner (If Equipped) ................................. 31
Belt Tightener ...................................................... 31
Refrigerant Compressor ....................................... 32
Fan Drive ............................................................. 32
Alternator and Regulator ...................................... 33
Electric Starting Motor ......................................... 33
Electric Starting Motor ......................................... 34
Coolant Temperature Sensor ............................... 35
Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor ..................... 35
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (If Equipped) ............ 35
Engine Oil Temperature Sensor (If Equipped) ...... 36
Boost Pressure Sensor ......................................... 36
4
Specifications Section

Specifications Section i01147139

Fuel Transfer Pump


i01146230 (Fuel Transfer Pump and High
Engine Design Pressure Oil Pump)
SMCS Code: 1201 SMCS Code: 1256

g00290846 g00608597
Illustration 1 Illustration 2
Cylinder And Valve Location
(A) Exhaust valve.
(1) Tighten the bolt to the following
torque. .................. 110 14 Nm (80 10 lb ft)
(B) Inlet valve.
(2) Injection actuation pressure control valve
Bore ............................................ 110 mm (4.3 inch) (IAPCV)
Stroke .......................................... 127 mm (5.0 inch) (3) Tighten the inlet of the oil pump to the following
3 torque. ........................ 26 3 Nm (19 2 lb ft)
Displacement .................................. 7.25 L (442 in )
(4) Tighten the outlet of the oil pump to the following
Number of cylinders ............................................... 6 torque. ........................ 23 2 Nm (17 1 lb ft)
Cylinder arrangement ..................................... In-line (5) Tighten the outlet of the fuel pump to the
following torque. ......... 18 2 Nm (13 1 lb ft)
Valves per cylinder ................................................. 3
(6) Tighten the inlet of the fuel pump to the following
In order to check the engine valve lash setting, torque. ........................ 18 2 Nm (13 1 lb ft)
the engine must be cold and the engine must be
stopped. Engine valve lash settings
Inlet .................................. 0.38 mm (0.015 inch)
Exhaust ............................ 0.64 mm (0.025 inch)

Type of combustion .......................... Direct Injection

Firing Order ................................ 1 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 2 - 4

The crankshaft rotation is viewed from the


flywheel end of the engine. Crankshaft
rotation .......................................... counterclockwise

Note: The front end of the engine is opposite of


the flywheel end of the engine. The left side of the g00617095
Illustration 3
engine and the right side of the engine are viewed
from the flywheel end of the engine. The number
one cylinder is the front cylinder. (7) Tighten the nut on the tube assembly to the
following torque. ......... 37 4 Nm (27 3 lb ft)
5
Specifications Section

(8) Tighten the locknut at the cylinder head to the i00867319


following torque. ......... 48 5 Nm (35 7 lb ft)
Fuel Filter Base
(9) Connection of tube assembly to pump outlet
SMCS Code: 1261; 1262
Tighten the nut on the tube assembly to the
following torque. ......... 37 4 Nm (27 3 lb ft)
Tighten the locknut at the pump outlet to the
following torque. ...... 23 2 Nm (17 1.5 lb ft)

i00665415

Fuel Filter Lines


SMCS Code: 1274

g00322250
Illustration 5
Typical example

(1) Put 4C-9507 Retaining Compound on the


tapered end of the stud to the following
distance. ............. 7.6 1.5 mm (.30 .06 inch)

(2) Distance from the sealing surface of the filter


base to the end of the stud ....... 24.6 1.3 mm
(.97 .05 inch)
g00291745
Illustration 4
Typical example (3) Sealing surface of the stud
Left side of engine
Note: Do not damage this surface.
Note: Refer to the System Operation, Testing and
(4) Torque for stud .. 68 7 Nm (50.15 5.16 lb ft)
Adjusting, Fuel Pressure for the correct method of
inspecting fuel pressure.

(1) Tube assembly (fuel filter to fuel gallery)

(2) Tube assembly (fuel transfer pump to fuel filter)

(3) Fuel outlet port

(4) The fuel pressure regulator valve maintains


minimum fuel system pressure.
Minimum pressure at low idle .. 400 kPa (58 psi)

(5) The position for the fuel pressure regulator valve


is 10 Degrees from horizontal.
6
Specifications Section

i00665959 i01146244

Injection Actuation Pressure Unit Injector


Control Valve SMCS Code: 1290
SMCS Code: 5051

g00291832
Illustration 6

(1) Install the injection actuation pressure control


valve. Tighten the valve to the following
torque. ........................ 50 5 Nm (37 4 lb ft)

(2) Tighten the nut to the following


torque. ................. 5.5 1.5 Nm (49 13 lb in)

(3) Spacer

g00616863
Illustration 7

(1) Lubricate the bore slightly. Use the lubricant


that is being sealed.

(2) Tighten bolt (2) to the following


torque. ......................... 6 1 Nm (53 9 lb in)

(3) Position oil deflector (3).

(4) Tighten bolt (4) to the following


torque. ................... 12 3 Nm (106 26 lb in)
7
Specifications Section

i01510477 (5) The lifter group must be installed with the oil
holes in the shaft, as shown.
Valve Rocker Arms, Lifters,
and Bridges (6) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound.
Tighten the bolts that are shown above
SMCS Code: 1102; 1121; 1209 in a numerical sequence to the following
torque. ........................ 13 3 Nm (10 2 lb ft)

i00666014

Valve Mechanism Cover


SMCS Code: 1107

g00291835
Illustration 10
Typical example

Tighten the bolts in a numerical sequence to the


following torque. ................. 12 3 Nm (9 2 lb ft)
g00291845
Illustration 8
i01146333

(1) Valve rocker arm assembly Cylinder Head Valves


Bore in the rocker arm for the shaft
(new) ................................... 21.548 0.013 mm SMCS Code: 1105
(0.8483 0.0005 inch)
Diameter of the rocker arm shaft
(new) ................................... 21.500 0.013 mm
(0.8465 0.0005 inch)

(2) Tighten the locknut to the following


torque. ........................ 30 7 Nm (22 5 lb ft)

(3) Valve lash


Inlet valves ...................... 0.38 mm (0.015 inch)
Exhaust valves ................ 0.64 mm (0.025 inch)

(4) Lifter assembly


Bore in the lifter arm for the shaft
(new) ................................... 15.670 0.013 mm
(0.6169 0.0005 inch)
Diameter of shaft (new) ...... 15.620 0.018 mm
(0.6150 0.0007 inch)

g00291847 g00291915
Illustration 9 Illustration 11
View A-A
8
Specifications Section

Note: The inlet and exhaust valve stems must be Exhaust valve .............. 9.408 mm (0.3704 inch)
coated with engine oil prior to installation in the
cylinder head. After installation into the cylinder head, the valve
guide bore is the following value.
Note: The tips of the inlet and exhaust valves must
be coated with 8T-2998 Lubricant. The lubricant Diameter of the valve guide bore (new)
must be applied after assembly of the retainer.
Inlet valve ............................. 8.072 0.013 mm
(1) Exhaust valve (0.3178 0.0005 inch)
Exhaust valve ....................... 9.515 0.013 mm
(2) Inlet valve (0.3746 0.0005 inch)

(3) 137-6718 Spring for exhaust valve The valve guide can be reused. The valve guide
bore must not be larger than the following value.
Free length .................... 92.08 mm (3.625 inch)
Assembled length ......... 80.27 mm (3.160 inch) Maximum diameter of a valve guide bore (worn)
Load at assembled length ............... 662 33 N
(148 7 lb) Inlet valve .................... 8.080 mm (0.3181 inch)
Minimum operating length ................. 66.27 mm Exhaust valve .............. 9.538 mm (0.3755 inch)
(2.609 inch)
Load at minimum operating length .. 1445 58 N (7) Diameter of the valve head
(325 13 lb)
Inlet valve ............................... 40.00 0.13 mm
(1.575 0.005 inch)
(4) 140-6188 Spring for inlet valve Exhaust valve ......................... 43.00 0.13 mm
Free length ........................ 67.5 mm (2.66 inch) (1.693 0.005 inch)
Assembled length ............. 60.4 mm (2.38 inch)
Load at assembled length ............... 303 18 N (8) Angle of the valve faces
(68 4 lb)
Inlet valve ........................ 29.75 0.25 degrees
Minimum operating length ................... 46.4 mm
Exhaust valve ....................... 45 0.25 degrees
(1.83 inch)
Load at minimum operating length .. 899 36 N
(202 8 lb)

(5) Height to the top of the valve guides


Inlet valves ............................. 23.00 0.50 mm
(0.906 0.020 inch)
Exhaust valves ....................... 17.80 0.50 mm
(0.701 0.020 inch)
Diameter of valve guide ................... 12.065 mm
(0.4750 inch)

Note: Install the valve guide from the spring side of


the cylinder head.
g00291916
Note: Assemble the valve guide. Seat the seal Illustration 12
against the top of the valve guide.
(9) Diameter of the valve seat inserts
(6) Valve stem diameter (new) Inlet valve ........................... 42.000 0.013 mm
Inlet valves ........................... 8.000 0.008 mm (1.6535 0.0005 inch)
(0.3150 0.0003 inch) Exhaust valve ..................... 46.000 0.013 mm
Exhaust valve ....................... 9.441 0.010 mm (1.8110 0.0005 inch)
(0.3717 0.0004 inch)
Diameter of the bore in cylinder head for the valve
The cylinder head valves can be reused if the seat insert
minimum dimensions for the valve stems are met.
Bore diameter
Minimum diameter of a valve stem (worn) Inlet valve ........................... 41.931 0.013 mm
Inlet valve .................... 7.965 mm (0.3136 inch) (1.6508 0.0005 inch)
9
Specifications Section

Exhaust valve ..................... 45.931 0.013 mm i01329325


(1.8083 0.0005 inch)
Cylinder Head
Note: The valve seat insert must be shrunk by
reduced temperature before the valve seat insert SMCS Code: 1100
is installed in the head.

(10) Angle of the valve seat inserts


Inlet valve ........................ 30.25 0.25 degrees
Exhaust valve .................... 44.5 0.25 degrees

(11) Depth of the bore in the head for the valve seat
insert ..... 10.00 0.05 mm (0.394 0.002 inch)

(12) Outside diameter of the seating face of the


valve seat insert
Inlet valve .................. 37.351 mm (1.4705 inch)
Exhaust valve ............ 40.800 mm (1.6063 inch)
g00619066
Illustration 13
Note: Do not reuse the valve seat inserts if the
outside diameter of the valve seat insert is larger (1) Large bolts
than the specified value.
(2) Small bolts
(13) The valve lips can be reused if the minimum
dimensions for the valve lips are met. Use the following procedure to install bolts (1) and
(2):
Inlet valve ........................ 2.04 mm (0.080 inch)
Exhaust valve .................. 1.63 mm (0.064 inch) 1. Apply engine oil to the threads of the bolts.
(14) Distance from the head of the valve to the 2. Tighten the large bolts (1) in a numerical
cylinder head face. The valve must be closed. sequence.
Inlet valve Tighten the bolts to the following
Maximum permissible distance ........... 1.71 mm torque. .................. 150 15 Nm (110 11 lb ft)
(0.067 inch)
Minimum permissible distance ............ 1.09 mm 3. Tighten the large bolts (1) in a numerical
(0.043 inch) sequence.

Exhaust valve Tighten the bolts to the following


torque. .................. 435 20 Nm (320 15 lb ft)
Maximum permissible distance ........... 1.71 mm
(0.067 inch) 4. Tighten the large bolts (1) again in a numerical
Minimum permissible distance ............ 1.09 mm sequence.
(0.043 inch)
Tighten the bolts to the following
torque. .................. 435 20 Nm (320 15 lb ft)

5. Tighten the small bolts (2) in a numerical


sequence.

Tighten the bolts to the following


torque. .......................... 55 7 Nm (41 5 lb ft)
10
Specifications Section

g00292446
Illustration 14
Front and rear views of the cylinder head

(3) The installation depth of the cup plug is


measured from the face of the cylinder
head to the top edge of the plug. Depth of
installation ................................. 1.25 0.25 mm
(0.049 0.010 inch)

(4) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to


the first three threads of the plugs. Tighten the
plugs to the following torque. ...... 184 18 Nm
(136 13 lb ft)
g00616924
Illustration 15
(5) Height of new cylinder head ..... 158 0.15 mm Cross section view of the cylinder head
(6.220 0.006 inch) The view is rotated 15.5 degrees in a counterclockwise direction.

(6) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the


cylinder head at location (A).

g00703447
Illustration 16
Location Of The Socket Setscrew (Orifice)
11
Specifications Section

(7) Tighten a new 154-8025 Socket Setscrew Note: The 3E-8017 Locknut has a special thread
(orifice) that has the dry Loctite to a torque of form that is identifiable from a standard thread. This
47 9 Nm (35 7 lb ft). thread form is called a Spiralock thread.

The new 154-8025 Socket Setscrew and the The 136-0612 Turbocharger and 136-0613
former 142-7290 Socket Setscrew (orifice) may be Turbocharger is secured to the exhaust manifold
reused. Apply 154-9731 Thread Lock Compound with the 9X-6620 Locknut. Tighten the 9X-6620
to the threads of the socket setscrew (orifice). Locknut to the following torque. ............. 70 5 Nm
Tighten the socket setscrew (orifice) to a torque of (50 4 lb ft)
47 9 Nm (35 7 lb ft).
Note: The 9X-6620 Locknut is a locknut with a
standard thread form.
i01498172

Turbocharger (2) Exhaust inlet

SMCS Code: 1052 (3) Exhaust outlet

(4) Air inlet

(5) Waste gate

Opening pressure of the wastegate .... 148 3 kPa


(21.5 0.5 psi)

End play for a new shaft .............. .102 0.025 mm


(.0040 .0010 inch)

Maximum permissible end play for a worn


shaft ......................................... 0.20 mm (.008 inch)

Use the following procedure to install the band


g00777391 clamps to hold the cartridge to the compressor
Illustration 17
Typical example of turbocharger with a wastegate housing:

1. Tighten the clamps to a torque of 14 1.1 Nm


(125 10 lb in).

2. Tap lightly around the circumference of the


clamp.

3. Tighten the clamps again. Tighten the clamps to


a torque of 14 1.1 Nm (125 10 lb in).

Note: Put clean engine oil in the oil inlet of the


turbocharger after assembly or before installation.
This will provide lubrication during start-up and
during storage.
g00777400
Illustration 18
Typical example of turbocharger without a wastegate

(1) Stud

Apply 5P-3931 Anti-Seize Compound to the studs.

The 136-0610 Turbocharger and the 136-0611


Turbocharger are secured to the exhaust manifold
with the 3E-8017 Locknut. Tighten the 3E-8017
Locknut to the following torque. ............. 54 5 Nm
(40 4 lb ft)
12
Specifications Section

i01498928

Air Inlet Elbow


SMCS Code: 1071

g00291084
Illustration 20
Three-piece exhaust manifold
Typical example

3. Apply 5P-3931 Anti-Seize Compound to the


threads of bolts (1 through 12).

4. Tighten bolts (1 through 12 ) in a numerical


sequence.

Tighten the bolts to the following


g00777818
Illustration 19 torque. ........................... 4 1 Nm (35 9 lb in)

(1) Air Inlet Elbow 5. Tighten bolts (1 through 12 ) in a numerical


sequence.
Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to the face of
the elbow and spread the sealant uniformly. The Tighten the bolts to the following
elbow must be assembled and the elbow must be torque. .......................... 45 5 Nm (33 4 lb ft)
tightened within ten minutes.
6. Lock the tabs and bend the tabs (13) over the
(2) Tighten the bolts to the following flat of the bolt heads.
torque. ........................ 28 7 Nm (21 5 lb ft)
7. Tighten the studs (14) to a torque of 35 5 Nm
(26 4 lb ft).
i01515581

Exhaust Manifold i00873446

SMCS Code: 1059 Exhaust Elbow


NOTICE SMCS Code: 1061
Excessive use of sealant can cause damage to com-
ponents.

To avoid component damage use only the amount of


sealant necessary for the application.

Use the following procedure during assembly of the


three-piece exhaust manifold to the cylinder block.

1. Apply clean engine oil to the inside diameter of


the female ends of the exhaust manifold.

2. Apply 2P-2333 High Temperature Sealer to the


outside diameter of the male ends of the exhaust
g00443065
manifold. Do not apply the sealer at the tip of Illustration 21
the male ends. Remove any excess sealer from
the assembled joint. (1) Tighten the nut for the clamp to the following
torque. .......................... 12 4 Nm (9 3 lb ft)
13
Specifications Section

i00880497 (3) Diameter of the camshaft


journals ............................... 65.126 0.013 mm
Exhaust Brake (2.5640 0.0005 inch)
SMCS Code: 1093 (4) Inlet lobe

(5) Exhaust lobe

(6) Distance between the shoulder of the camshaft


and the shoulder of the gear

Total distance ................................. 4.83 0.05 mm


(0.190 0.002 inch)

g00449163
Illustration 22

(1) Tighten the clamps that hold the exhaust


brake to the exhaust pipe to the following
torque. ................... 8.5 0.5 Nm (75 4 lb in)

i00663394

Camshaft Illustration 24
g00291256

SMCS Code: 1210 (7) Camshaft lobe lift

Specified camshaft lobe lift (7)


Exhaust lobe .................. 7.707 mm (.3034 inch)
Inlet lobe ........................ 7.970 mm (.3138 inch)

To find the lobe lift, use the procedure that follows:

1. Measure the camshaft lobe height (8).

2. Measure the base circle (9).

3. Subtract the base circle that is found in Step 2


from the lobe height that is found in Step 1. The
difference is the actual camshaft lobe lift (7).
g00291257
Illustration 23
Maximum permissible difference between actual
(1) Heat the gear for installation. Do not use a torch. lobe lift and the specified lobe lift of a new
camshaft ............................... 0.10 mm (.004 inch)
Maximum temperature ................. 316C (600F)

(2) The following dimensions are located in the area


that is shown above.
New thrust washer thickness ... 4.70 0.03 mm
(0.185 0.0012 inch)
End play of a new camshaft .... 0.13 0.08 mm
(0.005 0.0031 inch)
Maximum permissible end play of a worn
camshaft .......................... 0.46 mm (0.018 inch)
14
Specifications Section

i00664110 i00667186

Engine Oil Filter Base Engine Oil Cooler Bypass


SMCS Code: 1306
Valve
SMCS Code: 1314

g00292073
Illustration 26
Typical example

(1) The oil cooler bypass valve will open at the


following pressure. ....................... 125 30 kPa
g00291396
Illustration 25 (18 4.5 psi)

(1) The 9L-9188 Spring is located in the filter 9L-9188 Spring specifications for the oil cooler
bypass valve: bypass valve
Outside diameter ............... 11.2 mm (0.44 inch) Outside diameter ................. 11.2 mm (.44 inch)
Free length ........................ 57.9 mm (2.28 inch) Free length ........................ 57.9 mm (2.28 inch)
Assembled length ............. 43.2 mm (1.70 inch) Assembled length ............. 43.2 mm (1.70 inch)
Load at assembled length ............. 15.6 1.3 N Load at assembled length ............. 15.6 1.3 N
(3.50 0.30 lb) (3.50 0.30 lb)

(2) The oil filter bypass valve must open at the


following pressure. ....................... 125 30 kPa
(18 4.5 psi)

(3) Put 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound on the


last 7.5 1.5 mm (0.30 0.06 inch) of the
threads at the base end of the stud.

Tighten the stud to the following torque. .. 68 7 Nm


(50 5 lb ft)

(4) Put clean engine oil on the filter seal. Tighten


the filter until the seal contacts the base. After
the seal contacts the base, rotate the filter by
270 degrees.
15
Specifications Section

i00669541 Load at assembled length ........... 51.99 1.9 N


(12 0.4 lb)
Engine Oil Pump
(5) Relief valve plunger
SMCS Code: 1304
Diameter of the plunger ..... 17.000 0.013 mm
(.6693 .0005 inch)
Bore in the pump body for the
plunger ............................... 17.100 0.025 mm
(.6732 .0010 inch)

i00880101

Engine Oil Pan


SMCS Code: 1302

g00292581
Illustration 27
Section view through pump gears
Typical example

g00448568
Illustration 28 g00292582 Illustration 29

The section view is of the bypass valve that is located in the pump
assembly. (1) Tighten the drain plug to the following
torque. ........................ 50 5 Nm (37 4 lb ft)
(1) Distance between the front face of the gear and
the housing ............................. 43.00 0.25 mm Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to four areas on the
(1.693 .010 inch) sealing surface of the oil pan. The areas are marked
location (Y). The areas are at the corners of the oil
(2) Length of the gears ................ 33.00 0.03 mm pan in the following locations:
(1.299 0.001 inch)
connecting joint of the front housing and the front
Depth of the bores for the gears .. 33.13 0.02 mm of the cylinder block
(1.304 0.001 inch)
connecting joint of the flywheel housing and the
(3) Diameter of the gear shafts .. 15.600 0.005 mm rear of the cylinder block
(.6142 .0002 inch)
Use the following procedure to tighten the bolts for
Bores in the pump bodies for the gear the oil pan.
shafts ...... 15.641 0.008 mm (.6158 .0003 inch)
Tighten four bolts (X).
(4) 105-1805 Spring for relief valve
Start with bolt (Z) and tighten all remaining bolts in
Outside diameter ................. 13.0 mm (.51 inch) a counterclockwise sequence.
Free length .................... 64.98 mm (2.558 inch)
Assembled length ............. 54.5 mm (2.15 inch) Tighten the bolts to the following
torque. .............................. 31 3 Nm (23 2 lb ft)
16
Specifications Section

Start again with bolt (Z) and tighten all remaining i00663196
bolts in a counterclockwise sequence.
Water Temperature Regulator
Tighten the bolts to the following
torque. .............................. 31 3 Nm (23 2 lb ft) SMCS Code: 1355
Part No.: 119-3075
i00873547 S/N: BKD1-Up

Crankcase Breather Part No.: 119-3075


S/N: 1AJ1-Up
SMCS Code: 1317
Part No.: 119-3075
S/N: 8YL1-Up
Part No.: 119-3075
S/N: CKM1-Up
S/N: CRP1-Up
Part No.: 119-3075
S/N: 7AS1-Up
Part No.: 119-3075
S/N: 8SZ1-Up
Part No.: 119-3075
S/N: 9SZ1-Up
g00330803
Illustration 30
Typical example

(1) Tighten the bolt that holds the breather cap to


the following torque. .. 7 2 Nm (62 18 lb in)

g00291249
Illustration 31

Fully open temperature of the water temperature


regulator ............................................... 94C (201F)

(1) Air vent valve

(2) Closed dimension of the water temperature


regulator ....... 30.5 0.5 mm (1.20 0.02 inch)

(3) Minimum stroke of the water temperature


regulator at fully open temperature ..... 8.75 mm
(0.345 inch)
17
Specifications Section

i00663555 i00669873

Water Temperature Regulator Water Pump


SMCS Code: 1355 SMCS Code: 1361
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: BKD1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: 1AJ1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: 8YL1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: CKM1-Up
S/N: CRP1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: 7AS1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: 8SZ1-Up
Part No.: 115-4223
S/N: 9SZ1-Up

g00292733
Illustration 33
The impeller cover is not shown.

(1) Clearance between the impeller and the


housing ....... 0.75 0.25 mm (.030 .010 inch)

(2) Seal
g00291249
Illustration 32 (3) Height of seal ......................... 12.83 0.13 mm
(.505 .005 inch)
Fully open temperature of the water temperature
regulator ............................................... 97C (206F) (4) The filter should not extend beyond the surface
of the housing.
(1) Air vent valve
(5) Dimension from the front face of the pulley to
(2) Closed dimension of the water temperature the face of the housing ............ 103.8 0.3 mm
regulator ....... 30.5 0.5 mm (1.20 0.02 inch) (4.09 .01 inch)
(3) Minimum stroke of the water temperature
regulator at fully open temperature ..... 8.00 mm
(.315 inch)
18
Specifications Section

i01147399 Clean the face of the cover with solvent. Apply


1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to the cover. Spread
Cylinder Block Cover Group uniformly on the face of the cover and around
the bolt holes. The cover must be installed and
SMCS Code: 1201 tightened within ten minutes.

(6) Sleeve (7) extends from the face of cylinder


block (1). Distance ....................... 5.0 0.5 mm
(0.20 0.02 inch)

(7) Six sleeves marked location (X).

(8) Side cover

g00619081
Illustration 34
Left side view of engine

g00448150
Illustration 36
Typical example of side cover

Tighten bolts (1 through 8) in a numerical sequence.

Tighten the bolts to the following


torque. .............................. 28 7 Nm (21 5 lb ft)

g00471794
Illustration 35 i01513281
View A-A
Cylinder Block
(1) Cylinder block
SMCS Code: 1201
(2) Gasket

Gasket (2) has a bead on one surface. Install the


gasket so that the bead is facing side cover (8).

(3) Length of two bolts ........... 40.0 mm (1.58 inch)

(4) Length of the bolts marked location


(Y). ..................................... 20.0 mm (0.79 inch)

Length of the ten remaining bolts for the three side


covers ...................................... 30.0 mm (1.18 inch)

(5) Cover
g00292819
Illustration 37
19
Specifications Section

(1) The installation depth of the cup plug is


measured from the block face to the top edge
of the plug. Distance ................ 1.25 0.25 mm
(.049 .010 inch)

(2) The dowels extend past the top face of the


cylinder block. Distance .................. 14 2 mm
(.55 .080 inch)

(3) The two large dowels extend past the rear face
of the cylinder block. Distance .. 12.0 0.5 mm
(.47 .02 inch)

(4) The dowels extend past the front face of the


cylinder block. Distance .............. 8.0 0.5 mm
(.31 .02 inch)

g00292821
Illustration 39

(7) Diameter of cylinder bore .. 110.025 0.025 mm


g00292820 (4.3317 0.0010 inch)
Illustration 38
View A-A
(8) Distance from the centerline of the crankshaft
(5) Bore diameters in the cylinder block for bore to the top surface of the cylinder
all camshaft bearings except the front block .. 322.00 0.17 mm (12.677 0.007 inch)
bearing ............................... 69.000 0.038 mm
(2.7165 .0015 inch) (9) Front camshaft bearing joint location

(6) Locate the bearing oil hole for all camshaft (10) Bore diameter in the cylinder block for the front
bearings at the top of the bore. The front camshaft bearing ............... 70.000 0.025 mm
camshaft bearing is not located at the top of (2.7559 .0010 inch)
the bore.
(11) Front camshaft bearing oil hole

Note: The front camshaft bearing is installed with


the bearing oil hole (11) in alignment with the oil
hole in the cylinder block and the bearing joint (9)
in the position that is shown.

(12) Tighten the bolt to the following


torque. ...................... 70 10 Nm (50 7 lb ft)

(13) Bearing cap


Width of the main bearing
cap ................................... 159.995 0.020 mm
(6.2990 .0008 inch)
Width of the cylinder block for the main
bearing ............................. 160.000 0.018 mm
(6.2992 .0007 inch)
20
Specifications Section

(14) Distance from the centerline of the crankshaft (1) Heat the gear for installation. Do not use a
bore to the pan rail ..... 110.00 mm (4.331 inch) torch. ............................................ 316C (600F)

(15) Location of the sequence number for the (2) Crankshaft end play ................. 0.07 to 0.32 mm
bearing cap (0.003 to 0.013 inch)

(16) Main bearing cap bolts


i00664274

Install the bearing caps with the sequence number


to the right. The order is 1 through 7 (front to rear).
Crankshaft Seals
SMCS Code: 1160; 1161
1. Apply 4C-5593 Anti-Seize Compound to the bolt
threads (16) and face of the washers. Note: Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the
complete procedure for removing and installing the
2. Tighten bolts (16) on each bearing cap. crankshaft seal groups.
Tighten to the following torque. ......... 54 7 Nm
(40 5 lb ft)

3. Tighten bolts (16) on each bearing cap again.

Tighten the bolts by another one quarter of a


turn. ............................................ 90 5 degrees

(17) Bore in the cylinder block for the seven main


bearings ............................. 95.000 0.013 mm
(3.7402 0.0005 inch)

Note: Additional information on reconditioning


procedures can be ordered. Refer to the following
documents: Illustration 41
g00291469

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8277, Specifications and Salvage
for Cylinder Blocks on 3126 Engines

Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage


Operations, SEBF8268, Installing a 107-7604
Cylinder Sleeve in 3126 Engines

i01147402

Crankshaft
SMCS Code: 1202
g00291470
Illustration 42
Rear crankshaft seal groups
The single lip seal is used for dry applications (A).
The double lip seal is used for wet applications (B).

(1) Carrier housing and flywheel housing

(2) Rear seal

Install the rear seal. Make sure that the rear face of
the seal (2) is 15.4 0.5 mm (0.61 0.020 inch)
from the blocks rear face (4).

g00293038
Illustration 40
21
Specifications Section

Note: The original rear seal runs directly on the i00873707


crankshaft flange. The original seal assembly does
not contain a wear sleeve. The Service Rear seal Rear Seal Carrier
group contains a wear sleeve (7). (If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1161

g00291471
Illustration 43
Front crankshaft seal

(3) Front seal

Install the front seal. Make sure that the front face of
the seal (3) is 2.5 0.5 mm (0.0984 0.0197 inch)
from the front housing (5).
g00443494
Illustration 44
(4) Rear face of block
(1) Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to the joint face
(5) Front housing
of the seal carrier. Spread the liquid gasket
uniformly on the joint face. The seal carrier must
(6) Pulley
be assembled and tightened to the cylinder
block within ten minutes.
(7) Wear sleeves
(2) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the
Do not remove the wear sleeves from the seal
threads of the eight bolts.
group.

(8) Shipping sleeve for the front seal

Install the front seal (3) in the housing. Remove the


shipping sleeve (8). Install the pulley (6).
22
Specifications Section

i01161520 Clearance between bearing and new


journal .. 0.053 to 0.155 mm (0.0021 to 0.0061 inch)
Vibration Damper
SMCS Code: 1205 i01135346

Main Bearing Journal


SMCS Code: 1202; 1203
Table 2

Diameter Of Crankshaft Journal (Bearing


Surface) For Main Bearings

90.000 0.020 mm
Original Size Journal
(3.5433 0.0008 inch)

Undersize Journal 89.750 0.020 mm


0.25 mm (0.010 inch) (3.5335 0.0008 inch)

Undersize Journal 89.500 0.020 mm


0.50 mm (0.020 inch) (3.5236 0.0008 inch)

Clearance between bearing and new


journal .. 0.071 to 0.173 mm (0.0028 to 0.0068 inch)

g00618602
Illustration 45 i00670926
Rubber vibration damper
Connecting Rod
(1) Damper assembly
SMCS Code: 1218
Note: The dash marks on the front of the damper
assembly must be in alignment with each other. A
new damper assembly will be needed if the dash
marks are not in alignment.

Maximum permissible face runout of the damper


assembly at location (A) ................ 0.00 to 2.03 mm
(0.000 to 0.080 inch)

i01135341

Connecting Rod Bearing


Journal
SMCS Code: 1202; 1219; 1225
Table 1

Diameter Of Crankshaft Journal (Bearing Surface)


For Connecting Rod Bearings

70.000 0.020 mm
Original Size Journal
(2.7559 0.0008 inch)

Undersize Journal 69.750 0.020 mm


0.25 mm (0.010 inch) (2.7461 0.0008 inch)

Undersize Journal 69.500 0.020 mm


0.50 mm (0.020 inch) (2.7362 0.0008 inch) g00293050
Illustration 46
23
Specifications Section

Note: The connecting rod must be heated for the i01147404


installation of the piston pin bearing. Do not use
a torch. Piston and Rings
The connecting rod may be heated from SMCS Code: 1214; 1215
175 to 260C (347 to 500F) for the installation of
the piston pin bearing. Two-Piece Articulated Piston
Length (A) is the maximum distance for heating the
connecting rod . ............. 75 5 mm (3.0 .2 inch)

The bearing joint (B) must be at 12.0 5 degrees


above the centerline.

(1) Bore size


Bore in the connecting rod for the piston pin
bearing ............................... 43.191 0.013 mm
(1.7004 .0005 inch)
Bore in the bearing for the piston
pin ....................................... 40.028 0.008 mm
(1.5759 0.0003 inch)
g00293184
Illustration 47
(2) Distance between the center of the
bearings ...................... 200.00 mm (7.874 inch)

(3) Location for the etched cylinder numbers on the


rod and the cap after assembly

Note: Etch the cylinder number on the connecting


rod and the cap in this location (3). Mark the
connecting rod and the cap with a number 1
through 6. Mark the numbers on the same side of
the connecting rod as the bearing retainer notch.

(4) Connecting rod bolts

(5) Bore in the connecting rod for the


g00293185
bearing for the crankshaft connecting rod Illustration 48
journal ................................. 75.000 0.013 mm
(2.9527 .0005 inch) (1) Crown assembly

Tighten the connecting rod bolts. Use the (2) Connecting rod
instructions that follow:
Note: Install the rod and piston group in the engine
1. Before installing the connecting rod bolts (4), with the part number to the rear of the engine.
lubricate the bolt threads and the seating faces The rear of the engine is the flywheel end of the
of the caps with engine oil. engine. Lubricate the rod and piston group with
clean engine oil before you insert the rod and piston
2. Install the connecting rod bolts (4). group into the block.

Tighten each nut to the following Top Ring and Intermediate Ring
torque. .......................... 54 7 Nm (40 5 lb ft)
(3) The top ring has the mark UP-1.
3. Put an alignment mark on the cap and the nut.
Install the piston ring with the side marked UP-1
4. Tighten each nut for an additional 60 5 toward the top of the piston. The colored stripe
degrees (1/6 of a turn). faces to the right of the ring end gap.

The ends of the piston ring have a clearance when


the piston ring is installed in a cylinder with a
specific bore size.
24
Specifications Section

Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch) Clearance ..... 0.45 0.15 mm (0.018 0.006 inch)

Clearance ..................................... 0.550 0.10 mm The oil control piston ring has an increase in
(0.0217 0.0039 inch) clearance for each 0.03 mm (0.001 inch) increase
in the cylinder liner bore.
The piston ring has an increase in clearance for
each 0.03 mm (0.001 inch) increase in the cylinder Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch)
liner bore.
After the piston rings have been installed, rotate the
Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch) piston rings so that the end gaps are 120 degrees
from each other.
(4) The intermediate ring has the mark UP-2.
(6) Piston skirt
Install the piston ring with the side marked UP-2
toward the top of the piston. The colored stripe Lubricate the entire piston in zone (A) prior to
faces to the right of the piston ring end gap. assembly into the cylinder block. Use clean engine
oil.
Thickness of the new piston ring ... 2.98 0.01 mm
(0.1173 0.0004 inch) Piston Pin Bore
The ends of the piston ring have a clearance when (7) Piston pin
the piston ring is installed in a cylinder with a
specific bore size. Piston pin bore diameter that is in the crown
assembly ............................ 40.031 0.007 mm
Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch) (1.5760 0.0003 inch)
Piston pin bore diameter that is in the piston
Clearance ................................... 0.825 0.125 mm skirt ..................................... 40.020 0.005 mm
(0.0325 0.0049 inch) (1.5756 0.0002 inch)
Piston pin diameter ............ 40.000 0.005 mm
The intermediate piston ring has an increase in (1.5748 0.0002 inch)
clearance for each 0.03 mm (.001 inch) increase Length of piston pin ............... 89.95 0.15 mm
in the cylinder liner bore. (3.541 0.006 inch)

Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch) Thoroughly lubricate the piston pin with clean
engine oil prior to assembly.
Oil Control Ring
i01228514
(5) The oil control piston ring has a spring that is
installed with the ring. The gap in the spring Piston and Rings
should be a distance of 180 degrees from the
ring end gap when the oil control piston ring is SMCS Code: 1214; 1215
assembled. The light green colored portion of
the spring must be visible at the ring end gap.
One-Piece Aluminum Piston
Width of the groove in a new piston for the oil
control piston ring ...................... 4.041 0.013 mm
(0.1591 0.0005 inch)

Thickness of the new piston ring .. 3.985 0.010 mm


(0.1569 0.0004 inch)

Clearance between the oil groove and the oil control


piston ring ................................... 0.033 0.079 mm
(0.0013 0.0031 inch)

The ends of the oil control piston ring have a


clearance when the ring is installed in a cylinder
with a specific bore size.
g00293184
Illustration 49
Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch)
25
Specifications Section

Thickness of the new piston ring ... 2.98 0.01 mm


(0.1173 0.0004 inch)

The ends of the piston ring have a clearance when


the piston ring is installed in a cylinder with a
specific bore size.

Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch)

Clearance ................................... 0.825 0.125 mm


(0.0325 0.0049 inch)

The intermediate piston ring has an increase in


clearance for each 0.03 mm (0.001 inch) increase
g00656758
in the cylinder liner bore.
Illustration 50
Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch)
(1) Piston body assembly

Lubricate the entire piston in zone (A) prior to Oil Control Ring
assembly into the cylinder block. Use clean engine
oil. (5) The oil control piston ring has a spring that is
installed with the ring. The gap in the spring
(2) Connecting rod should be a distance of 180 degrees from the
ring end gap when the oil control piston ring is
Note: Assemble the rod and piston group with the assembled. The light green colored portion of
marking front on the piston body in the opposite the spring must be visible at the ring end gap.
direction of the part number on the rod assembly.
Install the rod and piston group in the engine with Thickness of the new piston ring .. 3.985 0.010 mm
the part number on the rod assembly to the rear of (0.1569 0.0004 inch)
the engine. The rear of the engine is the flywheel
end of the engine. Lubricate the rod and piston The ends of the oil control piston ring have a
group with clean engine oil before you insert the clearance when the ring is installed in a cylinder
rod and piston group into the block. with a specific bore size.

Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch)


Top Ring and Intermediate Ring
Clearance ..... 0.45 0.15 mm (0.018 0.006 inch)
(3) The top ring has the mark UP-1.
The oil control piston ring has an increase in
Install the piston ring with the side marked UP-1 clearance for each 0.03 mm (0.001 inch) increase
toward the top of the piston. The colored stripe in the cylinder liner bore.
faces to the right of the ring end gap.
Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch)
The ends of the piston ring have a clearance when
the piston ring is installed in a cylinder with a After the piston rings have been installed, rotate the
specific bore size. piston rings so that the end gaps are 120 degrees
from each other.
Cylinder bore size ............. 110.03 mm (4.332 inch)

Clearance ..... 0.40 0.10 mm (0.016 0.004 inch) Piston Pin Bore

The piston ring has an increase in clearance for (6) Piston pin
each 0.03 mm (0.001 inch) increase in the cylinder Piston pin diameter ............ 40.000 0.005 mm
liner bore. (1.5748 0.0002 inch)
Length of piston pin ............... 89.95 0.15 mm
Increase ................................. 0.09 mm (0.004 inch) (3.541 0.006 inch)
(4) The intermediate ring has the mark UP-2. Thoroughly lubricate the piston pin with clean
engine oil prior to assembly.
Install the piston ring with the side marked UP-2
toward the top of the piston. The colored stripe
faces to the right of the piston ring end gap.
26
Specifications Section

i01228425 i01234648

Piston Cooling Jet Piston Cooling Jet


SMCS Code: 1331 SMCS Code: 1331

One-Piece Aluminum Piston Two-Piece Articulated Piston

g00657849 g00657849
Illustration 51 Illustration 52
(1) Piston cooling jet (1) Piston cooling jet

The piston cooling jets must be checked for the The piston cooling jets must be checked for the
location of the stream of oil. Insert a drill rod with a location of the stream of oil. Insert a drill rod with a
diameter of 1.90 mm (0.075 inch) into the orifice. diameter of 1.90 mm (0.075 inch) into the orifice.
This drill rod simulates the stream of oil under This drill rod simulates the stream of oil under
normal operating pressure. The drill rod must normal operating pressure. The drill rod must
pass through a circle with a diameter of 5.0 mm pass through a circle with a diameter of 5.0 mm
(0.20 inch) at point (A). (0.20 inch) at point (A).

Use the following dimensions in order to locate Use the following dimensions in order to locate
point (A). point (A).
Dimension (B) .................... 17.0 mm (0.67 inch) Dimension (B) .................... 26.5 mm (1.04 inch)
Dimension (C) ................... 33.0 mm (1.30 inch) Dimension (C) ................... 34.0 mm (1.34 inch)
Dimension (D) ................... 50.0 mm (1.97 inch) Dimension (D) ................... 50.0 mm (1.97 inch)
27
Specifications Section

i01358291 Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to the front housing


sealing surfaces before assembling the front
Front Housing and Covers housing to the cylinder block. The front housing
must be assembled and tightened to the cylinder
SMCS Code: 1162; 1166 block within ten minutes.

(1) Cylinder Block

(2) Front housing

(3) Bolts (X) ............................. 50.0 mm (1.97 inch)

(4) Bolts (Y) ............................... 20.0 mm (.79 inch)

(5) Front housing cover

(6) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the


serrations of the studs before installation.

g00716820
Illustration 53

g00293311
Illustration 54
28
Specifications Section

i00673287

Gear Group (Front)


SMCS Code: 1206

g00293531
Illustration 55

(1) Camshaft idler gear (3) Tighten the bolts of the camshaft idler gear to
the following torque. ....................... 70 15 Nm
Distance between the front of the bearing face and (50 11 lb ft)
the front of the gear face (B) ......... 0.40 0.25 mm
(.016 .010 inch) (4) Align the timing marks on the camshaft idler
gear (1) with the holes on the camshaft and the
Diameter of new shaft (A) .......... 80.00 0.013 mm crankshaft gears (2) and (5).
(3.1496 .0005 inch)
(5) Crankshaft gear
(2) Camshaft gear
(6) Oil pump drive gear
29
Specifications Section

(7) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the 1. Install the flywheel ring gear. Face the part
threads of the oil pump idler gear bolt. Tighten number on the ring gear (2) toward the engine
the bolt to the following torque. ..... 70 15 Nm block. The flywheel ring gear must be installed
(50 11 lb ft) against the shoulder (4). The flywheel ring gear
can be heated for installation. Do not use a torch.
(8) Oil pump idler gear
Maximum temperature ................... 204C (400F)
The distance between the rear of the bearing face
and the rear of the gear face (C). .. 0.75 0.25 mm 2. Press the spring pin (3) into the crankshaft before
(.030 .010 inch) assembling the flywheel to the crankshaft. Check
the distance from the face of the crankshaft to
Diameter of new shaft (D) ........ 28.644 0.013 mm the end of the pin (3).
(1.1277 .0005 inch)
Distance ............. 11.0 1.0 mm (.43 .04 inch)
i00672569
3. Tighten the bolts (1) that hold the flywheel to the
Flywheel crankshaft.

SMCS Code: 1156 Tighten to the following torque. ..... 120 20 Nm


(90 15 lb ft)

i00672686

Flywheel Housing
SMCS Code: 1157

g00293373
Illustration 57
Mounting face for the block

Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and


Adjusting for the correct method of inspecting the
flywheel housing.
g00293319
Illustration 56
Note: Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to all of the
Note: Refer to System Operation, Testing and sealing surfaces of the flywheel housing . The
Adjusting for the correct method of inspecting the flywheel housing must be assembled and tightened
flywheel. to the block within ten minutes.

(1) Bolt

(2) Ring gear

(3) Spring pin

(4) Shoulder

The following instructions should be used during


installation of the ring gear:
30
Specifications Section

i01329788 i00670847

Engine to Transmission Crankshaft Pulley


Adapter SMCS Code: 1205
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1001

g00293042
Illustration 59

(1) Tighten the bolts to the following


torque. ................ 200 25 Nm (150 18 lb ft)

i01211708

Belt Tension Chart


Illustration 58 g00293519 SMCS Code: 1357

(1) Crankshaft Note: Do not use the belt tension chart for belts with
tensioners that are spring loaded.
(2) Flywheel assembly

(3) Hub

(4) Flex plate

(5) Tighten the bolts to the following


torque. .................. 120 20 Nm (90 15 lb ft)
31
Specifications Section

Table 3
Belt Tension Chart
Borroughs Gauge
Gauge Reading
Numbers
Belt
Belt Width Number Number of
Size Belt Tension Belt Tension
of the Old the New
Initial(1) Used(2)
Gauge Gauge
3/8 10.72 mm (0.422 inch) 623 22 N (140 5 lb) 400 22 N (90 5 lb) BT-33-95 BT-33-97
1/2 13.89 mm (0.547 Inch) 712 22 N (160 5 lb) 445 44 N (100 10 lb) BT-33-95 BT-33-97
5V 15.88 mm (0.626 Inch) 712 22 N (160 5 lb) 445 44 N (100 10 lb) BT-33-72 BT-33-72C
11/16 17.48 mm (0.688 Inch) 712 22 N (160 5 lb) 445 44 N (100 10 lb) BT-33-72 BT-33-72C
3/4 19.05 mm (0.750 Inch) 712 22 N (160 5 lb) 445 44 N (100 10 lb) BT-33-72 BT-33-72C
15/16 23.83 mm (0.983 Inch) 712 22 N (160 5 lb) 445 44 N (100 10 lb) BT-33-72 BT-33-77
8K 27.82 mm (1.095 inch) 800 22 N (180 5 lb) 489 44 N (110 10 lb) ------ BT-33-109
6PK 20.94 mm (0.824 Inch) 667 22 N (150 5 lb) 467 44 N (105 10 lb) ------ BT-33-109
Measure the tension of the belt that is farthest from the engine.
(1) Belt Tension Initial is for a new belt.
(2) Belt Tension Used is used for a belt that has operated for 30 minutes or more of operation at the rated speed.

i00675918 i00670033

Belt Tensioner Belt Tightener


(If Equipped) SMCS Code: 1358
SMCS Code: 1358

g00294094
Illustration 60

(1) Minimum travel ................................. 71 degrees

(2) The torque for the spring is 14.1 1.7 Nm


g00292814
(10 1 lb ft) at 25 degrees from the released Illustration 61
position.
(1) Distance from the back of the plate assembly to
the middle of the pulley ............. 26.0 0.3 mm
(1.02 .012 inch)

(2) Distance from the back of the plate assembly to


the back of the pulley ................ 16.0 0.3 mm
(.63 .01 inch)

(3) Plate assembly


32
Specifications Section

(4) Pulley i00670126

(5) Apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the Fan Drive


pulley bore before assembly.
SMCS Code: 1359

i00677590

Refrigerant Compressor
SMCS Code: 1802

g00294494
Illustration 62
g00292816
Illustration 63
Use the following procedure to install the refrigerant
compressor: (1) Use the grease fitting to fill the bearing cavity
with 30 grams (1.05 ounces) of 2S-3230
1. Install all bolts hand tight. Grease Cartridge lubricant. Apply the grease
to the bearing cavity after installing fan drive
2. Tighten the top bolt (A). bearings.

Tighten the bolt to the following (2) Bracket


torque. ........................ 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft)
(3) Bearing assembly
3. Tighten the two lower bolts (D).
(4) Bolt
Tighten the bolts to the following
torque. ........................ 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft) (5) Bolt

4. Tighten the remaining two bolts (B) and (C). (6) Support

Tighten the bolts to the following Assembly procedure for the bracket
torque. ........................ 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft)
1. Tighten bolt (4) by hand into the housing.
33
Specifications Section

2. Tighten bolt (5) by hand into the bracket (2). (1) Tighten the shaft nut to the following
torque. ...................... 102 7 Nm (75 5 lb ft)
3. Tighten bolts (4) and (5).
(2) Tighten the screw to the following
Tighten the bolts to the following torque. ................... 6.2 0.6 Nm (55 5 lb in)
torque. ........................ 55 10 Nm (40 7 lb ft)
(3) Tighten the nut to the following
torque. ............. 11.3 2.3 Nm (100 20 lb in)
i00668315

Alternator and Regulator (4) Regulator


Voltage setting ............................. No adjustment
SMCS Code: 1405; 1410 Permissible voltage range .......... 13.5 to 14.5 V

i01161319

Electric Starting Motor


SMCS Code: 1453
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: BKD1-Up
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: 1AJ1-Up
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: 8YL1-Up
g00292354
Illustration 64
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: CKM1-Up
S/N: CRP1-Up
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: 7AS1-Up
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: 8SZ1-Up
Part No.: 6V-4238
S/N: 9SZ1-Up

g00292355
Illustration 65

Note: Load the battery with a carbon pile 4C-4911


Battery Load Tester in order to get the maximum
alternator output.

6T-1395 Alternator
Polarity ..................................... Negative ground
Rotation ...................................... Either direction

The minimum full load current at 5000 rpm is the


following value. .......................................... 107 Amp g00282688
Illustration 66
Typical example
The minimum full load current at 1500 rpm is the
following value. ............................................ 45 Amp

Output voltage ...................................... 14.0 0.5 V


34
Specifications Section

i01161323

Electric Starting Motor


SMCS Code: 1453
Part No.: 103-0875
S/N: BKD1-Up
Part No.: 103-0875
S/N: 1AJ1-Up
Part No.: 103-0875
S/N: 8YL1-Up
Part No.: 103-0875
g00489813 S/N: CKM1-Up
Illustration 67
Typical solenoid connections
S/N: CRP1-Up
When the electric starting motor is viewed from Part No.: 103-0875
the drive end, the motor rotates in the following S/N: 7AS1-Up
direction. ................................................... Clockwise
Part No.: 103-0875
No load conditions at 25C (77F) S/N: 8SZ1-Up
Speed ..................................... 7018 1517 rpm Part No.: 103-0875
Current ................................... 125.5 27.5 amp S/N: 9SZ1-Up
Voltage ......................................................... 11 V

(1) Tighten the nut on the battery terminal to the


following torque. ... 30.5 3.5 Nm (22 3 lb ft)

(2) Tighten the ground terminal to the following


torque. .................. 30.5 3.5 Nm (22 3 lb ft)

(3) Tighten the nut to the following


torque. ............... 2.25 0.25 Nm (20 2 lb in)

(4) Tighten the nut on the switch terminal to the


following torque. ....................... 2.25 0.25 Nm
(20 2 lb in)
g00282688
(5) Tighten the nut on the motor terminal to the Illustration 68
following torque. ........ 8 3 Nm (71 27 lb in) Typical example

(6) Tighten the nut on the motor frame terminal to


the following torque. .. 8 3 Nm (71 27 lb in)

Solenoid

Current draw at 12 V and 25C (77F)


Pull-in windings ............................... 89 5 amp
Hold-in windings ............ 23 2 amp maximum

g00282689
Illustration 69
Typical solenoid connections
35
Specifications Section

When the electric starting motor is viewed from (2) Plug


the drive end, the motor rotates in the following
direction. ................................................... Clockwise
i01147852
 
No load conditions at 25 C (77 F) Injection Actuation Pressure
Speed ....................................... 3628 413 rpm Sensor
Current ........................................... 84 16 amp
Voltage ......................................................... 23 V SMCS Code: 1925
(1) Tighten the nut on the battery terminal to the
following torque. ... 30.5 3.5 Nm (22 3 lb ft)

(2) Tighten the ground terminal to the following


torque. .................. 30.5 3.5 Nm (22 3 lb ft)

(3) Tighten the nut to the following


torque. ............... 2.25 0.25 Nm (20 2 lb in)

(4) Tighten the nut on the switch terminal to the


following torque. ....................... 2.25 0.25 Nm
(20 2 lb in)

(5) Tighten the nut on the motor terminal to the


g00294225
following torque. ... 14.7 3.4 Nm (11 3 lb ft) Illustration 71
Typical example
(6) Tighten the nut on the motor frame terminal to
the following torque. .. 8 3 Nm (71 27 lb in) (1) Sensor assembly

Solenoid Tighten the sensor assembly to the following


torque. ........................... 10 2 Nm (90 18 lb in)
Current draw at 20 V and 25C (77F)
(2) Plug
Pull-in windings ............................... 36 2 amp
Hold-in windings ................ 6.75 amp maximum
i00675120

i00675104 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor


Coolant Temperature Sensor (If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1906 SMCS Code: 1924

g00293958 g00293960
Illustration 70 Illustration 72
Typical example Typical example

(1) Sensor assembly (1) Sensor assembly

Tighten the sensor assembly to the following Tighten the sensor assembly to the following
torque. .............................. 20 5 Nm (15 4 lb ft) torque. ........................... 10 2 Nm (90 18 lb in)
36
Specifications Section

(2) Port fitting i01161328

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor


i00676593
(If Equipped)
Engine Oil Temperature Sensor
SMCS Code: 1923
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1929

g00293963
Illustration 75
Typical example
g00294228
Illustration 73
(1) Sensor assembly
(1) Sensor assembly
Tighten the sensor assembly to the following
torque. ........................... 10 2 Nm (90 18 lb in)
Tighten the sensor assembly to the following
torque. ........................... 10 2 Nm (90 18 lb in)
(2) Plug

i00675169
i01331712
Boost Pressure Sensor Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
SMCS Code: 1917
SMCS Code: 1921

g00293962
Illustration 74 g00526991
Illustration 76
Typical example
(1) Pin for the signal circuit
(1) Sensor assembly
(2) Pin for the ground circuit
Tighten the sensor assembly to the following
torque. ........................... 10 2 Nm (90 18 lb in) (3) Tighten the sensor assembly to the following
torque: ........................ 20 5 Nm (15 4 lb ft)
(2) Port fitting
37
Specifications Section

i00677047 (4) Tighten the nut to the following


torque. ......................... 8 1 Nm (71 9 lb in)
Speed and Timing Sensor
(5) The wire assembly connects the magnetic
SMCS Code: 1907; 1912 switch assembly to the air inlet heater.

(6) Air inlet heater

(7) The ground strap for the air inlet heater


connects to the engine block.

(8) Engine Control Module (ECM)

(9) Tighten the nut to the following


torque. ......................... 6 1 Nm (53 9 lb in)

i01147860

Air Inlet Heater


g00295489
Illustration 77
SMCS Code: 1090
(1) Bracket

(2) Sensor

(3) Flange

Seat both sensors to the sensors flanges before


tightening the bolt to the bracket.

The sensors must be replaced as a pair.

i01329489

Electronic Control Wiring


g00292365
Group Illustration 79
Section view of the air inlet heater
SMCS Code: 1408
(1) Air inlet heater

(2) Tighten the nuts to the following


torque. ......................... 8 1 Nm (71 9 lb in)

Note: During assembly of the air inlet heater to


the inlet manifold and the air inlet elbow, clean
the air inlet heaters joint faces with solvent. Apply
4C-9500 Quick Cure Primer to the joint faces. Allow
the primer to air dry for a minimum of three to five
minutes. Apply 1U-8846 Liquid Gasket to the joint
face and spread the gasket maker uniformly. The
heater must be assembled and tightened within ten
minutes.
g00703522
Illustration 78

(1) Magnetic switch assembly

(2) Tighten the nuts to the following


torque. ................... 6.0 0.5 Nm (53 4 lb in)

(3) Air inlet elbow


38
Specifications Section

i01343836 4. Tighten two bolts (C) to a torque of 55 10 Nm


(40 7 lb ft).
Air Compressor
(Midland Air Compressors) 5. Tighten one bolt (D) to a torque of 28 7 Nm
(21 5 lb ft).
SMCS Code: 1803
i01328911

Air Compressor
(Bendix Tu-Flo Air
Compressors)
SMCS Code: 1803

g00709958
Illustration 80

(1) Air compressor

(2) Nut

Perform the following steps in order to properly


tighten the nut:
g00292298
Illustration 81
1. Tighten the nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm
(120 7 lb ft). (1) Air compressor
2. Use a soft faced hammer and a 1U-7962 Socket (2) Nut
(Impact) and tap the gear one time. Tighten the
nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm (120 7 lb ft). Perform the following steps in order to properly
tighten the nut:
3. Use a soft faced hammer and a 1U-7962 Socket
(Impact) and tap the gear one time. Tighten the 1. Tighten the nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm
nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm (120 7 lb ft). (120 7 lb ft).
(3) Gear 2. Use a soft faced hammer and a 1U-7962 Socket
(Impact) and tap the gear one time. Tighten the
(4) Bolt nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm (120 7 lb ft).
Tighten the bolt that holds the air compressor 3. Use a soft faced hammer and a 1U-7962 Socket
line on engines that are equipped with this (Impact) and tap the gear one time. Tighten the
hose assembly. Tighten the bolt to the following nut to a torque of 165 10 Nm (120 7 lb ft).
torque. .............................. 30 7 Nm (22 5 lb ft)
(3) Gear
Use the following procedure to mount the air
compressor. (4) Bolt

1. Install two bolts (A) and tighten the bolts to a Tighten the bolt that holds the air compressor
torque of 100 20 Nm (75 15 lb ft). line on engines that are equipped with this
hose assembly. Tighten the bolt to the following
2. Install the following four bolts finger tight: (B), torque. .............................. 30 7 Nm (22 5 lb ft)
(C), and (D).
Use the following procedure to mount the air
3. Tighten one bolt (B) to a torque of 50 10 Nm compressor.
(37 7 lb ft).
39
Specifications Section

1. Install two bolts (A) and tighten the bolts to a


torque of 100 20 Nm (75 15 lb ft).

2. Install the four bolts (B) and (C) finger tight.

3. Tighten two bolts (B) to a torque of 55 10 Nm


(40 7 lb ft).

4. Tighten two bolts (C) to a torque of 55 10 Nm


(40 7 lb ft).
40
Index Section

Index
A Fuel Filter Lines ....................................................... 5
Fuel Transfer Pump (Fuel Transfer Pump and High
Air Compressor (Bendix Tu-Flo Air Compressors).. 38 Pressure Oil Pump) ............................................... 4
Air Compressor (Midland Air Compressors).......... 38
Air Inlet Elbow........................................................ 12
Air Inlet Heater....................................................... 37 G
Alternator and Regulator ....................................... 33
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (If Equipped) ......... 36 Gear Group (Front)................................................ 28

B I

Belt Tension Chart ................................................. 30 Important Safety Information ................................... 2


Belt Tensioner (If Equipped) .................................. 31 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve ............. 6
Belt Tightener ........................................................ 31 Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor ..................... 35
Boost Pressure Sensor.......................................... 36 Inlet Air Temperature Sensor................................. 36

C M

Camshaft ............................................................... 13 Main Bearing Journal ............................................ 22


Connecting Rod..................................................... 22
Connecting Rod Bearing Journal .......................... 22
Coolant Temperature Sensor................................. 35 P
Crankcase Breather............................................... 16
Crankshaft ............................................................ 20 Piston and Rings ............................................. 2324
Crankshaft Pulley .................................................. 30 One-Piece Aluminum Piston .............................. 24
Crankshaft Seals ................................................... 20 Two-Piece Articulated Piston ............................. 23
Cylinder Block........................................................ 18 Piston Cooling Jet.................................................. 26
Cylinder Block Cover Group .................................. 18 One-Piece Aluminum Piston .............................. 26
Cylinder Head.......................................................... 9 Two-Piece Articulated Piston ............................. 26
Cylinder Head Valves .............................................. 7

R
E
Rear Seal Carrier (If Equipped) ............................. 21
Electric Starting Motor ..................................... 3334 Refrigerant Compressor ........................................ 32
Electronic Control Wiring Group............................ 37
Engine Design ......................................................... 4
Engine Oil Cooler Bypass Valve ............................ 14 S
Engine Oil Filter Base............................................ 14
Engine Oil Pan....................................................... 15 Specifications Section ............................................. 4
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (If Equipped)............. 35 Speed and Timing Sensor ..................................... 37
Engine Oil Pump.................................................... 15
Engine Oil Temperature Sensor (If Equipped)....... 36
Engine to Transmission Adapter (If Equipped) ...... 30 T
Exhaust Brake ....................................................... 13
Exhaust Elbow....................................................... 12 Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Exhaust Manifold ................................................... 12 Turbocharger ......................................................... 11

F U

Fan Drive ............................................................... 32 Unit Injector ............................................................. 6


Flywheel ................................................................ 29
Flywheel Housing .................................................. 29
Front Housing and Covers..................................... 27
Fuel Filter Base ....................................................... 5
41
Index Section

Valve Mechanism Cover .......................................... 7


Valve Rocker Arms, Lifters, and Bridges ................. 7
Vibration Damper................................................... 22

Water Pump........................................................... 17
Water Temperature Regulator ......................... 1617
42
Index Section
43
Index Section
2001 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.
RENR1271-05
March 2001

Systems Operation
Testing and Adjusting
3126B and 3126E Truck Engines
BKD1-Up (Engine)
1AJ1-Up (Engine)
8YL1-Up (Engine)
CKM1-Up (Engine)
CRP1-Up (Engine)
7AS1-Up (Engine)
8SZ1-Up (Engine)
9SZ1-Up (Engine)
i01097883

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most
current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Electrical System


Battery - Test ....................................................... 113
Belt Tension Chart .............................................. 113
Charging System - Test ...................................... 114
Systems Operation Section Electric Starting System - Test ............................ 116
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor - Test ...................... 117
Engine Design ....................................................... 4
Pinion Clearance - Adjust ................................... 117
General Information ................................................ 4
General Information .............................................. 14
Glossary of Electronic Control Terms ................... 16 Index Section
Electronic Control System Components ............... 19
Fuel System ......................................................... 23 Index ................................................................... 119
Air Inlet and Exhaust System ............................... 52
Lubrication System .............................................. 58
Cooling System .................................................... 60
Basic Engine ......................................................... 63
Electrical System ................................................. 65

Testing and Adjusting Section


Fuel System
Fuel System - Inspect ........................................... 70
Air in Fuel - Test .................................................... 71
Engine Speed - Check .......................................... 72
Finding Top Center Position for No. 1 Piston ........ 73
Fuel Quality - Test ................................................. 74
Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 75
Fuel System Pressure - Test ................................. 75
Gear Group (Front) - Time .................................... 77
Unit Injector - Test ................................................. 78

Air Inlet and Exhaust System


Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect ................. 79
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 81
Inlet Manifold Pressure - Test ............................... 84
Exhaust Temperature - Test .................................. 85
Aftercooler - Test ................................................... 86
Engine Crankcase Pressure (Blowby) - Test ........ 89
Compression - Test ............................................... 89
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 89

Lubrication System
Engine Oil Pressure - Test .................................... 93
Engine Oil Pump - Inspect .................................... 96
Excessive Bearing Wear - Inspect ........................ 96
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption - Inspect ....... 96
Increased Engine Oil Temperature - Inspect ........ 96

Cooling System
Cooling System - Check (Overheating) ................ 98
Cooling System - Inspect .................................... 100
Cooling System - Test ......................................... 101
Water Temperature Regulator - Test ................... 105
Water Pump - Test .............................................. 106

Basic Engine
Piston Ring Groove - Inspect .............................. 107
Connecting Rod Bearings - Inspect .................... 107
Main Bearings - Inspect ...................................... 107
Cylinder Block - Inspect ...................................... 107
Flywheel - Inspect ............................................... 108
Flywheel Housing - Inspect ................................. 109
Vibration Damper - Check ................................... 111
4
Systems Operation Section

Systems Operation Section i01503933

General Information
i01147099
SMCS Code: 1000
Engine Design
Advantages of a Dedicated PTO
SMCS Code: 1000
The ECM provides several options in order to
enhance vehicles that require control of the engine
speed for vocational applications. The vocational
applications include the following applications:
cement mixers, refuse packers, bulk haulers, utility
trucks, fire trucks, and applications that require
the control of the engine rpm for the operation of
specialized equipment.

There are eleven dedicated PTO parameters. The


dedicated PTO has ten inputs and one output. The
features of the dedicated PTO provide a significant
increase in the capability of the engine and of the
usage of the engine.
g00290846
Illustration 1
The electronically controlled 3126B engine and the
Cylinder And Valve Location
3126E engine eliminates the need for the following
(A) Exhaust valve. items: mechanical control cables, air cylinders,
(B) Inlet valve. electric solenoids, and linkages and connections.
The dedicated PTO provides a simple installation.
Bore ............................................ 110 mm (4.3 inch) The Cruise Control switches that are in the cab and
the circuit for the accelerator pedal position are left
Stroke .......................................... 127 mm (5.0 inch) unaffected.

Displacement .................................. 7.25 L (442 in 3 ) Features of the Dedicated PTO


Number of cylinders ............................................... 6 There are several features of the dedicated PTO:
Cylinder arrangement ..................................... In-line The dedicated PTO reduces the alteration of the
cab wiring or the dedicated PTO eliminates the
Valves per cylinder ................................................. 3 alteration of the cab wiring.
In order to check the engine valve lash setting, The dedicated PTO has multiple speed control by
the engine must be cold and the engine must be using the PTO Engine RPM Set Speed Input A
stopped. Engine valve lash settings and PTO Engine RPM Set Speed Input B.
Inlet .................................. 0.38 mm (0.015 inch)
Exhaust ............................ 0.64 mm (0.025 inch) The dedicated PTO has two speed controls that
require the PTO On/Off circuit.
Type of combustion .......................... Direct Injection
The dedicated PTO has an accelerator position
Firing Order ................................ 1 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 2 - 4 sensor that is remote. This sensor enables the
system to control engine rpm with variable
The crankshaft rotation is viewed from the speeds from a remote location.
flywheel end of the engine. Crankshaft
rotation .......................................... counterclockwise The dedicated PTO has reduced engine noise
levels during PTO operation. The reduced engine
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the noise levels are compared to a mechanical
flywheel end of the engine. The left side of the engine PTO.
engine and the right side of the engine are viewed
from the flywheel end of the engine. The number
one cylinder is the front cylinder.
5
Systems Operation Section

Customer Programmable Parameter PTO Shutdown Time The PTO Shutdown Time
Options is a programmable time. If the engine is in PTO
mode, then the PTO Shutdown Time will shut
There are many customer programmable parameter down the engine when the time limit expires.
options:
PTO Activates Cooling Fan The PTO Activates
PTO Configuration The PTO Configuration Cooling Fan can be programmed so that the
determines the input/output configuration that is cooling fan will operate during PTO operation.
used for the Dedicated PTO operation.
Input 4 Input 4 provides a parameter for a
PTO Top Engine Limit The PTO Top Engine Torque Limit Switch when torque limiting is desired
Limit provides a parameter in order to limit the for temporary protection of equipment. This is
engine rpm during PTO operation. regardless of the position of the PTO On/Off switch.
MAR98 or later Personality Modules
PTO Engine RPM Set Speed The PTO Engine
RPM Set Speed provides a set point for the engine Input 5 Input 5 provides a parameter for an
rpm for the PTO. Ignore Brake/Clutch Switch when mobile use of
the vehicle is desired with a set engine rpm. The
PTO Engine RPM Set Speed A This provides brake and the clutch are not required in order to
a programmable engine speed set point that disengage the engine rpm set speed. MAR98 or
is actuated by a dedicated switch circuit. The later Personality Modules
dedicated switch circuit is Input 7. JUL99 or later
Personality Modules Input 7 Input 7 can be programmed to PTO
Engine RPM Set Speed Input A in order to provide
PTO Engine RPM Set Speed B This provides a a dedicated circuit for the PTO operation at a
second programmable engine speed set point that programmed speed when the PTO On/Off Switch is
is actuated by a second dedicated switch circuit. ON. JUL99 or later Personality Modules
The dedicated switch circuit is Input 19. JUL99 or
later Personality Modules Input 19 Input 19 is programmable to PTO
Engine RPM Set Speed Input B in order to provide
PTO to Set Speed The PTO to Set Speed a second dedicated circuit for the operation at a
function requires only one circuit (PTO On/Off programmed speed when PTO Engine RPM Set
Switch) to provide two speed controls. The PTO Speed Input A is OFF and the PTO On/Off switch
to Set Speed function provides three-speed is ON. JUL99 or later Personality Modules
controls by using the PTO On/Off Switch and the
Set/Resume Switch. Additional Features of the Dedicated PTO
PTO Cab Throttle RPM Limit The PTO Cab The engine exhaust brake that is controlled by
Throttle RPM Limit provides a parameter in order the ECM is disabled when the PTO On/Off circuit
to limit the rpm from the accelerator pedal position is in the ON position.
sensor in the cab during PTO operation. The PTO
Cab Throttle RPM Limit can be used in order to When the PTO On/Off switch is in the ON position,
exceed the programmed PTO Top Engine Limit the Idle Shutdown feature is disabled.
with the accelerator pedal that is in the cab.
Two terminal connector and wiring is standard on
Torque Limit The torque limit reduces the all GM applications. Two terminal connector and
engine torque during PTO operation. The torque wiring is standard for the PTO On/Off Switch. Two
limit will also reduce the engine torque when terminal connector and wiring is standard for the
the Torque Limit Switch is in the ON position for PTO Interlock Switches.
temporary protection of equipment.
The PTO Shutdown Timer reduces driver abuse.
PTO Vehicle Speed Limit The PTO Vehicle Driver abuse is placing the truck in PTO mode in
Speed Limit determines the operating range of the order to disable the idle shutdown time.
vehicle speed during PTO operation.

Idle/PTO RPM Ramp Rate The Idle/PTO RPM


Ramp Rate determines the rate of acceleration
and deceleration.

Idle/PTO Bump RPM The Idle/PTO Bump RPM


determines the amount of change in the engine rpm
when the Set/Resume Switch is toggled.
6
Systems Operation Section

Definition of Power Take-Off (PTO)


The dedicated PTO is an engine rpm control that
is initiated through an On/Off circuit. The circuit
is connected to Input 1 (terminal 56) of the ECM
Vehicle Harness Connector J1/P1. Engine rpm
control that is initiated through the Cruise Control
On/Off switch is referred to as Extended Idle.
Engine rpm control that is initiated through the Fast
Idle Enable Switch is referred to as Fast Idle.

The Four Programmable PTO


Configurations
Off The functions for the dedicated PTO are not
available.

Cab Switches The cruise control Set/Resume


switch and the Accelerator Pedal are used to control
the engine rpm. A dedicated PTO On/Off switch is
required. Refer to Illustration 2.

Remote Switches The Set/Resume switch for the


remote PTO is used to control the engine rpm. The
remote switches ignore all of the cab controls. An
On/Off switch for the dedicated PTO is required.
Refer to Illustration 3.

Remote Throttle The remote throttle is used


in order to control the engine rpm. The remote
throttle will ignore all of the cab controls. An On/Off
switch for the dedicated PTO is required. Refer to
Illustration 4.
7
Systems Operation Section

g00625394
Illustration 2
PTO configuration for cab switches
(1) Cruise Control Set/Resume Switch (2) PTO On/Off Switch (3) PTO Switch On Lamp

g00625393
Illustration 3
PTO configuration for remote switches
(4) PTO Switch On Lamp (6) PTO On/Off Switch
(5) PTO Set/Resume Switch (7) PTO Switch On Lamp
8
Systems Operation Section

g00625391
Illustration 4
PTO configuration for remote throttle
(8) PTO Switch On Lamp (10) PTO Set/Resume Switch (12) Remote Throttle for the PTO
(9) PTO On/Off Switch (11) PTO Switch On Lamp

One Speed Control with One Circuit Variable Speed Control That uses an
Input for the Remote Accelerator Position
One speed control with one circuit provides an
optional PTO Set Speed for applications that require Sensor
only one speed above low idle. The following
The following components are required: PTO On/Off
components are required: PTO On/Off Switch, PTO
Interlock Switches, and PTO Switch On Lamp(s). Switch, PTO Interlock Switches, Cruise Control
Switch or Remote Set/Resume Switch, and Remote
Hand Accelerator or an Accelerator Pedal Assembly
Two Speed Control with Three Circuits that is equipped with a Accelerator Position Sensor
that is supplied by Caterpillar.
The two speed control with three circuits has two set
speeds above low idle. The two set speeds that are
above the low idle engine rpm are the PTO to Set
Multiple Speed Control That Uses
Speed and the PTO Top Engine Limit. The following Dedicated Switch Inputs
components are required: PTO On/Off Switch,
PTO Interlock Switches, Cruise Control or Remote This function can be used in conjunction with other
Set/Resume Switch, and PTO Switch On Lamp(s). features that are used to control engine speed. The
function is available for the three configurations for
the PTO. The following components are required:
PTO On/Off Switch, PTO Interlock Switches, and
switch for the PTO Engine RPM Set Speed Input
A. The switch for the PTO Engine RPM Set Speed
Input B can be used in addition to the switch for
the PTO Engine RPM Set Speed Input A.
9
Systems Operation Section

Engine RPM Control That Uses Switches Recommended Information for


Instead of a Control That Uses An Operator of the PTO
Accelerator Position Sensor
Ensure that the operator understands the operation
This function uses switches in order to control of the engine and the components for the PTO
engine rpm. Switches are also recommended if operation. Ensure that the operator understands the
the operator of the PTO will be frequently varying operation before attempting to install the switches
the engine rpm. Switches are recommended if the before the parameters are programmed. The
operator of the PTO will not have a free hand or a installation questionnaire will make the installation
free foot in order to operate the accelerator. easier to understand. The installation questionnaire
will help the installer understand the options that
Differences Between Fast Idle and are needed.
Dedicated PTO Operation Question (1) through question (8) should be
asked before starting the installation procedure.
The following differences are between the fast idle The remaining questions may be asked after the
and the dedicated PTO: installation is completed. This will help to fine tune
the programming and other system components.
Fast Idle is intended for cab control of the engine Refer to the information for programmable
speed. The dedicated PTO can be set up for parameters that is found in Programmable
control in the cab or for remote control of engine Parameters Available Ranges, Options, and
speed during PTO operation. Default Settings. For more information, refer to
Special Publication, LEXT0023, Programming CAT
Fast Idle requires a single momentary switch to Electronic Truck Engines. Also refer to Special
select the programmed engine speed(s). The Publication, LEBT9390, Electrical and Electronic
dedicated PTO can be as simple as a single Application and Installation Guide.
two-position switch. The two positions are the ON
position and the OFF position. The dedicated PTO Complete the following information once the
can also require combinations of two-position installation is complete:
switches and momentary switches.
Programmed Parameter Information Sheet for the
The dedicated PTO provides several options: Operator of the PTO
programmable engine rpm limits, set points,
bump rates, ramp rates, and programmable
torque limit. These features are not available for
Instructions for the Operator of the PTO
Fast Idle control.
Diagrams for Switches and Components that are
used for the Installation of the PTO
The ramp rate for Fast Idle rpm is fixed and this
rate can not be adjusted. The information that is recorded should be explained
to the operator of the PTO. The information that is
Fast Idle requires a momentary switch. Fast Idle recorded should be left in the cab glove box. This
can not be used with a typical PTO system that will allow the operator of the PTO to review the
requires two-position switches. The momentary configuration of the truck and the PTO. This will
switch can not be operated hydraulically. The allow the service technician to troubleshoot any
momentary switch can not be operated by air. suspected problems that relate to the installation.
The momentary switch can not be a position limit
switch that is integrated into the PTO operation.
Installation Questionnaire
Fast Idle Operation That Has One or Two
Refer to the 3126B and 3126E Truck Engine
Speed Control with One Circuit Electronic PTO Installation and Applications Service
Manual, PTO Parameters - Program for the
This function provides an optional set speed(s) for installation and programming that is based on the
applications that require only one or two speeds information on the Questionnaire Response.
above low idle.

A momentary Fast Idle Enable Switch and a Fast


Idle Enabled Lamp are required.
10
Systems Operation Section

Table 1
Questions Response
Determine the location of the controls inside the cab for the
PTO.
Determine the location of the controls outside the cab for
the PTO.
Determine if control of the engine rpm is required from both
the cab and outside of the cab.
Determine if the operator of the PTO will be continually
varying engine rpm.
Determine if a hand accelerator or a foot accelerator will
be used.
Determine the maximum PTO operation vehicle speed.
Determine if the PTO will require the use of the clutch and
the service brakes. Determine that the engine rpm must be
maintained when the clutch and service brakes are used.
Determine the maximum torque of the equipment when the
PTO On/Off circuit is ON.
Determine the necessity of a torque limit when the PTO
On/Off circuit is in the OFF position.
Example Determine that a torque limit is needed in order to
reduce the torque for the driveline.
Determine if one or more fixed engine rpm above low idle is
required.
Determine the first engine rpm.
Determine the second engine rpm.
Determine the necessity in order for the engine to accelerate
to the first engine rpm when the PTO On/Off switch is turned
to the ON position.
Determine the operating speed points.
Determine the maximum operating engine rpm for the
equipment.
Determine if the accelerator pedal rpm should be limited. This
will occur only if the control of the engine rpm is from the cab.
Determine the acceleration rate that is required in order
for the engine to reach the set point for the engine rpm.
Determine the rate of deceleration that is required in order for
the engine to decelerate from the set point for the engine rpm.
Ask the following question ONLY if the vehicle uses the
Caterpillar Engine Control Module (ECM) to turn the engine
cooling fan ON. If necessary, contact the OEM of the vehicle
for more information.
Determine the minor fluctuations in engine rpm that are
caused by the engine cooling fan that is cycling ON and OFF.
Determine if this will cause a pump problem or other system
problems.

Programmed Parameter Table 2


Information Sheet for the Operator Selected Engine Rating
of the PTO Rating Number
ECM Identification Parameters
Use the following table to fill in the programmed
parameters once the installation is complete. Vehicle ID
Otherwise, print a copy of the engine configuration
Truck Manufacturer Parameters
by using the Electronic Technician.
(continued)
11
Systems Operation Section

(Table 2, contd) (Table 2, contd)


Truck Manufacturer Input Number 4 (Torque
JUL99 and newer Limit Switch)
Personality Modules MAR98 and newer
Personality Modules
Vehicle Speed Parameters
Input Number 5 (Ignore
Vehicle Speed Limit Brake/Clutch Switch)
Cruise Control Parameters MAR98 and newer
Personality Modules
Low Cruise Control Speed
Set Limit Input Number 7 (PTO
Engine Set Speed Input
High Cruise Control A)
Speed Set Limit JUL99 and newer
Personality Modules
Cruise/Idle/PTO Switch
Configuration Input Number 19 (PTO
Engine Set Speed Input
Idle Parameters B)
Idle Vehicle Speed Limit JUL99 and newer
Personality Modules
Idle RPM Limit
Idle/PTO RPM Ramp Rate
(rpm/sec)
Idle/PTO Bump RPM
Fast Idle RPM 1
Fast Idle RPM 2
Dedicated PTO Parameters
PTO Configuration
PTO Top Engine Limit
PTO Engine RPM Set
Speed
PTO Engine RPM Set
Speed A
JUL99 and newer
Personality Modules
PTO Engine RPM Set
Speed B
JUL99 and newer
Personality Modules
PTO to Set Speed
PTO Cab Throttle RPM
Limit
PTO Vehicle Speed Limit
Torque Limit
PTO Shutdown Time
PTO Activates Cooling
Fan
Engine and Gear Parameters
Top Engine Limit
Low Idle Engine RPM
Transmission Style
Input Selections
(continued)
12
Systems Operation Section

Instructions for the Operator of the


PTO
Table 3
Question Response
The following interlocks must be set before the engine can be
operated for PTO purposes.
For example, the parking brake must be engaged and the
transmission must be placed in the neutral position.
Determine the location of the PTO On/Off switch. Determine
the labeling of the switch.
Determine the maximum vehicle speed while the PTO is in
operation.
NOTE: Exceeding the maximum vehicle speed will cause
the engine to exit the PTO set speed. The engine will then
return to low idle.
Determine if the PTO is set up to allow the use of the clutch
and service brakes with an engine rpm set speed. Determine
the PTO mode vehicle speed limit that is required for the
operation of the PTO.
If the answer is yes, then determine the location of the
switch that allows this operation. Determine the labeling of
the switch.
Determine the acceleration rate that is required in order
for the engine to reach the set point for the engine rpm.
Determine the rate of deceleration that is required in order for
the engine to decelerate from the set point for the engine rpm.
Determine if only one or two engine rpm above low idle are
necessary.
Determine the first engine rpm.
Determine the second engine rpm.
Determine if the installation is configured for engine
acceleration to increase to a desired engine rpm. This should
happen when the PTO On/Off switch is turned to the ON
position.
Determine the necessity that involves the cooling fan that
runs constantly when the control that is for the cooling fan
is active.
Determine the location of the PTO Switch On Lamp.
Determine the labeling of the switch.
Determine the programming of the PTO Shutdown Timer.
Determine the programming of the PTO Torque Limit.

Truck Installation Diagram for The 1. Locate the following items and create a sketch
Switches and The Components of these items: switches, sensors, and lamps.
Refer to the 3126B and 3126E Truck Engine
Electronic PTO Installation and Applications
Follow the steps below once the installation is
complete: Service Manual, The Four Programmable
PTO Configurations for the installation and
programming that is based on the information on
the Questionnaire Response.

2. Provide a copy of the appropriate diagrams from


this manual that illustrate the specific installation
to the vehicle owner.
13
Systems Operation Section

g00720254
Illustration 5
(1) Torque limit switch (7) PTO Switch On lamp
(2) Ignore/Normal Brake/Clutch switch (8) On/Off Switch for the PTO Engine RPM
(3) PTO On/Off switch Set Speed A
(4) PTO switch ON lamp (9) On/Off Switch for the PTO Engine RPM
(5) PTO Set/RPM Increase/Decrease Switch Set Speed B
(6) PTO Accelerator Assembly
14
Systems Operation Section

i01517325

General Information
SMCS Code: 1000

g00608514
Illustration 6
Right side view
(1) Lifting eye (6) Belt tensioner
(2) Engine crankcase breather (7) Water drain plug
(3) Turbocharger (8) Crankshaft vibration damper
(4) Oil filler (9) Oil filter
(5) Water temperature regulator housing (10) Jacket water pump
15
Systems Operation Section

g00608515
Illustration 7
Left side view
(11) Oil filler (14) Fuel priming pump (if equipped) (17) Air compressor
(12) Lifting eye (15) Oil level gauge (typical example) (18) Cylinder head grounding stud
(13) Fuel filter (16) Electronic Control Module (ECM) (19) Oil drain plug

The 3126B and 3126E engines are in-line six The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to
cylinder arrangements. The firing order of the ensure that all of the components are operating
engine is 1-5-3-6-2-4. The engines rotation is properly. In the event of a system component
counterclockwise when the engine is viewed from failure, the operator will be alerted to the condition
the flywheel end of the engine. The engine utilizes via the check engine light that is located on the
a turbocharger and an air-to-air aftercooler. The dashboard. An electronic service tool can be used
engines have a bore of 110 mm (4.3 inch) and a to read the numerical code of the faulty component
stroke of 127 mm (5.0 inch). The displacement is or condition. Also, the cruise control switches can
7.25 L (442 in 3 ). be used to flash the code on the check engine light.
Intermittent faults are logged and stored in memory.
The hydraulic electronic unit injector system (HEUI)
eliminates many of the mechanical components Starting The Engine
that are used in a pump-and-line system. The
HEUI also provides increased control of the timing
The engines ECM will automatically provide the
and increased control of the fuel air mixture. The correct amount of fuel in order to start the engine.
timing advance is achieved by precise control of
Do not hold the throttle down while the engine
the unit injector timing. Engine rpm is controlled by
is cranking. If the engine fails to start in twenty
adjusting the injection duration. A special pulse seconds, release the starting switch. Allow the
wheel provides information to the Electronic Control
starting motor to cool for two minutes before the
Module (ECM) for detection of cylinder position and
starting motor is used again.
engine rpm.
16
Systems Operation Section

Boost Pressure Sensor The boost pressure sensor


NOTICE measures inlet manifold air pressure. The boost
Excessive ether (starting fluid) can cause piston and pressure sensor sends a signal to the Electronic
ring damage. Use ether for cold weather starting pur- Control Module (ECM).
poses only.
Bypass Circuit A bypass circuit is a circuit that is
used as a substitute circuit for an existing circuit. A
Cold Mode Operation bypass circuit is typically used as a test circuit.

Starting the engine and operation in cold weather is Calibration Calibration is an electronic adjustment
dependent on the type of fuel that is used, the oil of a sensor signal.
viscosity, and other optional starting aids. For more
information, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Coolant Temperature Sensor The coolant
Manual, Cold Weather Operation topic (Operation temperature sensor measures the engine coolant
Section). temperature. The sensor sends a signal to the
electronic control module (ECM). The engines
coolant temperature is used in Cold Mode
i00664947 operation. Coolant temperature is also used in order
to optimize engine performance.
Glossary of Electronic Control
Terms Cruise Control Range The cruise control range
establishes the vehicle speed range for the
SMCS Code: 1900 operation of cruise control. The range is usually
limited to the speed range that is anticipated on
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor The accelerator the open road.
pedal position sensor is an electronic sensor
that is connected to the accelerator pedal. The Code See the Diagnostic Code.
accelerator pedal position sensor sends a Pulse
Width Modulated Signal to the ECM. Customer Specified Parameters A customer
specified parameter is a parameter that can be
After Market Device An after market device is changed. A customer specified parameters value
a device or an accessory that is installed by the is set by the customer. These parameters are
customer after the vehicle is delivered. protected by customer passwords.

Air-To-Air Aftercooler (ATAAC) An air-to-air CAT Data Link The data link is an electrical
aftercooler is a device that is used on turbocharged connection that is used to communicate with other
engines in order to cool inlet air that has undergone microprocessor based devices. The microprocessor
compression. The inlet air is cooled after the inlet based devices are compatible with the proposed
air passes through the turbocharger. The inlet air American Trucking Association and the SAE
is passed through an aftercooler (heat exchanger) Standard. These devices include trip recorders,
that uses ambient air for cooling. The inlet air that electronic dashboards, and maintenance systems.
has been cooled advances to the inlet manifold. The data link is also the communication medium that
is used for programming with the electronic service
American Wire Gauge (AWG) AWG is a measure tool. The data link is also used for troubleshooting
of the diameter of electrical wire. AWG is also with the electronic service tool.
a measure of the current carrying capacity of
electrical wire. When the AWG number is smaller, Desired RPM The desired rpm is input to the
the diameter of the wire is larger. When the AWG electronic governor within the ECM. The electronic
number is larger, the diameter of the wire is smaller. governor uses the signal from the Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor, the Engine Speed Sensor, the
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor The atmospheric Cruise Control, and the Customer Parameters in
pressure sensor measures barometric pressure. order to determine desired rpm.
The sensor sends a signal to the electronic control
module (ECM). The signal is used in engine control Diagnostic Code A diagnostic code is sometimes
and in engine operation. called a fault code. A diagnostic code is an
indication of a problem or event in the electrical
Before Top Center (BTC) BTC is the 180 degrees engine systems.
of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches
the top center position in the normal direction of
rotation.
17
Systems Operation Section

Diagnostic Lamp A diagnostic lamp is sometimes Harness The harness is the bundle of wiring
called the check engine light. The diagnostic lamp that connects all the components of the electrical
is used to warn the operator of the presence of an engine system.
active diagnostic code.
Hertz (Hz) Hz is the measure of frequency in
Direct Current (DC) Direct current is the type of cycles per second.
current that flows consistently in only one direction.
High Pressure Oil Manifold The high pressure
Duty Cycle See Pulse Width Modulation. oil manifold is an oil gallery that is added to the
cylinder head in order to supply the unit injectors
Electronic Control Analyzer And Programmer with high pressure oil.
(ECAP) The ECAP is a Caterpillar electronic
service tool. The ECAP is used for programming and High Pressure Oil Pump The high pressure oil
for diagnosing various types of electronic controls. pump is an axial piston pump that is driven by
gears. The high pressure oil pump is used to raise
Electronic Control Module (ECM) The ECM is the engine oil pressure in order to activate the unit
the engines control computer. The ECM provides injectors. The amount of oil pressure that is required
power to the electronics. The ECM monitors data to activate the unit injectors is called the actuation
that is input from the engines sensors. The ECM pressure.
acts as a governor in order to control engine rpm.
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) System
Electronic Engine Control The electronic engine The HEUI is a fuel system that uses a hydraulically
control is a complete electronic system. The actuated, electronically controlled unit injector. The
electronic engine control monitors the engine system combines the pumping, electronic fuel
operation under all conditions. The electronic metering and injecting elements in a single unit.
engine control also controls the engine operation
under all conditions. Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (IAP
Control Valve) The injection actuation pressure
Electronic Technician (ET) The ET is a Caterpillar control valve is a variable valve. The valve is used
electronic service tool that is used for diagnosing to maintain the proper oil pressure in the engine
and programming a variety of electronic controls. high pressure oil gallery. The valve is controlled by
the ECM.
Estimated Dynamic Timing Estimated dynamic
timing is the ECMs estimate of actual injection Injection Actuation Pressure (IAP) Sensor The
timing. injection actuation pressure sensor is a sensor that
measures hydraulic oil pressure. The sensor also
Exhaust Brake Enable Signal The exhaust brake sends a signal to the electronic control module
enable signal interfaces the ECM to the engine (ECM).
retarder. This prevents the operation of the exhaust
brake under unsafe engine operating conditions. Inlet Air Temperature Sensor The inlet air
temperature sensor is a sensor that measures the
Failure Mode Identifier (FMI) The FMI describes inlet air temperature. The sensor also sends a signal
the type of failure that was experienced by the to the electronic control module (ECM).
component. The codes for the FMI were adopted
from the standard practices of SAE (J1587 Open Circuit An open circuit is a broken electrical
diagnostics). wire connection. The signal or the supply voltage
cannot reach the intended destination.
Flash Memory See the Personality Module.
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) An OEM
Fuel Ratio Control (FRC) The FRC is a limit that is the manufacturer of a vehicle that utilizes a
is based on the control of the fuel to air ratio. The Caterpillar engine.
FRC is used for emission control. When the ECM
senses a higher turbocharger outlet pressure, the Parameter A parameter is a programmable value
ECM increases the limit for the FRC in order to allow which affects the characteristics or the behavior of
more fuel into the cylinders. the engine and/or vehicle.

Fuel Position The fuel position is a signal within Parameter Identifier (PID) A PID is a numerical
the ECM. The signal is from the electronic governor. code that contains two digits or three digits. A
The signal goes to the fuel injection control. The numerical code is assigned to each component.
signal is based on the desired engine speed, the The numerical code identifies data via the data link
FRC, the rated position, and the actual engine to the ECM.
speed.
18
Systems Operation Section

Password A password is a group of numeric Rated Fuel Position (Rated Fuel Pos on ECAP)
characters or alphanumeric characters. A password The rated fuel position indicates the maximum
is designed to restrict the changing of information allowable fuel position (longest injection pulse). The
in the ECM. The electrical engine systems require rated fuel position will produce rated power for this
correct customer passwords in order to change engine configuration.
customer specified parameters. The electrical
engine systems require correct factory passwords Reference Voltage The reference voltage is a
in order to clear certain logged events. Factory regulated voltage that is used by the sensor in order
passwords are also required in order to change to generate a signal voltage.
certain engine specifications.
Sensor A sensor is used to detect a change in
Personality Module The personality module is the pressure, in the temperature, or in mechanical
the module in the ECM which contains all the movement. When any of these changes are
instructions (software) for the ECM and performance detected, a sensor converts the change into an
maps for a specific horsepower family. Updates and electrical signal.
rerates are accomplished by electronically flashing
in new data. The updates and rerates are flashed in Service Program Module (SPM) The SPM is a
using an electronic service tool. software program on a computer chip that was
programmed at the factory. The computer chip
Power Take-Off (PTO) The PTO is operated with is designed to adapt an ECAP for a particular
the cruise control switches or dedicated PTO inputs. application.
This mode of operation permits setting constant
engine rpm when the vehicle is not moving or when Short Circuit A short circuit is an electrical circuit
the vehicle is moving at slow speeds. that is mistakenly connected to an undesirable
point. For example, an electrical contact is made
Progressive Shifting Progressive shifting is with the frame whenever an exposed wire rubs
upshifting through the lower gears quickly. Shifts against a vehicles frame.
are made above peak torque but below rated rpm.
Needlessly operating the engine in the higher rpm Signal A signal is a voltage or a wave that is
ranges before shifting to the next gear wastes fuel. used to transmit information that is typically from a
Also, this mode of operation fails to take advantage sensor to the ECM.
of the torque rise of the engine.
Speed Burp A speed burp is a sudden brief
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) A PWM is a digital change in engine rpm.
type of electronic signal that corresponds to a
measured variable. The length of the pulse (signal) Speed-timing Sensor The speed-timing sensor is
is controlled by the measured variable. The variable a sensor that provides a Pulse Width Modulated
is quantified by a certain ratio. This ratio is the signal to the ECM. The ECM interprets this signal as
percent of on-time that is divided by the percent the crankshaft position and the engine speed.
of off-time. A PWM signal is generated by the
Throttle Position Sensor. Subsystem A subsystem is a part of the engine
system that relates to a particular function.

Supply Voltage Supply voltage is a constant


voltage that is supplied to a component in order
to provide electrical power for operation. Supply
voltage may be generated by the ECM. Supply
voltage may also be the battery voltage of the
vehicle that is supplied by the vehicle wiring.

T Harness This harness is a test harness that


is designed to permit normal circuit operation and
the measurement of the voltage simultaneously.
Typically, the harness is inserted between the two
ends of a connector.
g00284479
Illustration 8 Throttle Position Throttle position is the ECMs
Example Of Pulse Width Modulation interpretation of the signal from the accelerator
pedal position sensor. The throttle position may be
used as part of a power take-off control.
19
Systems Operation Section

Total Tattletale The total tattletale is the total


number of changes to all system parameters.

Transducer A transducer is a device that converts


a mechanical signal to an electrical signal.

Vehicle Speed Sensor A vehicle speed sensor is


an electromagnetic pickup that measures vehicle
speed from the rotation of gear teeth in the drive
train of the vehicle.

i01269186

Electronic Control System


Components
SMCS Code: 1900

g00292549
Illustration 9
Electronic Control System Components (left side view)
(1) Grommet for injector harness. (2) Injection actuation pressure sensor. (3) Air inlet heater. (4) Inlet air temperature sensor. (5) Atmospheric
pressure sensor (if equipped). (6) Boost pressure sensor. (7) Engine harness connector J2/P2. (8) Engine ground stud connection. (9) Vehicle
harness connector J1/P1. (10) Oil temperature sensor (if equipped). (11) Injection actuation pressure control valve. (12) Engine speed-timing
sensors. (13) Coolant temperature sensor. (14) Oil pressure sensor (if equipped). (15) Electronic Control Module (ECM).
20
Systems Operation Section

g00292594
Illustration 10
Electronic Control System Components (top view)
(1) Grommet for injector harness. (2) Injection actuation pressure sensor. (3) Air inlet heater. (4) Inlet air temperature sensor. (5) Atmospheric
pressure sensor (if equipped). (6) Boost pressure sensor. (8) Engine ground stud connection. (11) Injection actuation pressure control valve.
(16) Relay of air inlet heater.

The electronic control system is integrally designed An input component is one that sends an electrical
into the engines fuel system and the engines air signal to the ECM of the system. The signal that is
inlet and exhaust system in order to electronically sent varies in either of the following ways:
control the fuel delivery and the injection timing. The
electronic control system provides increased timing voltage
control and fuel air ratio control in comparison to
conventional mechanical engines. Injection timing frequency
is achieved by the precise control of the injector
firing time. Engine rpm is controlled by adjusting the pulse width
injection duration. The Electronic Control Module
(ECM) energizes the unit injector solenoids in order The variation of the signal is in response to a
to start the injection of fuel. Also, the Electronic change in some specific system of the vehicle.
Control Module (ECM) de-energizes the unit injector Some specific examples of an input component
solenoids in order to stop the injection of fuel. are the engine speed-timing sensors, the coolant
temperature sensor, and the cruise control switches.
Refer to Systems Operation/Testing And Adjusting, The ECM interprets the signal from the input
HEUI Injector Operation for a complete explanation component as information about the condition,
of the fuel injection process. environment, or operation of the vehicle.

The engine uses the following three types of


electronic components:

input component
control component
output component
21
Systems Operation Section

A control component (ECM) receives the input Table 4


signals from the input components. Electronic Electrical Connectors And Functions
circuits inside the control component evaluate the
signals from the input components. These electronic J/P No. Function
circuits also supply electrical energy to the output
ECM Connector (70 pin, OEM Harness
components of the system. The electrical energy J1/P1
Connector)
that is supplied to the output components is based
on predetermined combinations of input signal ECM Connector (70 pin, Engine Harness
J2/P2
values. Connector)
Coolant Temperature Sensor Connector
An output component is one that is operated by J100/P100
(2 pin)
a control module. The output component receives
electrical energy from the control group. The output Inlet Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
J103/P103
component uses that electrical energy in one of Connector (2 Pin)
two ways. The output component can use that J200/P200 Boost Pressure Sensor Connector (3 pin)
electrical energy in order to perform work. The
output component can use that electrical energy in Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Connector
J203/P203
(3 pin)
order to provide information.
Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor
J204/P204
As an example, a moving solenoid plunger will Connector (3 pin)
perform work. By performing work, the component
J300/P300 Unit Injector Connector (12 pin)
has functioned in order to regulate the vehicle.
J301/P301 No. 1 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
As an example, a dash panel light or an alarm will
J302/P302 No. 2 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
provide information to the operator of the vehicle.
J303/P303 No. 3 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
These electronic components provide the ability
J304/P304 No. 4 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
to electronically control the engine operation.
Engines with electronic controls offer the following J305/P305 No. 5 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
advantages:
J306/P306 No. 6 Unit Injector Connector (2 pin)
improvement in performance J400/P400 Engine Timing Calibration Probe (2 pin)
Top Camshaft Engine Speed-Timing
improvement in fuel consumption J401/P401
Sensor Connector (2 pin)
reduction in emissions levels J402/P402
Bottom Camshaft Engine Speed-Timing
Sensor Connector (2 pin)
Accelerator Pedal Position Connector (3
J403/P403
pin)
Injection Actuation Pressure Control
J500/P500
Valve Connector (2 pin)
Relay Of Air Inlet Heater Connector (2
J501/P501
pin)
Lamp Of Air Inlet Heater Connector (2
J648/P648
pin)

Table 5
Diagnostic Flash Codes
Flash
PID-FMI Description of Code
Code
1-11 72 Cylinder 1 Fault
2-11 72 Cylinder 2 Fault
3-11 73 Cylinder 3 Fault
4-11 73 Cylinder 4 Fault
5-11 74 Cylinder 5 Fault
6-11 74 Cylinder 6 Fault
(continued)
22
Systems Operation Section

(Table 5, contd) (Table 5, contd)


Diagnostic Flash Codes Diagnostic Flash Codes
Flash Flash
PID-FMI Description of Code PID-FMI Description of Code
Code Code
22-13 42 Check Timing Sensor Calibration Coolant Temperature Sensor Open
110-03 27
Circuit
30-08 29 Invalid PTO Throttle Signal
Coolant Temperature Sensor Short
30-13 29 PTO Throttle Sensor Calibration 110-04 27
Circuit
41-03 21 8 Volt Supply Above Normal 110-11 61 Very High Coolant Temperature
41-04 21 8 Volt Supply Below Normal 111-01 62 Low Coolant Level Warning
Injection Actuation Pressure Control 111-02 12 Coolant Level Sensor Fault
42-11 18
Valve Driver Fault
111-11 62 Very Low Coolant Level
43-02 71 Ignition Keyswitch Fault
Injection Actuation Pressure Out of
Loss of Engine RPM Signal on 164-00 17
Range
64-02 34 Engine Speed and Timing Sensor
Number 2 Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor
164-02 15
Erratic
No Pattern on Engine Speed and
64-11 34
Timing Sensor Number 2 Injection Actuation Pressure Open
164-03 15
Circuit
70-05 49 Air Inlet Heater Open Circuit
Injection Actuation Pressure Short
70-06 49 Air Inlet Heater Short Circuit 164-04 15
Circuit
71-00 01 Idle Shutdown Override 164-11 39 Injection Actuation Pressure System
71-01 47 Idle Shutdown Occurrence Intermittent Battery Power to the
168-02 51
71-14 47 PTO Shutdown Occurrence ECM

84-00 41 Vehicle Overspeed Warning 190-00 35 Engine Overspeed Warning

84-01 31 Loss of Vehicle Speed Signal Loss of RPM Signal on Engine


190-02 34
Speed and Timing Sensor Number 1
84-02 36 Invalid Vehicle Speed Signal
No Pattern on Engine Speed and
190-11 34
84-08 36 Vehicle Speed Out of Range Timing Sensor Number 1
84-10 36 Vehicle Speed Rate of Change 231-11 58 J1939 Data Link Fault
91-08 32 Invalid Throttle Signal 232-03 21 5 Volt Supply Above Normal
91-13 28 Throttle Sensor Calibration 232-04 21 5 Volt Supply Below Normal
100-03 24 Open Circuit of Oil Pressure Sensor 246-11 00 Service Brake Switch Number 1 Fault
100-04 24 Short Circuit of Oil Pressure Sensor 247-11 00 Service Brake Switch Number 2 Fault
100-11 46 Very Low Oil Pressure 252-11 59 Incorrect Engine Software
102-03 25 Boost Pressure Sensor Open Circuit Check Customer or System
253-02 59
Parameters
102-04 25 Boost Pressure Sensor Short Circuit
Inlet Manifold Air Temperature
105-03 38
Sensor Open Circuit i01477589

105-04 38
Inlet Manifold Air Temperature
Sensor Short Circuit
Fuel System
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Open SMCS Code: 1250
108-03 26
Circuit
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Short
108-04 26
Circuit
110-00 61 High Coolant Temperature Warning
(continued)
23
Systems Operation Section

Introduction

g00457847
Illustration 11
HEUI Component Diagram
(1) Hydraulic pump. (2) Oil flow to engine. (3) Oil filter. (4) Engine oil pump. (5) Oil cooler. (6) IAP sensor. (7) Injectors. (8) Fuel supply rail.
(9) Fuel pressure regulator. (10) IAP control valve. (11) Fuel filter. (12) Fuel tank. (13) Back of cam gear. (14) Speed-timing sensors. (15)
ECM. (16) Boost pressure sensor. (17) Accelerator pedal. (18) Accelerator pedal position sensor. (19) Batteries. (20) Coolant temperature
sensor. (21) Data link. (22) Exhaust brake relay. (23) Inlet air temperature sensor. (24) Transmission relay. (25) Vehicle speed sensor. (26)
Inlet air heater relay. (27) Inlet air heater lamp. (28) Fast idle lamp. (29) Check engine lamp. (30) Speedometer and tachometer. (31) Cruise
ON/OFF switch and Cruise SET/RESUME switch. (32) PTO ON/OFF switch and SET/RESUME switch. (33) Service brake switches. (34)
Neutral and clutch switches. (35) Fuel transfer pump.
24
Systems Operation Section

The operation of the Hydraulic Electronic Unit The HEUI uses engine lubrication oil that is
Injector (HEUI) fuel system is completely different pressurized from 6 MPa (870 psi) to 24 MPa
from any other type of fuel system that is actuated (3500 psi) in order to pump fuel from the injector.
mechanically. The HEUI fuel system is completely The HEUI operates in the same way as a hydraulic
free of adjustment. Adjustments to the components cylinder in order to multiply the force of the high
that are mechanical can not be made. Changes pressure oil. By multiplying the force of the high
in performance are made by installing different pressure oil, the HEUI can produce injection
software in Electronic Control Module (ECM) (15). pressures that are very high. This multiplication of
pressure is achieved by applying the force of the
This fuel system consists of six basic components: high pressure oil to a piston. The piston is larger
than the plunger by approximately six times. The
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) (7) piston that is powered by engine lubrication oil
under high pressure pushes on the plunger. This
Electronic Control Module (ECM) (15) engine lubrication oil under high pressure is called
the actuation pressure of the oil. The actuation
Hydraulic Pump (1) pressure of the oil generates the injection pressure
that is delivered by the unit injector. Injection
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (10) pressure is greater than actuation pressure of the
oil by approximately six times.
Fuel Transfer Pump (35)
Low actuation pressure of the oil results in low
Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor (6) injection pressure of the fuel. During conditions
of low speed such as idle and start, low injection
Note: The components of the HEUI fuel system are pressure is utilized.
not serviceable. These fuel system components
must not be disassembled. Disassembly will High actuation pressure of the oil results in high
damage the components. If the components have injection pressure of the fuel. During conditions of
been disassembled, Caterpillar may not allow high speed such as high idle and acceleration, high
a warranty claim or Caterpillar may reduce the injection pressure is utilized.
warranty claim.
There are many other operating conditions when the
injection pressure is between the minimum and the
Component Description maximum. Regardless of the speed of the engine,
the HEUI fuel system provides infinite control of
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector injection pressure.
The HEUI fuel system utilizes a hydraulically
actuated electronically controlled unit injector (7).
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Electronic Control Module (ECM) (15) is located on
All fuel systems for diesel engines use a plunger
the left side of the engine. The ECM is a powerful
and barrel in order to pump fuel under high pressure
into the combustion chamber. This fuel is pumped computer that provides total electronic control of
engine performance. The ECM uses data from
into the combustion chamber in precise amounts in
engine performance that is gathered by several
order to control engine performance. The HEUI uses
engine oil under high pressure in order to power the sensors. Then, the ECM uses this data in order
to make adjustments to the fuel delivery, injection
plunger. All other fuel systems use a fuel injection
pressure and injection timing. The ECM contains
pump camshaft lobe in order to power the plunger.
Because the HEUI is much different, a technician programmed performance maps (software) in order
to define horsepower, torque curves and rpm. This
must use different troubleshooting methods.
software is commonly called the personality module.

Some engines use Electronic Control Modules


(ECM) (15) with a replaceable computer chip.
The software has already been installed in the
replaceable computer chip. The 3126B and 3126E
diesel truck engines do not have a replaceable
personality module. The 3126B and 3126E diesel
truck engines personality module are a permanent
part of the ECM. The 3126B and 3126E diesel truck
engines personality module can be reprogrammed
by using the feature of flash programming of the
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).
25
Systems Operation Section

ECM (15) logs faults of engine performance. Also, Fuel transfer pump (35) is a single piston pump
the ECM is capable of running several diagnostic that is spring loaded. The pump is operated by
tests automatically when the ECM is used with an off-center bearing on the back of the hydraulic
an electronic service tool such as the ET or the pump shaft. There are two check valves in the fuel
Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP). transfer pump. The inlet check valve opens in order
to allow fuel from the tank into the pump. The inlet
Hydraulic Pump check valve closes in order to prevent fuel leakage
back to the fuel tank. The outlet check valve opens
Hydraulic pump (1) (high pressure oil pump) in order to supply fuel to the fuel supply passage.
is located at the left front corner of the engine. The fuel supply passage is located in the cylinder
The hydraulic pump is a piston pump that has a head. The fuel supply passage supplies fuel to
fixed displacement. The hydraulic pump uses an injectors (7). The outlet check valve closes in order
axial piston. The hydraulic pump uses a portion to prevent pressurized fuel leakage back through
of the engine lubrication oil. The hydraulic pump the pump.
pressurizes the engine lubrication oil to the injection
actuation pressure that is required in order to power Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor
the HEUI injectors. (IAP)
Injection Actuation Pressure Control IAP Sensor (6) is installed in the high pressure oil
Valve (IAP Control Valve) manifold. The high pressure oil manifold supplies
actuation oil in order to power the unit injectors. The
Injection actuation pressure control valve (10) (IAP IAP Sensor monitors injection actuation pressure.
Control Valve) is located on the side of hydraulic The IAP Sensor sends a continuous voltage signal
pump (1). Under most conditions, the pump is back to ECM (15). The ECM interprets the signal.
producing excess oil flow. The IAP Control Valve The ECM is aware of the injection actuation pressure
discharges excess pump flow to the drain in at all times.
order to control injection actuation pressure to the
desired level. The IAP Control Valve is a valve of
high precision that controls the actual actuation
pressure. The performance maps of ECM (15)
contain a desired actuation pressure for every
engine operating condition. The ECM sends a
control current to the IAP Control Valve. The control
current should make the actual actuation pressure
equal to the desired actuation pressure.

IAP Control Valve (10) is an actuator. The IAP


Control Valve converts an electrical signal from
ECM (15) to the mechanical control of a spool valve
in order to control pump outlet pressure.

Fuel Transfer Pump


Fuel transfer pump (35) is mounted on the back of
hydraulic pump (1). The fuel transfer pump is used
in order to draw fuel from fuel tank (12). Also, the
fuel transfer pump is used in order to pressurize
the fuel to 450 kPa (65 psi). The pressurized fuel is
supplied to injectors (7).
26
Systems Operation Section

HEUI Fuel System Operation


Low Pressure Fuel System

g00458217
Illustration 12
Low Pressure Fuel System
(8) Fuel supply line. (9) Fuel pressure regulator. (11) Fuel filter. (12) Fuel tank. (35) Fuel transfer pump.
27
Systems Operation Section

The low pressure fuel system serves three functions. Fuel pressure regulator (9) consists of an orifice
The low pressure fuel system supplies fuel for and a spring loaded check valve. The orifice is a
combustion to injectors (7). Also, the low pressure flow restriction that pressurizes the supply fuel.
fuel system supplies excess fuel flow in order to The spring loaded check valve opens at 35 kPa
cool the unit injectors and the low pressure fuel (5 psi) in order to allow the fuel which has flowed
system supplies excess fuel flow in order to remove through the orifice to return to fuel tank (12). When
air from the system. the engine is off and no fuel pressure is present,
the spring loaded check valve closes. The spring
The low pressure fuel system consists of four basic loaded check valve closes in order to prevent the
components: fuel in the cylinder head from draining back to the
fuel tank.
Fuel tank (12)
Fuel filter (11)
Fuel transfer pump (35)
Fuel pressure regulator (9)
Fuel transfer pump (35) is mounted on the back of
hydraulic pump (1). The fuel transfer pump pushes
pressurized fuel out of the outlet port and the fuel
transfer pump draws new fuel into the inlet port.

Fuel is drawn from fuel tank (12) and flows through


two micron fuel filter (11).

Fuel flows from fuel filter (11) to the inlet side of


fuel transfer pump (35). An inlet check valve in the
inlet port of the fuel transfer pump opens in order
to allow the flow of fuel into the pump. After the
fuel flow has stopped, the inlet check valve closes
in order to prevent fuel flow out of the inlet port.
Fuel flows from the inlet port in the pump to the
outlet port, which also has a check valve. The outlet
check valve opens in order to allow pressurized fuel
flow out of the pump. The outlet check valve closes
in order to prevent pressurized fuel leakage back
through the pump.

Fuel flows from the outlet port of fuel transfer pump


(35) to the fuel supply passage in the cylinder head.
The fuel supply passage is a drilled hole which
begins at the front of the cylinder head. The fuel
supply passage extends to the back of the cylinder
head. This passage connects with each unit injector
bore in order to supply fuel to unit injectors (7). Fuel
from the transfer pump flows through the cylinder
head to all of the unit injectors. Excess fuel flows out
of the back of the cylinder head. After the excess
flows out of the back of the cylinder head, the fuel
flows into fuel pressure regulator (9).
28
Systems Operation Section

Injection Actuation System


Actuation Oil Flow

g00458284
Illustration 13
Flow Path of the Injection Actuation Oil
(1) Hydraulic pump. (2) Oil flow to engine. (3) Oil filter. (4) Engine oil pump. (5) Oil cooler. (7) Injectors.
29
Systems Operation Section

The injection actuation system serves two functions. The high pressure oil passage connects with each
The injection actuation system supplies high unit injector bore in order to supply high pressure
pressure oil in order to power HEUI injectors (7). actuation oil to unit injectors (7). Actuation oil that is
Also, the injection actuation system controls the under high pressure flows from hydraulic pump (1)
injection pressure that is produced by the unit through the cylinder head to all of the injectors. Oil
injectors by changing the actuation pressure of the is contained in the high pressure oil passage until
oil. the oil is used by the unit injectors. Oil that has been
exhausted by the unit injectors is expelled under
The injection actuation system consists of five basic the valve covers. This oil returns to the crankcase
components: through oil drain holes in the cylinder head.

Engine oil pump (4)


Engine oil filter (3)
Hydraulic pump (1)
Injection actuation pressure control valve (IAP
Control Valve) (10)

Injection actuation pressure sensor (IAP Sensor)


(6)

Oil from engine oil pump (4) supplies the needs


of the engine lubrication system. Also, oil from the
engine oil pump supplies the needs of hydraulic
pump (1) for the fuel system. The capacity of
the engine oil pump has been increased in order
to meet the additional flow requirement that is
necessary.

Oil that is drawn from the sump is pressurized


to the lubrication system oil pressure by engine
oil pump (4). Oil flows from the engine oil pump
through engine oil cooler (5), through engine oil
filter (3), and then to the main oil gallery. A separate
circuit from the main oil gallery directs a portion
of the lubrication oil in order to supply hydraulic
pump (1). A steel tube on the left side of the engine
connects the main oil gallery with the inlet port of
the hydraulic pump.

Oil flows into the inlet port of hydraulic pump (1)


and the oil fills the pump reservoir. The pump
reservoir provides oil to the hydraulic pump during
start-up. Also, the pump reservoir provides oil to
the hydraulic pump until the engine oil pump can
increase pressure.

The pump reservoir also provides makeup oil to


the high pressure oil passage in the cylinder head.
When the engine is off and the engine cools down,
the oil shrinks. A check valve in the pump allows
oil to be drawn from the pump reservoir in order to
keep the high pressure oil passage full.

Oil from the pump reservoir is pressurized in


hydraulic pump (1) and the oil is pushed out of the
outlet port of the pump under high pressure. Oil then
flows from the outlet port of the hydraulic pump to
the high pressure oil passage in the cylinder head.
30
Systems Operation Section

Actuation Oil Pressure Control

g00458648
Illustration 14
Injection Actuation Oil Pressure Control
(1) Hydraulic pump. (2) Oil flow to engine. (3) Oil filter. (4) Engine oil pump. (5) Oil cooler. (6) IAP sensor. (7) Injectors. (8) Fuel supply rail. (9)
Fuel pressure regulator. (10) IAP control valve. (12) Fuel tank. (15) ECM.
31
Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic pump (1) is a fixed displacement axial ECM (15) selects the desired actuation pressure.
piston pump. The pump is designed in order to The desired actuation pressure is based on both the
generate adequate flow under the conditions that sensor input and the performance maps. The ECM
are the most demanding. sends a control current to IAP Control Valve (10)
in order to change the actual actuation pressure.
Under most operating conditions, hydraulic pump The IAP Control Valve reacts to the electrical
(1) is producing excess flow. This excess flow must current from the ECM in order to change the actual
be discharged to a drain in order to control the actuation pressure. The actual actuation pressure
systems pressure. IAP Control Valve (10) regulates is changed when the IAP Control Valve discharges
system pressure by discharging the precise amount pump flow to the drain. The IAP Control Valve
of oil to the drain. This discharging of oil is required acts as an electrically controlled relief valve. IAP
in order to maintain the desired actuation pressure. Sensor (6) monitors the actual actuation pressure
in the high pressure oil passage. The IAP Sensor
There are two types of actuation pressure: reports the actual actuation pressure to the ECM by
sending a signal voltage to the ECM.
Desired actuation pressure
The injection actuation pressure control system
Actual actuation pressure operates in a cycle. ECM (15) selects the desired
actuation pressure. Then, the ECM sends an
Desired actuation pressure is the injection actuation electrical current to IAP Control Valve (10) that
pressure that is required by the system for optimum should produce that pressure. The IAP Control
engine performance. The desired actuation Valve reacts to the electrical current from the ECM
pressure is established by the performance maps by changing the pressure relief setting, which
in ECM (15). The ECM selects the desired actuation changes the actual actuation pressure. IAP Sensor
pressure. The ECM bases the selection on the (6) monitors the actual actuation pressure and the
signal inputs from many sensors. Some of the IAP Sensor sends a signal voltage back to the ECM.
sensors that are supplying signal inputs to the ECM The ECM interprets the signal voltage from the IAP
are accelerator pedal position sensor (18), boost Sensor in order to calculate the actual actuation
pressure sensor (16), speed-timing sensors (14), pressure. Then, the ECM compares the actual
and coolant temperature sensor (20). The desired actuation pressure to the desired actuation pressure
actuation pressure is constantly changing due in order to adjust the electrical current to the IAP
to changing engine speed and due to changing Control Valve. The IAP Control Valve responds to the
engine load. The desired actuation pressure is only change in electrical current by changing the actual
constant under steady state conditions (steady actuation pressure. This process is repeated 67
engine speed and load). times per second. This cycle of constant repetition
is called a closed loop control system.
Actual actuation pressure is the actual system
pressure of the actuation oil that is powering Most of the high pressure oil flow from hydraulic
the injectors (7). IAP Control Valve (10) is pump (1) is used in order to power unit injectors
constantly changing the amount of pump flow (7). Excess flow is the amount of pump flow that is
that is discharged to the drain. The pump flow not required in order to meet the desired actuation
is discharged to the drain in order to match the pressure. The excess flow is returned to the drain
actual actuation pressure to the desired actuation through IAP Control Valve (10). Excess flow from the
pressure. IAP Control Valve flows upward through a U-shaped
tube in the pump reservoir. The excess flow travels
Three components operate together in order to through a drilled passage to the front of the pump.
control injection actuation pressure: Drain oil flows out of the front of the pump over the
pump drive gear and flows down the engine front
ECM (15) gear train to sump.

IAP Control Valve (10)


IAP Sensor (6)
32
Systems Operation Section

Operation of the Injection Actuation


Pressure Control Valve

g00295335
Illustration 15
Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve
(1) Drain port. (2) Valve body. (3) Control orifice. (4) Spool chamber. (5) Armature. (6) Valve spool. (7) Spool spring. (8) Reduced pressure oil.
(9) Poppet. (10) Push pin. (11) Solenoid.

The IAP Control Valve is an electrically controlled Solenoid (11)


pilot operated pressure control valve. The Injection
Actuation Pressure Control Valve is used in order to The IAP Control Valve operates by using a
maintain selected actuation system pressure. The variable electrical current from the ECM in order
selected actuation system pressure is maintained to create a magnetic field in the solenoid (11).
regardless of engine speed, pump flow, and This magnetic field acts on armature (5) and the
variable oil demand of the unit injectors. The IAP magnetic field generates a mechanical force. This
Control Valve consists of six basic components: mechanical force pushes armature (5) to the left.
The mechanical force travels through push pin (10)
Armature (5) to poppet (9).

Valve spool (6)


Spool spring (7)
Poppet (9)
Push pin (10)
33
Systems Operation Section

The magnetic force that is holding poppet (9)


closed is opposed by reduced hydraulic pressure
inside the spool chamber. The reduced hydraulic
pressure inside the spool chamber is trying to
open poppet (9). This reduced hydraulic pressure
increases until the reduced hydraulic pressure
overcomes the mechanical force of solenoid (11).
When the reduced hydraulic pressure overcomes
the mechanical force of solenoid (11), poppet (9)
opens. The open poppet allows a flow path to
drain for some of the reduced pressure oil (8).
Discharging part of reduced pressure oil (8) to drain
lowers the hydraulic pressure. When the hydraulic
pressure of reduced pressure oil (8) decreases
below the magnetic force on poppet (9), the poppet
closes again.

Valve Operation for ENGINE OFF

g00295336
Illustration 16
Operation of the Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (Engine Off)
(1) Pump outlet pressure (none). (2)Current from ECM (none). (3) Closed drain port. (4) Poppet (open).

When the engine is off, there is no pump outlet


pressure (1) from the pump and there is no current
to the solenoid from the ECM (2). The spool spring
pushes the spool valve completely to the left. When
the spool spring pushes the spool valve completely
to the left, drain port (3) is completely blocked.
34
Systems Operation Section

Valve Operation for ENGINE CRANKING

g00295337
Illustration 17
Operation of the Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (Engine Cranking)
(1) Present pump outlet pressure. (2) Current from the ECM. (3) Drain port (blocked position). (4) Poppet (closed position).

During engine start-up, approximately 6 MPa Note: If the engine is already warm, the pressure
(870 psi) of injection actuation pressure is required that is required to start the engine may be higher
in order to activate the unit injector. This low than 6 MPa (870 psi). The values for the desired
injection actuation pressure generates a low fuel actuation pressures are stored in the performance
injection pressure of about 35 MPa (5000 psi). This maps of the ECM. The values for desired actuation
low fuel injection pressure aids cold starting. pressures vary with engine temperature.

In order to start the engine quickly, the injection


actuation pressure must rise quickly. Because the
hydraulic pump is being turned at engine cranking
speed, pump flow is very low. The ECM sends
a strong current (2) to the IAP Control Valve in
order to keep the spool closed. With the spool in
the closed position, all of the flow to drain port
(3) is blocked. The flow to drain port (3) remains
blocked until the actual actuation pressure of 6 MPa
(870 psi) is reached. The unit injectors are not fired
until the 6 MPa (870 psi) actual actuation pressure
is reached.
35
Systems Operation Section

Once the unit injectors begin to operate, the ECM


controls the current to the IAP Control Valve.
The ECM and the IAP Control Valve maintain the
actual actuation pressure at 6 MPa (870 psi) until
the engine starts. The ECM monitors the actual
actuation pressure through the IAP Sensor that
is located in the high pressure oil manifold. The
ECM establishes desired actuation pressure by
monitoring several electrical input signals and the
ECM sends a predetermined current to the IAP
Control Valve. The ECM also compares the desired
actuation pressure to the actual actuation pressure
in the high pressure oil passage. The ECM adjusts
the current levels to the IAP Control Valve in order
to make the actual actuation pressure equal to the
desired actuation pressure.

Oil Flow for ENGINE CRANKING

Pump outlet pressure (1) enters the end of the


valve body and pump outlet pressure acts against
the valve spool. The pump outlet pressure tries to
push the valve spool to the right (open). A small
amount of oil also flows through the center of the
spool, through the spool control orifice and into the
spool spring chamber. The current from the ECM (2)
causes the solenoid to generate a magnetic field
which pushes the armature to the left. The armature
exerts a force on the push pin and the poppet
which holds the poppet closed. The poppet is the
only path to the drain for the oil in the spool spring
chamber. Pump outlet pressure (1) flows through
the spool control orifice and into the spool spring
chamber. This flow of pump outlet pressure allows
spring chamber pressure to build up. Because the
spring chamber path to the drain is blocked by the
poppet, the pressure in the spring chamber is equal
to pump outlet pressure (1).

The combination of spool spring force and spring


chamber pressure hold the spool to the left. When
the spool is held to the left, the drain ports are
closed. All pump flow is directed to the high
pressure oil manifold until an actual actuation
pressure of 6 MPa (870 psi) is reached.
36
Systems Operation Section

Valve Operation for RUNNING ENGINE

g00295338
Illustration 18
Operation of the Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (Running Engine)
(1)Pump outlet pressure. (2)Current from ECM. (3) Drain port (open). (4) Poppet (open). (5) Reduced pressure oil.

Once the engine starts, the ECM controls the The magnetic force that is applied to the poppet
current (2) to the IAP Control Valve in order to holds the poppet closed. When the poppet is
maintain the desired actuation pressure. The IAP closed, the pressure in the spool spring chamber
Sensor monitors the actual actuation pressure in increases. When the pressure in the spool spring
the high pressure oil passage in the cylinder head. chamber exceeds the magnetic force that is holding
The ECM compares the actual actuation pressure the poppet closed, the poppet (4) will move to the
to the desired actuation pressure 67 times per right. When the poppet (4) moves to the right, some
second. When these pressures do not match, the of the pressure oil in the spool spring chamber
ECM adjusts the current levels (2) to the IAP Control escapes to the drain. This causes the pressure in
Valve in order to make the actual injection actuation the spring chamber to drop. When the pressure
pressure equal to the desired injection actuation in the spring chamber drops, the poppet closes.
pressure. When the poppet closes, the pressure again begins
to increase and the cycle is repeated. This process
The amount of current that is sent to the solenoid controls the reduced pressure oil (5) in the spool
regulates the amount of magnetic force that is spring cavity. The reduced pressure oil (5) in the
trying to hold the poppet closed. The solenoid, spool spring cavity acts on the spool. The reduced
the armature and the push pin simulate a variable pressure oil (5) in the spool spring cavity tries to
spring that is electronically controlled. Increased move the spool to the left. When the spool is moved
current results in increased force. Decreased to the left, the drain port (3) is blocked.
current results in decreased force.
37
Systems Operation Section

The combined force of the mechanical spring and Components of the HEUI Injector
reduced pressure oil in the spool spring chamber
try to move the spool to the left in order to block the The HEUI injector serves four functions. The HEUI
drain port (3). When the drain port is blocked, pump injector pressurizes supply fuel from 450 kPa
outlet pressure (1) rises and the increased pump (65 psi) to 162 MPa (23500 psi). The HEUI injector
outlet pressure moves the spool to the right (open). functions as an atomizer by pumping high pressure
fuel through orifice holes in the unit injector tip.
Because the mechanical spring has a fixed spring The HEUI injector delivers the correct amount of
rate, the reduced pressure oil (5) in the spool must atomized fuel into the combustion chamber and the
be adjusted in order to control pump outlet pressure HEUI injector disperses the atomized fuel evenly
(1). The reduced pressure oil (5) in the spool can throughout the combustion chamber.
be raised in order to control pump outlet pressure
(1) or the reduced pressure oil (5) in the spool can
be lowered in order to control pump outlet pressure
(1). The reduced pressure oil (5) is controlled by
the amount of electrical current from the ECM (2).
Most of the time, the poppet and the spool operate
in a partially open position. The poppet and the
spool are completely open or completely closed
only during the following conditions:

Acceleration
Deceleration
Rapidly changing engine loads
Oil Flow for RUNNING ENGINE

When pump outlet pressure (1) enters the end of


the valve body, a small amount of oil flows into the
spool spring chamber through the control orifice
in the spool. The pressure in the spool spring
chamber is controlled by adjusting the force on
the poppet (4). Adjusting the force on the poppet
(4) allows the poppet to drain off some of the oil in
the spool spring chamber. The force on the poppet
is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field
that is produced from the electrical current from the
ECM (2). The spool responds to pressure changes
in the spool spring chamber. The spool changes
positions in order to balance the force on the spool.
The spool tries to make the force on the right side
of the spool equal to the force on the left side of the
spool. The spool position dictates the amount of the
surface area of the drain ports (3) that is open.

The open area of the drain port controls the amount


of oil that is drained off from the pump outlet. The
oil is drained off from the pump outlet in order
to maintain the desired actuation pressure. The
process of responding to pressure changes on
either side of the spool occurs so rapidly that the
spool is held in a partially open position and pump
outlet pressure (1) is closely controlled. The IAP
Control Valve allows infinitely variable control of
pump outlet pressure (1) between 6 MPa (870 psi)
and 24 MPa (3500 psi).
38
Systems Operation Section

g00295359
Illustration 19
Components of the HEUI Injector
(1) Solenoid. (2) Armature. (3) Upper poppet seat. (4) Poppet valve. (5) Lower poppet seat. (6) Intensifier piston. (7) Plunger. (8) Plunger
cavity. (9) Barrel. (10) Nozzle assembly.

The HEUI injector consists of five basic components: Barrel (9)


Solenoid (1) Nozzle assembly (10)
Poppet valve (4)
Intensifier piston (6) and plunger (7)
39
Systems Operation Section

Solenoid Barrel
The solenoid (1) is an electromagnet. When the The barrel (9) is the cylinder that holds plunger (7).
solenoid is energized, the solenoid creates a very The plunger moves inside the barrel. The plunger
strong magnetic field. This magnetic field attracts and barrel together act as a pump. Both the
the armature (2) which is connected to the poppet plunger and the barrel are precision components
valve (4) by an armature screw. When the armature that have a working clearance of only 0.0025 mm
moves toward the solenoid, the armature lifts the (.00010 inch). These tight clearances are required in
poppet valve off the poppet valves lower seat (5). order to produce injection pressures over 162 MPa
Energizing the solenoid and lifting the poppet valve (23500 psi) without excessive leakage.
off the poppet valves lower seat is the beginning of
the fuel injection process. Note: A small amount of controlled leakage is
required in order to lubricate the plunger which
Poppet Valve prevents wear.

The poppet valve (4) has two positions which are The barrel (9) also contains the PRIME spill port.
opened and closed. In the closed position, the
poppet is held on the lower poppet seat (5) by a The PRIME spill port is a small hole with a high
spring. The closed lower poppet seat prevents high precision tolerance. The PRIME spill port is
pressure actuation oil from entering the unit injector. machined through the side of barrel (9) into plunger
The open upper poppet seat (3) vents oil in the (7). This port momentarily vents fuel injection
cavity that is above the intensifier piston (6) to the pressure during the downward stroke of the plunger.
atmosphere. The oil is vented to the atmosphere
through the upper portion of the unit injector. In the
open position, the solenoid (1) is energized and the
poppet valve is lifted off the poppet valves lower
seat. When the poppet valve is lifted off the poppet
valves lower seat, the lower poppet seat opens
allowing high pressure actuation oil to enter the
unit injector. When the high pressure actuation oil
enters the unit injector, the high pressure actuation
oil pushes on the top of intensifier piston (6). The
upper poppet seat (3) of poppet valve (4) closes
and upper poppet seat (3) of poppet valve (4)
blocks the path to the drain. Blocking the path to
the drain prevents the leakage of high pressure
actuation oil from the unit injector.

Intensifier Piston
The surface area of intensifier piston (6) is six times
larger than the surface area of plunger (7). This
larger surface area provides a multiplication of
force. This multiplication of force allows 24 MPa
(3500 psi) of actuation oil to produce 162 MPa
(23500 psi) of fuel injection pressure. When poppet
valve (4) moves away from lower poppet seat (5),
high pressure actuation oil enters the unit injector.
When the high pressure actuation oil enters the unit
injector, the high pressure actuation oil pushes on
the top of intensifier piston (6). Pressure rises on
top of the intensifier piston and the pressure pushes
down on intensifier piston (6) and plunger (7). The
downward movement of the plunger pressurizes the
fuel in plunger cavity (8). The pressurized fuel in
the plunger cavity causes nozzle assembly (10) to
open. When the nozzle assembly opens, the fuel
delivery into the combustion chamber begins. A
large O-ring around the intensifier piston separates
the oil above the intensifier piston from the fuel
below the intensifier piston.
40
Systems Operation Section

Nozzle Assembly

g00295360
Illustration 20
Nozzle Assembly
(1) Inlet fill check ball. (2) Case. (3) Check. (4) Tip. (5) Tip orifice holes.

The nozzle assembly is similar to all other unit


injectors nozzle assemblies. Fuel that has been
pressurized to the injection pressure flows from the
plunger cavity through a passage in the nozzle to
the nozzle tip (4). Fuel flow out of the tip is stopped
by check (3), which covers the tip orifice holes
(5) in the end of the tip (4). The force of a spring
holds the check down in the closed position. This
prevents the leakage of fuel out of tip (4) and this
prevents the leakage of combustion gas into the
unit injector when the cylinder fires.
41
Systems Operation Section

When the injection pressure increases to


approximately 28 MPa (4000 psi), the hydraulic
force that is pushing on check (3) becomes greater
than the spring force that is holding the check
down. When the spring force is overcome by the
hydraulic force, the check moves away from tip (4).
When the check moves away from the tip, the check
is in the open position. The amount of pressure that
is required to open the check is called the Valve
Opening Pressure (VOP). The fuel flows out of tip
orifice holes (5) in the end of the tip and the fuel
flows into the combustion chamber. The check
remains open and fuel continues to flow out of the
tip until fuel injection pressure drops below 28 MPa
(4000 psi). When the pressure drops, the check
closes and fuel injection is stopped. The amount of
pressure that allows the check to close is called the
Valve Closing Pressure (VCP).

Note: Valve Opening Pressures (VOP) and Valve


Closing Pressures (VCP) vary among applications
and horsepower ratings in order to meet exhaust
emission standards. The above values were used
as illustrations only.

The inlet fill check ball (1) unseats during upward


travel of the plunger in order to allow the plunger
cavity to refill. The inlet fill check ball seats during
the downward stroke of the plunger and the inlet
fill check ball seals during the downward stroke of
the plunger. The inlet fill check ball seals during the
downward stroke of the plunger in order to prevent
fuel injection pressure leakage into the fuel supply.

Operation of the HEUI Fuel Injector


There are five stages of injection with the HEUI
injector:

Pre-injection
Pilot injection
Delay
Main injection
End of injection
42
Systems Operation Section

Pre-Injection

g00295361
Illustration 21
HEUI Injector (Pre-Injection)
(1) Upper poppet seat (open). (2) Closed lower poppet seat. (A) Drain (atmosphere). (B) Fuel supply pressure. (C) Actuation oil pressure. (D)
Moving parts.
43
Systems Operation Section

All of the internal components have been returned to


the spring loaded position during the pre-injection.
The solenoid is not energized and the lower poppet
seat (2) is closed. When the lower poppet seat is
closed, the lower poppet seat blocks high pressure
actuation oil from entering the unit injector. The
plunger and the intensifier piston are at the top
of the bore and the plunger cavity is full of fuel.
Fuel pressure in the plunger cavity is equal to the
fuel supply pressure. The fuel supply pressure is
approximately 450 kPa (65 psi).
44
Systems Operation Section

Pilot Injection

g00295362
Illustration 22
HEUI Injector (Pilot Injection)
(1) Upper poppet seat (closed position). (2) Lower poppet seat (open). (A) Drain (atmosphere). (B) Fuel supply pressure. (C) Actuation oil
pressure. (D) Moving parts. (E) Injection pressure. (F) Fuel flow. (G) Mechanical movement.
45
Systems Operation Section

When the ECM activates the unit injector, the ECM The PRIME feature produces a small pilot injection
sends a current to the unit injector solenoid. The that is followed by a brief delay. The brief delay
current causes the solenoid to produce a strong gives the pilot injection the time that is required
magnetic field which creates a pull on the armature. to start burning. The main injection follows the
The armature is mechanically connected to the pilot injection and the main injection is delivered
poppet valve by a screw. The magnetic pull of into the flame front that was established by the
the solenoid overcomes the spring tension that is pilot injection. The main injection is immediately
holding the poppet valve closed. When the poppet ignited. The main injection burns smoothly and the
valve opens, the poppet moves away from the lower main injection burns completely. This complete
poppet seat. combustion significantly reduces particulate
emission (soot) and NOx. This complete combustion
When the poppet valve opens, the upper poppet also reduces combustion noise from the engine
seat (1) blocks the path to the drain and the lower up to 50 percent. This reduction of combustion
poppet seat (2) opens the poppet chamber to noise from the engine results in noticeably quieter
incoming high pressure actuation oil. High pressure engine operation. The actual operation of PRIME is
oil flows around the poppet. The high pressure described in the following information.
oil flows through a passage onto the top of the
intensifier piston. High pressure oil acts on the top
of the intensifier piston. The piston and the plunger
are pushed down by the high pressure oil. The
downward movement of the plunger pressurizes
the fuel in the plunger cavity and nozzle assembly.
When the pressure reaches Valve Opening Pressure
(VOP) of approximately 28 MPa (4000 psi), the
check lifts up from the seat in the tip. When the
check lifts up from the seat in the tip, injection
begins.

Pre-Injection Metering (PRIME)

The 3126B and 3126E diesel engines fuel


system has a unique feature that is called PRIME.
PRe-Injection MEtering (PRIME) is a feature that
offers a significant benefit in lower emissions.
Also, PRIME offers a significant benefit in reducing
combustion noise. While other fuel systems deliver
a single large quantity of fuel into the combustion
chamber, PRIME injectors break the delivery into two
separate quantities. The first quantity is a small pilot
injection which is followed by a short delay. Then,
the injector delivers a large main injection. The pilot
injection is not intended to produce power. The pilot
injection is intended to establish a flame front. The
pilot injection will help the larger main injection burn
more completely and the pilot injection will help the
larger main injection burn in a controlled manner.

Under certain engine operating conditions, when


fuel is delivered in one large injection, the fuel tends
to explode rather than burn in a controlled manner.
This results in engine knock. When fuel explodes
rather than burns in a controlled manner, engine
knock and excess NOx emissions result.
46
Systems Operation Section

Injection Delay

g00295363
Illustration 23
HEUI Injector Delay
(1) Upper poppet seat (closed position). (2) Lower poppet seat (open). (A) Drain (atmosphere). (B) Fuel supply pressure. (C) Actuation oil
pressure. (D) Moving parts. (E) Injection pressure. (F) Fuel flow. (G) Mechanical movement.
47
Systems Operation Section

The plunger continues moving downward and the


plunger continues to inject fuel into the combustion
chamber. Until the PRIME groove in the plunger
lines up with the PRIME spill port in the barrel, the
plunger continues to inject fuel into the combustion
chamber. When the groove in the plunger aligns
with the spill port, high pressure fuel under the
plunger can flow upward. The high pressure fuel
flows through three holes in the bottom of the
plunger. Then, the high pressure fuel flows out of
the groove of the plunger and the spill port and the
fuel flows back into the fuel supply passage. This
loss of high pressure fuel causes injection pressure
to drop below Valve Closing Pressure (VCP). The
spring force overcomes the hydraulic force of the
reduced injection pressure. When the spring force
overcomes the hydraulic force of the reduced
injection pressure, the check closes and fuel
injection stops. This is the end of the pilot injection
and the start of the short injection delay period.
48
Systems Operation Section

Main Injection

g00295364
Illustration 24
HEUI Injector (Main Injection)
(1) Upper poppet seat (closed position). (2) Lower poppet seat (open). (A) Drain (atmosphere). (B) Fuel supply pressure. (C) Actuation oil
pressure. (D) Moving parts. (E) Injection pressure. (F) Fuel flow. (G) Mechanical movement.
49
Systems Operation Section

While the solenoid is energized, the poppet valve


remains open. While the poppet valve is open, high
pressure oil continues to flow. The flow of the high
pressure oil pushes downward on the intensifier
piston and the plunger. The injection pressure
fluctuates between 34 MPa (5000 psi) and 162 MPa
(23500 psi). The injection pressure depends on
the engines requirements. Injection continues
until either the solenoid is de-energized or the
intensifier piston hits the bottom of the bore. When
the solenoid is de-energized, the poppet spring is
allowed to close the poppet valve. When the poppet
valve closes, high pressure oil is shut off.
50
Systems Operation Section

End of Injection

g00295365
Illustration 25
HEUI Injector (End Of Injection)
(1) Upper poppet seat (open). (2) Lower poppet seat (closed position). (A) Drain (atmosphere). (B) Fuel supply pressure. (C) Actuation oil
pressure. (D) Moving parts. (F) Fuel flow. (G) Mechanical movement.
51
Systems Operation Section

The end of the injection cycle begins when the ECM Fuel Heater And Water Separator
stops the current to the unit injector solenoid. The
magnetic field of the solenoid breaks down and the
(If Equipped)
magnetic field is unable to overcome the spring
force of the poppet. The poppet returns to the
lower poppet seat which closes the poppet valve.
When the poppet valve closes, high pressure oil is
stopped from entering the unit injector. As the lower
poppet seat closes, the upper poppet seat opens
to the drain. When the upper poppet seat opens to
the drain, the actuation pressure of the oil drops off.

Fuel injection pressure under the plunger exerts


an upward force on the plunger and the intensifier
piston. As the pressure of the actuation oil above
the intensifier piston drops off, the downward force
on the intensifier piston drops off. The upward force
of the fuel injection pressure under the plunger
suddenly becomes greater than the downward
force on the intensifier piston. The downward motion
of the intensifier piston and the plunger stops.

The exhaust oil on top of the intensifier piston can


flow to the drain through the open upper poppet
seat. Then, the oil flows through a vent hole to the g00291751
Illustration 26
rocker arm compartment under the valve cover. (1) Fuel filter. (2) Fuel inlet. (3) Fuel outlet. (4) Fuel heater and
water separator. (5) Drain valve.
When the downward travel of the plunger stops,
fuel flow also stops. While the check is still open, Some engines may have a combination of a fuel
the remaining fuel pressure pushes a small amount heater and a water separator. The fuel heater is
of fuel out of the orifice holes. This causes a large controlled by a thermostat that is located in the
pressure drop which lowers injection pressure base of the unit. The thermostat is preset. When the
below Valve Closing Pressure (VCP). Spring tension fuel temperature is below 4C (40F), the thermostat
on the check now reseats the check into the tip and will turn on the heater. When the fuel temperature is
injection stops. 15C (60F), the thermostat will turn off the heater.

When the check closes, injection stops. When Water that has been separated from the fuel can be
injection stops, the fill cycle starts. The area above drained from the unit by lifting up on drain valve (5).
the intensifier piston cavity is open to atmospheric
pressure through the upper poppet seat. Pressure
drops very rapidly in the cavity above the intensifier
piston to near zero. The return spring of the plunger
pushes up on the plunger and the intensifier piston.
As the plunger and the intensifier piston move
upward, oil is forced around the upper poppet seat.
After the oil is forced around the upper poppet seat,
the oil is forced out of a vent hole.

As the plunger rises, pressure in the plunger cavity


also drops to near zero. The fuel supply pressure is
450 kPa (65 psi). Fuel supply pressure unseats the
plunger fill check in order to fill the plunger cavity
with fuel. When the intensifier piston is pushed to
the top of the bore, the fill cycle ends. When the
fill cycle ends, the plunger cavity is full and the
inlet fill check ball is reseated. Pressure above the
intensifier piston and the poppet chamber is zero.
The fuel injection cycle is complete and the unit
injector is ready to begin again. The unit injector is
now back in the pre-injection cycle.
52
Systems Operation Section

i01515218 Aftercooler core (2) is a separate cooler core.


Aftercooler core (2) is installed in front of the core
Air Inlet and Exhaust System (standard) of the engine radiator on the machine.
Air that is ambient temperature is moved across
SMCS Code: 1050 the aftercooler core by the engine fan. This cools
the turbocharged inlet air.

From aftercooler core (2), the air is forced into the


cylinder head in order to fill the inlet ports. Air flow
from the inlet port into the cylinder is controlled by
the inlet valves.

g00787037
Illustration 27
Airflow Schematic
(1) Air line. (2) Aftercooler core. (3) Air inlet elbow. (4) Exhaust
outlet from turbocharger. (5) Turbine side of turbocharger. (6)
Compressor side of turbocharger. (7) Air cleaner.

The components of the air inlet and exhaust system Illustration 28 g00294192
control the quality of the air that is available for Air Inlet And Exhaust System
combustion. These components also control the
(2) Aftercooler core. (4) Exhaust outlet. (5) Turbine side of
amount of the air that is available for combustion. turbocharger. (6) Compressor side of turbocharger. (7) Exhaust
The components of the air inlet and exhaust system manifold. (8) Exhaust valve. (9) Inlet valve. (10) Air inlet.
are listed below:
There are two inlet valves and one exhaust valve
Air cleaner for each cylinder. Inlet valves open when the
piston moves down on the inlet stroke. When the
Turbocharger inlet valves open, cooled compressed air from
the inlet port is pulled into the cylinder. The inlet
Aftercooler valves close and the piston begins to move up on
the compression stroke. The air in the cylinder is
Cylinder head compressed. When the piston is near the top of the
compression stroke, fuel is injected into the cylinder.
Valves and valve system components The fuel mixes with the air and combustion starts.
During the power stroke, the combustion force
Piston and cylinder pushes the piston downward. After the power stroke
is complete, the piston moves upward. This upward
Exhaust manifold movement is the exhaust stroke. During the exhaust
stroke, the exhaust valve opens, and the exhaust
Inlet air is pulled through the air cleaner. The inlet air gases are pushed through the exhaust port into the
is then compressed and heated by the compressor exhaust manifold. After the piston completes the
wheel of turbocharger (6) to about 150C (300F). exhaust stroke, the exhaust valves close and the
The inlet air is then pushed through air-to-air cycle starts again. The complete cycle consists of
aftercooler core (2) and the inlet air is moved to air four stages:
inlet elbow (3). The temperature of the inlet air at
air inlet elbow (3) is about 43C (110F). Cooling Inlet stroke
of the inlet air increases the combustion efficiency.
Increased combustion efficiency helps to lower fuel Compression stroke
consumption. Also, increased combustion efficiency
helps to increase horsepower output. Power stroke
Exhaust stroke
53
Systems Operation Section

Exhaust gases from exhaust manifold (7) enter the When the load on the engine increases, more fuel
turbine side of turbocharger (5) in order to turn the is injected into the cylinders. The combustion of
turbine wheel. The turbine wheel is connected to a this additional fuel produces more exhaust gases.
shaft which drives the compressor wheel. Exhaust The additional exhaust gases cause the turbine
gases from the turbocharger pass through the and the compressor wheels of the turbocharger to
exhaust outlet pipe, the muffler and the exhaust turn faster. As the compressor wheel turns faster,
stack. more air is forced into the cylinders. The increased
flow of air gives the engine more power by allowing
the engine to burn the additional fuel with greater
Turbocharger efficiency.

g00294194
Illustration 30
Turbocharger With Waste Gate
(12) Actuating lever. (13) Canister. (14) Line (boost pressure).

When the engine is operating under conditions


g00294193
of low boost, a spring pushes on a diaphragm in
Illustration 29 canister (13). This action moves actuating lever (12)
Turbocharger in order to close the valve of the waste gate. Closing
(1) Air inlet. (2) Compressor housing. (3) Compressor wheel. (4) the valve of the waste gate allows the turbocharger
Bearing. (5) Oil Inlet port. (6) Bearing. (7) Turbine housing. (8) to operate at maximum performance.
Turbine wheel. (9) Exhaust outlet. (10) Oil outlet port. (11) Exhaust
inlet.
As the boost pressure increases against the
diaphragm in canister (13), the valve of the waste
The turbocharger is installed on the center section gate is opened. When the valve of the waste gate
of the exhaust manifold. All the exhaust gases is opened, the rpm of the turbocharger is limited
from the engine go through the turbocharger. The by bypassing a portion of the exhaust gases. The
compressor side of the turbocharger is connected exhaust gases are bypassed through line (14)
to the aftercooler by a pipe. around the turbine wheel of the turbocharger.
The exhaust gases go into turbine housing (7) Note: The turbocharger with a waste gate is preset
through exhaust inlet (11). The exhaust gases then at the factory and no adjustment can be made.
push the blades of turbine wheel (8). The turbine
wheel is connected by a shaft to compressor wheel Bearings (4) and (6) for the turbocharger use
(3). engine oil under pressure for lubrication. The oil
comes in through oil inlet port (5). The oil then goes
Clean air from the air cleaners is pulled through through passages in the center section in order to
compressor housing air inlet (1) by the rotation of lubricate the bearings. Oil from the turbocharger
compressor wheel (3). The action of the compressor goes out through oil outlet port (10) in the bottom
wheel blades causes a compression of the inlet air. of the center section. The oil then goes back to the
This compression gives the engine more power by engine lubrication system.
allowing the engine to burn more air and more fuel
during combustion.
54
Systems Operation Section

Valve System Components Air Inlet Heater


The engines are equipped with an electric heater
that is located behind the air inlet elbow. The
electric heater has two functions:

Aid in starting
Aid in white smoke cleanup during start-up
Under the proper conditions, the Electronic Control
Module (ECM) turns on the electric heater. The
following conditions are evaluated prior to activating
the electric heater:

Jacket water coolant temperature


Inlet manifold temperature
Ignition switch position
Duration of time
The system is capable of delivering heat for 30
seconds prior to start-up and during cranking of the
engine. After the engine has started, the system is
capable of delivering heat constantly for 7 minutes,
or the system can cycle the heat for 13 minutes.
During the heating cycle, the heat is on for ten
g00294195 seconds and the heat is off for ten seconds.
Illustration 31
Valve System Components
If the air inlet heater malfunctions, the engine will
(1) Rocker arms. (2) Bridge. (3) Spring. (4) Pushrods. (5) Exhaust
valve. (6) Inlet valves. (7) Lifter. (8) Camshaft lobe. still start and the engine will still run. There may be
a concern regarding the amount of white smoke that
The valve system components control the flow of is present. Also, there may be a concern regarding
inlet air into the cylinders during engine operation. the need for an alternative starting aid.
The valve system components also control the flow
of exhaust gases out of the cylinders during engine System Components
operation.
The system of the air inlet heater consists of the
The crankshaft gear drives the camshaft gear following basic components:
through an idler gear. The camshaft must be
timed to the crankshaft in order to get the correct Relay of the air inlet heater
relation between the piston movement and the valve
movement. Heater element
The camshaft has two camshaft lobes for each Coolant temperature sensor
cylinder. The lobes operate the inlet and exhaust
valves. As the camshaft turns, lobes on the camshaft Inlet manifold temperature sensor
cause lifters (7) to move pushrods (4) up and down.
Upward movement of the pushrods against rocker Electronic Control Module (ECM)
arms (1) results in downward movement (opening)
of valves (5) and (6). Indicator lamp
Each cylinder has two inlet valves and one exhaust
valve. Valve springs (3) close the valves when the
lifters move down.
55
Systems Operation Section

During engine cranking, when the sum of the


coolant temperature plus the inlet air temperature
is less than 25C (109F), the ECM will turn on the
heater. The heater will remain on during engine
cranking. If the engine fails to start, the ECM reverts
to preheat. Reverting to preheat will activate the
heater for another 30 seconds.

Running of the engine


After the engine has started, the same combination
of inlet air temperature and coolant temperature will
determine the state of the heater.

This mode of operation uses a continuous strategy.


The heater will remain on for a maximum of 7
minutes after starting.

Mode of Post Heat


If the same conditions still exist after the continuous
Illustration 32 g00294196 strategy ends, the ECM will activate the intermittent
Location Of Components
strategy. The heater is cycled for a maximum of 13
minutes. During this cycle, the heater is turned on
(1) Relay of the air inlet heater. (2) Inlet manifold temperature
sensor. (3) Ground strap (heater to engine). (4) Air inlet heater. (5)
for 10 seconds and the heater is turned off for 10
Coolant temperature sensor. (6) Electronic Control Module (ECM). seconds. After the 13 minute time limit, the heater
is shut off.
The relay for the air inlet heater (1) is located on the
mounting bracket for the fuel filter. The relay turns When one of the temperature sensors fails, the
the 12 V heater ON and OFF in response to signals system will operate in the following manner:
from the ECM (6).
Coolant temperature sensor
The air inlet heater (4) is a component of the air
inlet cover. The heater element has a ground strap When the coolant temperature sensor has an open
(3) that must be connected to the engine. circuit or a short circuit, the coolant temperature
sensor has failed. During this condition, the heater
There are five conditions that would cause the air will be activated when the inlet air temperature is
inlet heater to be activated: less than 10C (50F).

Powerup Inlet air temperature sensor


Regardless of temperature, the heater and the lamp When the inlet air temperature sensor has an open
of the heater should come on for two seconds when circuit or a short circuit, the inlet air temperature
the ECM is first powered (lamp check). sensor has failed. During this condition, the heater
will be activated when the coolant temperature is
Mode of Preheat less than 40C (104F).

When the sum of the coolant temperature plus the Under the proper condition, the heater will
inlet air temperature is less than 25C (109F), the be reactivated. When the sum of the coolant
ECM will turn on the heater and the lamp for 30 temperature and the inlet air temperature has
seconds. This is a cycle of preheat. dropped below 25C (109F), the heater will be
reactivated. This condition could exist after a warm
The ECM will then turn off the heater and the lamp. engine has cooled and the operator attempts to
When the operator attempts to start the engine prior start the engine.
to the completion of preheat, the ECM proceeds
into the mode of cranking for heater control. When the sum of the coolant temperature and the
inlet air temperature does not attain 35C (127F),
Mode of cranking the heater will be activated. The heater can be
activated no longer than 20 minutes (maximum).
The ECM will turn off the heater after the 20 minute
time limit.
56
Systems Operation Section

For additional information on the air inlet heater refer


to Troubleshooting, Air Inlet Heater Circuit - Test.

g00786279
Illustration 33
Schematic Of Air Inlet Heater (Typical Example)
(1) Battery. (2) Fuse panel. (3) Lamp of air inlet heater. (4) Electronic Control Module. (5) Engine ground. (6) Air inlet heater. (7) Relay of
air inlet heater.
57
Systems Operation Section

g00787054
Illustration 34
Flow Chart Of Controller Of Air Inlet Heater
58
Systems Operation Section

i01486056

Lubrication System
SMCS Code: 1300

g00292659
Illustration 35
Lubrication System Schematic
(1) Hydraulic pump. (2) High pressure relief valve. (3) Passage to the rocker arms. (4) High pressure oil line. (5) Injection actuation pressure
control valve. (6) High pressure oil manifold. (7) Oil supply line for hydraulic pump. (8) Piston cooling jets. (9) Cylinder head gallery. (10) Passage
to pushrod lifters. (11) Main bearings. (12) Camshaft bearing. (13) Passage to engine oil pan. (14) Main oil gallery. (15) Turbocharger oil supply
line. (16) Passage to front housing. (17) Passage to oil pump idler gear bearing. (18) Oil filter bypass valve. (19) Passage to camshaft idler gear
bearing. (20) Passage. (21) Engine oil filter. (22) Oil cooler bypass valve. (23) Engine oil cooler. (24) Engine oil pump. (25) Oil pump bypass
valve. (26) Auxiliary engine oil filter (if equipped). (27) Engine oil pan.
59
Systems Operation Section

Engine oil pump (24) is mounted to the bottom of The passage in front housing (16) sends the oil flow
the cylinder block inside the engine oil pan (27). in two directions. At the upper end of the passage,
The engine oil pump (24) pulls oil from engine oil is directed back into the block and up to cylinder
oil pan (27). The engine oil pump pushes the oil head gallery (9) through passage (3) to the rocker
through the passage to the engine oil cooler (23). arm mechanism. A passage (17) sends oil to the oil
Oil then flows through engine oil filter (21). The pump idler gear bearing.
filtered oil then enters the turbocharger oil supply
line (15) and main oil gallery (14). Oil from the front main bearing enters a passage
(19) to the camshaft idler gear bearing. Oil
passages in the crankshaft send oil from all the
main bearings (11) through the connecting rods to
the connecting rod bearings.

The passages send oil from the camshaft bearing


(12) to an oil passage in the side covers. The oil
then enters a hole in the shafts to pushrod lifters
(10). The oil lubricates the bearings of the lifter.

Note: Engines that are equipped with an auxiliary oil


filter (26) will receive oil at a port. The filtered oil will
be returned to engine oil pan (27).

The hydraulic pump (1) is a gear-driven axial piston


g00292660
Illustration 36 pump. The hydraulic pump raises the engine oil
Right Side View Of Engine pressure from the typical operating oil pressure to
(15) Turbocharger oil supply line. (18) Oil filter bypass valve. (21) the actuation pressure that is required by the unit
Engine oil filter. (22) Oil cooler bypass valve. (23) Oil cooler. (28) injectors. The injection actuation pressure control
Turbocharger oil return tube. valve (5) electronically controls the output pressure
of the hydraulic pump (1).

The oil circuit consists of a low pressure circuit


and a high pressure circuit. The low pressure
circuit typically operates at a pressure of 240 kPa
(35 psi) to 480 kPa (70 psi). The low pressure circuit
provides engine oil that has been filtered to the
hydraulic pump (1). Also, the low pressure circuit
provides engine oil that has been filtered to the
lubricating system of the engine. Oil is drawn from
the engine oil pan (27). Oil is supplied through the
engine oil cooler (23) and engine oil filter (21) to
both the engine and the hydraulic pump (1).

g00292662
The high pressure oil system provides actuation
Illustration 37 oil to the unit injector. The high pressure circuit
Left Side View Of Engine operates in a pressure range typically between
(1) Hydraulic pump. (4) Oil supply line (high pressure). (6) Oil 4 MPa (581 psi) and 23 MPa (3350 psi). This high
manifold (high pressure). (7) Oil supply line (hydraulic pump). pressure oil flows through a line into the cylinder
head. The cylinder head stores the oil at actuation
The main oil gallery (14) distributes oil to main pressure. The oil is ready to actuate the unit injector.
bearings (11), piston cooling jets (8), and camshaft Oil is discharged from the unit injector under the
bearing (12). Oil from main oil gallery (14) exits the valve cover so that no return lines are required.
front of the block. The oil then enters a groove that
is cast in front housing (16). After the lubrication oils work is done, the lubrication
oil returns to the engine oil pan.
Oil enters the crankshaft through holes in the
bearing surfaces (journals) for the main bearing The oil pump bypass valve (25) limits the pressure
(11). Passages connect the bearing surface of the oil that is coming from the engine oil pump
(journal) for the main bearing (11) with the bearing (24). The engine oil pump (24) can pump more than
surface (journal) for the connecting rod. enough oil into the system. When there is more than
enough oil, the oil pressure increases. When the oil
pressure increases, the oil pump bypass valve (25)
will open. This allows the oil that is not needed to go
back to the suction side of the engine oil pump (24).
60
Systems Operation Section

The bypass valves (22) and (18) will open when Crankshaft main bearings
the engine is cold (starting conditions). Opening
the bypass valves achieves immediate lubrication Turbocharger cartridge
of all components. Immediate lubrication is critical
when cold oil with high viscosity causes a restriction An oil cooling chamber is formed by the lip that is
to the oil flow through engine oil cooler (23) and forged at the top of the skirt of the piston and the
engine oil filter (21). The engine oil pump (24) sends cavity that is behind the ring grooves in the crown.
the cold oil through the bypass valves around the Oil flow for the piston cooling jet enters the cooling
engine oil cooler (23) and engine oil filter (21) to the chamber through a drilled passage in the skirt. Oil
turbocharger oil supply line (15) and the main oil flow from the piston cooling jet returns to the engine
gallery (14) in the cylinder block. oil pan (27) through the clearance gap between the
crown and the skirt. Four holes that are drilled from
When the oil gets warm, the pressure difference the piston oil ring groove to the interior of the piston
in the bypass valves decreases and the bypass drain excess oil from the oil ring.
valves close. After the bypass valves close, there
is a normal flow of oil through the engine oil cooler
and the engine oil filter.

The bypass valves will also open when there is a


restriction in the engine oil cooler (23) or engine
oil filter (21). This design allows the engine to be
lubricated even though engine oil cooler (23) or
engine oil filter (21) are restricted.

The engine oil cooler bypass valve is also activated


by pressure. If the oil pressure differential across
the engine oil cooler reaches 125 30 kPa
(18 4.5 psi), the valve will open. Opening the valve
allows the oil flow to bypass the engine oil cooler
g00292663
(23). Illustration 38
Front Left Side View Of Engine
The main oil flow now reaches the main engine oil (29) Breather. (30) Hose. (31) Valve cover.
filter (21). When the oil pressure differential across
the oil filter bypass valve (18) reaches 125 30 kPa Breather (29) allows engine blowby to escape from
(18 4.5 psi), the valve opens in order to allow the crankcase. The engine blowby is discharged
the oil flow to go around the oil filter (21). The through hose (30) into the atmosphere. This
oil flow continues in order to lubricate the engine prevents pressure from building up that could cause
components. When the oil is cold, an oil pressure seals or gaskets to leak.
difference in the bypass valve also causes the valve
to open. This bypass valve then provides immediate
lubrication to all the engine components when cold i00665400
oil with high viscosity causes a restriction to the oil
flow through the engine oil filter (21). The bypass Cooling System
valve will also open when there is a restriction in the
engine oil filter (21). This design allows the engine SMCS Code: 1350
to be lubricated even though engine oil filter (21)
is restricted. This engine has a pressure type cooling system that
is equipped with a shunt line.
Note: Refer to Specifications, Engine Oil Filter
Base. A pressure type cooling system offers two
advantages:
Filtered oil flows through the main oil gallery (14) in
the cylinder block. Oil is supplied from the main oil The cooling system can operate safely at a
gallery (14) to the following components: temperature that is higher than the normal boiling
point of water.
Piston cooling jets (8)
The cooling system prevents cavitation in the
water pump.
Valve mechanism
Camshaft bearing (12)
61
Systems Operation Section

Cavitation is the sudden formation of low pressure


bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces. The
formation of air or steam pockets is more difficult
within a pressure type cooling system.

The shunt line prevents cavitation by the water


pump. The shunt line provides a constant flow of
coolant to the water pump.

Note: In air to air aftercooled systems, a coolant


mixture with a minimum of 30 percent ethylene
glycol base antifreeze must be used for efficient
water pump performance. This mixture keeps the
cavitation temperature range of the coolant high
enough for efficient performance.

g00293081
Illustration 40
Water Lines Group
g00293080
Illustration 39 (1) Cylinder head. (2) Water temperature regulator housing. (5)
Cooling System Schematic Bypass hose. (9) Water pump. (10) Outlet to radiator. (11) Water
temperature regulator. (12) Air vent valve in thermostat.
(1) Cylinder head. (2) Water temperature regulator housing. (3)
Expansion tank. (4) Shunt line (expansion tank to water pump).
(5) Bypass hose. (6) Radiator. (7) Cylinder block. (8) Oil cooler. From the cylinder block, the coolant flows into
(9) Water pump. passages in the cylinder head. The passages send
the flow around the unit injector sleeves and the
Water pump (9) is located on the right side of the inlet and the exhaust passages. The coolant now
cylinder block. The water pump is belt driven from enters water temperature regulator housing (2) at
the crankshaft pulley. Coolant can enter the water the front right side of the cylinder head.
pump in three places:
Water temperature regulator (11) controls the
the inlet at the bottom of the water pump direction of flow. When the coolant temperature
is below the normal operating temperature,
the bypass hose (5) into the top of the water the water temperature regulator is closed. The
pump coolant is directed through bypass hose (5) and
into the top inlet of the water pump. When the
the shunt line (4) into the top of the water pump coolant temperature reaches the normal operating
temperature, water temperature regulator (11)
Coolant from the bottom of the radiator is pulled into opens. When the water temperature regulator is
the bottom inlet of the pump by impeller rotation. open, the bypass is closed. Most of the coolant
The coolant exits the back of the pump directly into goes through outlet (10) to the radiator for cooling.
the oil cooler cavity of the block. The remainder flows through bypass hose (5) and
into the water pump.
All of the coolant passes through the core of
the oil cooler and the coolant enters the internal Note: Some coolant systems may contain two water
water manifold of the cylinder block. The manifold temperature regulators.
disperses the coolant to water jackets around the
cylinder walls.
62
Systems Operation Section

The shunt line (4) extends from the top of the water If the engine is equipped with an air compressor,
pump to an expansion tank. The shunt line must coolant is supplied from the water temperature
be routed properly in order to avoid trapping any regulator housing to air compressor (3) through
air. By providing a constant flow of coolant to the coolant supply line (1). The coolant is circulated
water pump, the shunt line keeps the water pump through the air compressor and the coolant is
from cavitation. returned to the cooling system through coolant
return line (2) into the cylinder head.
Note: Water temperature regulator (11) is an
important part of the cooling system. The water
temperature regulator divides coolant flow between
Coolant Conditioner (If Equipped)
the radiator and the bypass in order to maintain
Some conditions of operation can cause pitting.
the normal operating temperature. If the water
This pitting is caused by corrosion or by cavitation
temperature regulator is not installed in the system, erosion. A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical that
there is no mechanical control, and most of the
provides a reduction in pitting. The addition of a
coolant will travel the path of least resistance
corrosion inhibitor can keep this type of damage
through the bypass. This will cause the engine to to a minimum.
overheat in hot weather and the engine will not
reach normal operating temperature in cold weather.
The coolant conditioner element is a spin-on
element that is similar to the fuel filter and to the
Note: Air vent valve (12) will allow the air to escape
oil filter elements. The coolant conditioner element
past the water temperature regulator from the
attaches to the coolant conditioner base that is
cooling system while the radiator is being filled. mounted on the front of the engine. Coolant flows
During normal operation, the air vent valve will be
from the water pump to the coolant conditioner base
closed in order to prevent coolant flow past the
and back to the cylinder block. Coolant constantly
water temperature regulator. flows through the coolant conditioner element when
the valves are in the OPEN position.
Coolant For Air Compressor (If
The element has a specific amount of inhibitor
Equipped) for acceptable cooling system protection. As the
coolant flows through the element, the corrosion
inhibitor goes into the solution. The corrosion
inhibitor is a dry solution, so the inhibitor dissolves.
The corrosion inhibitor then mixes to the correct
concentration. Two basic types of elements are
used for the cooling system. The two elements
are the precharge elements and the maintenance
elements. Each type of element has a specific
use. The elements must be used correctly in order
to get the necessary concentration for cooling
system protection. The elements also contain a
filter. The elements should remain in the system so
that coolant will flow through after the conditioner
material is dissolved.

The precharge element contains more than the


normal amount of inhibitor. The precharge element
is used when a system is first filled with new
coolant. This element must add enough inhibitor in
order to bring the complete cooling system up to
the correct concentration.

g00293082
Illustration 41
Coolant Lines For Air Compressor
(1) Coolant supply line. (2) Coolant return line. (3) Air compressor.
63
Systems Operation Section

The maintenance elements have a normal amount One-Piece Pistons


of inhibitor. The maintenance elements are installed
at the first change interval. A sufficient amount of The one-piece aluminum pistons have an iron band
inhibitor is provided by the maintenance elements for the compression ring. This helps to reduce wear
in order to maintain the corrosion protection at an on the compression ring groove. The one-piece
acceptable level. After the first change interval, piston has three rings:
only maintenance elements are installed. In order
to provide the cooling system with protection, Compression ring
maintenance elements are installed at specific
intervals. Intermediate ring

i01388618
Oil ring

Basic Engine All of the rings are located above the piston pin
bore. The compression ring is a Keystone ring.
SMCS Code: 1200 Keystone rings have a tapered shape. The action of
the ring in the piston groove that is tapered helps
prevent seizure of the rings. Seizure of the rings is
Cylinder Block And Head caused by deposits of carbon. The intermediate
ring is rectangular with a sharp lower edge. The
The cylinder block has seven main bearings. The oil ring is a standard type of ring or a conventional
main bearing caps are fastened to the cylinder type of ring. Oil returns to the crankcase through
block with two bolts per cap. holes in the oil ring groove.
Removal of the oil pan allows access to the Oil from the piston cooling jets sprays the underside
crankshaft, the main bearing caps, the piston of the pistons. The spray lubricates the pistons
cooling jets, and the oil pump. and the spray cools the pistons. The spray also
improves the pistons life and the spray also
The camshaft is accessible through the covers improves the rings life.
on the left side of the cylinder block. These side
covers support the pushrod lifters. The camshaft is The connecting rod has a taper on the pin bore
supported by bearings that are pressed into the end. This taper gives the connecting rod and the
cylinder block. There are seven camshaft bearings. piston more strength. The additional strength is
concentrated in the areas with the most load. Two
The cylinder head is separated from the cylinder bolts hold the connecting rod cap to the connecting
block by a nonasbestos fiber gasket with a steel rod. This design keeps the connecting rod width
backing. Coolant flows out of the cylinder block to a minimum, so that the connecting rod can be
through gasket openings and into the cylinder removed through the cylinder.
head. This gasket also seals the oil supply and
drain passages between the cylinder block and the
Two-Piece Pistons
cylinder head.
The two-piece articulated piston consists of an
The air inlet ports are on the left side of the
alloy forged steel crown that is connected to an
cylinder head, while the exhaust ports are located
aluminum skirt by the piston pin. The two-piece
on the right side of the cylinder head. There are articulated piston has three rings:
two inlet valves and one exhaust valve for each
cylinder. Replaceable valve guides are pressed
into the cylinder head. The hydraulically actuated Compression ring
electronically controlled unit injector is located
between the three valves. Fuel is injected directly Intermediate ring
into the cylinders at very high pressure. A pushrod
valve system controls the valves. Oil ring
All of the rings are located above the piston pin
Piston, Rings And Connecting bore. The compression ring is a Keystone ring.
Keystone rings have a tapered shape. The action of
Rods the ring in the piston groove that is tapered helps
prevent seizure of the rings. Seizure of the rings is
One-piece aluminum pistons are used in most
caused by deposits of carbon. The intermediate
applications. Engines with higher cylinder pressures
require two-piece pistons. Refer to the Parts Manual ring is rectangular with a sharp lower edge. The
oil ring is a standard type of ring or a conventional
in order to obtain information about the type of
type of ring. Oil returns to the crankcase through
pistons that are used in a specific engine.
holes in the oil ring groove.
64
Systems Operation Section

Oil from the piston cooling jets sprays the underside


of the pistons. The spray lubricates the pistons
and the spray cools the pistons. The spray also
improves the pistons life and the spray also
improves the rings life.

The connecting rod has a taper on the pin bore


end. This taper gives the connecting rod and the
piston more strength. The additional strength is
concentrated in the areas with the most load. Two
bolts hold the connecting rod cap to the connecting
rod. This design keeps the connecting rod width
to a minimum, so that the connecting rod can be
removed through the cylinder.
g00293227
Illustration 42
Crankshaft Schematic Of Oil Passages In Crankshaft
(1) Oil gallery
The crankshaft changes the combustion forces (2) Main bearings
in the cylinder into usable rotating torque which (3) Connecting rod bearings
powers the equipment. A vibration damper is used
at the front of the crankshaft to reduce torsional Pressure oil is supplied to all main bearings through
vibrations (twist on the crankshaft) that can cause drilled holes in the webs of the cylinder block.
damage to the engine. The oil then flows through drilled holes in the
crankshaft in order to provide oil to the connecting
The crankshaft drives a group of gears on the front rod bearings. The crankshaft is held in place by
of the engine. The gear group drives the following seven main bearings. A thrust bearing next to the
devices: rear main bearing controls the end play of the
crankshaft.
Oil pump
Camshaft Vibration Damper
Hydraulic oil pump The force from combustion in the cylinders will
cause the crankshaft to twist. This is called torsional
Gear-driven air compressor vibration. If the vibration is too great, the crankshaft
will be damaged. The vibration damper limits the
Power steering pump torsional vibrations to an acceptable amount in
order to prevent damage to the crankshaft.
In addition, belt pulleys on the front of the crankshaft
drive the following components:

Radiator fan
Water pump
Alternator
Refrigerant compressor
Hydrodynamic seals are used at both ends of the
crankshaft to control oil leakage. The hydrodynamic
grooves in the seal lip move lubrication oil back into
the crankcase as the crankshaft turns. The front
seal is located in the front housing. The rear seal is
installed in the flywheel housing.
65
Systems Operation Section

Rubber Vibration Damper (If Equipped) The viscous vibration damper is installed on the
front of crankshaft (1). The viscous vibration damper
has a weight (2) in a case (3). The space between
the weight and the case is filled with a viscous fluid.
The weight moves in the case in order to limit the
torsional vibration.

Camshaft
The camshaft is located in the upper left side of the
cylinder block. The camshaft is driven by gears at
the front of the engine. Seven bearings support the
camshaft. A thrust plate is mounted between the
camshaft drive gear and a shoulder of the camshaft
in order to control the end play of the camshaft.

The camshaft is driven by an idler gear which


is driven by the crankshaft gear. The camshaft
rotates in the same direction as the crankshaft. The
crankshaft rotates in the counterclockwise direction
when the engine is viewed from the flywheel end
of the engine. There are timing marks on the
g00293231 crankshaft gear, the idler gear, and the camshaft
Illustration 43
Rubber Vibration Damper gear in order to ensure the correct camshaft timing
(1) Crankshaft. (2) Ring. (3 ) Rubber ring. (4) Hub. (5) Alignment
to the crankshaft for proper valve operation.
marks.
As the camshaft turns, each lobe moves a lifter
The rubber vibration damper is installed on the assembly. There are two lifter assemblies for each
front of crankshaft (1). The hub (4) and ring (2) are cylinder. Each lifter assembly moves a pushrod.
isolated by a rubber ring (3). The rubber vibration Each pushrod moves a valve (exhaust) or a set of
damper has alignment marks (5) on the hub and valves (inlet). The camshaft must be in time with the
the ring. These marks give an indication of the crankshaft. The relation of the camshaft lobes to
condition of the rubber vibration damper. the crankshaft position causes the valves in each
cylinder to operate at the correct time.
Viscous Vibration Damper (If Equipped)
i01478239

Electrical System
SMCS Code: 1400; 1550; 1900

Grounding Practices
Proper grounding for the vehicle electrical system
and the engine electrical systems is necessary for
proper vehicle performance and reliability. Improper
grounding will result in unreliable electrical circuit
paths and uncontrolled electrical circuit paths.

Uncontrolled engine electrical circuit paths can


result in damage to main bearings, crankshaft
bearing journal surfaces, and aluminum
components.

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can cause


electrical noise which may degrade the vehicle and
Illustration 44
g00293230 radio performance.
Cross Section Of Viscous Vibration Damper
(1) Crankshaft. (2) Weight. (3) Case.
66
Systems Operation Section

To ensure proper functioning of the vehicle and Ground wires or ground straps should be combined
engine electrical systems, an engine-to-frame at ground studs that are only for ground use. The
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must engine grounds should be inspected after every
be used. This may be provided by a starting motor 20125 km (12,500 miles) or every 250 hours. All of
ground, by a frame to starting motor ground, or by the grounds should be tight and free of corrosion.
a direct frame to engine ground. An engine-to-frame
ground strap must be used in order to connect the The engine alternator should be battery ground with
grounding stud of the engine to the frame of the a wire size that is capable of managing the full
vehicle and to the negative battery post. charging current of the alternator.

NOTICE
When boost starting an engine, the instructions in Sys-
tems Operation, Engine Starting should be followed
in order to properly start the engine.

This engine may be equipped with a 12 volt starting


system or a 24 volt starting system. Only equal voltage
for boost starting should be used. The use of a higher
voltage will damage the electrical system.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) must be dis-


connected at the J1/P1 and J2/P2 locations before
welding on the vehicle.

Engine Electrical System


The electrical system has three separate circuits:

Charging circuit
g00769833
Illustration 45
Grounding Stud To Battery Ground () Starting circuit
Low amperage circuit
Some of the electrical system components are used
in more than one circuit. The following components
are used in each of the three circuits:

Battery
Circuit breaker
Ammeter
Battery cables
The charging circuit is in operation when the engine
is running. An alternator generates electricity for the
charging circuit. A voltage regulator in the circuit
controls the electrical output in order to keep the
battery at full charge.

Illustration 46
g00769834 NOTICE
Alternate Grounding Stud To Battery Ground ()
The disconnect switch, if equipped, must be in the ON
position in order to let the electrical system function.
The engine must have a wire ground to the battery. There will be damage to some of the charging circuit
components if the engine is running with the discon-
nect switch in the OFF position.
67
Systems Operation Section

If the vehicle has a disconnect switch, the starting The alternator converts mechanical energy and
circuit can operate only after the disconnect switch magnetic energy into alternating current (AC)
is put in the ON position. and voltage. This process is done by rotating an
electromagnetic field (rotor) that is direct current
The starting circuit is in operation only when the (DC) inside a three-phase stator. The alternating
start switch is activated. current and the voltage that is generated by the
stator are changed to direct current. This change is
Both the low amperage circuit and the charging accomplished by a system that uses three-phase,
circuit are connected to the same side of the full-wave, rectified outputs. The three-phase,
ammeter. The starting circuit is connected to the full-wave, rectified outputs have been converted by
opposite side of the ammeter. six rectifier diodes that are made of silicon. The
alternator also has a diode trio. A diode trio is an
NOTICE assembly that is made up of three exciter diodes.
Never operate the alternator without the battery in the The diode trio rectifies field current that is needed
circuit. Making or breaking an alternator connection to start the charging process. Direct current flows
with heavy load on the circuit can cause damage to to the alternator output terminal.
the regulator.
A solid-state regulator is installed in the back of the
alternator. Two brushes conduct the current through
two slip rings to the field coil on the rotor.
Charging System Components
Also, a capacitor is mounted in the back of the
Alternator alternator. The capacitor protects the rectifier from
high voltages. The capacitor also suppresses radio
noise sources.

The voltage regulator is a solid-state electronic


switch that controls the alternator output. The
voltage regulator limits the alternator voltage to a
preset value by controlling the field current. The
voltage regulator feels the voltage in the system. The
voltage regulator switches ON and OFF many times
per second in order to control the field current for
the alternator. The alternator uses the field current
in order to generate the required voltage output.

Note: Refer to Service Manual, SENR3862 for


detailed service information for the Delco Remy 27
SI Series Alternator.

Note: If the alternator is connected to an engine


component, the ground strap must connect that
engine component to the frame or to the battery
ground.
g00293544
Illustration 47
Alternator Components (Typical Example) Starting System Components
(1) Brush holder. (2) Rear frame. (3) Rotor. (4) Stator. (5) Drive end
frame. (6) Fan assembly. (7) Slip rings. (8) Rectifier.
Starting Solenoid
The alternator has three-phase, full-wave, rectified
A solenoid is a magnetic switch that does two basic
output. The alternator uses brushes to generate
operations:
electricity.

The alternator is an electrical component and a The solenoid closes the high current starting
motor circuit with a low current start switch circuit.
mechanical component that is driven by a belt from
engine rotation. The alternator is used to charge
the storage battery during engine operation. The The solenoid engages the starting motor pinion
with the ring gear.
alternator is cooled by a fan that is a part of the
alternator. The fan pulls air through holes in the
back of the alternator. The air exits the front of the
alternator and the air cools the alternator in the
process.
68
Systems Operation Section

Starting Motor

g00285112
Illustration 48
Typical Solenoid g00293548
Illustration 49
Starting Motor (Typical Example)
The solenoid has windings (one set or two sets)
(1) Brush assembly. (2) Field windings. (3) Solenoid. (4) Clutch.
around a hollow cylinder. A plunger with a spring (5) Pinion. (6) Armature.
loaded device is inside of the cylinder. The plunger
can move forward and backward. When the start The starting motor is used to turn the engine
switch is closed and electricity is sent through the flywheel at a rate that will allow the engine to start
windings, a magnetic field is created. The magnetic running.
field pulls the plunger forward in the cylinder. This
moves the shift lever in order to engage the pinion Note: Some starting motors have ground straps
drive gear with the ring gear. The front end of the that connect the starting motor to the frame, but
plunger then makes contact across the battery many of these starting motors are not grounded to
and the motor terminals of the solenoid. After the the engine. These starting motors have electrical
contact is made, the starting motor begins to turn insulation systems. For this reason, the ground
the flywheel of the engine. strap that connects the starting motor to the frame
may not be an acceptable engine ground. Starting
When the start switch is opened, current no longer motors that were installed as original equipment are
flows through the windings. The spring now pushes grounded to the engine. These starting motors have
the plunger back to the original position. At the a ground wire from the starting motor to the negative
same time, the spring moves the pinion gear away terminal of the battery. When a starting motor must
from the flywheel. be changed, consult an authorized dealer for the
proper grounding practices for that starting motor.
When two sets of solenoid windings are used, the
windings are called the hold-in winding and the The starting motor has a solenoid. When the ignition
pull-in winding. Both sets of windings have the switch is turned to the START position, the starting
same number of turns around the cylinder, but the motor solenoid will be activated electrically. The
pull-in winding uses a wire with a larger diameter. solenoid plunger will now move a mechanical
The wire with a larger diameter produces a greater linkage. The mechanical linkage will push the
magnetic field. When the start switch is closed, starting motor pinion in order to engage with the
part of the current flows from the battery through flywheel ring gear. The starter motor pinion will
the hold-in windings. The rest of the current flows engage with the ring gear before the electric
through the pull-in windings to the motor terminal. contacts in the solenoid close the circuit between
The current then flows through the motor to ground. the battery and the starting motor. When the circuit
The solenoid is fully activated when the connection between the battery and the starting motor is
across the battery and the motor terminal is complete, the pinion will turn the engine flywheel. A
complete. When the solenoid is fully activated, the clutch gives protection for the starting motor so that
current is shut off through the pull-in windings. At the engine cannot turn the starting motor too fast.
this point, only the smaller hold-in windings are in
operation. The hold-in windings operate for the
duration of time that is required in order to start the
engine. The solenoid will now draw less current
from the battery, and the heat that is generated by
the solenoid will be kept at an acceptable level.
69
Systems Operation Section

When the ignition switch is released from the START


position, the starting motor solenoid is deactivated.
The starting motor solenoid is deactivated when
current no longer flows through the windings. The
spring now pushes the plunger back to the original
position of the plunger. At the same time, the spring
moves the pinion gear away from the flywheel ring
gear.
70
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing and Adjusting 4. Operate the hand priming pump (if equipped).
If excessive resistance is felt, inspect the fuel
Section pressure regulating valve (3). Make sure that the
pressure regulator (3) is installed correctly, and
make sure that the pressure regulator functions
correctly.
Fuel System
5. Install a new fuel filter (6).
i01334705 6. Cut the old filter open with the 4C-5084 Oil Filter
Fuel System - Inspect Cutter. Inspect the filter for excess contamination.
Determine the source of the contamination. Make
SMCS Code: 1250-040 the necessary repairs.

7. Service the primary fuel filter (if equipped).


Initial Inspection Of The Fuel
System 8. Operate the hand priming pump (if equipped). If
uneven resistance is felt, test for air in the fuel.
A problem with the components that send fuel to Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test
the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can for more information.
decrease engine performance.
9. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
Prime.

Start Up Procedure
Note: Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Engine Starting in the Operation Section.

After work has been done on the fuel system,


consider the following precautions before you start
the engine. Make sure that you use this starting
procedure to start the engine only after the fuel
system has been worked on:
g00296730
Illustration 50 1. Disconnect the air inlet system from the
Fuel System turbocharger.
(1) Tube assembly (fuel filter to fuel supply passage)
(2) Tube assembly (fuel transfer pump to fuel filter)
(3) Pressure regulator
(4) Tube assembly (tank return line)
(5) Fuel inlet port (fuel transfer pump) Be careful when placing the steel plate against
(6) Fuel filter the opening on the turbocharger air inlet. To avoid
(7) Tube assembly
crushed fingers, do not position fingers between
the steel plate and the opening on the turbocharg-
1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Inspect the
er air inlet. Due to excessive suction, the plate can
cap for the fuel tank. Ensure that the vent in the
be forcefully pulled against the opening on the tur-
fuel cap is not filled with dirt.
bocharger air inlet.
2. Check all fuel lines for fuel leakage. The fuel lines
must be free from restrictions and faulty bends. 2. Another person will need to help as a
Verify that the fuel return line is not collapsed. precautionary step. This person should be ready
to use the steel plate to cover the turbocharger
3. Clean the screen inside the inlet fitting of the fuel air inlet if a problem occurs.
transfer pump.
Note: Make sure that the steel plate is large enough
to cover the entire turbocharger air inlet.

3. Start the engine.


71
Testing and Adjusting Section

Immediately place the steel plate against the i01459442


opening on the turbocharger air inlet, if the
engine operates in one of the following ways: Air in Fuel - Test
The engine runs too fast. SMCS Code: 1280-081

The engine runs out of control. This procedure checks for air in the fuel. This
procedure also assists in finding the source of the
Covering the opening will stop the air supply to air.
the engine, so the engine will stop.
1. Examine the fuel system for leaks. Ensure that
the fuel line fittings are properly tightened. Check
Inspection With The Engine the fuel level in the fuel tank. Air can enter the
Running fuel system on the suction side between the fuel
transfer pump and the fuel tank.
Either too much fuel for combustion or not enough
fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem 2. Install a 2P-8278 Fuel Flow Tube (Sight Gauge)
in the fuel system. Finding the source of the problem in the fuel return line. When possible, install the
can be difficult, especially when you have smoke sight gauge in a straight section of the fuel line
that rises from the exhaust. Therefore, work is often that is at least 304.8 mm (12 inches) long. Do not
done on the fuel system when the problem is really install the sight gauge near the following devices
with some other part of the engine. that create turbulence:

When noticeable smoke rises from the exhaust, this Elbows


problem can be caused by a damaged unit injector.
This unusual smoke can also be caused by one or Relief valves
more of the reasons that follow:
Check valves
not enough air for good combustion
Observe the fuel flow during engine cranking.
an overload at high altitude Look for air bubbles in the fuel. If there is no fuel
in the sight gauge, prime the fuel system. Refer
oil leakage into combustion chamber to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System - Prime
for more information. If the engine starts, check
altitude for air in the fuel at varying engine speeds.
When possible, operate the engine under the
air inlet and exhaust leaks conditions which have been suspect of air in the
fuel.
Note: Refer to Troubleshooting for more information
on the fuel system.

Checking The Operation Of


Individual Cylinders
Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is
an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can
possibly be an indication of an injector with a
defect. An extra high temperature at an exhaust
manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel
to the cylinder. High temperatures may also be
caused by an injector with a defect.

Refer to Testing And Adjusting, Exhaust


Temperature - Test for the procedure for checking
the temperatures in the exhaust manifold port.
72
Testing and Adjusting Section

4. Pressurize the fuel tank to 35 kPa (5 psi). Do not


use more than 55 kPa (8 psi) in order to avoid
damage to the fuel tank. Check for leaks in the
fuel lines between the fuel tank and the fuel
transfer pump. Repair any leaks that are found.
Check the fuel pressure in order to ensure that
the fuel transfer pump is operating properly. For
information about checking the fuel pressure, see
Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure
- Test.

5. If the source of the air is not found, disconnect


the supply line from the fuel tank and connect an
external fuel supply to the inlet of the fuel transfer
pump. If this corrects the problem, repair the fuel
tank or the stand pipe in the fuel tank.

6. If the injector sleeve is worn or damaged,


combustion gases may be leaking into the
fuel system. Also, if the O-rings on the injector
sleeves are worn, missing, or damaged,
Illustration 51 g00578151 combustion gases may leak into the fuel system.
2P-8278 Fuel Flow Tube (Sight Gauge)
(1) A steady stream of small bubbles with a diameter of i01287795
approximately 1.60 mm (0.063 inch) is an acceptable amount
of air in the fuel.
(2) Bubbles with a diameter of approximately 6.35 mm (0.250 inch)
Engine Speed - Check
are also acceptable if there is two seconds to three seconds
intervals between bubbles. SMCS Code: 1000
(3) Excessive air bubbles in the fuel are not acceptable.
Table 6
3. If excessive air is seen in the sight gauge in the Tools Needed
fuel return line, install a second sight gauge at
Part Part Name Quantity
the inlet to the fuel transfer pump. If a second
Number
sight gauge is not available, move the sight
gauge from the fuel return line and install the 1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer(1) 1
sight gauge at the inlet to the fuel transfer pump. or or
Observe the fuel flow during engine cranking. 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group
Look for air bubbles in the fuel. If the engine (1) This unit is a hand-held service tool.
starts, check for air in the fuel at varying engine
speeds. Note: The Electronic Service Tools can also be used.
If excessive air is not seen at the inlet to the fuel You can observe the engine rpm, which is displayed
transfer pump, the air is entering the system after on the status screen of the electronic service tool.
the fuel transfer pump. Proceed to Step 6.

If excessive air is seen at the inlet to the fuel


transfer pump, air is entering through the suction
side of the fuel system.

To avoid personal injury, always wear eye and face


protection when using pressurized air.

NOTICE
To avoid damage, do not use more than 55 kPa (8 psi)
to pressurize the fuel tank. g00286276
Illustration 52
9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group
73
Testing and Adjusting Section

The 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group can measure


engine rpm from a magnetic pickup. This magnetic
pickup is located in the flywheel housing. The
multitach also uses the ability to measure engine
rpm from visual engine parts that are rotating.

Note: Refer to Special Instruction, NEHS0605 that


is with the 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group. This
manual gives instructions for the test procedure.

The 1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer is a phototach for


general use. This tachometer can only register the
basic input frequency on any rotating part that is
visible. The basic input frequency is 1 pulse per
revolution per piece of reflective tape. g00677920
Illustration 54
Note: Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS8854 that is Timing Hole Location (Typical Example)
with this group. This manual provides instructions (3) Flywheel housing. (4) Plug.
for using this tool.

Note: The measurement of engine rpm can be set


with the Electronic Service Tool. Refer to Electronic
Troubleshooting.

i01277944

Finding Top Center Position


for No. 1 Piston
SMCS Code: 1105-531
Table 7
g00677919
Tools Needed Illustration 55
Timing Hole Location (Typical Example)
Part Number Part Name Quantity
(3) Flywheel housing. (4) Plug.
8T-0292 Bolt 1
Note: The hole (2) can be in one of two positions:

The right front face of the flywheel housing


(Illustration 54)

the left front face of the flywheel housing


(Illustration 55)

1. Remove the plug (4) from timing hole (2) from


the front side of the flywheel housing (3).

Note: Turn the engine with the four large bolts on


the front of the crankshaft. Do not use the eight
small bolts on the front of the crankshaft pulley.
g00677921 2. Put top center bolt (1) through timing hole (2) in
Illustration 53
Top Center Bolt Location (Typical Example) the flywheel housing (3).
(1) Top center bolt. (2) Timing hole. (3) Flywheel housing.
Turn the flywheel in the direction of normal
engine rotation. Turn the flywheel until the timing
bolt engages with the hole in the flywheel.
74
Testing and Adjusting Section

Note: If the flywheel is turned beyond the point of 1. Determine if water and/or contaminants are
engagement, the flywheel must be turned in the present in the fuel. Check the water separator (if
direction that is opposite of normal engine rotation. equipped). If a water separator is not present,
Turn the flywheel by approximately 30 degrees. proceed to Step 2. Drain the water separator, if
Then turn the flywheel in the direction of normal necessary. A full fuel tank minimizes the potential
engine rotation until the timing bolt engages with for overnight condensation.
the threaded hole. When the No. 1 piston is at the
top center position, this procedure will remove the Note: A water separator can appear to be full of fuel
play from the gears. when the water separator is actually full of water.

3. Remove the valve cover. 2. Determine if contaminants are present in the


fuel. Remove a sample of fuel from the bottom
The inlet valves and the exhaust valve for the No. of the fuel tank. Visually inspect the fuel sample
1 cylinder are fully closed under two conditions: for contaminants. The color of the fuel is not
necessarily an indication of fuel quality. However,
No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke. fuel that is black, brown, and/or similar to sludge
can be an indication of the growth of bacteria or
The rocker arms can be moved by hand. oil contamination. In cold temperatures, cloudy
fuel indicates that the fuel may not be suitable
If the rocker arms cannot be moved and the for operating conditions. The following methods
valves are slightly open, the No. 1 piston is on can be used to prevent wax from clogging the
the exhaust stroke. fuel filter:

Note: Refer to Testing And Adjusting, Crankshaft Fuel heaters


Positions for Valve Lash Setting.
Blending fuel with additives
4. After the timing bolt has been installed in
the flywheel, complete these procedures, as Utilizing fuel with a low cloud point such as
required: kerosene

a. Find the cylinders that need to be checked Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
for the stroke position of the crankshaft. Fuel Recommendations for more information.

b. Find the cylinders that need to be adjusted 3. Check fuel API with a 9U-7840 Fluid and Fuel
for the stroke position of the crankshaft. Calibration Gp for low power complaints. The
acceptable range of the fuel API is 30 to 45
5. When the actual stroke position is identified and when the API is measured at 15 C (60 F), but
the other stroke position is needed, remove the there is a significant difference in energy within
timing bolt from the flywheel. this range. Refer to Tool Operating Manual,
NEHS0607 for API correction factors when a low
6. Turn the flywheel by 360 degrees in the direction power problem is present and API is high.
of normal engine rotation.
Note: A correction factor that is greater than 1.000
Note: The timing hole is used during the procedure may be the cause of low power and/or poor fuel
to set the valve lash. consumption.

4. If fuel quality is still suspected as a possible


i01370330
cause to problems regarding engine
Fuel Quality - Test performance, disconnect the fuel inlet line, and
temporarily operate the engine from a separate
SMCS Code: 1280-081 source of fuel that is known to be good. This
will determine if the problem is caused by fuel
This test checks for problems regarding fuel quality. quality. If fuel quality is determined to be the
Refer to Diesel Fuels and Your Engine, SEBD0717 problem, drain the fuel system and replace the
for additional details. fuel filters. Engine performance can be affected
by the following characteristics :
Use the following procedure to test for problems
regarding fuel quality: Cetane number of the fuel
Air in the fuel
75
Testing and Adjusting Section

Other fuel characteristics 4. Push the plunger and tighten the plunger in a
counterclockwise direction. Tighten the plunger
by hand.
i01334752

Fuel System - Prime 5. Turn the red selector lever knob back to the RUN
position.
SMCS Code: 1258-548
6. After you pressurize the fuel system, promptly
crank the engine.

Note: Use the engine starting procedure. Refer


Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec- to Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
trical components can cause a fire. To help pre- Starting in the Operation Section.
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately. i01504979

Fuel System Pressure - Test


If the engines fuel system is run dry, fill the fuel
tank. Then prime the fuel system in order to remove SMCS Code: 1250-081; 1256-081
any air bubbles from the system.
Table 8

NOTICE Tools Needed


Do not loosen fuel lines at the fuel manifold. The Part Number Part Name Quantity
engine components may be damaged and/or loss of
priming pressure may occur when the fuel lines are Engine Pressure Test 1
1U-5470
loosened. Group
3Y-2888 Connector 1
3J-1907 O-Ring Seal 1

Note: Both the 5P-2720 Probe Adapter and the


5P-2718 Pressure Probe can be used with these
tools. Use these additional tools to allow the future
installation of pressure probes.

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-


trical components can cause a fire. Clean up fuel
spills immediately.
g00296544
Illustration 56

NOTICE
Follow these steps in order to prime the fuel system:
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
1. Locate the red selector lever knob for the fuel
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
priming pump.
component life.
2. Turn the red selector lever knob away from the
fuel filter base by 90 degrees.

This position is the PRIME position.

3. Operate the priming pumps plunger in order


to fill the final fuel filter. Continue until you feel
resistance.

Note: You may need to pump the priming pump


for 25 times or more in order to fill the fuel filter.
Furthermore, you may need up to 75 pump strokes
to fill the fuel supply passage.
76
Testing and Adjusting Section

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and g00296502


Illustration 58
mandates.
Fuel Return Line (Typical Example)
(1) Fuel supply passage. (2) Tube assembly (CPU to fuel supply
The 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test Group can be passage). (3) Pressure regulator. (4) Tube assembly (fuel transfer
used in order to check the engines fuel pressures. pump to fuel filter).

g00284796 g00296503
Illustration 57 Illustration 59
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test Group Fuel Pressure Test (Typical Example)
(1) Pressure indicators. (2) Zero adjustment screw. (3) Pressure (5) Fuel filter base. (6) Fuel pressure tap (unfiltered tap). (7) Fuel
indicator. (4) Pressure tap. (5) Pressure indicator. pressure tap (filtered tap).

This tool group has a gauge that is used to register During both normal operating conditions and load
the pressure in the fuel manifolds. The Special conditions, the fuel pressure should register the
Instruction, SEHS8907 is with the tool group. following range:

400 to 525 kPa (58 to 76 psi)


At low idle, the fuel pressure at the fuel filters inlet
should be at the following amount:

400 to 435 kPa (58 to 63 psi)


The fuel pressure to fuel supply passage (1) should
be the same amount, if you subtract the change in
pressure (delta P) across the filter.

With a new filter, the pressure drop across the fuel


filter typically registers the following amount:

35 kPa (5 psi)
77
Testing and Adjusting Section

As abrasive particles collect in the fuel filter, the i01334974


pressure differential across the filter will increase.
When a filter becomes plugged, fuel supply Gear Group (Front) - Time
pressure may drop as low as 69 kPa (10 psi)
before a significant power loss is detected by the SMCS Code: 1206-531
operator. Low fuel pressure will cause cavitation
and internal damage to the unit injectors. The
pressure differential across the fuel filter should
not exceed 69 kPa (10 psi).

Pressure regulator (3) is mounted directly in the


cylinder head. The regulator is located at the fuel
return port toward the rear end of the fuel supply
passage (1). The orifice maintains fuel pressure at
low engine rpm.

To check the unfiltered fuel pressure, follow this


procedure:

1. Remove the plug from fuel pressure tap (6).

2. Install the connector, the seal, and the 1U-5470


Engine Pressure Test Group to fuel pressure tap
(6).

This will obtain the fuel transfer pump pressure.

To check the fuel pressure in the fuel supply


passage (1), follow these steps:

1. Remove the plug from fuel pressure tap (7).

2. Install the adapter, the seal, and the 1U-5470 g00632109


Illustration 60
Engine Pressure Test Group to fuel pressure tap
(7). Front Gear Group
(1) Camshaft gear and timing reference gear
3. Operate the engine. (2) Timing marks
(3) Idler gear
(4) Crankshaft gear
Note: Make sure that the fuel filter is clean before
you check the fuel pressure. A restricted fuel filter Correct fuel injection timing and correct valve
causes lower fuel pressure at fuel pressure tap (7) mechanism operation is determined by the timing
than the fuel pressure at fuel pressure tap (6). reference gear and the alignment of the front gear
group. The timing reference gear is located on the
camshaft gear. The timing reference gear is used
to measure crankshaft rotation. During installation
of the front gear, timing marks (2) on idler gear
(3) must be in alignment with the timing marks
on crankshaft gear (4) and the timing marks on
camshaft gear (1).

Check the teeth on the timing reference gear. The


teeth should not be defaced. The teeth should have
sharp clean edges and the teeth should be free of
contaminants.

Note: The electronic injection timing must be


calibrated after reassembly of the front gear train.
Refer to Troubleshooting, RENR1367, PC-32:
Engine Speed/Timing Calibration.
78
Testing and Adjusting Section

i01280287 6. Remove the suspect unit injector and check the


unit injector for signs of exposure to coolant.
Unit Injector - Test Exposure to coolant will cause rust to form on
the injector. If the unit injector shows signs of
SMCS Code: 1290-081 exposure to coolant, remove the injector sleeve
and inspect the injector sleeve. Replace the
This procedure assists in identifying the cause for injector sleeve if the injector sleeve is damaged.
an injector misfiring. Perform this procedure only Check the unit injector for an excessive brown
after performing the Cylinder Cutout Test. Refer to discoloration that extends beyond the injector
Troubleshooting, Injector Solenoids Circuits Test tip. If excessive discoloration is found, check
for more information. the quality of the fuel. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test. Replace the seals
1. Check for air in the fuel, if this procedure has not on the injector and reinstall the injector. Refer
already been performed. Refer to Testing and to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, Unit
Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test. Injector - Install. Also refer to Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, Unit Injector Sleeve - Install.
Inspect the injector for deposits of soot that are
above the surface of the seat of the injector.
Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec- Deposits of soot indicate combustion gas
tor system uses 90-120 volts. leakage. The source of the leak should be found,
and the source of the leak should be remedied.
The injector will not need to be replaced if
2. Remove the valve cover and look for broken combustion gas leakage was the problem.
parts. Repair any broken parts or replace any
broken parts that are found. Inspect all wiring for 7. If the problem is not resolved, replace the
the solenoids. Look for loose connections. Also suspect injector with a new injector. In order to
look for frayed wires or broken wires. Ensure verify that the new injector is working properly,
that the connector for the unit injector solenoid perform the Cylinder Cutout Test. Use the
is properly connected. Perform a pull test on Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).
each of the wires.

3. Look for signs of fuel leakage. Investigate the


source of the leaking fuel. Remedy the cause of
the fuel leak.

4. Check the valve lash setting for the cylinder of


the suspect unit injector. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust.

5. Ensure that the bolts that hold the unit injector


are tightened to the proper torque. In order to
check the torque, loosen the bolts that hold
the unit injector. Tighten the bolts to the proper
torque. Refer to either the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual , Unit Injector - Install or the
Specifications Manual , Unit Injector - Install for
the proper tightening procedure.
79
Testing and Adjusting Section

Air Inlet and Exhaust


System Hot engine components can cause injury from
burns. Before performing maintenance on the
i01503753
engine, allow the engine and the components to
cool.
Air Inlet and Exhaust System
- Inspect
SMCS Code: 1050-040 Making contact with a running engine can cause
burns from hot parts and can cause injury from
Air Inlet Restriction rotating parts.

There will be a reduction in the performance of the When working on an engine that is running, avoid
engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet system contact with hot parts and rotating parts.
or the exhaust system.
Table 9
4. Use the differential pressure gauge of the
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group.
Required Tools
Part
Part Name Quantity
Number
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group 1

g00678913
Illustration 62
Typical example
(1) Turbocharger
(2) Air Inlet Piping
(3) Test location
g00293196 (4) Air cleaner
Illustration 61
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group
a. Connect the vacuum port of the differential
Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS8907, Using pressure gauge to test location (3). Test
the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group for the location (3) can be located anywhere along
instructions that are needed to use the 1U-5470 air inlet piping (2) after engine air cleaner (4)
Engine Pressure Group. but before turbocharger (1).

1. Inspect the engine air cleaner inlet and ducting b. Leave the pressure port of the differential
in order to ensure that the passageway is not pressure gauge open to the atmosphere.
blocked or collapsed.
c. Start the engine. Run the engine in the
2. Inspect the engine air cleaner element. Replace no-load condition at high idle.
a dirty engine air cleaner element with a clean
engine air cleaner element. d. Record the value.

3. Check for dirt tracks on the clean side of the e. Multiply the value from Step 4.d by 1.8.
engine air cleaner element. If dirt tracks are
observed, contaminants are flowing past the f. Compare the result from Step 4.e to the
engine air cleaner element and/or the seal for appropriate values that follow.
the engine air cleaner element.
80
Testing and Adjusting Section

The air flow through a used engine air cleaner


may have a restriction. The air flow through a
plugged engine air cleaner will be restricted to
some magnitude. In either case, the restriction must
not be more than the following amount:
Maximum restriction .... 6.2 kPa (25 inch of H2O)

The air flow through a new engine air cleaner


element must not have a restriction of more than
the following amount:
Maximum restriction .... 3.7 kPa (15 inch of H2O)

Exhaust Restriction g00293196


Illustration 63
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group

Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS8907, Using


The muffler and converter will become extrem-
the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group for the
ly hot during engine operation. A hot muffler
instructions that are needed to use the 1U-5470
and converter can cause serious burns. Allow
Engine Pressure Group.
adaquate cooling time before working on or near
the muffler and converter.

Excessive idling can cause the catalytic


converter/muffler to plug. A plugged catalytic Hot engine components can cause injury from
converter/muffler will lead to an increase in burns. Before performing maintenance on the
exhaust back pressure. Operating the engine in engine, allow the engine and the components to
extremely cold conditions may cause the catalytic cool.
converter/muffler to plug. One indication of a
plugged catalytic converter/muffler is poor engine
response.
Making contact with a running engine can cause
If the engine is operated at low idle or at low load
for 24 or more consecutive hours, the engine should burns from hot parts and can cause injury from
rotating parts.
be run at rated conditions for five to fifteen minutes.
Running the engine at rated conditions should clean
out the catalytic converter/muffler. When working on an engine that is running, avoid
contact with hot parts and rotating parts.

Exhaust Back Pressure


Back pressure is the difference in the pressure
between the exhaust and the atmospheric air.
Table 10
Tools Needed
Part
Part Name Quantity
Number
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group 1

g00780838
Illustration 64
(A) Catalytic converter/muffler
(B) 152 mm (6 inches)
(C) 305 mm (12 inches)
(D) Turbocharger or Exhaust Manifold
(1) Preferred Test Location
(2) Optional Test Location
81
Testing and Adjusting Section

The location of the back pressure tap is important 1. Connect the pressure port of the differential
in order to obtain an accurate back pressure pressure gauge to test location. The test location
reading. The test location should be located on a should be located on a straight length of exhaust
straight length of exhaust pipe. This back pressure pipe. This back pressure tap should be located
tap should be located as close as possible to the as close as possible to the turbocharger or the
turbocharger or the exhaust manifold. The tap exhaust manifold.
should be located at least 305 mm (12 inches)
downstream of a bend. The tap should have 2. Leave the vacuum port of the differential pressure
152 mm (6 inches) before a bend. If a continuous gauge open to the atmosphere.
straight length of exhaust that is 457 mm (18 inches)
is not available, the tap should be located as close 3. Start the engine. Run the engine in the no-load
as possible to the neutral axis on an elbow. condition at high idle until the engine reaches
normal operating temperature.
If the exhaust is not equipped with a back pressure
tap, the following procedure may be use in order 4. Record the value.
to install a pressure tap.
5. Multiply the value from Step 4 by 1.8.
1. Mark the position for the pressure tap.
6. Compare the result from Step 5 to the value that
2. Weld or braze a 1/8 inch NPT half coupling to follows.
the exhaust pipe.
Back pressure from the exhaust must not be more
3. Drill a 3.18 mm (0.125 inch) hole through the wall than the following amount:
of the exhaust inside the half coupling.
Maximum back pressure for engines without a
4. Remove any burrs from the inside of the exhaust Catalytic converter/muffler ................... 10.0 kPa
pipe. (40 inch of H2O)
Maximum back pressure for engines with a
Use the differential pressure gauge of the 1U-5470
Catalytic converter/muffler ................... 14.9 kPa
Engine Pressure Group in order to measure back
(60 inch of H2O)
pressure from the exhaust. Use the following
procedure in order to measure back pressure from
If the maximum back pressure is within the allowable
the exhaust:
limits, refer to Troubleshooting, Low/Power/Poor or
No Response to Throttle.

If the back pressure exceeds 14.9 kPa


(60 inch of H2O), replace the catalytic
converter/muffler.

i01388605

Turbocharger - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1052-040

Disconnect batteries before performance of any


service work.

g00678914 Hot engine components can cause injury from


Illustration 65
Typical example burns. Before performing maintenance on the
engine, allow the engine and the components to
(1) Catalytic converter/muffler
(2) Test location cool.
(3) Exhaust piping
(4) Turbocharger
82
Testing and Adjusting Section

Inspection of the Compressor and


the Compressor Housing
Personal injury can result from rotating and mov-
ing parts. Remove air piping from the compressor inlet.

Stay clear of all rotating and moving parts. 1. Inspect the compressor wheel for damage from a
foreign object. If there is damage, determine the
Never attempt adjustments while the machine is source of the foreign object. As required, clean
moving or the engine is running unless otherwise the inlet system and repair the intake system.
specified. Replace the turbocharger. If there is no damage,
go to Step 3.
The machine must be parked on a level surface
and the engine stopped. 2. Clean the compressor wheel and clean the
compressor housing if you find buildup of foreign
material. If there is no buildup of foreign material,
NOTICE go to Step 3.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
3. Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways .
component life. The assembly should turn freely. The compressor
wheel should not rub the compressor housing.
Replace the turbocharger if the compressor
NOTICE wheel rubs the compressor wheel housing. If
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained there is no rubbing or scraping, go to Step 4.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to 4. Inspect the compressor and the compressor
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- wheel housing for oil leakage. An oil leak from
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- the compressor may deposit oil in the aftercooler.
nent containing fluids. Drain and clean the aftercooler if you find oil in
the aftercooler.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies a. Check the oil level in the crankcase. If the oil
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar level is too high, adjust the oil level.
products.
b. Inspect the air cleaner element for restriction.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and If restriction is found, correct the problem.
mandates.
c. Inspect the engine crankcase breather. Clean
Before you begin inspection of the turbocharger, the engine crankcase breather or replace
be sure that the inlet air restriction is within the the engine crankcase breather if the engine
specifications for your engine. Be sure that the crankcase breather is plugged.
exhaust system restriction is within the specifications
for your engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing d. Remove the turbocharger oil drain line.
and Adjusting, Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the oil
Inspect. drain line. Inspect the area between the
bearings of the rotating assembly shaft. Look
The condition of the turbocharger will have definite for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain hole for
effects on engine performance. Use the following oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain line for oil
inspections and procedures to determine the sludge in the drain line. If necessary, clean
condition of the turbocharger. the rotating assembly shaft. If necessary,
clean the oil drain hole. If necessary, clean
Inspection of the Compressor and the Compressor the oil drain line.
Housing
e. If Steps 4.a through 4.d did not reveal the
Inspection of the Turbine Wheel and the Turbine source of the oil leakage, the turbocharger has
Housing internal damage. Replace the turbocharger.

Inspection of the Wastegate


83
Testing and Adjusting Section

Inspection of the Turbine Wheel e. If Steps 4.a through 4.d did not reveal the
source of the oil leakage, the turbocharger has
and the Turbine Housing internal damage. Replace the turbocharger.
Remove the air piping from the turbine outlet casing.
Inspection of the Wastegate
1. Inspect the turbine for damage by a foreign
object. If there is damage, determine the source The turbocharger senses boost pressure which
of the foreign object. Replace the turbocharger. actuates the wastegate valve. The wastegate valve
If there is no damage, go to Step 2. controls the amount of exhaust gas that is allowed
to bypass the turbine side of the turbocharger.
2. Inspect the turbine wheel for buildup of carbon Regulating the amount of exhaust gas that enters the
and other foreign material. Inspect the turbine turbocharger regulates the rpm of the turbocharger.
housing for buildup of carbon and foreign
material. Clean the turbine wheel and clean the
turbine housing if you find buildup of carbon or
foreign material. If there is no buildup of carbon
or foreign material, go to Step 3.

3. Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you


turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways.
The assembly should turn freely. The turbine
wheel should not rub the turbine wheel housing.
Replace the turbocharger if the turbine wheel
rubs the turbine wheel housing. If there is no
rubbing or scraping, go to Step 4.

4. Inspect the turbine and the turbine wheel


housing for oil leakage. Inspect the turbine and
the turbine wheel housing for oil coking. Some oil
coking may be cleaned. Heavy oil coking may
require replacement of the turbocharger. If the oil
is coming from the turbocharger center housing
go to Step 4.a. Otherwise go to Inspection of
the Wastegate. g00295815
Illustration 66

a. Remove the turbocharger oil drain line. Typical Example


Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the area (1) Actuating Rod
between the bearings of the rotating assembly (2) Canister
(3) Line
shaft. Look for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain
hole for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain line
When the engine operates in conditions of low boost
for oil sludge. If necessary, clean the rotating
(lug), a spring presses against a diaphragm in
assembly shaft. If necessary, clean the drain
canister (2). This moves actuating rod (1) in order to
opening. If necessary, clean the drain line.
close the wastegate valve. Then, the turbocharger
can operate at maximum performance.
b. If crankcase pressure is high, or if the oil
drain is restricted, pressure in the center
As the boost pressure increases against the
housing may be greater than the pressure of
diaphragm in canister (2), the wastegate valve
the turbine housing. Oil flow may be forced in
opens. The rpm of the turbocharger becomes
the wrong direction and the oil may not drain.
limited. This limitation occurs because a portion of
Check the crankcase pressure and correct
the exhaust gases bypass the turbine wheel of the
any problems.
turbocharger.
c. If the oil drain line is damaged, replace the
The following levels of boost pressure indicate a
oil drain line.
problem with the wastegate valve:
d. Check the routing of the oil drain line.
Eliminate any sharp restrictive bends. Make Too high at full load conditions
sure that the oil drain line is not too close to
the engine exhaust manifold. Too low at all lug conditions
The Technical Marketing Information (TMI) provides
the correct pressure for the inlet manifold.
84
Testing and Adjusting Section

To check the operation of the wastegate valve, High idle rpm


verify the correct pressure for the wastegate valve.
This can be accomplished by referring to the letter Height above sea level for engine operation
designation that is stamped on the actuating lever
of the wastegate valve. This letter designation Inlet air restriction
indicates a corresponding amount of pressure.
Exhaust system restriction
Note: Refer to Table 11 for the letter designation
and the corresponding amounts of pressure. NOTICE
If the high idle rpm or the engine rating is higher than
Remove the air line, and slowly apply the given in the Technical Marketing Information (TMI)
corresponding amount of pressure to the canister. for the height above sea level at which the engine is
DO NOT EXCEED 200 kPa (29 psi). operated, there can be damage to engine or to tur-
bocharger parts. Damage will result when increased
When the external supply of air that is connected heat and/or friction due to the higher engine output
to line (3) reaches the corresponding pressure for goes beyond the engine cooling and lubrication
the wastegate valve, the actuating lever should systems abilities.
move by 0.50 0.25 mm (0.020 0.010 inch). If
the actuating lever does NOT move by this amount,
replace the turbines housing assembly of the
i01388608
turbocharger. This housing assembly includes the
wastegate valve. If necessary, replace the complete
turbocharger.
Inlet Manifold Pressure - Test
SMCS Code: 1058-081
Note: The housing assembly for the wastegate
turbine is preset at the factory and no adjustments The efficiency of an engine can be checked by
can be made. making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet
Table 11
manifold with the information given in the TMI
(Technical Marketing Information). The information
Amount Of Pressure That Is Required To is also listed on the Fuel Setting And Related
Check The Wastegate Valve Information Microfiche. This test is used when there
Letter is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet
kPa psig there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.
Designation
B 156 (23) The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is listed
C 153 (22) in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information). The
correct pressure is also on the Fuel Setting And
D 124 (18) Related Information Microfiche. Development of
E 130 (19) this information is performed under the following
conditions:
F 135 (20)
G 180 (26) 96 kPa (28.8 in Hg) dry barometric pressure
H 144 (21) 25 C (77 F) outside air temperature
J 188 (27)
35 API rated fuel
M 200 (29)
V 161 (23) Any change from these conditions can change the
pressure in the inlet manifold. The outside air may
W 164 (24) have a higher temperature and a lower barometric
pressure than the values that are given above.
The boost pressure controls the maximum rpm of the This will cause a lower inlet manifold pressure
turbocharger, because the boost pressure controls measurement than the pressure in the TMI. Outside
the position of the wastegate. The following factors air that has both a lower temperature and a higher
also affect the maximum rpm of the turbocharger: barometric pressure will cause a higher inlet
manifold pressure measurement.
Engine rating
Horsepower demand on the engine
85
Testing and Adjusting Section

A difference in fuel density will change horsepower 1. Remove plug (1) from the air inlet cover.
(stall speed) and boost. If the fuel is rated above
35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be 2. Connect the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test
less than the pressure that appears in the TMI. Group to the air inlet cover at the pressure test
If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in location.
the inlet manifold can be more than the pressure
that appears in the TMI. BE SURE THAT THE Note: A tee fitting or some other plumbing
AIR INLET OR THE EXHAUST DOES NOT HAVE component will be necessary to allow the boost
A RESTRICTION WHEN YOU ARE MAKING A pressure sensor to be connected with a test
CHECK OF THE PRESSURE. location.

Note: The electronic service tool may be used to 3. Record the value.
check the pressure in the inlet manifold.
4. Compare the value that was recorded in Step 3
Table 12 to the pressure that is given in the TMI (Technical
Tools Needed Marketing Information). The correct pressure
is also given in the Fuel Setting And Related
Part Number Part Description Qty Information Microfiche.
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test Group 1
i01281586

Exhaust Temperature - Test


SMCS Code: 1088-081
Table 13
Tools Needed
Part
Part Name Quantity
Number
123-6700 Laser Infrared Thermometer 1

When the engine runs at low idle, the temperature of


g00293196 an exhaust manifold port can indicate the condition
Illustration 67
of a unit injector:
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test Group
A low temperature indicates that no fuel is flowing
Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS8907, Using to the cylinder. An inoperative unit injector pump
the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Test Group for the could cause this low temperature.
instructions that are needed to use the 1U-5470
Engine Pressure Test Group. A very high temperature can indicate that too much
fuel is flowing to the cylinder. A malfunctioning unit
injector could cause this very high temperature.

Use the 123-6700 Infrared Thermometer to check


this exhaust temperature. You can find operating
instructions and maintenance instructions inside the
Operators Manual, NEHS0630, 123-6700 Infrared
Thermometer II with Laser Sighting.

g00295555
Illustration 68
Pressure Test Location
(1) Plug

Use the following procedure in order to measure the


inlet manifold pressure:
86
Testing and Adjusting Section

i01281711 The use of winter fronts or shutters is discouraged


with air-to-air aftercooled systems. Winter fronts can
Aftercooler - Test only be used on certain truck models. On these
trucks, tests have shown that the engine jacket
SMCS Code: 1063-081 water will overheat before the inlet manifold air
temperature is excessive. These trucks use sensors
Table 14
and indicators that are installed in order to indicate
Tools Needed engine operating conditions before excessive inlet
manifold air temperatures are reached. Check with
Part
Part Name Quantity the truck manufacturer about the use of both winter
Number
fronts and shutters.
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group 1
FT-1984 Aftercooler Testing Group 1 Inlet Manifold Pressure
FT-1438 Aftercooler (Dynamometer 1 Normal inlet manifold pressure with high exhaust
Test)
temperature can be caused by blockage of the
fins of the aftercooler core. Clean the fins of the
aftercooler core. Refer to Visual Inspection for the
Visual Inspection cleaning procedure.
Inspect the following parts at each oil change:
Low inlet manifold pressure and high exhaust
manifold temperature can be caused by any of the
Air lines following conditions:
Hoses Plugged air cleaner Clean the air cleaner or
replace the air cleaner, as required. Refer to the
Gasket joints Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine Air
Cleaner Element - Clean/Replace.

Blockage in the air lines Blockage in the air lines


Pressurized air can cause personal injury. When between the air cleaner and the turbocharger must
pressurized air is used for cleaning, wear a protec- be removed.
tive face shield, protective clothing, and protective
shoes. Aftercooler core leakage Aftercooler core leakage
should be pressure tested. Refer to Aftercooler
Core Leakage topic for the testing procedure.
Ensure that the constant torque hose clamps are
tightened to the correct torque. Check the truck Leakage of the induction system Any leakage from
manufacturers specifications for the correct torque. the pressure side of the induction system should
Check the welded joints for cracks. Ensure that be repaired.
the brackets are tightened in the correct positions.
Ensure that the brackets are in good condition. Use Inlet manifold leak An inlet manifold leak can be
compressed air to clean any debris or any dust caused by the following conditions: loose fittings
from the aftercooler core assembly. Inspect the and plugs, missing fittings and plugs, damaged
cooler core fins for the following conditions: fittings and plugs, and leaking inlet manifold gasket.
Damage
Debris
Corrosion
Use a stainless steel brush to remove any corrosion.
Ensure that you use soap and water.

Note: When parts of the air-to-air aftercooler


system are repaired, a leak test is recommended.
When parts of the air-to-air aftercooler system are
replaced, a leak test is recommended.
87
Testing and Adjusting Section

Aftercooler Core Leakage A large leak of the aftercooler core can often be
found by making a visual inspection. To check for
smaller leaks, use the following procedure:

1. Disconnect the air pipes from the inlet and outlet


side of the aftercooler core.

Dust plug chains must be installed to the after-


cooler core or to the radiator brackets to prevent
possible injury while you are testing. Do not stand
in front of the dust plugs while you are testing.

2. Install couplers (5) on each side of the aftercooler


core. Also, install dust plugs (7) and (8). These
items are included with the FT-1984 Aftercooler
Testing Group.

Note: Installation of additional hose clamps on the


hump hoses is recommended in order to prevent
the hoses from bulging while the aftercooler core is
being pressurized.

NOTICE
Do not use more than 240 kPa (35 psi) of air pressure
or damage to the aftercooler core can be the result.
g00295702
Illustration 69
FT-1984 Aftercooler Testing Group
3. Install the regulator and valve assembly (1) on
the outlet side of the aftercooler core assembly.
(1) Regulator and valve assembly
(2) Nipple
Also, attach the air supply.
(3) Relief valve
(4) Tee 4. Open the air valve and pressurize the aftercooler
(5) Coupler to 205 kPa (30 psi). Shut off the air supply.
(6) Aftercooler
(7) Dust plug
(8) Dust plug 5. Inspect all connection points for air leakage.
(9) Chain
6. The aftercooler systems pressure should not
A low power problem in the engine can be the result drop more than 35 kPa (5 psi) in 15 seconds.
of aftercooler leakage. Aftercooler system leakage
can result in the following problems: 7. If the pressure drop is more than the specified
amount, use a solution of soap and water to
Low power check all areas for leakage. Look for air bubbles
that will identify possible leaks. Replace the
Low boost pressure aftercooler core, or repair the aftercooler core,
as needed.
Black smoke
High exhaust temperature
To help prevent personal injury when the tooling is
NOTICE removed, relieve all pressure in the system slowly
Remove all air leaks from the system to prevent engine by using an air regulator and a valve assembly.
damage. In some operating conditions, the engine can
pull a manifold vacuum for short periods of time. A 8. After the testing, remove the FT-1984 Aftercooler
leak in the aftercooler or air lines can let dirt and other Testing Group. Reconnect the air pipes on both
foreign material into the engine and cause rapid wear sides of the aftercooler core assembly.
and/or damage to engine parts.
88
Testing and Adjusting Section

Air System Restriction Turbocharger Failure

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-


er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less


than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

If a turbocharger failure occurs, remove the air-to-air


aftercooler core. Internally flush the air-to-air
aftercooler core with a solvent that removes oil
and other foreign substances. Shake the air-to-air
aftercooler core in order to eliminate any trapped
debris. Wash the aftercooler with hot, soapy water.
Thoroughly rinse the aftercooler with clean water
and blow dry the aftercooler with compressed air.
Illustration 70
g00581364 Blow dry the assembly in the reverse direction of
normal air flow. To make sure that the whole system
Pressure measurements should be taken at the inlet is clean, carefully inspect the system.
manifold (1) and at the turbocharger outlet (2).
NOTICE
Use the differential pressure gauge of the 1U-5470 Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the air-to-air af-
Engine Pressure Group. Use the following procedure tercooler core.
in order to measure the restriction of the aftercooler:
Caustic cleaners will attack the internal metals of the
1. Connect the vacuum port of the differential core and cause leakage.
pressure gauge to port (1).

2. Connect the pressure port of the differential Dynamometer Test


pressure gauge to port (2).
In hot ambient temperatures, chassis dynamometer
3. Record the value. tests for models with an air-to-air aftercooler can
add a greater heat load to the jacket water cooling
The air lines and the cooler core must be inspected system. Therefore, the jacket water cooling systems
for internal restriction when both of the following temperature must be monitored. The following
conditions are met: measurements may also need a power correction
factor:
Air flow is at a maximum level.
Inlet air temperature
Total air pressure drop of the charged system
exceeds 16.9 kPa (5 in Hg). Fuel API rating
If a restriction is discovered, proceed with the Fuel temperature
following tasks, as required:
Barometric pressure
Clean
With dynamometer tests for engines, use the
Repair FT-1438 Aftercooler (Dynamometer Test). This tool
provides a water cooled aftercooler in order to
Replacement control the inlet air temperature to 43 C (110 F).
89
Testing and Adjusting Section

i01281928 i01120286

Engine Crankcase Pressure Compression - Test


(Blowby) - Test SMCS Code: 1215
SMCS Code: 1215; 1317 An engine that runs roughly can have a leak at the
Table 15
valves. An engine that runs roughly can also have
valves that need an adjustment. Remove the head
Tools Needed and inspect the valves and valve seats. This is
Part necessary to find those small defects that would
Part Name Quantity not normally cause problems. Repairs of these
Number
problems are normally performed when you are
8T-2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator 1 reconditioning the engine.

Damaged pistons or damaged rings can cause


i01510447
too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition
will cause the engine to run rough. There will be Engine Valve Lash -
more than the normal amount of fumes (blowby)
rising from the crankcase breather. The breather Inspect/Adjust
can then become restricted in a very short time.
This condition can cause oil leakage at gaskets and SMCS Code: 1102-025
seals that would not normally have leakage. Blowby
can also be caused by worn valve guides or by a
failed turbocharger seal.
To prevent possible injury, do not use the starter
Note: The electronic service tool can be used to to turn the flywheel.
measure crankcase pressure.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before mea-
suring valve clearance.

This engine uses high voltage to control the fuel


injectors.

Disconnect electronic fuel injector enable circuit


connector to prevent personal injury.

Do not come in contact with the fuel injector ter-


g00286269
minals while the engine is running.
Illustration 71
8T-2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator
Note: Valve lash is measured between the rocker
The 8T-2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator is used arm and the bridge for the inlet valves. Valve lash
to check the amount of blowby. Refer to Special is measured between the rocker arm and the valve
Instruction, SEHS8712, Using the 8T-2700 stem for the exhaust valve. All of the clearance
Blowby/Air Flow Indicator for the test procedure measurements and the adjustments must be made
for checking the blowby. with the engine stopped. The valves must be FULLY
CLOSED.

Valve Lash Check


An adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the
measurement of the valve lash is in the acceptable
range. Adjust the valve lash while the engine is
stopped. The range is specified in Table 16.
90
Testing and Adjusting Section

Table 16 Valve Lash and Valve Bridge


Check for Valve Lash Adjustment
Valves Acceptable Range for Valve Lash
Inlet 0.38 0.08 mm (0.015 0.003 inch)
Exhaust 0.64 0.08 mm (0.025 0.003 inch)

If the measurement is not within this range


adjustment is necessary. See Testing And Adjusting,
Valve Lash And Valve Bridge Adjustment.

g00750123
Illustration 73
(1) Exhaust rocker arm. (2) Inlet valve bridge. (3) Inlet rocker arm.
Illustration 72
g00290846 (4) Rocker arm adjustment screw locknut for the exhaust rocker
arm. (5) Rocker arm adjustment screw for the exhaust rocker arm.
Cylinder and Valve Location (6) Rocker arm adjustment screw locknut for the inlet rocker arm.
(A) Exhaust valves. (B) Inlet valves. (7) Rocker arm adjustment screw for the inlet rocker arm.
Valve Mechanism

g00295786
Illustration 74
View A-A
(1) Exhaust rocker arm. (2) Inlet valve bridge. (4) Rocker arm
adjustment screw locknut for the exhaust rocker arm. (5) Rocker
arm adjustment screw for the exhaust rocker arm.
91
Testing and Adjusting Section

Table 17 b. With the feeler gauge between exhaust rocker


Valve Lash
arm (1) and the exhaust valve stem, turn
rocker arm adjustment screw for the exhaust
Valves Dimension of Gauge rocker arm (5) in a clockwise direction.
Continue turning the adjustment screw until
Inlet 0.38 mm (0.015 inch)
the valve lash reaches the specifications in
Exhaust 0.64 mm (0.025 inch) Table 17.

Adjust the valve lash while the engine is stopped. c. After each adjustment, tighten the rocker arm
Use the following procedure to adjust the valves: adjustment screw locknut for the exhaust
rocker arm (4) to a torque of 30 7 Nm
1. Put the No. 1 piston at the top center position. (22 5 lb ft). Then, check the adjustment
again.
Note: See Testing and Adjusting, Finding The Top
Center Position for No. 1 Piston for further details. 5. Remove the top center bolt, and turn the flywheel
by 360 degrees in the direction of the engines
2. With No. 1 piston at the top center position of rotation. This will position the No. 1 piston at the
the correct stroke, an adjustment can be made top center on the opposite stroke. Install the top
to the valves. center bolt in the flywheel.

Before any adjustments are made, lightly tap 6. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the inlet
each rocker arm at the top of the adjustment valves 3, 5,and 6.
screw. Use a soft mallet to ensure that the lifter
roller seats against the camshafts base circle. a. Loosen the rocker arm adjustment screw
locknut for the inlet rocker arm (6).
3. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the inlet
valves for cylinders 1, 2, and 4. Insert an appropriate feeler gauge between
inlet rocker arm (3) and inlet valve bridge (2).
a. Loosen the rocker arm adjustment screw If the clearance is insufficient for the feeler
locknut for the inlet rocker arm (6). gauge, turn rocker arm adjustment screw for
the inlet rocker arm (7) in a counterclockwise
Insert an appropriate feeler gauge between direction. This increases the valve lash.
inlet rocker arm (3) and inlet valve bridge (2).
If the clearance is insufficient for the feeler b. With the feeler gauge between inlet rocker
gauge, turn rocker arm adjustment screw for arm (3) and inlet valve bridge (2), turn rocker
the inlet rocker arm (7) in a counterclockwise arm adjustment screw for the inlet rocker arm
direction. This increases the valve lash. (7) in a clockwise direction. Continue turning
the adjustment screw until the valve lash
b. With the feeler gauge between inlet rocker reaches the specifications in Table 17.
arm (3) and inlet valve bridge (2), turn rocker
arm adjustment screw for the inlet rocker arm c. After each adjustment, tighten the rocker arm
(7) in a clockwise direction. Continue turning adjustment screw locknut for the inlet rocker
the adjustment screw until the valve lash arm (6) to a torque of 30 7 Nm (22 5 lb ft).
reaches the specifications in Table 17. Then, check the adjustment again.

c. After each adjustment, tighten the rocker arm 7. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the
adjustment screw locknut for the inlet rocker exhaust valves 2, 4, and 6.
arm (6) to a torque of 30 7 Nm (22 5 lb ft).
Then, check the adjustment again. a. Loosen the rocker arm adjustment screw
locknut for the exhaust rocker arm (4).
4. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the
exhaust valves 1, 3, and 5. Insert an appropriate feeler gauge between
exhaust rocker arm (1) and the exhaust valve
a. Loosen the rocker arm adjustment screw stem. If the clearance is insufficient for the
locknut for the exhaust rocker arm (4). feeler gauge, turn rocker arm adjustment
screw for the exhaust rocker arm (5) in a
Insert an appropriate feeler gauge between counterclockwise direction. This increases the
exhaust rocker arm (1) and the exhaust valve valve lash.
stem. If the clearance is insufficient for the
feeler gauge, turn rocker arm adjustment
screw for the exhaust rocker arm (5) in a
counterclockwise direction. This increases the
valve lash.
92
Testing and Adjusting Section

b. With the feeler gauge between exhaust rocker


arm (1) and the exhaust valve stem, turn
rocker arm adjustment screw for the exhaust
rocker arm (5) in a clockwise direction.
Continue turning the adjustment screw until
the valve lash reaches the specifications in
Table 17.

c. After each adjustment, tighten the rocker arm


adjustment screw locknut for the exhaust
rocker arm (4) to a torque of 30 7 Nm
(22 5 lb ft). Then, check the adjustment
again.

8. Remove the top center bolt from the flywheel


after all valve lash adjustments have been made.
93
Testing and Adjusting Section

Lubrication System
i01282269

Engine Oil Pressure - Test


SMCS Code: 1304-081

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

Work carefully around an engine that is running. g00296486


Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, Illustration 75
can cause personal injury. 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group

The 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group measures the


NOTICE oil pressure in the system. This engine tool group
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. can read the oil pressure inside the oil manifold.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Note: Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS8907,
component life. Using the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group for
more information on using the 1U-5470 Engine
Pressure Group.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Note: The engine oil pressure can also be measured
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- by using an electronic service tool. Refer to
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to Troubleshooting for information on the use of the
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- electronic technician.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

Table 18
Tools Needed
Part Number Part Name Quantity
g00680246
Illustration 76
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group 1
Oil Gallery Plug
8J-7844 Adapter Fitting 1 (1) Plug.
3K-0360 O-Ring Seal 1
1. Install the 1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group into
4M-5317 Terminal Bushing oil gallery plug (1).
or or 1
5P-2720 Probe Adapter Note: Engine oil pressure to the camshaft and main
bearings should be checked on each side of the
cylinder block at oil gallery plug (1).

2. Start the engine. Run the engine with SAE


10W30 or SAE 15W40 oil. The information in the
engine oil pressure graph is invalid for other oil
viscosities. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Engine Oil for the recommendations
of engine oil.
94
Testing and Adjusting Section

Note: Allow the engine to reach operating 6. Compare the recorded engine oil pressure with
temperature before you perform the pressure test. the oil pressure indicators on the instrument
panel and the engine oil pressure that is
Note: The engine oil temperature should not exceed displayed on the electronic service tool.
115C (239F).
7. An engine oil pressure indicator that has a
3. Record the value of the engine oil pressure when defect or an engine oil pressure sensor that
the engine has reached operating temperature. has a defect can give a false indication of a
low oil pressure or a high oil pressure. If there
4. Locate the point that intersects the lines for is a notable difference between the engine oil
the engine rpm and for the oil pressure on the pressure readings make necessary repairs.
engine oil pressure graph.
8. If the engine oil pressure is determined to be low,
refer to Reasons for Low Engine Oil Pressure.

9. If the engine oil pressure is determined to be


high, refer to Reason for High Engine Oil
Pressure.

Reasons for Low Engine Oil


Pressure
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
g00293198 suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
Illustration 77
Engine Oil Pressure Graph products.

5. The results must fall within the ACCEPTABLE Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
range on the chart. A problem exists when the mandates.
results fall within the NOT ACCEPTABLE range
on the chart. The problem needs to be corrected. Engine oil level is low. Refer to Step 1.
Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can
be the result if engine operation is continued with Engine oil is contaminated. Refer to Step 2.
oil manifold pressure outside this range.