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# Quality Control

p-chart
The p-chart is used to control the proportion of defective items in a sample.
User inputs the no. of samples, sample size, sigma limits, and no. of defectives in each sample.
Sigma limits refer to the number of standard deviations used to establish the control limits.
Control limits are normally set at 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the mean.
Sigma limits are the Z value in the p-chart formulas.
The number of samples can range from 2 to 30. The sample size is unlimited.

Excel calculates the proportion defective, p-bar, and the upper and lower control limits for the control chart.
The control limits and mean are graphed, along with the proportion defectives.
The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control.
A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

c-chart
The c-chart is used to control the number of defects in an item.
User inputs the no. of samples, the no. of defects in each sample, and the sigma limits.
Sigma limits refer to the number of standard deviations used to establish the control limits.
Control limits are normally set at 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the mean.
Sigma limits are the Z value in the c-chart formulas.
The number of samples can range from 2 to 30.

Excel calculates c-bar, and the upper and lower control limits for the control chart.
The control limits and mean are graphed, along with the no. of defects.
The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control.
A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

## Xbar & R chart

X-bar and R charts are used to control the central tendency and dispersion of a process.
User inputs no. of samples and sample size, along with data from several observations in each sample.
Multiple observations are needed to ensure the process follows a normal distribution.

Excel calculates the average of each sample, X-bar, and the range of each sample, R.
The average of the averages, X-bar-bar is also calculated and used in the control limit formulas.
The control limit formulas are shown on the worksheet. The A and D variables refer to the Control Chart Factors Table.
(Scroll down the worksheet to find it). The correct table values are associated with the problem's sample size.
The appropriate entries have been copied from the Control Chart Factors Table and appear at the top of the worksheet.

Both an X-bar and an R-chart are graphed for each problem. They include the control limits, the mean, and X-bar or R values.
The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control.
Both the X-bar and R charts have to be in control for the process to be in control.
A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

Process capability
Process capability determines whether a process is capable of meeting product specifications.
User inputs design target, design tolerance, process mean and process standard deviation.
The design tolerance is a +/- value expressed as a positive number.

Excel calculates the upper and lower spec limits, the process capability ratio, Cp, and the process capability index, Cpk.
Cp compares the design tolerance range with the process range in a ratio format.
If Cp =1, the process is just capable. If Cp< 1, the process is incapable. If Cp is >1, the process is capable.
A Cp value of 1 is 3 sigma quality. A Cp value of 2 is 6 sigma quality.

Cpk determines whether the mean of the process is centered between the specification limits.
The mean is centered when Cp and Cpk are equal.
If Cpk <1, the mean is off-center and defects will occur.
If Cpk >1, the mean may be off-center but it is still capable of meeting product specs.
A process that is in control is not necessarily capable.

Acceptance sampling
p-chart

p-Chart
p-Chart Formulas
Input: Output:
No. of samples
Sample size
p=
UCL =
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Input the sample size, sigma
limits, and the number of
LCL=pz
p ( 1 p )
n
Sigma limits LCL = #DIV/0!

Calculations
defectives for each sample.
UCL= p+z
p ( 1 p )
n
Number of Proportion
12.0000
Sample Defectives Defective p UCL LCL
1 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
2 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 10.0000
3 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
4 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
5 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 8.0000

Proportion Defective
6 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
7 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
8 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 6.0000
9 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
10 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
4.0000
Total 0

2.0000

0.0000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sample Number

Page 3
c-Chart
c-Chart Formulas
Input: Output:
No. of samples 10 c-bar 2.50
Input the sigma limits and
LCL =c z c
Sigma limits 2 UCL 5.66
number of defects in each
LCL 0.00 sample. UCL =c +z c
Calculations
Number of
6.00
Sample Defects c-Bar UCL LCL
1 1 2.50 5.66 0.00
2 2 2.50 5.66 0.00 5.00
3 3 2.50 5.66 0.00
4 3 2.50 5.66 0.00

Number of Defects
5 2 2.50 5.66 0.00 4.00
6 2 2.50 5.66 0.00
7 4 2.50 5.66 0.00
3.00
8 4 2.50 5.66 0.00
9 2 2.50 5.66 0.00
10 2 2.50 5.66 0.00 2.00
Total 25

1.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sample Number
Xbar and R Charts

## Input: Output: Table Values

No. of samples X-Bar Range N 0
Sample size UCL #N/A #DIV/0! A2 #N/A Input the observations for each sample
Mean #DIV/0! #DIV/0! D3 #N/A in the green shaded cells.
LCL #N/A #DIV/0! D4 #N/A

## Observations Calculations Xbar Chart R-chart

Sample
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 Mean Range UCL LCL UCL LCL Xbar chart formulas
1
2
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
0.00
0.00
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
LCL=x A2 R
3 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
4 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0! UCL=x+ A2 R
5 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
6 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0! R-chart formulas
7 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
8 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0! LCL = D3 R
9 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0! UCL = D4 R
10 #DIV/0! 0.00 #N/A #N/A #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Mean #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

X-Bar Range
12.000 1
0.9
10.000 0.8
0.7
8.000
0.6
Mean

6.000 0.5
Mean

0.4
4.000
0.3
2.000 0.2
0.1
0.000 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Sample Sample
Process Capability

1.000 Process
Input: Design target = distribution
0.900
Design tolerance (+/-) = 0.800
Upper Spec
Limit
0.700 Lower Spec
Process mean =
0.600 Limit
Process standard deviation =
Mean
0.500
Input the design target and 0.400
tolerance, the process mean and 0.300
standard deviation.
0.200
0.100
0.000
Output: Upper spec limit = 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
Lower spec limit = 0.00

Cp = #DIV/0!
Cpk = #DIV/0!
Acceptance Sampling

Input:
AQL Input AQL and LTPD. The model assumes an
LTPD alpha of .05 and a beta of .10.

Output: OC Curve
Best Sampling Plan 1.0000
Sample size, n #DIV/0!
Acceptance no., c #DIV/0! 0.9000

0.8000
Graph: Input a trial sampling plan to
be graphed. Try the best 0.7000
Probability of Acceptance
sampling plan given above.
0.6000
Trial Sampling Plan
0.5000
Sample size, n
Acceptance no., c 0.4000

0.3000
Actual Type I & II Errors
Alpha 0.000 0.2000
Beta 1.000
0.1000

0.0000
0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200
Percent Defective