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Polikandrioti M.

iabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin
disorder characterized by requirements. Additional benefits of
hyperglycemia which is strongly exercise are associated with physiological
associated with short and long term health and metabolic abnormalities related to
complications. This disorder is classified diabetes such as weight management, blood
according to its etiology in type I or Insulin- pressure reduction, physical work capacity,
Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (I.D.D.M) and improved lipid profile and improved well-
type II or Non Insulin Depedent Diabetes being. 1,2,3
Mellitus (N.I.D.D.M). The etiology of type I Complete physical examination and
diabetes mellitus is the auto-immune extensive medical evaluation for the
destruction of the cells of the pancreas cardiovascular, nervous, renal and visual
that secrete insulin, whereas the etiology of system are fundamental prerequisites before
type II are insulin resistance and insulin initiating an individually designed regular
secretory defect. 1,2,3 exercise program. Furthermore, before
Diabetes mellitus consists a growing enrollment in an exercise program, diagnose
public health problem in both developed and of retinopathy, microalbuminuria, peripheral
developing countries. Despite effective drug and autonomic neuropathy in these patients
treatment and improved clinical diagnosis, is of great importance in order to prevent
the incidence of diabetes has dramatically future complications. In such cases exercise
been increased and according to statistics, protocol should be modified accordingly to
the number of patients with diabetes the individuals needs. 1-4
mellitus will increase worldwide from 171 According to the American College of
million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. 1,2,3 Sports Medicine, the basic elements for
According to the literature, the exercise prescription are:
interaction between individual genetic Frequency: 3-4 d/wk
susceptibility and environmental factors, Duration: 20-60 minutes
such as adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, Intensity: 50%-80%VO2max or heart rate
obesity, unhealthy dietary choices or excess reserve (HRR).
of energy intake, significantly contributes to Relevant research studies also suggest
the rapid increase of diabetes mellitus that an exercise program should be
worldwide. Treatment of diabetes includes a consisted of moderate intensity aerobic
combination of exercise, proper diet, exercise. For resistance training is
medication, and daily self-care. 1,2,3 recommended lower intensity and lower
Regarding exercise, over the last resistance which should only be performed
decades, many researchers have concluded by individuals without proliferative
that regular structured physical activity, retinopathy or hypertension. 4,5
under the supervision of exercise specialists, The most common risk factor for patients
should be an integral component of diabetes with diabetes who follow an exercise
care, since it has potential benefits in the program is hypoglycemia, that may occur
prevention and treatment of this metabolic not only during exercise but also after its
disorder. Exercise training exerts completion. The most essential steps to
pronounced effects on glucose control and prevent hypoglycemia, associated to

Exercise and diabetes mellitus 130

ISSN:1108-7366, E-ISSN:1791-809X Health Science Journal All Rights Reserved

exercise, is monitoring plasma glucose level

prior and following exercise, avoiding
insulin into exercising limbs and finally
taking into account the consumption of
carbohydrates. 4,5
Regular exercise should be an integral
part in the therapeutic target of diabetes
mellitus but only when is planned according
to each individuals needs. Proper
motivation and adherence to such exercise
programs are also crucial for the outcome of
exercise treatment.


1. Whaley M., Brubaker P., Otto R.

Guidelines for Exercise Testing and
Prescription. American College on
Sports Medicine. Ed. Lippincott
Williams and Wilkins. 7th Edition,
America, 2006.
2. Hu G., Lakka TA., Kilpelainen TO.,
Tuomilehto J. Epidemiological
studies of exercise in diabetes
prevention. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.
3. Wallberg-Henriksson H.,Rincon J.,
Zierath JR. Exercise in the
management of non-insulin-
dependent diabetes mellitus. Sports
Med. 1998;25(1):25-35.
4. To .
. . .
, 2003.
5. Chipkin SR., Klugh SA., Chasan-Taber
L. Exercise and diabetes. Cardiol
Clin. 2001;19(3):489-505.

Exercise and diabetes mellitus 131

ISSN:1108-7366, E-ISSN:1791-809X Health Science Journal All Rights Reserved