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Unit 2 Study Guide

Write in composition book in Cornell style.

Terms to know:
Natural right
A claim to what one rightfully owns by birth
Government does not grant natural rights
Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness

Unalienable rights
Rights that cannot be taken away

Social Contract Theory p. 15

OR COMPACT- comes into being when an individual agrees with a whole people, and they with him, to
form a government under which all will exist.
-establishes government, requires initial consent
-an agreement among people

Republicanism is a derived term of republic.
As nouns, the difference between republicanism and republic is that republicanism is the advocacy
of a republic as a means of government while
republic is a state where sovereignty rests with the people or their representatives, rather than with a
monarch or emperor; a country with no monarchy
Republic is a representative democracy where citizens choose their lawmakers

The right to rule; popular sovereignty is the idea that the power of government lies with the people

A government in which citizens hold the power to rule

Representative democracy
People choose leaders to govern
-a government based on representative democracy is a republic

The distribution of power between national and state governments

Compound republic
power is divided into state and federal governments

The accumulation of all powers- legislative, executive and judiciary in the same hands

Separation of power
Prevents tyranny; vested the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of government in three different
and separate branches and established a system of checks and balances between these branches
Checks and balances
Dividing and distributing
it into different depositaries(to whom anything is given in trust) and constituting
(KNOW p. 37 in Constitution book

Listed or spelled out also called express powers; powers directly granted granted to the national
government by the Constitution

A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses and prevents unjust collaboration within Congress
-bicameralism prevents unjust collaboration within Congress

Unicameral NOT ON TEST


The Constitution divides Congress into two houses, with the aim of encouraging legislation based not on
popular passion but reasoned deliberation; 6 year term; more responsible and moderate body; provides a
check on the more responsive and passionate House; Constitution provides for each state to have equal
representation in the Senate.

House of Representatives
The lower house of Congress, consisting of a different number of representatives from each state,
depending on population.
When writing the Constitution in 1787, the Framers wanted to create a Congress with the power to pass
laws. They couldnt agree how the states should be represented in this Congress. Delegates from the
smaller states wanted each state to have equal representation. Those from larger states wanted votes in
Congress to be based on population. This would give them more power. The compromise that was
reached was the two-part bicameral Senate & House of Reps.

Executive Branch
Carries out the laws

Electoral College
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

Judicial branch
Interprets the laws

Supreme court
Vested with judicial power and possesses judicial review for the purpose of protecting citizens natural

Judicial review
The power of the courts to declare the laws that are contrary to the Constitution null and void- the
Constitution reigns supreme over all three branches of government
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, adopted in 1791
-Madison and Hamilton originally opposed a Bill of Rights because they feared that listing some, but not
all of our rights would imply that those rights not listed did not exist.; also that listing restrictions on the
national government would suggest that the government's power was open ended

Moral Virtue p.41

Prudence, courage, moderation, justice, and the other virtues that keep human passions

Religious Liberty
Government may not compel citizens to worship contrary to the dictates of their faith, so long as their
religion does not run counter to the common good
-the federal government is not a church, and therefore should not command obedience in doctrinal
matters or set up an official religion
-national and state governments should support and encourage religion, which is a safeguard against

Concepts to know (be able to explain and illustrate your understanding)

Criteria for a just government
Just powers-when government protects the natural rights of individuals
What is the right to Revolution?
What are the two necessary conditions? If the government violates the natural rights of its citizens and
does not address the grievances, it enters into a state of war with its own citizens. Can only happen if
guided by the virtue of prudence or practical reason and by the precepts of natural law.

How does the rule of law provide for safety and happiness of the people?
By the establishment of rules publicly agreed upon that apply equally to all citizens to prevent the
passions or private interests of the rulers from having their way

Be able to explain a Compound Republic

We have elements of both a national and federal government.

What are enumerated powers and to what purpose are powers limited?
Legislative Branch- power to make laws
Executive Branch- entails the enforcement -or execution- of the laws, prosecutor of the crimes,
and Commander -in-Chief of the armed forces, needs to act decisively and quickly; restricted to 2
terms in office
Judicial Branch-power to adjudicate and review laws

What specific power does the Supreme Court possess and for what purpose?
Vested with judicial power and possesses the power of judicial reveiw for the purpose of protecting
citizens natural rights
-power of the courts to declare laws that are contrary to the Constitution null and void

What is supreme over all three branches of government?

The Constitution
Influence of Enlightenment Thinkers


Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 People agree to be ruled

because their ruler pledges to
protect their rights

John Locke 1632-1704 All people were born equal with

certain God-given natural rights

Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 Separate the parts of

government so no one part can
become too powerful

Voltaire 1694-1778 People have the right to speak

freely, and this right should be
defended by everyone

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The legislative power belongs to

the people.