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Data communication
refers to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and
a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows
computers to exchange data. The physical connection between networked
computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media. The
best-known computer network is the Internet.

network topology
A network topology is the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and
connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical
topology and the logical (or signal) topology.
The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of workstations.
There are several common physical topologies, as described below and as shown in
the illustration.

In the bus network topology, every workstation is connected to a main cable

called the bus. Therefore, in effect, each workstation is directly connected to every
other workstation in the network.

In the star network topology, there is a central computer or server to which all the
workstations are directly connected. Every workstation is indirectly connected to
every other through the central computer.

In the ring network topology, the workstations are connected in a closed loop
configuration. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. Other pairs of
workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more
intermediate nodes.
If a Token Ring protocol is used in a star or ring topology, the signal travels in only
one direction, carried by a so-called token from node to node.

The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and
partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is connected directly to
each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some workstations are connected
to all the others, and some are connected only to those other nodes with which
they exchange the most data.

The tree network topology uses two or more star networks connected together.
The central computers of the star networks are connected to a main bus. Thus, a
tree network is a bus network of star networks.
Logical (or signal) topology refers to the nature of the paths the signals follow from
node to node. In many instances, the logical topology is the same as the physical
topology. But this is not always the case. For example, some networks are
physically laid out in a star configuration, but they operate logically as bus or ring

Computer Networks fall into three classes regarding the size, distance and the structure
namely: LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (Wide Area

Types of Networks
LAN (Local Area Network)

A Local Area Network is a privately owned computer network covering a small Networks
geographical area, like a home, office, or groups of buildings e.g. a school Network. A LAN is
used to connect the computers and other network devices so that the devices can communicate
with each other to share the resources. The resources to be shared can be a hardware device like
printer, software like an application program or data. The size of LAN is usually small. The
various devices in LAN are connected to central devices called Hub or Switch using a cable.
Now-a-days LANs are being installed using wireless technologies. Such a system makes use of
access point or APs to transmit and receive data. One of the computers in a network can become
a server serving all the remaining computers called Clients.
For example, a library will have a wired or wireless LAN Network for users to interconnect
local networking devices e.g., printers and servers to connect to the internet.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks)

MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Networks is one of a number of types of networks. A MAN is
a relatively new class of network. MAN is larger than a local area network and as its name
implies, covers the area of a single city. MANs rarely extend beyond 100 KM and frequently
comprise a combination of different hardware and transmission media. It can be single network
such as a cable TV network, or it is a means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger
network so that resources can be shared LAN to LAN as well as device to device.
A MAN can be created as a single network such as Cable TV Network, covering the entire city or
a group of several Local Area Networks (LANs). It this way resource can be shared from LAN to
LAN and from computer to computer also. MANs are usually owned by large organizations to
interconnect its various branches across a city.
The two most important components of MANs are security and standardization. Security is
important because information is being shared between dissimilar systems. Standardization is
necessary to ensure reliable data communication.
A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks using a high-capacity backbone
technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and
the Internet.

WAN (Wide Area Networks)

A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunication network. A wide area network is simply a
LAN of LANs or Network of Networks. WANs connect LANs that may be on opposite sides of a
building, across the country or around the world. WANS are characterized by the slowest data
communication rates and the largest distances. WANs can be of two types: an enterprise WAN
and Global WAN.
Computers connected to a Wide Area Networks are often connected through public networks,
such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The
largest WAN in existence is the Internet. Some segments of the Internet, like VPN based
extranets, are also WANs in themselves. Finally, many WANs are corporate or research
networks that utilize leased lines.
Numerous WANs have been constructed, including public packet networks, large corporate
networks, military networks, banking networks, stock brokerage networks, and airline
reservation networks.
Organizations supporting WANs using the Internet Protocol are known as Network Service
Providers (NSPs). These form the core of the Internet.
By connecting the NSP WANs together using links at Internet Packet Interchanges (sometimes
called "peering points") a global communication infrastructure is formed.
WANs (wide area networks) generally utilize different and much more expensive networking
equipment than do LANs (Local Area Networks). Key technologies often found in WANs (wide
area networks) include SONET, Frame Relay, and ATM.
Clarify Enterprise WANs.
An enterprise WAN (wide area networks) connects an entire organization including all LANs
(Local Area Networks) at various sites. This term is used for large, widespread organizations
such as corporations, universities and governments.
Clarify Global WANs.
Global WANs (wide area networks) also span the world but they do not have to connect
LANS (Local Area Networks) within a single organization. The Internet is an example of a global
WAN. It connects diverse locations, organizations and institutions throughout the world. Global
WANS (wide area networks) can be public or private. Private WANs (wide area networks) are
called Intranet which belongs to an organization. Public WANs (wide area networks) are open to
everybody so that anybody can connect and use the resources and services available.
WLANs - Wireless Local Area Networks

Internet is defined as an Information super Highway, to access information over the
web. However, It can be defined in many ways as follows:
Internet is a world-wide global system of interconnected computer networks.
Internet uses the standard Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Every computer in internet is identified by a unique IP address.
IP Address is a unique set of numbers (such as which identifies a
computer location.
A special computer DNS (Domain Name Server) is used to give name to the IP
Address so that user can locate a computer by a name.
For example, a DNS server will resolve a name to a
particular IP address to uniquely identify the computer on which this website is
Internet is accessible to every user all over the world.
The concept of Internet was originated in 1969 and has undergone several technological &
Infrastructural changes as discussed below:
The origin of Internet devised from the concept of Advanced Research Project Agency Network
ARPANET was developed by United States Department of Defense.
Basic purpose of ARPANET was to provide communication among the various bodies of
Initially, there were only four nodes, formally called Hosts.
In 1972, the ARPANET spread over the globe with 23 nodes located at different countries and
thus became known as Internet.
By the time, with invention of new technologies such as TCP/IP protocols, DNS, WWW,
browsers, scripting languages etc.,Internet provided a medium to publish and access
information over the web.
Internet covers almost every aspect of life, one can think of. Here, we will discuss some of the
advantages of Internet:

Internet allows us to communicate with the people sitting at remote locations. There are
various apps available on the wed that uses Internet as a medium for communication. One can
find various social networking sites such as:
One can surf for any kind of information over the internet. Information regarding various topics
such as Technology, Health & Science, Social Studies, Geographical Information, Information
Technology, Products etc can be surfed with help of a search engine.
Apart from communication and source of information, internet also serves a medium for
entertainment. Following are the various modes for entertainment over internet.
Online Television
Online Games
Social Networking Apps
Internet allows us to use many services like:
Internet Banking
Matrimonial Services
Online Shopping
Online Ticket Booking
Online Bill Payment
Data Sharing
Internet provides concept of electronic commerce, that allows the business deals to be
conducted on electronic systems
However, Internet has prooved to be a powerful source of information in almost every field, yet
there exists many disadvanatges discussed below:

There are always chances to loose personal information such as name, address, credit card
number. Therefore, one should be very careful while sharing such information. One should use
credit cards only through authenticated sites.
Another disadvantage is the Spamming.Spamming corresponds to the unwanted e-mails in
bulk. These e-mails serve no purpose and lead to obstruction of entire system.
Virus can easily be spread to the computers connected to internet. Such virus attacks may
cause your system to crash or your important data may get deleted.
Also a biggest threat on internet is pornography. There are many pornographic sites that can be
found, letting your children to use internet which indirectly affects the children healthy mental
There are various websites that do not provide the authenticated information. This leads to
misconception among many people.

Internet Services
allows us to access huge amount of information such as text, graphics, sound and software
over the internet. Following diagram shows the four different categories of Internet Services.

Communication Services
There are various Communication Services available that offer exchange of information with
individuals or groups. The following table gives a brief introduction to these services:
S.N. Service Description
Electronic Mail
Used to send electronic message over the internet.
Used to log on to a remote computer that is attached to internet.
Offers a forum for people to discuss topics of common interests.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Allows the people from all over the world to communicate in real time.
Mailing Lists
Used to organize group of internet users to share common information through e-mail.
Internet Telephony (VoIP)
Allows the internet users to talk across internet to any PC equipped to receive the call.
Instant Messaging
7 Offers real time chat between individuals and group of people. Eg. Yahoo messenger, MSN
Information Retrieval Services
There exist several Information retrieval services offering easy access to information present on
the internet. The following table gives a brief introduction to these services:
S.N. Service Description
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Enable the users to transfer files.
2 Its updated database of public FTP sites and their content. It helps to search a file by its
Used to search, retrieve, and display documents on remote sites.
Very Easy Rodent Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Achieved (VERONICA)
4 VERONICA is gopher based resource. It allows access to the information resource stored on
gophers servers.
Web Services
Web services allow exchange of information between applications on the web. Using web
services, applications can easily interact with each other.
The web services are offered using concept of Utility Computing.
World Wide Web (WWW)
WWW is also known as W3. It offers a way to access documents spread over the several servers
over the internet. These documents may contain texts, graphics, audio, video, hyperlinks. The
hyperlinks allow the users to navigate between the documents.
Video Conferencing
Video conferencing or Video teleconferencing is a method of communicating by two-way video
and audio transmission with help of telecommunication technologies.
Modes of Video Conferencing
This mode of conferencing connects two locations only.

This mode of conferencing connects more than two locations through Multi-point Control Unit
Internet Addressing:
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned
to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network
that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves
two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location
Types of IP Addresses
IP Class IP Address Range
Class A to
Class B to
Class C to
Class D to
The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four
numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For
example, could be an IP address. Within an isolated network,
you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. For
IPv4, you could get away with storing the 4 raw bytes of the IP address
(each of the numbers between the periods in an IP address are 0-255, i.e.,
one byte). But then you would have to translate going in and out of the DB
and that's messy. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits (as opposed to 32 bits of
IPv4 addresses).

Internet Application
An Internet application, sometimes called a rich Internet application,
is typically an interactive program that can be accessed through a
web browser. These applications share many characteristics with desktop programs, but
instead of a designated user interface, they use Internet browsers as tools to relay information.
These applications often use plug-ins such as Java, Silverlight or Flash to make it easier for users
to input information. Internet applications are based on remote servers, which means that the
programs that accept and process information are not run locally on the user's machine. This is
the key difference between Internet and desktop applications, where all processing is done
locally. For Internet applications, processing on the user's machine is typically minimal. When
information is entered into the Internet application, it is sent along telecommunication lines to
the server, where it is then processed and recorded. The server then sends revised information
back to the Internet application for the user to review.
Different tools allow developers to create different kinds of Internet applications. Flash is ideal
for making interactive picture or video applications such as simple browser games. Java is
similar to Flash but allows for the creation of more complex objects and more versatile
programming. Silverlight is used for some online streaming video applications. Each of these
tools must be installed in the form of a browser plug-in.
A computer virus is a program, script, or macro designed to cause damage, steal personal
information, modify data, send e-mail, display messages, or some combination of these actions.
computer once it has infected the computer depends on the type of virus. Typically most
computer viruses will delete data, overwrite information, display messages, and add itself to
other files on the computer. Almost all computer viruses only damage the data contained on
the computer and do not physically harm the computer or its hardware. More sophisticated
viruses like Stuxnet can cause physical damage.
When the virus is executed, it spreads by copying itself into or over data files, programs, or
boot sector of a computer's hard drive, or potentially anything else writable. To help
spread an infection the virus writers use detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities, zero
days, or social engineering to gain access to a host's computer.
Types of viruses
Virus Type What It Does How Affects Our PC
Infects Destroys or alters
Program or executables programs and data.
File Virus (other programs,
with affixes such
Boot sector Infects boot Destroys or alters
Virus sectors on hard programs and data.
and floppy disks
Multipartite A hybrid of a Destroys or alters
Virus program and programs and data.
boot sector virus
Macro Virus Triggers on a Commonly affects
command Word & Excel
in Microsoft
Stealth Virus Uses various Destroys or alters
tactics to avoid programs and data.
Uses encryption Destroys or alters
Polymorphic to foil detection, programs and data.
Virus so that it appears
differently in
each infection.

Web Browser
web Browser is an application software that allows us to view and explore information on the
web. User can request for any web page by just entering a URL into address bar.
Web browser can show text, audio, video, animation and more. It is the responsibility of a web
browser to interpret text and commands contained in the web page.
Earlier the web browsers were text-based while now a days graphical-based or voice-based web
browsers are also available. Following are the most common web browser available today:
Browser Vendor
Internet Explorer Microsoft
Google Chrome Google
Mozilla Firefox Mozilla
Netscape Navigator Netscape Communications Corp.
Opera Opera Software
Safari Apple
Sea Monkey Mozilla Foundation
K-meleon K-meleon

YouTube is a free video sharing website that makes it easy to watch online videos. You can even create
and upload your own videos to share with others. Originally created in 2005, YouTube is now one of the
most popular sites on the Web, with visitors watching around 6 billion hours of video every month.

On average, 100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, so there's always something
new to find! And you'll find all kinds of videos on YouTube

It's all about user-generated content. Instead of videos from major TV networks and movie studios,
you'll find amazing and creative videos made by people just like you. And YouTube isn't a one-way
streetyou can jump in, record and share your own videos, and become a part of the community.

With so much content on YouTube, it's important to note that not all YouTube videos are appropriate
for everyone, especially children under the age of 13. However, there are tools you can use, such as
Safety Mode, to restrict the types of videos you can view.

YouTube is a video sharing service where users can watch, like, share, comment and
upload their own videos. The video service can be accessed on PCs, laptops, tablets and via
mobile phones.

What are the main functions of YouTube?

Users can search for and watch videos

Create a personal YouTube channel
Upload videos to your channel
Like/Comment/share other YouTube videos
Users can subscribe/follow other YouTube channels and users
Create playlists to organize videos and group videos together

YouTube is an online public communications site. The site allows for registered users to
upload and have available for the public their videos for viewing. Anyone who goes to the site
can view the videos that are posted on this site. The videos are anything from beginner videos to
more professional videos.

You can put just about anything you want on the YouTube site. You can also watch just about
anything on YouTube. There are some great videos out there on YouTube that are very
interesting and entertaining and will never be seen anywhere else.

YouTube was designed and then released in 2005 by three previous employees of the PayPal
online payment service. Their names are Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim. These
three came up with and designed the plan to have many producers of private works be able to
supply the public with their work.
Google then picked up on the wave of all the public communications, and purchased the popular
YouTube. The purchase price was 1.65 billion dollars.

After the first launch of YouTube, the public, simply by word of mouth, heard about this great
site, and started joining in. This was amazing in the fact that very little has ever been spent on
marketing. This means the product spoke for itself.

Why should you use it? Well this is easy. No matter what kind of video you want to watch or
post, you can do it all on YouTube. There is a wide variety of different videos out there. There
are learning videos, entertainment, comedy, action, music, marketing and much more.

If you have a business, YouTube is a great tool for getting your product out there, for little cost.
This is also a great way to get to run ongoing information about new products or services to the
same people and new people. If you are looking for cheap ways of advertising this is the way to

If you are creating music, this is the way to reach the public. You can put your video out there
and at next to no cost. After the video is created, you can get it online and see what the public
thinks about it. You will also be able to start a string of your music, so that when you put a new
song out there, the people who are interested in your music can follow.

If you just want to watch the videos that are on YouTube, all you need to do is go to the site and
watch them. However, registering for the videos is easy and fun. All you do is put in a little
information, and viol, you are good to go.

Uploading and downloading is easy, relatively fast and depending on your connection to the
Internet, may be almost instant. There is an installation of a program or two that may need to be
done in order to view, download and upload programs. However it is all pretty self-explanatory.
It is not a difficult process to get going.


Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create
profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and
colleagues. Originally designed for college students, Facebook was created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg
while he was enrolled at Harvard University. By 2006, anyone over the age of 13 with a valid email
address could join Facebook. Today, Facebook is the world's largest social network, with more than 1
billion users worldwide.The site, which is available in 37 different languages, includes public
features such as:

Marketplace - allows members to post, read and respond to classified ads.

Groups - allows members who have common interests to find each other and interact.
Events - allows members to publicize an event, invite guests and track who plans to
Pages - allows members to create and promote a public page built around a specific topic.
Presence technology - allows members to see which contacts are online and chat.

Within each member's personal profile, there are several key networking components. The most
popular is arguably the Wall, which is essentially a virtual bulletin board. Messages left on a
member's Wall can be text, video or photos. Another popular component is the virtual Photo
Album. Photos can be uploaded from the desktop or directly from a smartphone camera. There is
no limitation on quantity, but Facebook staff will remove inappropriate or copyrighted
images. An interactive album feature allows the member's contacts (who are called generically
called "friends") to comment on each other's photos and identify (tag) people in the photos.
Another popular profile component is status updates, a microblogging feature that allows
members to broadcast short Twitter-like announcements to their friends. All interactions are
published in a news feed, which is distributed in real-time to the member's friends.

Facebook offers a range of privacy options to its members. A member can make all his
communications visible to everyone, he can block specific connections or he can keep all his
communications private. Members can choose whether or not to be searchable, decide which
parts of their profile are public, decide what not to put in their news feed and determine exactly
who can see their posts. For those members who wish to use Facebook to communicate
privately, there is a message feature, which closely resembles email.

In May 2007, Facebook opened up its developers' platform to allow third-party developers to
build applications and widgets that, once approved, could be distributed through the Facebook
community. In May 2008, Facebook engineers announced Facebook Connect, a cross-site
initiative that allows users to publish interactions on third-party partner sites in their Facebook
news feed.


Twitter is a free social networking microblogging service that allows registered members to
broadcast short posts called tweets. Twitter members can broadcast tweets and follow other
users' tweets by using multiple platforms and devices. Tweets and replies to tweets can be sent
by cell phone text message, desktop client or by posting at the website.

The default settings for Twitter are public. Unlike Facebook or LinkedIn, where members need
to approve social connections, anyone can follow anyone on publicTwitter. To weave tweets into
a conversation thread or connect them to a general topic, members can add hashtags to a
keyword in their post. The hashtag, which acts like a meta tag, is expressed as #keyword.

Tweets, which may include hyperlinks, are limited to 140 characters, due to the constraints of
Twitter's Short Message Service (SMS) delivery system. Because tweets can be delivered to
followers in real time, they might seem like instant messages to the novice user. But unlike IMs
that disappear when the user closes the application, tweets are also posted on the Twitter website.
They are permanent, they are searchable and they are public. Anyone can search tweets on
Twitter, whether they are a member or not.

Here is an example of how you, as an IT pro, might use Twitter:

Let's say you are interested in learning more about cloud computing. First, you could search
Twitter to see if anyone is talking (tweeting) about cloud computing. A quick search reveals
that lots of Twitter members are talking about cloud computing.

Now you could do one of several things. You could simply keep tabs on cloud computing by
returning and searching Twitter each day (not very efficient -- but effective) or you could join
Twitter and follow people who have posted tweets that catch your interest. As a Twitter
member, you can post your own tweets or you can just remain a follower and lurk.

Twitter uses an open-source Web framework called Ruby on Rails (RoR). The API is open and
available to application developers.

What is The Internet?

The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects

millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can
communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.

What is The Web (World Wide Web)?

The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the
medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The
Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit
data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange
business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as
Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each
other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.

The Web is a Portion of The Internet

The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet. The
Internet, not the Web, is also used for email, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant
messaging and FTP. So the Web is just a portion of the Internet, albeit a large portion, but the
two terms are not synonymous and should not be confused.

What is Whatsapp Messenger?

Whatsapp Messenger is an app (software program) which you can use to send messages on your
phone. Its basically an alternative way to send free sms text messages using your internet
connection.Whatsapp is available for iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, Windows Phone and Nokia.
Whatsapp is not only restricted to sending text messages but you can also send pictures, videos,
voice messages, contact information and share your current location.With voice calls, you can
talk to your friends and family for free, even if they're in another country. And with free* video
calls, you can have face-to-face conversations for when voice or text just isn't enough. WhatsApp
voice and video calls use your phone's Internet connection, instead of your cell plan's voice
minutes, so you don't have to worry about expensive calling charges. Send photos and videos on
WhatsApp instantly. You can even capture the moments that matter to you most with a built-in
camera. With WhatsApp, photos and videos send quickly even if you're on a slow connection.
Send PDFs, documents, spreadsheets, slideshows and more, without the hassle of email or file
sharing apps. You can send documents up to 100 MB, so it's easy to get what you need over to
who you want.

Tumblr is a popular microblogging platform designed for creative self-expression. It is considered a
mindful alternative to Facebook and other social media websites where users blog on a myriad of topics.

As of 2011, Tumblr was attracting 72 million visitors per month. It provides an easy interface and has the
fastest multimedia publishing capabilities of all blog services.

The Tumblr 2.0.2 app by Android allows user management of multiple blogs, posts and message views.
Users may post texts, quotes, links, photos, music or videos from a Web browser, phone, email or
desktop. Tumblr is translated into seven languages, including English, Italian, Spanish, French and
CEO David Karp founded Tumblr in 2007. Karp felt that most blogs required high-quality writing and too
much commitment. Tumblr was designed as a different format than most blogging sites, promoting
short, to-the-point blogs over long form content. It also allows users to share posts, photos, quotes,
links, music and videos as well as customize all aspects of their blogs. Tumblr also functions much like
social media, in that users can reshare other bloggers' posts, allowing popular content to go "viral."

Tumblr blogging categories include sports, art, illustration, design, fashion, politics, literature, music,
landscaping, film, vintage items, architecture, food, comics and gaming, to name a few. Bloggers can
easily design these blogs themselves and customized them to reflect their personalities.

Load balancing has occasionally been a problem for Tumblr, causing heavy blog traffic to result in server

LinkedIn is a social networking site designed specifically for the business community. The goal of the site
is to allow registered members to establish and document networks of people they know and trust
A LinkedIn members profile page, which emphasizes skills, employment history and education, has
professional network news feeds and a limited number of customizable modules. Basic membership for
LinkedIn is free. Network members are called connections. Unlike other free social networking sites
like Facebook or Twitter, LinkedIn requires connections to have a pre-existing relationship.
With basic membership, a member can only establish connections with someone he has worked with,
knows professionally (online or offline) or has gone to school with. Connections up to three degrees
away (see six degrees of separation) are seen as part of the member's network, but the member is not
allowed to contact them through LinkedIn without an introduction. Premium subscriptions can be
purchased to provide members with better access to contacts in the LinkedIn database.
LinkedIn was co-founded by Reid Hoffman, a former Executive Vice President in charge of business and
corporate development for PayPal. The site, which was launched in May 2003, currently has over 300
million members from 200 countries, representing 170 industries. According to Reid Hoffman, 27
percent of LinkedIn subscribers are recruiters.


Flickris a popular photo-sharing and hosting service with advanced and powerful features. It supports an
active and engaged community where people share and explore each other's photos. You can share and
host hundreds of your own pictures on Flickr without paying a dime. There's also a pro service that gets
you unlimited storage and sharing for about $2 a month, making it one of the cheapest hosting sites
around (more on that later).
Flickr was created by a small Canadian development team in 2002 before being acquired by Yahoo a
year later. Many other photo sites (including Yahoo Photos) are easier to use, but none offer Flickr's
interesting features or its cohesive community of enthusiasts.


Skype was created in 2003 during the early days of Voice over IP or less technically Internet calling. It
has known since great success and changed hands a couple of time before finally being acquired in 2011
by software giant Microsoft.Skype is a computer program that offers a VoIP ('Voice over Internet
Protocol') service. This lets you make calls to people all over the world via your computers or telephone
and have text chats. Calls between computers are usually free, and other Skype calls are generally
With more than 650 million registered users, Skype is by far the most popular VoIP service, and 'skyping'
is now almost as familiar a term as 'googling'.
Video calls, phone calls and chat
Skype can connect to a webcam (a small camera that may be built into your computer screen or can be
bought separately). This means that you can make free video calls to anyone in the world as long as they
have the same equipment and a Skype account.
You can also connect to traditional phone networks through Skype, then call any phone number on
Earth from your computer. The price is usually far below average especially for international calls. Text
chats are free.
You can install an app (small computer program) on to a smartphone that lets you connect to your
Skype account. That way, you can make calls for free from your phone while on the move (though you
may need to use wifi for this feature).
Skype is free to sign up for and download, and any costs can be dealt with on a 'pay as you go' basis,
with no line rental. Subscriptions for frequent callers are available, however, as is a premium version
that allows you to make group video calls.


Yelp is an online business directory where enterprises can get listed and found online. Customers
can find them, contact them and rate them. The combination of all these things makes Yelp very
useful indeed. Yelp combines traditional business listings in a directory like Yellow Pages with
social elements. Customers can leave feedback on their experiences with that business which
does two things. It informs future customers of what they might expect and it keeps standards
high, or forces an improvement of those standards to prevent negative feedback.

When you land on Yelps home page, it should detect where you are unless your browser privacy
settings prevent it. Manually select your city to search if it is different and then select a category
from the menu left of center. You dont need a login to search Yelp but you will need one to
leave feedback.

1. Navigate to com.
2. Select the city you want to search in if it doesnt appear.
3. Select the category to the left of the center pane or use search at the top.
4. Scroll through the results to find a local business.
5. Click the link to get more detail.
On the business detail page, you have the name, address, phone number and website URL at the
top with a small map showing you how to get there. Opening hours and other information are on
the right side and reviews are lower on the page in the center. This format is repeated across the
site for all businesses so you will always find the same information in the same place.


Vimeo is a video sharing platform that was launched in 2004 by a group of filmmakers. Since
then, the platform has grown to over 14 million members most of them artists in film,
animation, music and other works of art whove been able to use Vimeo as a way to share and
promote their work.

It differs largely from YouTube because of its artsy distinctiveness. Thats not to say that there
arent any great artists promoting their work on YouTube because theyre definitely there as
well but YouTube is so huge that it encompasses everything you could point a camera at.
Vimeo, on the other hand, is very much known specifically for creative artistry.

Making Videos for Vimeo

Here are some of the cool features Vimeo offers to its content creators:
Enhancer: Vimeo will help you add a music track from its music catalog to any of your videos, many of
which are free to use.
Video School: Vimeo has a section completely dedicated to showing you tutorials and lessons on how to
create the best videos.
Music Store: Browse through all of the music tracks available that you can use with your videos and put
them together using the Enhancer tool.
Creative Commons Videos: Vimeo has a section of users videos that are Creative Common licensed,
meaning that there are certain ways you can use them legally for your own work.
Tip Jar: Vimeo recently introduced the tip jar for content creators, which allows them to accept small
cash payments from viewers who wish to tip you in appreciation for your work.
Watching Videos on Vimeo
Here are some of the great ways you can find and enjoy videos on Vimeo:
Staff Picks: Every day, the Vimeo staff picks out their favorite new videos and shares them in the Staff
Picks section. This is a great way to find those breathtaking videos that really deserve exposure from
viewers like you.
Movies: Another new feature Vimeo recently launched is the option to watch full-length movies for a
small fee.
Categories: If theres a specific subject or video style youre interested in, you can browse through the
available categories to quickly stumble across something that might appeal to your interests.
Channels: On Vimeo, channels are created by members and used to showcase collections of videos
centered around common themes. Its another useful way to discover great videos according to your
Groups: The community on Vimeo is strong and genuine, so Groups help bring members even closer.
You can chat with others about videos and common interests by creating your own group or joining
existing ones.
Couch Mode: Couch mode basically lets you watch videos in full screen. Sit back, relax and enjoy!


Yahoo! is an Internet portal that incorporates a search engine and a directory of World Wide
Web sites organized in a hierarchy of topic categories. As a directory, it provides both new and
seasoned Web users the reassurance of a structured view of hundreds of thousands of Web sites
and millions of Web pages. It also provides one of the best ways to search the Web for a given
topic. Since Yahoo is associated with the most popular Web search sites, if a search argument
doesn't lead to a Yahoo topic page, it will still lead to results from the six or seven popular search
engine sites Yahoo links to.

Yahoo! began as the bookmark lists of two Stanford University graduate students, David Filo
and Jerry Yang. After putting their combined bookmark lists organized by categories on a
college site, the list began to grow into an Internet phenomenon. It became the first such
directory with a large following. Filo and Yang postponed their graduate work and became part
of a public offering for a multimillion dollar corporation.


Google Plus (also known as Google+) is a social networking service from Google. Google+
launched with a lot of fanfare as a possible competitor to Facebook. The idea is pretty similar to
other social networking services, but Google attempts to differentiate Google+ by allowing more
transparency in who you share with and how you interact. It also integrates all Google services
and displays a new Google+ menu bar on other Google services when you're logged into a
Google account.

Google+ makes use of the Google search engine, Google Profiles, and the +1 button. Google+
originally launched with the elements of Circles, Huddle, Hangouts, and Sparks. Huddle and
Sparks were eventually eliminated.


Circles are just a way of setting up personalized social circles, whether they are centered around
work or personal activities.


Hangouts are just video chat and instant messaging. We can launch a hangout from your phone
or desktop. Hangouts also allow group chats with text or video for up to ten users.

Huddle and Sparks (Cancelled Features)

Huddle was a group chat for phones. Sparks was a feature that basically created a saved search to
find "sparks" of interest within public feeds. It was heavily promoted at launch but fell flat.

Google Photos

One of the most popular features of Google+ was the instant uploads from camera phones and
photo editing optionsHowever, we can also use Google Photos to share photos with other social
networks, such as Facebook and Instagram.

Google+ allows location check-in from your phone. This is similar to Facebook or other social
app location check-ins.


Social Networking refers to grouping of individuals and organizations together via some medium, in
order to share thoughts, interests, and activities.
There are several web based social network services are available such as facebook, twitter, linkedin,
Google+ etc. which offer easy to use and interactive interface to connect with people with in the country
an overseas as well. There are also several mobile based social networking services in for of apps such as
Whatsapp, hike, Line etc.
Available Social networking Services
The following table describes some of the famous social networking services provided over web and
S.N. Service Description
Allows to share text, photos, video etc. It also offers interesting online games.
It is pronounced as Google Plus. It is owned and operated by Google.
3. Twitter allows the user to send and reply messages in form of tweets. These tweets are the small
messages, generally include 140+ characters.
4. Faceparty is a UK based social networking site. It allows the users to create profiles and interact
with each other using forums messages.
Linkedin is a business and professional networking site.
Flickr offers image hosting and video hosting.
7. Ibibo is a talent based social networking site. It allows the users to promote ones self and also
discover new talent.
It is a mobile based messaging app. It allows to send text, video, and audio messages
It is same as whatsapp. Allows to make free calls and messages.
10. It is also mobile based messager allows to send messages and exciting emoticons.

Where Social Networking Helps

Following are the areas where social networking has become most popular:
Online Marketing
Website like facebook allows us to create a page for specific product, community or firm and promiting
over the web.
Online Jobs
Website like linkedin allows us to create connection with professionals and helps to find the suitable job
based on ones specific skills set.
Online News
On social networking sites, people also post daily news which helps us to keep us updated.
Social networking allows us to keep in contact with friends and family. We can communicate with them
via messages.
Share Picture, Audio and video
One can share picture, audio and video using social networking sites.

Eelectronic mail, e-mail or email is information stored on a computer that is exchanged between two
users over telecommunications. More plainly, e-mail is a message that may contain text, files, images, or
other attachments sent through a network to a specified individual or group of individuals. The first e-
mail was sent by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. By 1996, more electronic mail was being sent than postal mail.

E-Mail Address:
Each user of email is assigned a unique name for his email account. This name is known as E-mail
address. Different users can send and receive messages according to the e-mail address.
E-mail is generally of the form username@domainname. For example,
is an e-mail address where webmaster is username and is domain name.
The username and the domain name are separated by & (at) symbol.
E-mail addresses are not case sensitive.
Spaces are not allowed in e-mail address.

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services,
or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with
domain names assigned to each of the participating entities.

Advantages Disadvantages
Sending an email to someone is very easy, Both you and the person receiving the email must
Advantages Disadvantages
people need little training to learn how to have an email address and access to a computer
do this or device that can access the Internet
Emails are free to send -so long as you have
If you don't know the email address of the other
an email account and a connection to the
person then you can't send them a message
Emails are usually received fairly quickly,
Some people change their email addresses fairly
most of the time a couple of seconds after
often as they switch ISPs or jobs
they are sent
People don't have to be present to receive Spam is a big problem, up to two-thirds of mails
the email sent are spam
Emails can be sent any time of the day or People can waste company time at work by
night, 365 days a year sending emails to friends instead of working
When you are on holiday, your email box can
Files and images can be attached to an
become full and extra messages might not get
Multiple copies of a message can be sent to
You may have to wait a long time to get a reply.
a group of people
A carbon copy of an email can be sent to
Email attachments can contain viruses
other people
You can request proof of receipt or proof of Some companies won't allow email attachments
the email being opened to be received
Messages can be prepared in advance and There are a lot of email scams and it is easy to
saved until you are ready to send them. get fooled by them
Messages can be encrypted making it
possible to send confidential information
E-mail Message Components

E-mail message comprises of different components: E-mail Header, Greeting, Text, and Signature. These
components are described in the following diagram:
E-mail Header
The first five lines of an E-mail message is called E-mail header. The header part comprises of following

The From field indicates the senders address i.e. who sent the e-mail.
The Date field indicates the date when the e-mail was sent.
The To field indicates the recipients address i.e. to whom the e-mail is sent.
The Subject field indicates the purpose of e-mail. It should be precise and to the point.
CC stands for Carbon copy. It includes those recipient addresses whom we want to keep informed but
not exactly the intended recipient.
BCC stands for Black Carbon Copy. It is used when we do not want one or more of the recipients to know
that someone else was copied on the message.
Greeting is the opening of the actual message. Eg. Hi Sir or Hi Guys etc.
It represents the actual content of the message.
This is the final part of an e-mail message. It includes Name of Sender, Address, and Contact Number.

Creating Email Account

There are various email service provider available such as Gmail, hotmail, ymail, rediff mail etc. Here
we will learn how to create an account using Gmail.
Open and click create an account.
Now a form will appear. Fill your details here and click Next Step.

This step allows you to add your picture. If you dont want to upload now, you can do it later. Click Next
Now a welcome window appears. Click Continue to Gmail.
Wow!! You are done with creating your email account with Gmail. Its that easy. Isnt it?
Now you will see your Gmail account as shown in the following image:
Key Points:
Gmail manages the mail into three categories namely Primary, Social and Promotions.
Compose option is given at the right to compose an email message.
Inbox, Starred, Sent mail, Drafts options are available on the left pane which allows you to keep track of
your emails.
Composing and Sending Email
Before sending an email, we need to compose a message. When we are composing an email message,
we specify the following things:
Senders address in To field
Cc (if required)
Bcc (if required)
Subject of email message
You should specify the correct email address; otherwise it will send an error back to the sender.
Once you have specified all the above parameters, Its time to send the email. The mailer program
provides a Send button to send email, when you click Send, it is sent to the mail server and a message
mail sent successfully is shown at the above.

Reading Email
Every email program offers you an interface to access email messages. Like in Gmail, emails are stored
under different tabs such as primary, social, and promotion. When you click one of tab, it displays a list
of emails under that tab.
In order to read an email, you just have to click on that email. Once you click a particular email, it gets
The opened email may have some file attached with it. The attachments are shown at the bottom of the
opened email with an option called download attachment.

Replying Email
After reading an email, you may have to reply that email. To reply an email, click Reply option shown at
the bottom of the opened email.
Once you click on Reply, it will automatically copy the senders address in to the To field. Below the To
field, there is a text box where you can type the message.
Once you are done with entering message, click Send button. Its that easy. Your email is sent.
Forwarding Email
It is also possible to send a copy of the message that you have received along with your own comments
if you want. This can be done using forward button available in mail client software.
The difference between replying and forwarding an email is that when you reply a message to a person
who has send the mail but while forwarding you can send it to anyone.
When you receive a forwarded message, the message is marked with a > character in front of each line
and Subject: field is prefixed with Fw.
Deleting Email
If you dont want to keep email into your inbox, you can delete it by simply selecting the message from
the message list and clicking delete or pressing the appropriate command.
Some mail clients offers the deleted mails to be stored in a folder called deleted items or trash from
where you can recover a deleted email.

E-mail System

E-mail system comprises of the following three components:

Mail Server
It is also called mail program, mail application or mail client. It allows us to manage, read and compose
Mail Server
The function of mail server is to receive, store and deliver the email. It is must for mail servers to be
sunning all the time because if it crashes or is down, email can be lost.
Mailbox is generally a folder that contains emails and information about them.

Working of E-mail
Email working follows the client server approach. In this client is the mailer i.e. the mail application or
mail program and server is a device that manages emails.
Following example will take you through the basic steps involved in sending and receiving emails and
will give you a better understanding of working of email system:
Suppose person A wants to send an email message to person B.
Person A composes the messages using a mailer program i.e. mail client and then select Send option.
The message is routed to Simple Mail Transfer Protocol to person Bs mail server.
The mail server stores the email message on disk in an area designated for person B.
The disk space area on mail server is called mail spool.
Now, suppose person B is running a POP client and knows how to communicate with Bs mail server.
It will periodically poll the POP server to check if any new email has arrived for B.As in this case, person B
has sent an email for person B, so email is forwarded over the network to Bs PC. This is message is now
stored on person Bs PC.
The following diagram gives pictorial representation of the steps discussed above:

Email management is a specific field of communications management for managing high volumes of
inbound electronic mail received by organizations. Today, email management is an essential component
of customer service management.

Email overload is so common that it is almost considered inevitable, but we can help with our perfect
email management software solution. Mail Manager organises and streamlines email workflow with two
simple but powerful features: an efficient email filing tool and a fast, flexible search.

Mail Manager takes the simple approach of archiving emails alongside other documents in standard
system folders, either on a local PC or over the network. Keeping related documents together makes
them easier to find, and the software learns filing behaviours, which guides users to file messages in the
correct place. Mail Managers fast and powerful search saves time and makes it easy to view emails in
system folders just as you would through Outlooks preview.
Mail Manager uses the standard Microsoft dot-MSG message format, to keep your archived messages
accessible. Our search provides a viewer to preview your search result or you can open them in almost
any mail client. SharePoint, LiveLink, Documentum and other programs are all supported.
Mail Manager is easy to deploy, needs no server, and no complex installation or integration. Mail
Manager is a straight forward local client application, which installs as a plug-in to Microsoft Outlook.
This makes Mail Manager just as useful for a single-user installation as it is to enterprise-level user bases
of hundreds or thousands. IT decision makers can have confidence Mail Manager is simple to deploy,
maintain and provide appreciable return on investment.

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and
other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links,
and can be accessed via the Internet. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in


A web application or "web app" is a software program that runs on a web server. Unlike traditional
desktop applications, which are launched by your operating system, web apps must be accessed
through a web browser.
Web apps have several advantages over desktop applications. Since they run inside web browsers,
developers do not need to develop web apps for multiple platforms. For example, a single application
that runs in Chrome will work on both Windows and OS X. Developers do not need to distribute
software updates to users when the web app is updated. By updating the application on the server, all
users have access to the updated version.
From a user standpoint, a web app may provide a more consistent user interface across multiple
platforms because the appearance is dependent on the browser rather than the operating system.
Additionally, the data you enter into a web app is processed and saved remotely. This allows you to
access the same data from multiple devices, rather than transferring files between computer systems.
While web applications offer several benefits, they do have some disadvantages compared to desktop
applications. Since they do not run directly from the operating system, they have limited access to
system resources, such as the CPU, memory, and the file system. Therefore, high-end programs, such as
video production and other media apps generally perform better as desktop applications. Web apps are
also entirely dependent on the web browser. If our browser crashes, for example, we may lose our
unsaved progress. Also, browser updates may cause incompatibilities with web apps, creating
unexpected issues.


The Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is
independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local
services to make available to the global Internet community. There are a variety of ways
to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some
Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service
Provider (ISP). For most of its existence the Internet was primarily a research and
academic network. More recently, commercial enterprises and a vast number of
consumers have come to recognize the Internet's potential. Today people and businesses
around the world can use the Internet to retrieve information, communicate and conduct
business globally, and access a vast array of services and resources on-line.
Short for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the Internet. For a
monthly fee, the service provider gives you a software package, username, password and
access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you can then log on to the Internet and
browse the World Wide Web and USENET, and send and receive e-mail. In addition to
serving individuals, ISPs also serve large companies, providing a direct connection from
the company's networks to the Internet. ISPs themselves are connected to one another
through Network Access Points (NAPs). ISPs are also called IAPs (Internet Access
Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. The
two most popular browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Both
of these are graphical browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as
text. In addition, most modern browsers can present multimedia information, including
sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some formats.
URLs make it possible to direct both people and software applications to a variety of
information, available from a number of different Internet protocols. Abbreviation of
Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the
World Wide Web. The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, and the
second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.
protocol://domain_name.organization_type/full-path-of-file how://where/what As an
exercise, let's look at this file's URL:
The scheme for this URL is "http" for the HyperText Transfer Protocol.When working
with the WWW, most URLs will appear very similar to this one's overall structure. Note
that when using FTP, HTTP, and Gopher URLs, the "full-path-of-file" will sometimes
end in a slash. This indicates that the URL is pointing not to a specific file, but a
directory. In this case, the server generally returns the "default index" of that directory.
This might be just a listing of the files available within that directory, or a default file that
the server automatically looks for in the directory. With HTTP servers, this default index
file is generally called "index.html", but is frequently seen as "homepage.html",
"home.html", "welcome.html", or "default.html".
A system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents
are formatted in a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports
links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can
jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Not all Internet
servers are part of the World Wide Web. Short for World Wide Web Consortium, an
international consortium of companies involved with the Internet and the Web. The W3C
was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of the World Wide Web.
The organization's purpose is to develop open standards so that the Web evolves in a
single direction rather than being splintered among competing factions. The W3C is the
chief standards body for HTTP and HTML.
Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide
Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web
servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when
you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web
server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page. HTTP is called a
stateless protocol because each command is executed independently
Hypertext simply means non linear text. A novel or magazine article is an example of
linear text because it is meant to be read from beginning to end. Non linear
communication is much harder to create because you must allow for the possibility of
each reader accessing the material in a different order.
Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents
on the World Wide Web. Hypertext, for easy navigation among resources (e.g.
HyperText Markup Language or HTML, a standard format for describing the structure of
documents for transmission of hypermedia documents). HTML documents are ASCII
files with embedded codes for logical markup, format (text styles, document titles,
paragraphs, tables) and hyperlinks
markup tags
The components of HTML.
web page
A document on the WWW. Every web page is identified by a unique URL (Uniform
Resource Locator).
web site
A site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a home page, which is
the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might also contain
additional documents and files. Each site is owned and managed by an individual,
company or organization.
home page
The main page of a Web site. Typically, the home page serves as an index or table of
contents to other documents stored at the site.

web Browser is an application software that allows us to view and explore information on the web. User
can request for any web page by just entering a URL into address bar.

Web browser can show text, audio, video, animation and more. It is the responsibility of a web
browser to interpret text and commands contained in the web page.

Earlier the web browsers were text-based while now a days graphical-based or voice-based web
browsers are also available. Following are the most common web browser available today:

Browser Vendor

Internet Explorer Microsoft

Google Chrome Google

Mozilla Firefox Mozilla

Netscape Communications
Netscape Navigator

Opera Opera Software

Safari Apple
Sea Monkey Mozilla Foundation

K-meleon K-meleon

URL is the abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator. ... For example, is a URL. A
URL is one type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); the generic term for all types of names and
addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web.

A URL for HTTP (or HTTPS) is normally made up of three or four components:
A scheme. The scheme identifies the protocol to be used to access the resource on the Internet. It can
be HTTP (without SSL) or HTTPS (with SSL).
A host. The host name identifies the host that holds the resource. For example, A
server provides services in the name of the host, but hosts and servers do not have a one-to-one
mapping. Refer to Host names.
Host names can also be followed by a port number. Refer to Port numbers. Well-known port numbers
for a service are normally omitted from the URL. Most servers use the well-known port numbers for
HTTP and HTTPS , so most HTTP URLs omit the port number.
A path. The path identifies the specific resource in the host that the web client wants to access. For
example, /software/htp/cics/index.html.
A query string. If a query string is used, it follows the path component, and provides a string of
information that the resource can use for some purpose (for example, as parameters for a search or as
data to be processed). The query string is usually a string of name and value pairs; for example,
term=bluebird. Name and value pairs are separated from each other by an ampersand (&); for
example, term=bluebird&source=browser-search.
The scheme and host components of a URL are not defined as case-sensitive, but the path and
query string are case-sensitive. Typically, the whole URL is specified in lowercase.
The components of the URL are combined and delimited as follows:
The scheme is followed by a colon and two forward slashes.
If a port number is specified, that number follows the host name, separated by a colon.
The path name begins with a single forward slash.
If a query string is specified, it is preceded by a question mark.


Search Engine refers to a huge database of internet resources such as web pages, newsgroups,
programs, images etc. It helps to locate information on World Wide Web.

User can search for any information by passing query in form of keywords or phrase. It then
searches for relevant information in its database and return to the user.
Search Engine Components
Generally there are three basic components of a search engine as listed below:
Web Crawler
Search Interfaces

Web crawler
It is also known as spider or bots. It is a software component that traverses the web to gather
All the information on the web is stored in database. It consists of huge web resources.
Search Interfaces
This component is an interface between user and the database. It helps the user to search through the

Search Engine Working

Web crawler, database and the search interface are the major component of a search engine that
actually makes search engine to work. Search engines make use of Boolean expression AND, OR, NOT to
restrict and widen the results of a search. Following are the steps that are performed by the search
The search engine looks for the keyword in the index for predefined database instead of going directly
to the web to search for the keyword.
It then uses software to search for the information in the database. This software component is known
as web crawler.
Once web crawler finds the pages, the search engine then shows the relevant web pages as a result.
These retrieved web pages generally include title of page, size of text portion, first several sentences etc.
These search criteria may vary from one search engine to the other. The retrieved information is ranked
according to various factors such as frequency of keywords, relevancy of information, links etc.
User can click on any of the search results to open it.

The search engine architecture comprises of the three basic layers listed below:
1.Content collection and refinement.
2.Search core
3.User and application interfaces
Search Engine Processing
Indexing Process
Indexing process comprises of the following three tasks:
Text acquisition
Text transformation
Index creation
Text acquisition
It identifies and stores documents for indexing.
Text Transformation
It transforms document into index terms or features.
Index Creation
It takes index terms created by text transformations and create data structures to suport fast searching.
Query Process
Query process comprises of the following three tasks:
User interaction
User interaction
It supporst creation and refinement of user query and displays the results.
It uses query and indexes to create ranked list of documents.
It monitors and measures the effectiveness and efficiency. It is done offline.

Following are the several search engines available today:

Search Engine Description

Google It was originally called BackRub. It is the most popular search engine globally.
It was launched in 2009 by Microsoft. It is the latest web-based search engine that
also delivers Yahoos results.
It was launched in 1996 and was originally known as Ask Jeeves. It includes support
for match, dictionary, and conversation question.
It was launched by Digital Equipment Corporation in 1995. Since 2003, it is
powered by Yahoo technology.
AOL.Search It is powered by Google.
It is top 5 internet portal and 13th largest online property according to Media
Alexa It is subsidiary of Amazon and used for providing website traffic information.

Stands for "Hypertext Markup Language." HTML is the language used to create webpages. "Hypertext"
refers to the hyperlinks that an HTML page may contain. "Markup language" refers to the way tags are
used to define the page layout and elements within the page.

Basic structure of an HTML document

An HTML document has two* main parts:

1. head. The head element contains title and meta data of a web document.
2. body. The body element contains the information that you want to display on a web page.

In a web page, the first tag (specifically, <html>) indicates the markup language that is being
used for the document. The <head> tag contains information about the web page. Lastly, the
content appears in the <body> tag. The following illustration provides a summary.
HTML head and body tags
Head tag:
The <head> tag is a
container of various important tags like <title>, <meta>, <link>,
<base>, <style>, <script>tags.

<title> tag:The HTML <title> tag is used for specifying

the title of the HTML document. Following is an example to give a title to an HTML document:
HTML Title Tag Example
<meta> tag:The HTML <meta> tag is used to provide metadata about the HTML document which
includes information about page expiry, page author, list of keywords, page description etc.
<meta name="author" content=K.VENU>
<base> tag:
The HTML <base> tag is used for specifying the base URL for all relative URLs in a page, which means all
the other URLs will be concatenated into base URL while locating for the given item.
<base href=""/>

The HTML <link> tag is used to specify relationships between the current document and external
resource. Following is an example to link an external stylesheet file available in css
sub-directory within web root:
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/css/style.css">

<style> tag:
The HTML <style> tag is used to specify style sheet for the current HTML document. Following is an
example to define few style sheet rules inside <style> tag:
<style type="text/css">

<script> tag:
The HTML <script> tag is used to include either external script file or to define internal script for the
HTML document. Following is an example where we are using Javascript to define a simple Java
script function:
<script type="text/javascript">

Body tag:
The <body> tag defines the document's body.
The <body> element contains all the contents of an HTML document, such as text, hyperlinks, images,
tables, lists, etc.
Simple html program

Semantic and syntactic tags:

Semantic tags:
semantic tags are also called as content based tags. There are more number of semantic tags are
available, they are:
<EM> tag:
The emphasis tag <em> with its corresponding </em> ending tag is used for text put text in italic.
EM Tag:computers
<strong> tag:
The strong tag <strong> with its corresponding </strong> ending tag is used for put text in bold.
STRONG tag:computers
<small> tag:The small tag <small> with its corresponding </small> ending tag is used for decreasing the
original size of text.
SMALLTAG :computers
<big> tag:
The big tag <big> with its corresponding </big> ending tag is used for increasing the original size of text.
BIG TAG :computers

Syntactic tags:
<B> tag:
The tag <B> with its corresponding </B> ending tag is used for put text in bold.
B Tag:computers
<I> tag:
The tag
<I> with its corresponding </I> ending tag is used for put text in ilalic.
I tag:computers
<U> tag:
The tag <U> with its corresponding </U> ending tag is used for underling text.
U TAG :computers

<strike> tag:
This tag is used for crossing out a word by having a line drawn thorough it.
STRIKE TAG :computers
Heading Tags
Any document starts with a heading. You can u
se different sizes for your headings. HTML
also has six levels of headings, which use the elements
<h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>,<h5>, and <h6>
While displaying any heading, browser adds one line before and one
line after that heading.

<!DOCTYPE html>
Heading Example
This is heading 1
This is heading 2
This is heading 3
This is heading 4
This is heading 5
This is heading 6

Horizontal Lines
Horizontal lines are used to visually break
up sections of a document.The <hr>tag creates a line from the current position in the
document to the right margin and breaks the line accordingly.

Images are very important to beautify as well as to depict many complex concepts in
simple way on your web page. This tutorial will take you through simple steps to use
images in your web pages.

Insert Image
You can insert any image in your web page by using
tag. Following is the simple
syntax to use this tag.
<img src ="Image URL"...attributes-list/>
The <img>
tag is an empty tag, which means that
it can contain only list of attributes
and it has no closing tag.
Using Image in Webpage
Simple Image Insert
<img src="test.png" alt="Test Image"/>

You can use PNG, JPEG or GIF image file based on your comfort but make sure
you specify correct image file name in src attribute. Image name is always case
sensitive.The alt attribute is a mandatory attribute which specifies an alternate text
for an image,if the image cannot be displayed.

Anchor tag:
An anchor is a piece of text which marks the beginning and/or the end of a hypertext link. The text
between the opening tag and the closing tag is either the start or destination (or both) of a link.
<a href="">visit BRAU</a>

Font Tag:
The font tag is having three attributes called size, color, and face to customize your fonts. To change any
of the font attributes at any time within your webpage, simply use the <font> tag. The text that follows
will remain changed until you close with the </font> tag.
<font size="1">Font size="1"</font>
<font size="2">Font size="2"</font>
<font size="3">Font size="3"</font>
<font size="4">Font size="4"</font>

HTML offers web authors three ways for specifying lists of information. All lists must contain one or
more list elements. Lists may contain:
<ul> - An unordered list. This will list items using plain bullets.
<ol> - An ordered list. This will use different schemes of numbers to list your items.
<dl> - A definition list. This arranges your items in the same way as they are arranged in a dictionary.

HTML Unordered Lists

An unordered list is a collection of related items that have no special order or sequence. This list is
created by using HTML <ul> tag. Each item in the list is marked with a bullet.
The type Attribute:
You can use type attribute for <ul> tag to specify the type of bullet you like. By default it is a
disc. Following are the possible options:
<ul type="square">
<ul type="disc">
<ul type="circle">

Following is an example where we used <ul type="square">
<title>HTML Unordered List</title>
<ul type="square">

HTML Ordered Lists

If you are required to put your items in a numbered list instead of bulleted then HTML ordered list will
be used. This list is created by using <ol> tag. The numbering starts at one and is incremented by one for
each successive ordered list element tagged with <li>.
The type Attribute:
You can use type attribute for <ol> tag to specify the type of numbering you like. By default it is a
number. Following are the possible options:
<ol type="1"> - Default-Case Numerals.
<ol type="I"> - Upper-Case Numerals.
<ol type="i"> - Lower-Case Numerals.
<ol type="a"> - Lower-Case Letters.
<ol type="A"> - Upper-Case Letters.
Following is an example where we used <ol type="1">
<title>HTML Ordered List</title>
<ol type="1">

HTML Definition Lists

HTML and XHTML support a list style which is called definition lists where entries are listed like in a
dictionary or encyclopedia. The definition list is the ideal way to present a glossary, list of terms, or
other name/value list.
Definition List makes use of following three tags.
<dl> - Defines the start of the list
<dt> - A term
<dd> - Term definition
</dl> - Defines the end of the list
<title>HTML Definition List</title>
<dd>This stands for Hyper Text Markup Language</dd>
<dd>This stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol</dd>


The HTML tables allow web authors to arrange data like text, images, links, other tables, etc.
into rows and columns of cells.

The HTML tables are created using the <table> tag in which the <tr> tag is used to create table
rows and <td> tag is used to create data cells.

<title>HTML Tables</title>
<table border="1">
<td>Row 1, Column 1</td>
<td>Row 1, Column 2</td>
<td>Row 2, Column 1</td>
<td>Row 2, Column 2</td>

This will produce following result:

Row 1, Column 1 Row 1, Column 2

Row 2, Column 1 Row 2, Column 2

Here border is an attribute of <table> tag and it is used to put a border across all the cells. If you
do not need a border then you can use border="0".