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dr.

Annisa
Microbiology Department
University of Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Innate & Adaptive Immunity
Humoral and Cellular Immunity
INNATE IMMUNITY

IMMUNE HUMORAL IMMUNITY


SYSTEM

ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY

SELULER IMMUNITY
Host defenses are grouped under innate immunity, which provides
immediate protection against microbial invasion, and adaptive immunity,
which develops more slowly and provides more specialized defense
against infections
In the end, our body needs to
eleminate the foreign objects be it
patogens or products of damage.
But how?
eat and cell
ingestion of a microorganism or
other subtances (such as debris) by a
cell.
Steps:
Adherence (attachment to PAMPs or
DAMPs)
Ingestion
Digestion
Innate immunity is the initial response to microbes that prevents,
controls, or eliminates infection of the host by many pathogens
Responded to MICROBES and
INJURED TISSUE / DEAD CELLS
Gave danger signals to
stimulate adaptive immunity
Phylogenetically ancient (evolved before
adaptive immunity)
Functional even before exposure to microbes
(no prior immunization needed)
Rapidly activated and/or recruited
Resets to baseline NO MEMORY
1. Induction of inflammation removal of
microbes, dead cells, and foreign bodies
2. Induction of anti-viral state inhibition of
viral replication
3. Stimulation of the adaptive immune
response
Pathogen asscociated
molecular patterns (PAMPs)
Damage asccociated molecular
patterns (DAMPs)
PAMPs
DAMPs
CELL-ASSOCIATED PATTERN RECOGNITION
RECEPTORS AND SENSORS OF INNATE IMMUNITY
Phagocytes, including neutrophils and macrophages, and
dendritic cells express the widest variety and greatest
number of these receptors.
Pattern recognition receptors are linked to intracellular
signal transduction pathways that activate various cellular
responses, including the production of molecules that
promote inflammation and destroy microbes.
PAMP
TOLL LIKE
RECEPTOR
NOD LIKE
RECEPTOR
INFLAMMAS
OME
AUTOINFLAMMATORY
Epithelial cells
Setinel cells in tissue (macrophages,
dendritic cells,mast cells, and others)
Innate lymphoid cells (including NK
cells, and a number of plasma
proteins complement)
The major interfaces between the
body and the external environment
the skin, gastrointestinal tract,
respiratory tract, and genitourinary
tractare protected by continuous
epithelia that provide physical and
chemical barriers against infection
The two types of circulating phagocytes, neutrophils and
monocytes, are blood cells that are recruited to sites of infection,
where they recognize and ingest microbes for intracellular killing.
Neutrophils polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are the
most abundant leukocytes in the blood in response of infection
the production will increase rapidly.
The production of Neutrophils is stimulated by Colony Stimulating
Factor (CFS) which are secreted by many cell types.
Monocytes less abundant. Also ingest nicrobes
during inflammatory response monocyte will
differentiate into macrophage
blood monocytes and tissue macrophages are two stages of
the same cell lineage, which often is called the mononuclear
Some macrophages that are resident in different tissues,
such as the brain, liver, and lungs, are derived not from
circulating monocytes but from progenitors in the yolk sac or
fetal liver early during the development of the organism.
Heres how it works
There are also Dendritic Cells and Mast Cells in innate immunity Basic Immunology 1
Natural killer (NK) cells recognize infected and
stressed cells and respond by killing these cells and
by secreting the macrophage-activating cytokine
IFN-
Viruses is mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, which kill
virus-infected cells, and by cytokines called type I
interferons, which block viral replication within host cells
Upon activation by infected cells NK cells empty their
cytoplasmic granules content into the infected cells
enters the infected cells and activate enzyme that
induce apoptosis
The activation of NK cells
is determined by a
balance between
engagement of activating
and inhibitory receptors
Healthy host cells
express Mayor
Histocompatibility
Complex (MHC)
molecules which are
recognized by inhibitory
receptors.
The winner of this struggle, the
host or the microbe, determines the
outcome of the infection.
The adaptive immune system uses three main strategies to combat most microbes.
l Antibodies. Secreted antibodies bind to extracellular microbes, block their ability to
infect host cells, and promote their ingestion and subsequent destruction by
phagocytes.
l Phagocytosis. Phagocytes ingest microbes and kill them, and antibodies and helper
T cells enhance the microbicidal abilities of the phagocytes.
l Cell killing. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy cells infected by microbes that
are inaccessible to antibodies and phagocytic destruction.
INITIATION antigen recognition
If a microbe does get through the initial
defenses of the innate immune system, the
adaptive immune system is alerted and
responds.
The adaptive immune system generates and maintains a diverse
repertoire of clones of naive B and T lymphocytes, with millions of
different specificities for microbial antigens, and all of these different
clones develop prior to exposure to the antigens
In order for naive lymphocyte activation by
antigen to occur efficiently, the immune system
collects antigens from tissue sites of infection or
blood and delivers them to the secondary
lymphoid organs though which the naive
lymphocytes circulate.
Lymphocyte
activation
Antigen
Elimination
Memory
Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted
antibodies, which are produced by cells of the B
lymphocyte lineage.
B cells respond to most bacteria and virus by
switching to IgG which promotes phagocytosis by a
pattern that involved T-cells producing cytokines to
the different tyes of microbes
But then as a respond to helminths, B cells switched
to IgE which is useful against helminths!

(See Immunoglobulin structure in Next Lecture)


Natural killer (NK) cells and
other leukocytes may bind to
antibody-coated cells and
destroy these cells
Cells infected with enveloped
viruses typically express viral
glycoproteins on their surface that
can be recognized by specific
antibodies, and this may facilitate
ADCC-mediated destruction of the
infected cells.
Most helminths are too large to be phagocytosed, and their thick integument makes
them resistant to many of the microbicidal substances produced by neutrophils and
macrophages.
The humoral immune response to helminths is dominated by IgE antibodies
Activation of the eosinophils, which release their granule contents, including proteins
that can kill the worms
IgE antibodies also bind to and activate mast cells, which secrete cytokines, including
chemokines, that attract more leukocytes that function to destroy the helminths.
Naive T lymphocytes
recognize antigens in the
peripheral (secondary)
lymphoid organs, which
initiates proliferation of the T
cells and their differentiation
into effector and memory
cells, and the effector cells
perform their functions when
they are activated by the
same antigens in peripheral
tissues or lymphoid organs (
As effector T cells eliminate the infectious
agent, the stimuli that triggered T cell expansion
and differentiation also are eliminated. most
of the cells in the greatly expanded clone of
antigen-specific lymphocytes die, returning the
system to a resting state, with only memory
cells remaining from the immune response
Malfunction in the Innate Immune
System AUTOINFLAMMATORY
-Innate part reacted out of control

Malfunction in Adaptive Immune


System AUTOIMMUNE
- Adaptive or acquired part of immune system has mistakenly identified
something specific in the body as harmful, and attacks it.
Structure of Immunoglobulin
Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, Shiv Pillai-Basic Immunology_ Functions and
Disorders of the Immune System-Elsevier (2015)
Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, Shiv Pillai-Cellular and Molecular
Immunology-Saunders (2014)
Tortora G.J., Funke B.R., Case C.L.-Microbiology_ An introduction-Pearson (2013)
(Lange) Karen C. Carroll, Janet Butel, Stephen Morse-Jawetz Melnick & Adelbergs
Medical Microbiology 27 E-McGraw-Hill Education _ Medical (2015)
Other sources (for images)