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Library and information science education plays a significant role in the educational

achievement of any nation. The field of library and information science (LIS) is undergoing

immense transformation and this has affected the landscape of library and information

service parlance. In our contemporary society, where education has become the hub upon

which economic development rotate, the place of library and information services cannot be


According to Adeolu (2013), Library and Information science programme is designed to

assist students in the development of a wide range of technical skills in both library and

media services that can lead to or enhance employment in the library field and other related

industries. Library and Information science graduates are expected to possess managerial

and Information Communication skills in order to be relevant in the new information arena

within which to apply the management skills.

We are living in a complex and hybrid information environment that is highly competitive and as

such the graduates of library and information science ought to be fully equipped with the

information technology and management skills that will empower them to reposition themselves

in the society where unemployment is almost if not becoming a norm.

Library Information science education in Nigeria today cannot be relevant without effective

preparation of new generation of librarians to effectively use the new information and

technology in their professional practices (Edegbo, 2011). Library schools according to Aina &

Moahi (2008) are expected to impart the necessary library and information management skills to

their students so that after graduation, the graduates can be expected to function effectively in

libraries and other information related work settings with minimal supervision.

Hence, Management has suddenly become a magic word in librarianship. But what is library

management that has not hitherto been taken for granted by senior librarians as their essential

role as administrators of their libraries. Have senior librarians not in effect been managers since

time immemorial, for what is librarianship other than managing collections so that they may be

exploited to maximum effect by those requiring recourse to them? No part of librarianship can

be divorced from the concept of management - not even the more recondite aspects of

professional activity such as palaeography or the bibliography of early printed books, for these,

too, are concerned with the efficient control of such materials to make them readily accessible to

readers (Parvez. A. and Yaseen, M. 2009). Every librarian certainly - has always been a

manager, even if he has not descended, as he might well say, to thinking of his duties in such

common terms. In recent years, however, attention has increasingly been given to the need to

analyze the ways in which a librarian can more effectively carry out his role of making his

resources available to his readers.

This is not merely a question of the bibliographic control of the material itself, but also that of

ensuring that the library staff are better equipped to ensure that this aim is achieved and that

consequently readers are provided with the best possible service.

In other words, the emphasis on management is now concerned particularly with methods of

improving the efficiency of libraries. New factors have arisen which require a librarian to take

cognizance of matters which are more demanding of administrative acumen than was previously

the case. One primary factor is, of course, the introduction of computer-based procedures to

facilitate practical bibliographical work and thereby improve the technical efficiency of a library.

Another important factor is the introduction of management into the curriculum of the library

and information science student so that a well trained and professional librarian can be produced.

At the core of the concept of the information are those people who manage the acquisition,

organization and dissemination of information to an identifiable group of users. The operation of

the knowledge and skills is undertaken is diverse number of work situations. The delivery

mechanism and the nature of the dissemination process could vary and need not necessarily be

technologically based. Thus, the traditional environment for the information professionals has

usually been the library.

Regardless of the fact that information is being considered as a cultural and social asset, it is a

remarkable development that it is now being purchased at high prices. Consequently, making

these enormous libraries and archives available in a clear and organized manner by using the

proper technologies is currently the greatest challenge for all those involved in knowledge

management, which comprises the production, organization and transmission of information.

According to Adewuyi (2009), the key to library development anywhere is personnel while

modern librarianship requires personnel with adequate education and training. Although schools

had been established in Nigeria as far back as 1842, no thought was given to the establishment of

libraries and training of librarians until the second half of the 20th century. This was the time,

when modern libraries that were first established in Nigeria as a result of the establishment of

research institutes and their libraries, had acute staffing problem.

Initially, these libraries were almost completely manned by expatriate staff. With the

proliferation of libraries over time, it became apparent that the existing expatriate staff could

hardly cope with the management of the growing number of libraries. Consequently, there was a

pressing need to educate and train more indigenous librarians. Several reasons were advanced for

the growing needs to promote library education in Nigeria then. Some of these, as put forward by

Ojo-Igbinoba (1995), include the following:-

i. The demand for trained and professional librarians.

ii. There were libraries with large buildings and growing collections, which required expert


iii. The increase in world population and literacy required more libraries and qualified

librarians to man them.

iv. Trained manpower is required for the complex and scientific nature of library operations.

Hence, Library and information centers occupy an important position in any society and are

existing in the human societies from time immemorial with the purpose of collecting and

acquiring the human records, organize these records in such a systematic order so that a

particular record is retrieved easily for use (Young, 2012). Library and information science

professionals utilize their competencies in order to make the right information available to the

right user at the right time (Murphy, 2007). Thus libraries and library professionals are playing a

very important role in the overall progress and prosperity of the nations as these are acting as

agencies for promoting the use of information. Although in the past libraries were regarded as

store houses of knowledge and were very passive in nature with the main objective of building

the collection available in print formats. However with the advent of the information and

communication technology, libraries have witnessed transformation after transformation and are

not only becoming vibrant but also very complex institutions.

According to Young (2012), Libraries today are facing challenges not only from the information

and communication technology but also from the increased number of users and dwindling

budgets. These challenges demand that library and information students must be well equipped

with the ICT and management skills to enable them face the huddles in managing library and

information centre effectively and efficiently (Line, (2007). This must have informed why

National University Commission (NUC) and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE)

decided to introduce management and Information Communication Technology (ICT) education

into library and information science curriculum.


The African Heritage Research Library and Cultural Center (AHRLC) was established in March

1988 to serve the educational needs of students, researchers, and scholars in Africa and around

the world. It was also established to cater for the socio-cultural needs of the local community

people in villages and hamlet: peasant farmers, petty traders, local artisans, craftsmen and

women; all of whom the library registers free of charge. The library is a depository and a

clearing house for all publications on Africa and its Diaspora.

It began with the 500 books, journals and magazines of its Director/Founder. Dr. Bayo

Adebowale, educationist and writer, in a little hired room at Oke- Ola in the town of Ila-

Orangun, Osun State Nigeria in March 1988. In 1992, the library was relocated to Igbo Elerin, in

large urban center of Ibadan, Oyo-State. By this time the librarys holdings had grown to

100,000 volumes. The library is a member of the UNESCO Network of Associated Libraries

(UNAL) and is unique in Africa as the first rural, Community-based African studies research

library on the continent.


Libraries and information centers are established with the purpose of providing information

related services to the library users. For providing effective and efficient library services,

libraries require good library managers. In order to inculcate managerial skills and abilities

among library and information science professionals, an assessment of library and information

science student were made by investigating the curriculum being taught in the higher institution

of learning whether these contents are sufficient for developing and efficient managerial skills

needed in 21st century for the effective management of library and information center.


The specific objectives are:

1. To assess the management skills inculcated among the library and information

science students.

2. To identify the major challenges for library and information science student to work

as an efficient manager in library and information center.

3. To study the methods for minimizing common managerial pitfalls.

4. To introduce a variety of leadership and management skills.

5. Review the problems faced by library and information science student in new digital



1. To what extent has the curriculum of Library and Information Science Student affect

their managerial skills and competency in managing Library and information center?

2. What are the major challenges facing library and information science student to work as

an efficient manager in an information center?

3. What are the methods of minimizing various managerial pitfalls?

4. What are the various leadership and management skills required of library and

information science student?

5. What are the major challenges being faced by the students of library and information

science in this new digital era?


The importance of a research work like this cannot be underestimated. However, this research

work is of importance to all library and information centers that may want to improve the face of

information acquisition, processing, dissemination, storage and also facilitate quick retrieval of

materials at their disposal. However, this will only be possible if library and information science

student are groomed with managerial skills needed to enable them face the challenges of the

information overloads in library and information center. The outcome of this research will

provide an avenue for library and information centers to come to realize and appreciate the

important of management in the library and information science curriculum.

The students of library and information science will also benefit from this study as they will

learn the skill required of them to be an efficient manager in the library and information center.

For academicians and researchers, it will serve the purpose of arousing genuine interest in them

for further research.


This study centered on the assessment of library and information science student as efficient

manager in library and information center, to enable the researcher assess the quality of library

and information science student being produced, the National Board for Technical Education

(NBTE) and National Universities Commission (NUC) curriculum on library and information

science were assessed and also the African heritage Research Library and Cultural Center

(AHRLC), Oyo State was used as a case study to enable the researcher gain deep understanding

whether such skills are inculcated into the student to become an efficient manager in library and

information center.


The most obvious limitation of this study is the inability to cover the entire library and

Information Centers across the country due to their size, time and the cost implication of carrying

out such a task. Hence the research is only limited to the Staff of the African Heritage Research

Library and Cultural Center, Oyo State. Secondly, combining lectures with the research work is

very tedious. However, the impact of this limitation will be reduced to the barest minimum.


Librarian: A librarian is a person who looks after the storage and retrieval of information.

Management efficiency: This signifies a level of performance that describes a process that uses

the lowest amount of inputs to create the greatest amount of outputs. It relate to the use of all

inputs in producing any given output, including personal time and energy.

Curriculum: This refers to the lesson and academic content taught in a school or in a specific

course or program. It is the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.

Library Science: this is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices,

perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education and other areas to

libraries; the collection, organization and dissemination of information.

Management: is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively by way of

planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting

Library Management System: This is an integrated library system used to track items owned,

orders made, bills paid and patrons who have borrowed.

Library resources: are the human and material resources found in the library. The Human

resources include the users and library staff who manage the resources for effective service

delivery to the users and the material resources include the information resources, library

building, equipment and financial resource in the library.

Application: is the use of ICT facilities in the management of library resources.

Library functions: are the major activities done in the library through the divisions or unit, such

as acquisition, processing, storing, disseminating and preservation of information resources

among others.

Library operations: are routines librarians carry out in the library, such as selection, ordering,

classification, cataloguing, charging and discharging of information resources in the various

division of the library


ICT: Information Communication Technology

DL: Digital Librarian

LIS: Library and Information Science




A number of studies have been conducted in different parts of the world focusing the issue of

importance, place and quality of management for library and information professionals. There is

literature available that focus on role played by Library and Information Science department in

inculcating managerial skills and aptitude among the library and information science students.

According to Line (2007) opine that managerial qualities are fundamental and that knowledge

can be fairly easily learnt and that skills not only can but must be picked up in practice. While

commenting on the education provided by library and information departments, Maurice Line

reported that Library and information science department do not, and indeed cannot, turn out

administrators (Line, 2007). Similar comments were put forth earlier by Ida Vincent in 2008,

when he agreed that library and information science students could not appreciate the relevance

of theory and general principles when they have very limited knowledge of specific cases in

which to apply them or against which to test them (Vincent, 2008).

There are a number of studies that have highlighted the skills possessed by library and

information science student in order to perform managerial tasks in a proper way. In 2006,

Marcy Murphy looked at the 2001 King Report, Special Librarian Competencies, to determine

whether the knowledge, skills, and attitudes studied would match those identified by a survey of

12 special library managers (Murphy, 2006). Between 2007 and 2008, a two-part study of library

directors in libraries conducted by Hernon (2007) endeavored to generate a list of attributes

useful to those agencies providing educational programs and leadership institutes, to those

librarians serving as mentors for future directors, and to those individuals aspiring to the

directorships of large academic libraries. This list included managerial attributes (managing,

leading, planning, etc.), personal characteristics (self-confidence, honesty, resilience, etc.), and

general areas of knowledge (intellectual property rights, fund-raising, facilities planning, etc).

Pervez and Yaseen (2009) have identified three types of skills that are recognized by all

managers. These are the technical, the human and the conceptual skills. Dynamic nature of

libraries demands that library professionals as managers must possess ability to integrate, build

and reconfigure competencies to address rapidly changing environment (Teece, and Winter,



According to Singh (2007) librarianship today has arrived at the information age where the role

of information is increasingly emphasized as an economic resource, a marketable commodity

and as a social wealth. In this content, the roles of librarians are of much importance. He / she

will have to act as a facilitator, advisor, consultant, instructor, navigator, searcher, researcher,

evaluator, organiser, preserver, promoter, communicator, technical expert, as well as a manager,

leader, entrepreneur and visionary. And for the success library and information centers as

effective communication system, the development of manpower to do such work is vital. One of

the important aspects of manpower development in this connection is improved education

system for library and information science.

Library Information Science Education in Nigeria today cannot be relevant without effective

preparation of new generation of librarians to effectively use the new information and

communication technology in their professional practices. (Agboola, 2008).

The education and training of LIS professionals has to be such that it empowers them to unleash

their potential as they endeavour to offer relevant and efficient services within the current levels

of technological sophistication (Minishi 2007). Curry, (2007) observed that library and

information science (LIS) academic department have witness not only this increasing

globalization of higher education but also that of the LIS work place including the consequent

extension of competition beyond traditional, institutional, national and regional boundaries.

According to Mangla (2007) library and information science programmes should be so designed

as to equip the student:

1. with knowledge and techniques to handle the immediate job requirements in an efficient

manner; and

2. to develop programmes, procedures and services on modern lines in future where the use

of various modern technique, computers etc, could provide better, quicker and efficient


The practice of librarianship is changing Alabi (2008). But the question is how fast and how well

is the change? Changes include the following:

1. moving from the traditional inward - looking orientation towards books to an outward

looking emphasis on information handling;

2. the emphasis on collecting, processing, compiling and disseminating information in

support of students and researchers both inside and outside the institution;

3. transformation of traditional library into a new information service unit;

4. new outlook, structure, skills and attitudes which some library staff cannot only adapt to;

5. removal of the line between the library and teaching, learning and research process;

6. integration of technology into every aspect of library function / provisions.

Further changes include:

1. educational institution gaining access to networked resources as a journal and databases,

thanks to MTN and other agencies;

2. new techniques of assessment are being introduced. Online tests are gradually becoming

widespread and providing more information than traditional multiple choice tests; and

3. information literacy is now an indispensible aspects of course programmes in many

institutions (Hawkins, 2009).

Sutton (2010) observed that changes are brought in the LIS profession by ICTs. These can be

grouped into two. The natural evolutionary change, and the transformatory changes. In the

natural evolution, the library and information science profession has harnessed ICTs to perform

old tasks better through the automation of housekeeping tasks such as reference work,

bibliographic services, cataloguing, serials, circulation and acquisition, which are performed

more efficiently in an ICT environment. Tranformatory changes, on the other hand include the

emergence of new functions arising out of an expanded, demand driven information society

wider and / or interdisciplinary jurisdiction and closer focus on user need (Bozimo, 2006).

These transformative trends represent systematic changes that substantially alter the boundaries

of the profession. For example, Fourie and Bothma (2006) observed the increased use of the

World Wide Web in private, social business lives of many people and hence noted that it is a

vital component of the enabling structure for school, university, career and other use for

information and communication.



A curriculum is a fundamental part of any education or training programmes largely because it

provides not only a list of courses or modules offered in a programme, but it also gives

information on content, purpose, method, time / duration, trainers and location or situation of a

programme or course all of which are essential in a successful dispensation of manpower

training and education (Ocholla, 2013).

Library and Information Science (LIS) as a profession, is concerned with the knowledge and

skill by which the records of human communication are collected, organised and utilised. A

librarian is a mediator between man and the graphic records that his previous generations have

produced; and the goal of the librarian is to maximise the social utility of these records for the

benefit of humanity (Shara, 2012). Librarians have very important role to play in the process of

communication of information in todays world for which he / she must be well educated, highly

qualified and professionally competent (Singh, 2006).

Information explosion has resulted in libraries and information centres becoming a necessity. A

continuous flow of information in all sectors of human activities through research and innovation

has brought drastic change in the present society. Agboola (2010) observed that knowledge and

information today is a strategic input in all walks of life, along with the traditional ones of man,

money and materials. Knowledge and information will continue to play a significant role in the

socio - economic development.

Hence there is expansion of the employment market for library and information professionals.

But despite increase in the number of jobs, the total market demand for LIS professionals at

present is far from the total output. Moreover, the quality of output is not fully compatible with

the requirements of the expanding job market.

From the above, there is the need to look at the curricula of library and information globally. The

formal education of information professionals (Ashcroft, 2011), has to take into account the

diversity of information work in the 21st century. Thus, many education programmes are

becoming increasingly generlised, by providing a range of generic and specific skills together

with an understanding of the underlying principles of information management to enable LIS

graduates to pursue various professional career paths (Brine & Feather, 2013).

Gorman (2014) suggests that many library educations have been enticed by the lure of modern

communication technology and to concentrate on that technology and to dismiss areas of

librarianship that do not fit within these technological boundaries. The "lure of modern

communication technology" has taken a large role in LIS education. This assertion is been

confirmed in the statement of Minishi, (2007) looking at the Sub-Saharan, that the LIS schools

curriculum development has shown considerable strides in infusing ICT competence as most LIS

schools have developed relevant ICT modules and / or merged relevant ICT knowledge in

traditional modules.

However, most LIS schools teach these modules theoretically because they have inadequate

quantities and quality of computers and poor Internet access.

Gorman (2014) also points out that the American Library Association (ALA) accredits courses

based on the schools own vision rather than on national standards. Thus, a librarian at an ALA

accredited school need not take any course in cataloguing and classification, which Gorman

argues is of extreme importance to the profession.

To some extent (Terris, 2013; Takeuchi & Kim, 2014) endorse Gorman comments, arguing that

the increasing dominance in electronic media has resulted in the disappearance of traditional

cataloguing and classification in some United Kingdom library schools. Terris, (2013) goes to

point out that the semantic web brings some recognition of the need to improve some sort of

logical structure on the web, which is the field of expertly trained catalogues.



The challenges inhibiting teaching practical application of ICT to library services in Nigerian

Library and information science schools shall be highlighted.

i. Lack of ICT Infrastructure

Ensuring that large numbers of students acquire ICT skills requires that students have access to

appropriate hardware and software. This often involves installing and maintaining many

classroom workstations accommodating sets of workstations or networked PCs (Day, 1989;

Zakari, 2000). However, a peep into the library and information science schools show that a

good number of them do not have dedicated ICT laboratories as in the case of Delta State

University. In schools where they are available, they are inadequate in terms of space and ICT

facilities (Jensen, 2007; Manda, 2006).

ii. Over-Enrollment

Day (1989) has urged library and information science schools to concentrate on giving students

hands - on - experience of packages that they are likely to encounter in their future careers. This

is at present a tail dream considering the fact that most of the library schools are so over

populated with students that available facilities are stretched. Over population of students also

creates the problems of classroom control.

iii. Inadequate Funding

This is at the root of all the problems facing library and information science schools in Nigeria.

(Alemna, 2011; Zakari, 2010 and Minishi, 2006) noted that library schools in Africa are

constrained by poor funding. For as long as funding does not improve appreciably, the present

unsatisfactory situation in the library and information science schools are unlikely to change for

the better.

iv. Inadequate Staff and Expertise

Some of the library schools do not have the full complement of teaching staff. In order to fill the

gap, they resort to hiring part - time lecturers whose commitment and devotion to duty may not

be guaranteed. Ekoja (2010) observed that the available staff in some library and information

science schools, do not have the opportunity for training in form of short term courses in the area

of ICT application to library services. This is despite the rapid changes that are taking place in

this area (Minishi, 2007; Manda, 2006; Zakari; 2010, Oparah, 2006).

Ikoja (2006) decries the problem of brain drain i.e. that staff sent overseas for training either do

not return to their posts or taken up by other organizations that are able to offer them higher

remuneration. This suggests that in so far as re- skilling academic staff is concerned,

opportunities are available but there is still no guarantee.

There is still a serious need for technical support staff with high level expertise in the

maintenance aspects of ICTs. Because of poor maintenance and insufficient skills to diagnose

system problems and swaps parts, there are many out of commission machines which could

easily be re-activated and used. The problem of technical expertise is two faced. In the first

place, there are not enough people qualified or attaining ICT specialist skills at the speed at

which the technologies are adopted. Secondly, the problems of brain-drain where by the few

experts opt for better pay jobs overseas.

v. Unreliable Power Supply

The strength of local infrastructure in fact has implications for library and information science

education. For instance, ICTs are electricity driven. Irregular public power supply means that

ICT facilities cannot be used for instruction whenever there is power failure. Cost of generating

electric power by individual parent institution has become so high that they are unable to cope.

vi. Changing Nature of ICT

The changing nature of ICT poses a problem. Developments in technology means that there is

continuing demand for resources to upgrade existing facilities and them also place a burden on

staff development Chauhan, 2014).

vii. Job Market Vs. Curriculum Change

There is a gap between the competencies that LIS education provides and those required by the

job market today (Ikoja, 2006). It is challenge for current Library and information Science

curricula to meet the expectations of stakeholders (Beukes 2006).


Management is that field of human behaviour in which managers plan, organize, staff, direct,

and control human and financial resources in an organization in order to achieve the desired

individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness, (Subedi, 2007).

Management has been defined as the process of getting things done through and with people. It

is the planning and directing of efforts and the organizing and employing resources (both human

and material) to accomplish some predetermined objectives. For the purpose of this study,
management is the use of people, technology and resources to achieve the set goals and

objectives of a library.

Robbins and David (2004) looked at management as it relates to libraries as the ability of a

librarian to manipulate library staff, users and material resources in order to achieve its

organisational goals and objectives. It is also the act to exploiting the resources of a library

efficiently in cost-effective ways to facilitate efficiency in decision making through planning of

what to select and acquire.

Management of library resources includes organizing orientation, staff training, workshop and

seminar for staff and patrons and making sure that the information resources shelved for users

are easily accessible.

Chiweza, (2006) observed that management in libraries also involves recruitment of new staff

and developing the old ones. It also entails reporting what the library has achieved quarterly,

biannually or annually to the management and preparing annual budget on the type of

information resources the departments need based on requests made by users or funds available

to the library, what they will need to meet the demand of the users and other administrative

duties (Robbins, & David, 2011). In his paper, Introduction to Modern School and College

Library Management, Ekoja (2010) summarised library management as:

Working with and through people using material and other resources to achieve set

goals, in other words, management is the synchronization of people and resources to

achieve organisational goals. Management thus involves planning (deciding on future

activities and putting in place plans for action); organisation (implementation of plans by
making maximal use of required resources to achieve them); staffing (job analysis,

recruitment and hiring of the appropriate staff to discharge the appropriate functions);

leading/directing (determining what needs to be done in work situations and getting the

people to do them); controlling/monitoring (checking progress against plans); and

motivation (providing incentive to get the personnel to work effectively and efficiently).

The implication of the statement above is that no individual can work alone to achieve the

organizational goals and objectives without working with other staff in the library to effectively

manage the resources to meet the users need.

Library has to manage its resources for effective service delivery to its patrons. Daniel et al.

(2015) asserted that the basic tasks in managing library resources include acquisitions,

processing, storing, maintenance, preservation, loaning and general administration. Other

management issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to

existing ones and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-

enhancement services.

Akintunde (2010) noted that having resources in the library is one thing and managing them

for effective service delivery is another. Most of the libraries are managing their resources

manually which takes time and energy. Faboyinde (2006) pointed out that this can be done in a

short period of time through the use of internet, computers and other ICTs facilities.



The Library and Information Science Professionals with better personal, professional and

technological competencies have great opportunities and bright future in the modern libraries.

Application of new Information Communication Technology into the libraries immediately

requires improvement of different kinds of skills and knowledge in library information science

professionals. Continuous staff training on emerging technologies is essential to learn, improve

and develop various kinds of professional skills, knowledge and competencies (Line, 2009).

Gordon et al, (2011) observed that professional competencies can be thought of as flexible

knowledge and skills that allow the librarian to function in a variety of environments and to

produce a continuum of value-added, customized information services that cannot be easily

duplicated by others. They relate to the librarians knowledge in the areas of information

resources, information access, technology, management and research, and the ability to use these

areas of knowledge as a basis for providing library and information services.

The technology is complex and librarians have not developed the skills to understand it, exploit

it or create it. Those few who do have such skills find they have a very marketable commodity in

library and information center and can make a better living elsewhere.

There is an urgent necessity to learn a great variety of professional competencies to accomplish

the role of professional librarian in the constantly changing challenging web environment.

According to Gbaje, (2010) Professional competences enable librarians to respond effectively

and efficiently to the constant development of new technologies. Some of the unique

competencies of the Library and Information Science Professionals are discussed below:

1. Technical Skills

In the age of 21st century Library and Information Science Professional must be aware of

emerging technologies. It has become increasingly important that librarians keep up with

technology and have certain basic skills. In the current scenario library professional must have

the knowledge of Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML), Networking, scripting languages, the

ability to deal with the backup of the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), the ability to

translate library services into the online medium, the ability to troubleshoot basic computer and

printer problems, or just a good healthy knowledge of emerging technologies.

1.1 Online medium: Library and Information Science Professionals need to do so much on the

internet these days rather than catalog and database searching. Librarians have to be able to find

quality online resources (Devchoudhary, 2007). They need to help patrons set up e-mail and

teach basic Internet skills. They need to be able to troubleshoot problems that users are having in

accessing online library resources, at least to the extent where they can figure out if the problem

is on the librarys side or on the users side.

1.2 Ability to troubleshoot new technologies:. As we get new computers, printers, scanners,

etc. then librarian will need to learn how to troubleshoot them.. The key is just being able to have

a decision-tree in your head of what to ask or try when there is a problem. Oyewusi, (2009)

Observed that, librarian should be able to play with the technologies in the library, to learn what

problems commonly comes up, and to fix them if necessary, because it is often our responsibility

to fix them.

1.3 Ability to easily learn new technologies:. Learning about new technology is definitely a

skill (Olaniyan, 2008). Hence, Librarian need to learn about new technologies without having to

ask other people for help all the time.

2. Time Management Skills

Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when

accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set encompass a wide scope of activities,

and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent,

monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Ogunsola (2010), pointed out that initially

time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened

to include personal activities.

As par fourth law of library science which is save the time of users. This also has become

more important that librarian must developed the time management skills.

3. Communication Skills

Communication has a great importance in providing better services to users. It communicates the

values of library service to decision makers, staff and users. When it provides information to the

user, it must communicate clearly and respectfully with customers and colleagues (Chauhan,

2007). Murphy, (2011) opined that communication is not effective with users only but must have

ability to negotiate effectively with publishers, customers, management and vendors.

5. Customer Service

Janes (2012), observed that, nowadays librarians must be customer oriented. He/she must be able

to demonstrate a sincere commitment to customer service. And also he/she must try to observe

customer needs & try to provide their desired information on time. Through continual design &

improve user oriented information products & competencies he/she can provide users with better

customer services (Ekoja, 2010). Always show them confidence & competence to deliver perfect

customer services.

6. Evaluation and Assessment Skills

According to Opera (2007). Library and Information Science Professionals need to understand

how any changes in the way the library provides services will affect all stakeholders. Sometimes

focuses are on the needs of one group and ignores the fact that the changes that will benefit one

group will not benefit another. With any change, librarians should create a list of all of the

different stakeholders and actually discuss how it will affect each of them Oketunji, 2012).

When we say stakeholders we must mean not only our patrons but staff, Information

Technology, and administrators. If implemented a project that library staffs dont support, the

likelihood of success is poor. For that continually analyzes, investigates and assesses the

information service needs of the users & according to our stakeholders needs we can designs and

deliver specialized value added information products and services. Chauhan and Murphy, (2014)

opined that time to time we can evaluates the outcomes of the use of library and information

resources and services for which we can conducts research to find solutions to the identified

information management problems.

7. Managerial skills

In managerial skills we include technical skills, human skills & conceptual skills. Technical

skills involve process or technique knowledge and proficiency in a certain specialized field.

These skills are more important for Librarian also because library professional also dealing with

a huge no. of staff doing the organizations work. The technical skill involves the Librarians

understanding of the nature of job that people under him have to perform.

Murphy, (2011) observe that human Skills involve the ability to interact effectively with people.

Librarian interacts and cooperates with employees & staff also. Because Librarian deal directly

with people, this skill is crucial. Librarian with good human skills is able to get best out of their

people. Conceptual Skills involve the formulation of ideas, conceptualization about abstract and

Complex situations levels.

According to Hernon (2008), Conceptual skills refer to the ability of a Librarian to take a broad

and farsighted view of the organization and its future, its ability to think in abstract, its ability to

analyze the forces working in a situation, its creative and innovative ability and its ability to

assess the environment and the changes taking place in it.. Thus, technical skill deals with things,

human skills concerns people, and conceptual-skill has to do with ideas.

8. Knowledge of Policies, Procedures, Issues and Standards

1. Maintains current awareness of professional issues impacting libraries

2. Demonstrates knowledge of library policies, procedures and service standards

9. Knowledge of Information Sources & Services

1. Develop specialized subject knowledge about the purpose of the organization

2. Identify materials appropriate to customers requirements and their abilities

3. Expert knowledge in the content of information resources and ability to critically evaluate

and filter them

4. Develop and deliver convenient, easily accessible and cost effective information services

to the users (CCFR)

10. Commitment to Life-Long Learning

1. Take responsibility for the development of ones own professional career

2. Remain knowledgeable in current events and technologies

3. Pursues learning opportunities, personally or through formal training

4. Flexible in adapting to new situations, systems, tools, environments

5. Anticipates accepts, adapts and manages change effectively

11. Other Skills

1. Marketing and promotion of library services

2. Project management skills

3. Digital rights management

4. Knowledge management skills



Strategies are usually the measures, scheme, plan of action, approach, schedule, master plan or

blueprint adopted by an organisations, institutions, or individuals in order to carry out any action

for the purpose of accomplishing tasks (Vincent, 2011). The developing world is driven by

Information Communication Technology (ICTs) and information service providers have been

preparing to catch up with the global trend so that they will not be abandoned.

Etim (2006) observed that the strategies to cope with the challenges of Information

Communication Technology (ICTs) application in Nigerian information centers must start with

education for librarianship. He stressed that the advocacy for continuing professional education

becomes inevitable, especially, in core competencies of Information Communication


To improve the application of Information Communication Technology in libraries, Ademodi

and Adepoju (2009) noted that the following strategies be adopted:

a. More attention and funds should be committed to the training and procurement of

Information Communication Technology infrastructure in Nigerian Information Center.

b. Training should be aimed at the upcoming computerisation of libraries

c. Library administrators should seek funds from many foreign agencies and foundations who

give financial assistance and equipment to libraries.

Similarly, Mutula and Mutula (2007) outline some of the strategies to be adopted for improving

the Information Communication Technology application and job performances of the library

staff in the digital age as:

a. Enhancing universal access through deployment of affordable ICTs.

b. Improvement of connectivity in libraries.

c. Enabling access by all people to information through the use of ICTs.

d. Building of public awareness on the capabilities of ICTs.

e. Developing human capacity to exploit the benefits of ICTs.

f. Providing technical assistance and support to ICT and making available appropriate electric

power sources.

Motivation is a major strategy that can be adopted to enhance ICT application and improve

human resources development in Nigerian information centers.

According to Kamali et al (2009), in a study on the power of ICT in the human resource

development in India, noted that when employees enjoy their jobs, find the work challenging,

and like the work environment, they will usually put forth efforts and perform their tasks

enthusiastically. In other words, if employees cannot wait for the end of the workday, are

alienated from the results of their efforts, and feel their work is terribly boring, they will not do

their best. They will do the minimum required to keep their jobs. That is to say, they are not very

motivated to perform well. Job motivation is important for organisational effectiveness.




In order to appreciate its relevance, it is necessary to understand the subject matter, research and

the method adopted in this study. Research can be defined as the process of curving a dependable

solution to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of


Osuala, (2007) saw research methodology as the overall strategy used by the researcher in

collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of investigation of problems. However, the method

to be used by any researcher depends on the purpose of the study, the nature of problem to be



According to Solanke (2014) a research design is the basic plan which guides the data

collection and analysis phases of a research project. It is the framework which specifies the type

of information to be collected and source of data collection procedure.

This study employed a descriptive survey design. Descriptive survey design is the type of design

that is interested in observing, investigating and describing the existing characteristics of an

event or situation without manipulating any variable (Osuala, 2007). This study used the whole

population to observe and investigate, describe and assess the library and information science

student as an efficient manager in an information center using African Heritage Research and
Cultural Center, Oyo State. It is suitable for this study because it is based on the views, opinions

of the respondents as well as resources available in the area of study.


According to Silver (2005) Population is the totality of any group, person or objects which is

defined by some unique attributes.

Since it is usually not possible to study the entire population of library and information center,

the researcher has chosen African Heritage Research Library and Cultural Center, Oyo State as

the studied population in order to find a possible solution to the research questions, the

population which total 50 professional, para-professional and non-professional is sampled.


Sampling is a process of selecting a given number or any portion of that population for the

purpose of obtaining information for generalization about the large population Agboola (2010).

Sampling population is used to avoid possible errors in dealing with population. The population

size was narrowed down to determine the sample size. A statistical formula was used in

determining the sample size.


The method of data collection for this research work is questionnaire.

Questionnaire is used when factual information is needed. Its a list of questions given to

individuals to fill either by answering strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree or strongly


The questionnaire used for this research work has multiple opinions for the questions where

respondents were provided with opinion of answers to choose only the right answer to their

opinion. This form of research plan was chosen in order to ease the work of the researcher in the

area of classifying and analyzing individuals (respondents) options. The researcher went further

to conduct personal interview for answer not properly given when filling the questionnaire.



The research structured both open- ended and close- ended questions. Double barrel questions

that is, those questions capable of attracting multiple interpretations were cautiously avoided. In

the close ended questions, respondents were given a number of alternatives from which to select

options they consider appropriate.

In the open ended questions, respondents were provided with blank spaces in which to write

down their own answers in their words.


In analyzing the data collected using the questionnaire; the researcher used the simple

percentages method of data analysis. The analysis was represented in tabular form for easy

understanding and it consist the number of respondents and the corresponding percentage.



This chapter is designed to give and analyze the response to the research hypothesis formulated

from the stated problems in chapter one of this write up. It deals with the presentation, analysis

and interpretation of the data collected.


Fifty (50) Questionnaires were distributed randomly to the staff of African Heritage Research

Library and Cultural Center, Ibadan, Oyo State. Thirty five (35) of them were duly completed

and returned representing (70%) and the researcher discovered that fifteen(15) questionnaires

were unreturned representing (30%).





50 35 70 15 30




Reference Section 7 20

African History 7 20

Documentation 5 14

Gift Exchange 3 9

African Cultural Section 7 20

HOD 1 3

Book Acquisition 5 14

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

From the table above, 7(20%) respondents were in reference section, 7(20%) were in African

History, 5(14%) were in Documentation Section, 3(9%) were in Gift Exchange Section, 7(20%)

African Cultural Section, 1(3%) represent the Head of Departments while 5(14%) respondents

are in Book Acquisition section. This implies that the majority of the respondents are in

reference section, African section and African cultural section.



Chief Librarian 1 3

Ass. Library officer 4 11

Librarian III 1 3

Librarian II 1 3

Librarian I 4 11

Principal Library Officer 4 11

Principal librarian 1 3

Ass. Librarian 1 3

Higher library officer 5 14

Library Assistance II 2 6

Library Assistance I 2 6

Computer Analyst 2 6

Secretary 2 6

IT students 5 14

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The above table reveals the various ranks of the respondents. 1 respondent (3%) is the Chief

Librarian, 4(11%) are the Ass. Library Officers, 6 respondents (17%) are the librarian I, II and III

respectively, 4 respondents (11%) are the principal library officer, 2 respondents (6%) are the

principal and assistant principal librarian, 5 respondents (14%) are the Higher library officers, 4

respondents (12%) are the Library Assistance I and II, 2 respondents (6%) are the secretary while

5 respondents (14%) are the IT students of the Main Library of the Federal Polytechnic Offa.

This shows that majority of the respondents are library officers who are experienced in the field.



M.Sc 9 26

HND/BLS 16 46

OND 6 17

Others 4 11

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table above shows that 9(26%) were M.Sc holders, 16(46%) were HND/BLS holders,

6(17%) were OND holders and 4(11%) fall within other qualification category. This shows that

majority of the respondents are HND/BLS holders. The organization employ more graduates to

bring about good representation.

Table 4: Length of work experience of Respondents


1-4 years 11 31

5-9 years 11 31

10 -14 years 7 20

15 years and above 6 18

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table below shows that 11(32%)of the respondents has 1 - 4 years and 5 9 years working

experience, 7(20%) has 10 14 years working experience and 6(18%) has 15 years and above

working experience. This implies that majority of the staff have been with the information centre

for at least 4 years.



Male 19 54

Female 16 46

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

From the table above, 19 (54%) respondents were male while 16(46%) were female. This implies

that majority of the staff were male.



21-30 years 10 28

31-40 years 16 46

41 years and above 9 26

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

Table 6 shows that 10(28%) respondents fall within 21 -30 age category, 16(46) fall within 31

40years age category, 9(26) fall within 41yrs and above. This implies that majority of the

respondents fall within the age of 31 40 years.



Single 10 29

Married 22 62

Divorced 3 9

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table above reveal the marital status of respondents, 10(29%) were single, 22(62%) were

married while 3(9%) were divorced. This implies that the majority of the staff of the center were



Table 8: The curriculum of library and information science affect student managerial skills in

library and information center.


Very large extent 11 31

Large extent 11 31

No extent 4 11

Small extent 6 17

Very small extent 3 9

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table 8 above revealed that 22 respondents representing 62% choose very large extent and

large extent respectively to the question being asked. While 4 respondents were neutral 9

respondents representing 26% choose small extent and very small extent respectively. This

implies that the curriculum of library and information science affect the student management

skills. This may be as a result of the teaching and learning environment in the institution.

Table 9: Library and information science student are expected to have management and

leadership skills to perform excellently in an information center.


Strongly Agree 10 29

Agree 9 26

Undecided 5 14

Disagree 5 14

Strongly disagree 6 17

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

From the table above, 10(29%) strongly agreed, 9(26%) agreed, 5(14%) were undecided, 5(14%)

disagreed while 6(17%) strongly disagreed, from the analysis, this means that library and

information science graduate need to possess management and leadership skill to work

efficiently. This may be included in the curriculum and taught in the department.

Table 10 Question: The employers of Library and Information Science graduates are satisfied in

terms of their management competency?


Strongly Agree 7 20

Agree 8 23

Undecided 5 11

Disagree 6 17

Strongly disagree 9 26

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

Table 12 shows that 7(20%) strongly agreed that the employer of library and information science

students are satisfied in terms of management competency of library and information science

graduates, 6(17%) disagreed, 9(26%) strongly disagreed to the statement. 8(23%) agreed and

5(14%) were undecided to the statement. This responses showed that some of the student have

managerial skills which may be as a result of their experience in SIWES. Also some respondents

disagree that they have management competency which may also be due to ineffective teaching.

Table 11: There is connection between what is taught in class and the managerial skills required

in practice


Strongly Agree 5 14

Agree 6 17

Undecided 7 20

Disagree 9 26

Strongly disagree 8 23

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table 11 above revealed that 5(14%) respondents strongly agreed that there is connection

between what is taught in class and the managerial skills required in practice, 6(17%)

respondents agreed, 7(20%) were undecided, 9(26%), disagreed, while 8(23%) respondents

strongly disagreed. It could be concluded that there is connection between what is taught in class

and the managerial skills required in practice.

Table 12: Library and information science graduates keeps up with the dynamism changes

taking place today.


Strongly Agree 9 26

Agree 8 23

Undecided 6 17

Disagree 7 20

Strongly disagree 5 14

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

Table 12 above shows that 9(26%) respondents strongly agreed that library and information

science graduate are keeping up with the changes taking place, 8(23%) respondents agreed to the

statement ,6(17%) were undecided to the statement, 7(20%) respondents disagreed, 5(14%)

strongly disagreed to the statement. This revealed that the library and information science student

must always keep abreast of the changes taking place in the library and information center today.

Table 13 Question: There is need to review the LIS curriculum at all levels and align it to the

expectations of the job market and to produce graduates who can multitask


Strongly Agree 9 26

Agree 6 17

Undecided 5 14

Disagree 7 20

Strongly disagree 8 23

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

Table 13 above revealed that 9(26%) of the respondents strongly agreed that there is need to

review the LIS curriculum at all levels and align it to the expectations of the job market and to

produce graduates who can multitask 6(17%) respondents agreed, 5(14%) respondents were

undecided, 7(20%) disagreed while 8(23%) respondents strongly disagreed to the statement.

This shows that the majority of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement.

Table 14: There are many challenges being faced by library and information graduates to

work in an information center.


Strongly Agree 0 0

Agree 6 17

Undecided 7 20

Disagree 7 20

Strongly disagree 14 32

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

From the table above, majority of the respondents representing 14(32%) strongly disagreed while

7(20%) disagreed to the statement. 7(20%) were undecided, no respondents strongly agreed,

6(17%) respondents agreed to the statement. Going by the above analysis, it can be deduced that

library and information science student faces challenges which are challenges of dedication,

commitment to assignment assigned to them as opined by some respondents.

Table 15: The major Challenge being faced by student of library and information science in this

new digital era is usually Information Communication Technology proficiency.


Strongly Agree 6 17

Agree 5 14

Undecided 8 23

Disagree 9 26

Strongly disagree 7 20

TOTAL 35 100

Source: Field survey, 2016.

The table above shows that 6 (17%) respondents strongly agreed that the major challenge being

faced by library and information science graduate are information communication technology,

5(14%) agreed, 8(23%) were undecided, 9(26%) disagreed, while 7(20%) strongly disagreed to

the statement. It could be concluded that the major challenges facing LIS in the new digital era is

the lack of ICT skills by most of its practitioners which has equally has effect on the students.



This research was conducted to assess the library and information science students as an

efficient manager in library and information science curriculum across the country challenges of

library and information science education, concepts of management in libraries and strategies

for improving ICT (Information Communication Technology) application to management of

library resources.

The findings of the study indicate that the curriculum of library and information science affect

the managerial skills of the students positively. It further shows that though they acquire

knowledge from the school the students were able to apply it positively in practice. Also, the

study further shows the library and information science need to posses managerial skills as this

will help them in future purposes because they might in the future be head in any department in

the library, this will help their leadership; skills, bring about efficiency of work and be effective

in the various department they found themselves in the future.

Furthermore, the study show that the major challenges faced by the library and information

students is ICT (Information Communication Technology) skills, because without the

knowledge of ICT some task cannot be carried out effectively. The study shows there is need to

review the curriculum for efficient learning, effective performance in there chosen profession

and total readiness for future task.

Finally, the study show that the library and information science student should be conversant

with the changing trends in the field of library and information science as this will prepare them

for future task and keep them ready for effective performance in their profession.


This study shows that the curriculum for teaching the library and information should be

reviewed, more course that will help the student in achieving efficiency and effectiveness on

their academic performances, and prepare them for future task should be introduced. The study

shows that there is no much interaction between the students and information centers to enhance

better knowledge and practical skills. The study also shows that the students should be

introduced to practical works and strengthens field works and internship among the student.


Based on the findings of the study this study has the following recommendations:

Review of existing curriculum. It is recommended that there is a need to reorient Library and

information Science Education to reflect global changes and evolving market demands.

Establishing links and collaborations between Library and Information Science schools

and information centers

There is a need to introduce and maintain interaction and collaboration between Library and

Information Science employers and Library and Information Science professionals particularly

the educators to create dialogue among stakeholders.

Introduction and strengthening of students field work and internship.

Fieldwork training should be introduced for Library and Information Science students so as

to impart practical experience and give them opportunity to practice what they learn in


More training on Online Resources

By teaching the student of library and information science about online resources and

giving an up-todate information. .


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School of Communication and Information Tech.

Department of Library and Information Science
Federal Polytechnic Offa,
Kwara State.

August, 2016

Dear Sir/Madam,

We are final year students of the above named Polytechnic conducting a research on

Assessment of Library and Information Science Student as efficient Manager in Library and

Information Center with African Heritage Research Library and Cultural center, Ibadan Oyo

State as our case study.

The research is in partial fulfillment for the award of National Diploma in Library and

Information Science from the above school. Please you are kindly requested to provide answers

to the questions set out in the attached questionnaire to the best of your knowledge. Information

supplied and views expressed are solely for academic purpose.

Yours faithfully



1. DEPARTMENT/SECTION ___________________________

2. POSITION / RANK ___________________________

3. QUALIFICATION: B.Sc/HND ( ) M.Sc. ( ) OND ( ) SSCE ( )

others specify__________________

4. YEAR OF EXPERIENCE: 1 - 4years ( ) 5 -9 years ( )

10 14 years ( ) 15 and above ( )

5. GENDER: Male ( ) Female ( )

6. AGE: 21 30 years ( ) 31 40years ( ) 41 and above ( )

7. MARITAL STATUS: Married ( ) Single ( ) Divorce ( )


1. To what extent does the curriculum of library and information science affect student

managerial skills in library and information center.

a. Very large extent ( )

b. Large extent ( )

c. No extent ( )

d. Small extent ( )

e. Very small extent ( )

2. Is there any challenges being faced by library and information graduates to work in an

information center.

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

3. If yes, what are the suggested challenges __________________________________________


4. Library and information science student are expected to have management and leadership

skills to perform excellently in an information center.

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

5. The major Challenge being faced by student of library and information science in this

new digital era is usually Information Communication Technology proficiency.

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

6. Are the employers of Library and Information Science graduates satisfied in terms of their

management competency?

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

7. There is need to review the LIS curriculum at all levels and align it to the

expectations of the job market and to produce graduates who can multitask

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

8. Is there connection between what is taught in class and the managerial skills required in


a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

9. Considering the dynamism in library and information center today, does the library and

information science graduate keeping up with the changes taking place?

a. strongly agree ( )

b. Agree ( )

c. Undecided ( )

d. Disagree ( )

e. Strongly Disagree ( )

10. Suggest ways by which the curriculum of library and Information Science School can be