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This is to certify that Kailash Singh Choudhary

a student of class XII-B has successfully
completed the chemistry project entitled
Dyeing of Fabrics himself and under my
guidance. The progress of the project has
been continuously reported and has been in
my knowledge consistently.

Signature of Signature of
External examiner Chemistry teacher
In the accomplishment of this project successfully,

many people have best owned upon me their

blessings and the heart pledged support, this time

I am utilizing to thank all the people who have

been concerned with project.

I want to thank my parents for their valuable

support and encouragement which helped me

complete my project. I would also like to thank

my subject teacher Mr. Raju Vssyas whose

valuable guidance has been the ones that helped

me patch this project.

Last but not the least I would like to thank my

classmates who have helped me a lot.






Dyes are colored substances which can adhere to
the surface of materials and are used to give
color to paper, food- stuffs, and various textiles
such as cotton, wool, synthetic fibres, silk etc.
For example alizarin, indigo, Congo red, etc.
Chemically, a dye contains:
1. Some group (such as azo, indigoid,
triphenylmethyl, anthraquinone, etc.) which is
responsible for the color of the dye.
2. Some groups (such as NH2, -SO3H, -
COOH, etc) which makes the dye stick to the
fabric by formation of some salt.
Dyeing is the process of adding color to
textile products like fibres, yarn and fabrics.
The temperature and time controlling are two
key factors in dyeing.
The primary source of dye, historically has been
nature, with the dyes being extracted from
plants and animals. Since the 18th century,
humans produced artificial dyes to achieve a
broader range of colors and to render the dyes more
stable to resist washing and general use. The dyed
fabrics appear to be colored because a particular
dye absorbs radiations of some specific
wavelengths from the visible region of
electromagnetic radiations which fall on the
surface. The remaining radiations
(complementary colors) of light are reflected. The
color which we observe is due to the reflected
light. For example, if a dye absorbs the light in
the wavelength region corresponding to red,
then it would appear green, which is the
complementary color of red. Similarly, if a dye
absorbs blue colour, it would appear orange.
Methods to apply dye
Dyes are applied to textile goods by dyeing

from dye solutions and by printing from dye

pastes. Methods include:

1. Direct application

2. Yarn dyeing

Characteristics of a dye
1. It must have a suitable color.

2. It must be capable of being fixed to the


3. When fixed it must be fast to detergents,

soaps, water, dry- cleaning solvents, light and

dilute acids.
Methods of dyeing
Colour is applied to fabric by different methods

of dyeing for different types of fiber and at

different stages of the textile production

process. Dyeing can be done during any stage

in the textile manufacturing process. Textiles

may be dyed as fibre, as yarn, as fabric, as

garments, depending upon the type of the

fabric or garment being produced.

These methods include:

1 .Direct Dyeing
When a dye is applied directly to the fabric

without the aid of an affixing agent, it is called

direct dyeing. In this method the

dyestuff is either fermented (for natural dye)

or chemically reduced (for synthetic vat and

sulfur dyes) before being applied. The direct

dyes, which are largely used for dyeing cotton,

are water soluble and can be applied directly

to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Most

other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat

and sulfur dyes, are also applied in this way.

2. Stock Dyeing
Stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of the fibers,

or stock, before it is spun in to yarn. It is done

by putting loose, unspun fibres in to large vats

containing the dye bath, which is then heated

to the appropriate temperature required for

the dye application and dyeing process.

Stock dyeing is usually suitable for woolen

materials when heather like color effects are

desired. Wool fibre dyed black, for example,

might be blended and spun with un-dyed

(white) wool fibre to produce soft heather like

shade of grey yarn. Tweed fabrics with heather

like color effects such as Harris Tweed are

examples of stock dyed material. Other

examples include heather like colours in covert

and woolen cheviot.

3. Top Dyeing
Top dyeing is also the dyeing of the fibre

before it is spun in to yarn and serves the

same purpose as stock dyeing that is, to

produce soft, heather like color effects. The

term top refers to the fibres of wool from

which the short fibres have been removed. Top

is thus selecting long fibres that are used to

spin worsted yarn. The top in the form of

sliver is dyed and then blended with other

colors of dyed top to produce desired heather


4. Yarn Dyeing
Yarn dyeing is the dyeing of the yarns before

they have been woven or knitted into fabrics.

Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting

checks, stripes and plaids with different-

colored yarns in the weaving process. In yarn

dyeing, dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the

core of the yarn.

There are many forms of yarn dyeing-

A. Skein (Hank) Dyeing

B. Package Dyeing

C. Warp Beam Dyeing

D. Space Dyeing

5. Piece Dyeing
The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or

knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is the most

common method of dyeing used. The various

methods used for this type of dyeing include jet

dyeing. Jig dyeing, pad dyeing and beam


6. Garment Dyeing
Garment dyeing is the dyeing of the completed

garments. The types of apparel that can be

dyed are mostly non-tailored and simpler

forms, such as sweaters, sweatshirts, T-shirts,

hosiery, and pantyhose. The effect on sizing,

thread, zippers, trims and snaps must be

considered. Tailored items, such as suits or

dresses, cannot be dyed as garments because

the difference in shrinkage of the various

components and linings disort and misshape

the article.

Garment dyeing is done by placing a suitable

number of garments (usually about 24

sweaters or the equivalent, depending on the

weight) into large nylon net bag. The garments

are loosely packed. From 10 to 50 of the bags

are placed in large tubs containing the dye

bath and kept agitated by a motor driven

paddle in the dye tub. The machine is

appropriately called a paddle dryer.

To dye wool, cotton and silk clothes with
malachite green.

500ml beakers, tripod stand, wire gauze, glass
rod, spatula, wool cloth, cotton cloth and silk
cloth. Sodium carbonate, tannic acid, tartar
emetic and malachite green.

1. Preparation of sodium carbonate solution:
Take about 0.5g if solid sodium carbonate and
dissolve it in 250ml of water.
2. Preparation of tartar emetic solution: Take
about 0.2g of tartar emetic and dissolve it in
100ml of water by stirring with the help of a
glass rod.
3. Preparation of tannic acid solution: Take
100 ml of water in a beaker and add about
1.0g of tannic acid to it. Heat the solution. On
heating a clear solution of tannic acid is
4. Preparation of dye solution: Take about 0.1g
of malachite green dye and add to it 400 ml
of water. On warming a clear solution of the
dye results.
5. Dyeing of wool and silk: Take about 200ml
dye solution and dip in it the woolen/ silk cloth
to be dyed. Boil the solution for about 2
minutes. After that remove the cloth and wash
it with hot water 3-4 times, squeeze and keep
it for drying.
6. Dyeing of cotton: Cotton does not absorb
malachite green readily, therefore it requires
the use of a mordant. For dyeing a cotton cloth
dip it in sodium carbonate solution for about
10 minutes and then rinse with water. Then
put the cloth in hot tannic acid solution for
about 5 minutes. Now take out the cloth from
tannic acid solution and keep it in tartar
emetic solution for about 5 minutes. Remove
the cloth and squeeze it with the spatula to
remove most of the solution. Now place the
cloth in boiling solution of the dye for about 2
minutes. Remove and wash the dyed cloth thou
roughly with water, squeeze and keep it for
7. Dyeing of cotton directly: Take another piece
of cotton cloth and put it directly into boiling
solution of the dye. Keep it dipped for about 2
minutes. Remove the cloth, wash with water,
squeeze and keep it for drying.
1. The colour of the wool cloth dyed directly by
dipping in hot solution of malachite green dye
is fast.
2. The colour of cotton cloth dyed directly
(without using mordant) by dipping in hot
solution of malachite green is not fast to
washing and is of low intensity.
3. The colour of cotton cloth dyed by using
mordant and then by dipping in hot solution of
malachite green is fast to washing and is of
high intensity.
4. The colour of the silk cloth is fast and is
of high intensity.

1. Wool and silk absorb the dye colour well.
2. Use of mordant helps in giving fast colour to
the cotton cloth.

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