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The present day electrical power system is a.c. i.e. electric power is generated,
transmitted and distributed in the form of Alternating current. The electric power is
produce at the power station, which are located at favorable places, generally quite away
from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumer through a large network of
transmission and distribution. At many place in the line of power system, it may be
desirable and necessary to change some characteristic ( e.g. Voltage, ac to dc, frequency,
p.f. etc.) of electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station
for example, generation voltage (220kv or 132kv) at the power station is stepped up to
high voltage (Say 400kv to 220kv) for transmission of electric power. Similarly near the
consumer’s localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This
job is again accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station.


Bus bars and lines are important element of electric power system and require the
immediate attention of protection engineers for safeguards against the possible faults
occurring on them. The aim of any particular arrangement of bus bar is to achieve
adequate operating flexibility sufficient reliability and minimum cost. When a no. of
lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically bus bar are
used as the common electrical component. The use of aluminum as an electric conductor
is made due to its numerous advantages over copper such as higher conductivity on
weight basis, lower cost for equal current carrying capacity excellent corrosion resistance
and ease of formability. To obtain proper reliable electrical connections, aluminum buses
are coated with silver.

Bus bars in the generating stations & substations form important link between
the incoming & outgoing circuits. If a fault occurs on bus bar considerable damage and
disruption of supply will occur unless some form of quick-acting automatic protection is
provided to isolate the faulty bus bar. The bus bar zone, for the propose of protection,
includes not only the bus bar themselves but also the isolating switches, circuit breakers
and the associated connections. In the event of fault on any section of the bus bar, all the
circuit. Equipments connected to that section must be tripped out to give complete
The most commonly used bus bar arrangements in substation are:-
1. Single bus bar arrangement
2. Double bus bar system
3. Transfer bus bar system

In the 400 KV GSS Surpura, Double bus bar system and duplicate bus bar system
has been installed. The incoming line can be connected to either bus bar with the help of
a bus coupler, which consist of a circuit breaker and isolators . The advantage of double
bus bar system is that if repair is to be carried on one bus bar, the supply need not to be
interrupted as the entire load can be transferred to other bus



A transformer is a static (or stationary) piece of apparatus by means of which

electric power of one circuit is transformed into electric power of same frequency in
another circuit. In brief, a transformer is a device that:

1. Transfer electric power from one circuit to another

2. It does so without change of frequency
3. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction
4. Where the two electric circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each

A high voltage is desirable for transmitting large powers in order to decrease the
IR losses and reduce the amount of conductor material. A very much lower voltage, on
the other hand, is required for distribution, for various reasons connected with safety and
convenience. The transformers make this easily and economically possible.

Power Transformer

A transformer as a static electrical device, involving no continuously moving

parts, used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits through the use
of electromagnetic induction. The term power transformer is used to refer to those
transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits, and these are
usually rated at 500 kVA and above. Power systems typically consist of a large number
of generation locations, distribution points, and interconnections within the system or
with nearby systems, such as a neighboring utility. The complexity of the system leads to
a variety of transmission and distribution voltages. Power transformers must be used at
each of these points where there is a transition between voltage levels. Power
transformers are selected based on the application, with the emphasis toward custom
design being more apparent the larger the unit. Power transformers are available for step-
up operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step-up (GSU)
transformers, and for step-down operation, mainly used to feed distribution circuits.
Power transformers are available as single-phase or three-phase apparatus. Transformer is
a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low
voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission
over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load

This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When
load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This
produces a demagnetizing effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more
current from the supply so that


Fig. Power Transformer


The transformer are used in a.c system for the measurement of current , voltage,
power and energy, the actual measurements being done by measuring instruments.
Transformer used in conjugation with measuring instrument for measurement purposes
are called as "instrument transformer".

The transformer used for the measurement of current is called "current

transformer". Transformer used for voltage measurement are called as "voltage
transformer" or" potential transformer" Current and voltage transformer insulate the
secondary (Relay, instrument and meter) circuits from the primary (power) circuit and
proceed qualities in the secondary winding which are proportional to those in primary.


A Current Transformer is an Instrument Transformer in which the secondary

current is substantially reduced proportional to the primary current and differs from it by
an angle which is approximately zero for appropriate direction of current. These
transformer are different from general power transformers.


Voltage transformers which step-down systems voltage to sufficiently low values

are necessary
on every system for:
1. Induction of the voltage conditions
2. Metering of the supply (or exchange of energy)
3. Relaying and
4. Synchronizing
On account of cost and voltage the indicating instruments meters and relays are
designed for the voltage as obtainable from the secondary sides of the voltage
transformer. The calibration of the indicating instruction and meters is however done
accordingly to the primary voltage of the V.Ts. The voltage transformers are classified as
(a) Magnetic type
(b) Capacitive voltage transformer

Capacitive voltage transformer is being used more and more for voltage
measurement in high voltage transmission network, particularly for systems voltage of
132 and above where it become increasingly more economical. It enables measurement
of the line to earth voltage to be made with simultaneous provision for carrier frequency
coupling which has reached wide application in modern high voltage net work for tale-
metering remote control and telephone communication purposes.
The capacitor C1+C2 are made of oil impregnated paper and Aluminum foil.
Each capacitor is composed of a multiage of element provided with special contacts for
series connection and assembled in such a way that the capacitor inductance remains low.
A tap is taken in between to contact the magnetic voltage transformer across the capacitor
and earth. This point is fixed in consideration of the system voltage between line and
earth, this is total capacitance of the coupling capacitor and the primary voltage of the
magnetic voltage transformer. It is a usual practice to diagram the magnetic transformer
for a standard primary voltage of 5, 10, 15 or 20 Kv depending on the requirement of
burden and accuracy special circuit (auxiliary) element are:
1. Comparating inductance coil,
2. Damping impedance,
3. Resistor (R)
4. Spark gap (F)
The compensating Inductance Coil in series with the primary or the intermediate
transformer compensates the voltage increase on capacitive voltage divider. The damping
in the secondary circuit avoids the Ferro resonance. The resistor and spark gap provide
necessary protection.
The condenser type bushings are primarily rolls of varnished, impregnated paper
and laid under heat and pressure with metal sheet lain in between the paper layers. The
sheet may consist of the aluminum foil or a coating of graphite. The voltage distributors
between the various layers is properly designed and predetermined.

A tapping across these can be proper calibration give a replica of the supply
voltage. The low capacitance imposes restriction on the supply voltage. The out put
power of such capacitor voltage x-mers and therefore limits the application to
synchronizing and voltage indication.


A circuit breaker is equipment, which can open or close circuit under all condition
viz. No load, full loads an fault conditions. It is so designed that it can be operated
manually under normal conditions and automatically under fault conditions, for the later
operation, relay circuit is used.
Circuit breaker can be defined as an electrical device, which protects the system
from short circuits or overloads with the help of relays. In case, circuit breaker is not of
adequate capacity, its failure may result into interruption of power, shut downs, injury to
personals and damage to property. Installation of over rated circuit breakers or extra
sensitive and costly protective devices will mean un-warranted expenditure. It is therefore
necessary that calculations in respect of short circuit currents for the concerned system be
made before correctly rated circuit breakers are selected or steps are taken to improve the
existing system.


A circuit breaker consists of fixed and moving contacts under normal operating
conditions, these contacts remain closed. In this condition, the emf in the secondary
winding of current transformer (CT) in sufficient to operate the trip coil of the breakers
but the contacts can be opened by manual or automatic control.

When a fault occurs on any part of the system the resulting overcurrent in the C.T.
primary winding increases the secondary winding EMF and hence the current through the
relay operating coils. The relay contacts are closed and the trip coil (tripping coil) of the
breaker is energized.

The moving contacts are pulled apart by some mechanism thus operating the
circuit breaker. When the contacts of the circuit breaker are separated under fault

conditions, arc is produced between them (male and female contact). The current is thus
able to continue until the arc ceases. This arc generates enormous heat, which may cause
damage to the system or to the
breaker itself. Therefore, the main problem in a circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc
within the shortest time so that heat generates by it may not reach a dangerous value.


When carrying out inspection to disconnect reliably the unit or section on which
the work to be done from all other live parts on the in-station in order to ensure
completely safety of the working staff.

To afford against minute mistakes it is desirable that it should be done by an

apparatus which makes a visible break in the circuit such an apparatus is the isolating
switch (for insulator). It may be defined as a device used to open (or use) a circuit either
when negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when no significant charge the
voltage across the terminals of each pole of the isolator will result from the operation.


The operation of an isolator may be manual i.e. by hand without using any other
supply or storage of energy meter power operated isolates during the cause of operation
utilize energy which is not supplied by the operator. The energy may be electrical
pneumatic or the energy previously stored in spring or counter weight.


The conductors should be supported o the poles towers in such a way that currents
from conductor don’t flow to each through supports. The insulators provide necessary
insulation between line conductors and supports and thus prevent any leakage current
from conductors to earth.


Lightning Arresters are installed in sub-stations to safeguard the major equipment

like power-transformers, switch gear and to ensure the flow of power un-interruptedly. It
is true that lightning arresters require minimum post-installation care, but their
importance as a critical equipment can hardly be disputed.

Lightning Strokes and Over-voltages

The overhead transmission lines and connected electrical apparatus i.e. Power
Transformers, Switch gear etc. are subjected to over voltages on account of lightning
discharges caused by atmospheric disturbances and or by switching operations.

Ground wires or shielding wires generally of steel are fixed over the phase
conductors in case of transmission lines and sub-stations and are solidly grounded. The
ground wire when solidly grounded through a very small resistance reduces the
magnitude of voltage induces upon the line conductors due to electrostatic field produced
by charging cloud. The ground wire is in a general sense is preventive device, but it does
not entirely prevent the formation of traveling waves on a line. Surges produced by direct
strokes or by induced strokes must be drained to the ground through low impedance
ground to protect power transformers and other costly equipment and to reduce outages
in the system. Lightning arresters are the devices to provide the necessary path to the
ground for such surges. An ideal arrester must therefore have the following properties:
1. It should be able to drain the surge energy from the line in a minimum time.
2. Should offer high resistance to the flow of power current.
3. Performance of the arresters should be such that no system disturbances are
introduced by its operation.
4. Should be always in perfect form to perform the function assigned to it.
5. After allowing the surge to pass, it should close up so as not to permit power
current to flow to ground.



Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) provides for signal transmission

down transmission line conductors or insulated ground wires. Protection signalling,
speech and data transmission for system operation and control, management information
systems etc. are the main needs which are met by PLCC.

PLCC is the most economical and reliable method of communication because of

the higher mechanical strength and insulation level of high voltage power line which
contribute to the increased reliability of communication and lower attenuation over the
larger distances involves.

High frequency signals in the range of 50 kHz to 400 kHz commonly known as
the carrier signal and to result it with the protected section of line suitable coupling
apparatus and line traps are employed at both ends of the protected section.. The main
application of power line carrier has been from the purpose of supervisory control
telephone communication, telemetering and relaying.

PLCC Equipment

The essential units of power line carrier equipment consist of (a) Wave trap; (b)
Coupling Capacitor; and (c) LMU and protective equipments.

Wave Trap
Rejection filters are known as the line traps consisting of a parallel resonant
circuit (L and C in parallel) tuned to the carrier frequency are connected in series at each
end of the protected line such a circuit offers high impedance to the flow of carrier
frequency current thus preventing the dissipation.

In order to generate the electric power and transmit it to consumer millions of
rupees must be spent on power system equipment. These equipment are to work under
specified normal conditions. However a short circuit may occur due to failure of
insulation called by:
(i) Over voltage due to switching
(ii) Over voltage due to direct and indirect lightning strokes
(iii) Bridging of conductors by birds
(iv) Break damage of insulation due to decrease of it's di-electric strength.
(v) Mechanical damage of the equipment. The fault takes place in following
1. Phase to phase 20 - 25%
2. Single phase short circuit 50-60%
3. Double phase S.S. 3-5% 20-25%
4. Three phase short circuit 3-5%
5. Phase to phase and phase to guard 10-15%

Fault may be defined as the rise of current in the several times to normal current
results the high temperature rise which can damage the equipment. It reduces the voltage
immediately and considerably.

Relays are the devices that detect abnormal conditions in electrical circuits by
constantly measuring electrical quantities, which are different under normal and fault
conditions. The basic electrical quantities, which may change under fault conditions, are
voltage, current, phase angle and frequency. Having detected the fault the relay operates
to competent the trip circuit which results in opening of the circuits breaker and therefore
in the disconnection of the faulty circuit.


In 400 KV GSS Soorpura there is an oil testing laboratory is commenced under this
laboratory the following tests are conducted:

1. BDV (Break-Down Voltage Test):- This test is used to determine dielectric

strength of the oil used in the transformer. This test gives the break down voltage of
the transformer that is the voltage at which transformer oil break down leading to
the breakdown of the transformer.
2. FLASHPOINT METER TEST:- This test is used to obtain the flash point of the
oil used in the transformer.
3. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT,TAN DELTA TEST:- This test is to calculate the
dielectric constant, receptivity of oil and tangent of angle between the reactive and
ideal power of the transformer, tan delta test is done at 900 C. both dielectric test
and tan delta tests are conducted on AC supply whereas receptivity test is conducted
on DC supply.
4. AUTOMATIC INTERFACIAL TENSION TEST:- This test is done to calculate
the interfacial tension between two fluids, here oil and water. This value should be

5. DISSOLVE GAS ANALYSIS:- This test is performed to calculate the dissolve

gases and their composition in the burnt oil gases. Here nitrogen is used as inert gas
for carrier. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is used as a fuel for flame

6. MOISTURE LEVEL TEST:- This test is to calculate the moisture content in the
given oil sample. The moisture content in the oil should be low as it hampers the
working of the transformer loading is used as the titrate in this test.


Earthing is achieved by electrically connecting the respective parts in the

installations to some system of electrical conductors or electrodes placed in intimate
contact with the soil some distance below the ground level. This contacting assembly is
called the earthing. OR

Connecting of an electrical equipment or apparatus to the earth with help of

connecting wire of negligible resistance is known as earthing or grounding.

Modern substation earthing system has buried horizontal mesh of steel rods and
vertical electrodes welted to the mesh. Further the vertical risers and the galvanized steel
grounding strips or copper bars ets are connected between grounding mesh and the points
to be grounded.

The parts of the earthing system are :

The parts of the earthing system include the entire solid metallic conductor system
between earthed points and the underground earth mat. The earthed points are held near
earth potential by low resistance conductor connections with earth mat, also called the
earthing grid.

An underground horizontal earth mesh ,known as earth mat, earthing electroes (or
earthing spikes), earthing risers and earthing connections.
Earth electrodes are driven vertically into the soil and are welded to the earthing
rods of the underground mesh. Larger the number of earth electrodes, lower will be the
earth resistance.

Earthing risers usually the mild steel rods bent in vertical and horizontal shapes
and welded to the earthing mesh at one end and brought directly upto equipment or
structure foundation.