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1 The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw upon

J udah and Jerusalem. . . .
fl Hear, 0 heavens, and give ear, 0 earth: for J ehovah speak­
eth: I have led forth sons and exalted them, and they have trans­
gressed against me.
S The ox knoweth his owner, and t.he ass his master's stall:
Israel doth not know, my people doth not understand.
4 Woe to a sinful nation; a people heavy with iniquity; a seed
of evildoers, sons of corruption! who have forsaken Jehovah; they
have provoked the Holy One of Israel, they have moved backward.
5 Why will ye be further smitten? will ye add backsliding: the
whole head 1 into sickness, and the whole heart is faint.
6 From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no
soundness in it; a wound, and a scab, and a fresh stroke; they have
not been pressed out, and are not bound up; neither is there any
softening with oil.
7 Your land a solitude, your cities burned with fire: your
ground, strangers are devouring it in your presence; and a soli­
tude, as the overthrowing by strangers.
8 For the daughter of Zion is left as a tent in a vineyard; as
a hut in a place of cucumbers; as a city besieged.
9 Except Jehovah Sabaoth had left unto us a remnant as a
small thing, we should have become as Sodom, we should have
been rendered like unto Gomorrah.

7567. The subject treated of in verses f3 to 9 is the corruption

of the old church, and then, in verses 10 to 15, the abrogation of
its rites. In the P~~oxi0a~~se, these verses treat of the Jews;
in the more remote sense, of the Christians.
7568. So~;../(~~~) are th;";" sons of the church and, conse­
quently, the church itself. In verse 4, as very frequently in other
1 Schmldlus here adds the word fa lleth.
IV Ad. p. 1 1

passages, the Holy One of Israel is Jesus Christ the Saviol' of the
world, whom they so often provoked when they adored the devil
under the form of idols. They have moved backward, for in this
way they backslide, and this backsliding is ever greater, as stated
in verse 5. The backsliding is to the devil. Hence the whole
head, that is, the understanding, is sick, and the heart, that is, the
will, faint (vs. 5), even to the point of there being nothing that is
not profaned. This is ·expressed in verse 6 by wounds, scabs, etc.
Hence also is pain and remorse of conscience, that is to say, a con­
science for which there is no longer any remedy--:any oil. By the
land and its solitude, and also by the cities burned with fire, etc.
(vs. 7)~expressions which are frequently used elsewhere in the
Prophets-are meant those things in man which are thus deprived
of all intelligence and of all love. The daughter of Zil!!!' (vs. 8)
is the true church and also that which is of the true church. In
--ii.lan--iCisth~t-i~tcli~ctual·~hi·~h-i~--gi~;;·him-h-~m th;-Word of
God Messiah, and which is besieged. Unless the remnant spoken
of in verse 9 had been sustained by God Messiah, they would wholly
have perished and gone down wholly into hell, and thus to the devil
to whom they were going when they removed backward. At the
time this had little effect, in that they were nevertheless called back
at times.

10 Hear the word of Jehovah, ye princes of Sodom; give ear

unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.
11 What is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith J e­
hovah: I am cloyed with the whole burnt offerings of rams, and
the fat of fatlings; and in the blood of bullocks, and of lambs, and
of he goats, delight I not.
1~ \iVhen ye come to see my faces, who hath required this at
your hand, to tread my courts?
13 Add not to bring a mincha of vanity; incense is an abomi­
nation unto me; the new moon and sabbath, the calling of an as­
sembly; 1 cannot bear iniquity; and anguish.
14 [Nay] 2 your new moons and your appointed feasts my
soul hateth: they are become a burden unto me; I am weary to
bear them.
• Added by Schmidius.
~ IV Ad. p. 1
ISAIAH I: 1-iO [7569-7070

15 Therefore when ye spread forth your hands, I hide mine

eyes from you: and if ye multiply prayer, I hear not: your hands
are full of bloods.

7569. They are called princes of Sodom and Gomorrah (vs.

10) because they went a whoring after other gods, and turned the
old church into an idolatrous church; for aU their sacrifices were
then idolatrous, it being in these that they placed righteousness,
nor in their hearts did they cherish aught else. And now, in verses
11 seq., all their rites are entirely abrogated. Therefore in this
verse they are all called sacrifices, and it is said that they are not
required, thus openly teaching that there is no resting in sacrifices
but in those things which the sacrifices signify. The mincha also
is mentioned, and likewise incense and feasts in the new moons, and
also sabbaths, all of which are held in hatred when nothing is had
in view save these things in outward act. s
7570. Hence no prayer is now heard; for when praying, they
cling to external things only, and wish to be saved beca,use of their
sacrifices and rites. Here (vs. 15) this is entirely rejected; for
how can prayer be heard when they alienate themselves and go
backward, and have in view things which are of the devil, regard­
ing in their worship only things corporeal and such as are in them­
selves and the world? 4 Here bloods are their sacrifices; they are
also all things which are hatreds and ate caned corporeal and mun­
dane. In the more remote sense, the new church also is meant
which primitively was a virgin and chaste, but which, in process of
time, became the same; its worship became degenerate, and now
consists in externals. Therefore by sacrifices and the other things
mentioned in the text are meant the things which followed in their
place, etc., etc.

16 'Vash you, purify yourselves, put away the malice of your

doings from before mine eyes: cease to do evil.
17 Learn to do well, seek judgment, relieve the oppressed,
judge the fatherless, plead the cause of the widow.
• The latter half of n. 7569 is emphasized by "Obs.," written twice in the
• This first part of n. 7570 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. ~ 3

18 Come now and let us reason together, saith J ehovah: if

your sins be as scarlet they shall be white as snow; if they be red
like crimson they shall be as wool.
19 If ye be willing and listen, ye shall eat t.he good of the land;
~o But if ye refuse and rebel ye shall be devoured with the
sword, for the mouth of J ehovah hath spoken.

7571. In these verses it is told what worship will next follow

when the worship of the old church has been abrogated, to wit, the
works of charity, as, for instance, specifically, the relieving of the
oppressed, the judging of the fatherless, the pleading the cause of
the widow, and, in general, the ceasing to do evil and the putting
away of the malice of one's doings. It is these that next follow
when the rites have been abrogated; but if they do not come from
charity, they are works of the law which condemn. Therefore in
verse 18 it is said, Come now and let us reason together. For they
are works of charity, that is, if they come from goodness of the
heart; then it will be as stated in this same verse, and they will
finally eat the good of the land, that is, will possess heaven. But
when righteousness is placed in these works, then they likewise are
of the outer man. It is faith in God Messiah from which they
must come. Thus, in that righteousness, etc., etc., is placed in
these works, the new church, like the old, has now become adulter­
ous. And because here as elsewhere the opposite is presented,
therefore their punishment now follows, namely, that otherwise
they will be devoured with the sword. What the sword for evil is,
may be seen elsewhere, and also what the sword for good; they will
be devoured, etc., by both.

~1 How is the faithful city become an harlot? it was full of

judgment; righteousness passed the night in it; but now murderers.
~~ Thy silver is become dross; thy wine is mixed with waters.
~3 Thy princes are unruly, and companions of thieves: each is
a lover of gifts, and a follower after rewards: the fatherless,' they
do not judge, and the contention of the widow cometh not unto
~4 Therefore the saying of the Lord, Jehovah Sabaoth, the
mighty Israel: Ah, I will comfort me from mme enemies, and
avenge me of my foes.
4 IV Ad. p. 3
ISAIAH 1: n -!l7 [757!l-7574

7572. These verses describe how chaste was the first state of the
ancient church and the first state of the new church, and in what
way it was afterwards corrupted. The faithful city (vs. !l1), else­
where Jerusalem and Zion, as in verse ~7, is the first church. It is
described as being full of judgment, that is, of good, the subject
treated of being justice, judges, counseliors, the judgment of the
oppressed, the orphan and the widow. These therefore are works
of charity which are the fruits of faith. The opposite is called
murder. Silver (vs. ~fl) is that understanding of truth wherein is
not truth but falsity, this being expressed by dross. Wine is all
that which flows from the understanding. It is said to be mixed
with waters, waters, taken in an evil sense, being those things
which condemn, etc. The words in verse fl3 wholly correspond to
those said in verse 17, being their opposite. Jehovah Sabaoth,
the mighty Israel (vs. ~4) is God Messiah; and since they have
thus become his enemies and foes, the subject treated of is their
punishment. This follows when he turns his faces away, etc.

~5 For I will pass my hand over thee; and will purify thy dross
as with that which cleanseth, and take away all thy lead.
~6 And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy coun­
sellors as at the beginning: afterward a name shall be given thee:
The city of righteousness, the faithful city.
~7 Zion shall be redeemed in judgment, and her converts in

7573. A prophecy concerning the two advents of God Messiah

-that the ancient church will then return, as was the case after the
first advent of God Messiah, and as will be the case when he is to
come into glory. His kingdom is then called the city of righteous­
ness, the faithful city, Zion which will be redeemed in judgment,
7574. In verSe ~5 is set forth the regeneration of man. Dross
means falsities, and lead evils which, like burdens, carry men down­
ward, and unless they are taken away, man cannot be lifted up­
ward.~ Here, as above [no 4~47], judges are judgments; coun­
sellors, the things which pertain to judgment. It is called the city
• This first part of n. 7574 is emphasized by «Obs., Obs.•" written in the

of righteousness from the righteousness of the Messiah which is

imputed to it, and the faithful city from faith; and since this will
be as at the beginning, the description of it may be seen in verse ~l.
Verse ~7 treats of the redemption and of righteousness.

~8 But transgressors and sinners together shall be a breaking;

and they that forsake Jehovah shall be consumed.
~9 For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have de­
sired; and ye shall blush for the gardens which ye have chosen.
30 For ye shall be as an oak that casteth its leaves; and as a
garden that hath no water.
31 And the strong shall be as tow, and his work as a spark;
that both may burn together, and there be none to quench.

7575. These verses treat of the damnation of the enemies.

7576. Here, as above [vs. ~O] and elsewhere, when the redemp­
tion of the faithful is treated of, the damnation of the unfaithful
and thus things opposite are also treated of. In verse ~8 it is said
in general that they shall be consumed. Oaks (vs. ~9) involve
many things; for it was oak groves where idols were worshipped.
Being groves, they are also called gardens. Moreover, oaks mean
also pride and elation of animus, and gardens the things which they
lust after in matters earthly and corporeal, etc. To this then cor­
responds verse 30, as to what will become of the oaks, and what of
the gardens. Hell is described in verse 31 by the fire which con­
sumes the powers and the works wherein they put their trust.
Thus they will be burned, etc.
7577. When the words from the beginning of the chapter to
the end are examined, it will be very clearly seen that they cannot
be applied to the times in which the Jews lived, but that the chapter
is a prophetic utterance which involves things universal. There­
fore it is said in the beguning, "Hear, 0 heavens, and give ear, 0
earth" (vs. ~).
1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw over Judah and
~ And it shall come to pass in the latter end of days, that the
mountain of [the house of] 6 .Jehovah shall be firm in the top of
• Omitted by Schmidius.
6 IV Ad. p. 4
ISAIAH I: 9l8-31-II: 1-10 [7l>78-7579
the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations
shall flow unto it.
3 And many peoples shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go
up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob;
and he will teach us of his ways, that we may walk in his paths: for
out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of Jehovah out of
4 That he may judge among the nations, and rebuke many
peoples: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their
spears into pruning knives: nation shall not lift up sword against
nation, neither shall they learn war any more.
5 0 house of Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of
'6 For now thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob,
because they are filled to the full from the east, and are diviners like
the Philistines ; and they abound in the sons of strangers.
7 And his land is full of silver and gold, neither is there any
end to his treasures; his land is also full of horses, neither is there
any end to his chariots:
8 And his land is fuU of idols; they bow themselves down to
the work of his hands, to that which his fingers have made:
9 And man depresseth himself, and the male humbleth himself:
therefore forgive them not.
10 Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, for fear of
J ehovah, and for the glory of his magnificence.
7578. Verses lE to 5, and 6 to 10 treat of the first advent of God
Messiah, when the nations would be adopted and the Jews rejected.
Ve1"ses 6 to 10 treat of their rejection.
7579. The time of the advent of God Messiah after the time of
judgment, treated of in what follows, is called the latter end of days
(vs. ~). The mountain of J ehovah is God Messiah. That the na­
tions wiII flow to him, see above in many places, as in Genesis 49 10
and elsewhere. The peoples (vs. 3) are those who will go Up.7
To the house of the God of Jacob (vs. 3), that is, to worship him;
for he is called the God of Jacob because he manifested himself,
etc., in the worship of that church. By Zion, as by the mountain,
T The autograph has adhaeTebunt (will cleave), but this seems to be a slip

for ascendent as in the translation. Otherwise the translation would be wl,o

will cleave [to him].
IV Ad. p. 4 7

is also meant God Messiah, for he is Mount Zion. Jerusalem is his

heaven, etc. ~them ;ill then be love, and not hostility.
This is described in verse 4 by the swords with which they fought
being beaten into plowshares, to the end that a harvest may arise,
and the spears into pruning knives, that they may set up a para­
disaical garden. Because there is love, there will be no war.
Verse 5 is an admonition to J acob, that he walk in the light of J e­
hovah, that is, that he suffer himself so to be led that he may under­
stand that He is the Holy One of Israel, of whom speak all the
prophecies and the whole church.
7580. It now follows that Judas was rejected (vs. 6), and this
for the reason that they were filled to the full more than the land
of the suns of the east where was idolatry and magic, it being there
that Eber dwelt who worshipped other gods; see various passages
concerning the sons of the east, that they were soothsayers and
worshippers of other gods. Moreover, their sons were born of
strangers. By silver and gold (vs. 7) are meant those idols of
silver and gold spoken of in ve:r:se flO. What is here described is
trust in treasures, in horses and chariots, and so in silver and gold.
In verses 8 and 9 their idolatries are described, and the idols before
which they depress and humble themselves. To enter into the rock
and hide in the dust (vs. 10) means to hide in darkness lest they be
seen; and this from terror.

11 Therefore the eyes of man's pride shall be humbled,

U For the day of Jehovah Sabaoth is upon everyone that is
great and high, . . .
13 And upon all the cedars of Lebanon, high and lifted up;
and upon all the oaks of Bashan,
14 And upon all high mountains, and upon all hills that are
lifted up,
15 And upon every lofty tower, and upon every fortified wall,
16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon the images
of desire.
17, 18 That the pride of man may be laid low, and the height
of males be humbled; and J ehovah alone shall be exalted in that
day. But idols shall pass off into smoke.
19 And they shall go into caves of the rocks, and into clefts
of the dust, because of th~ dread of J ehovah, and for the glory of
his magnificence, when he ariseth to terrify the earth.
8 IV Ad. p. 5
ISAIAH Il: ll-~~-IIl: 1-15 [7581-758~

7581. The subject here treated of is the second advent of God

Messiah, and indeed, the time bef01 e the last judgment when the

pride of those who moe anti-Christs will be laid low. Pride is here
described in various ways, there being many kinds of pride, and
also many quasi-mountains, heights and towers. They are also
called cedm's of Lebanon and oaks of Bashan (vs. 18) ; likewise a
fortified wall (vs. 15), for they think to fortify themselves. That
it is pride that is meant, see verse 17. Moreover, their wealth will
perish (vs. 16). That they will long to hide themselves from the
face of God Messiah is described in verse 19; and this from terror
in anticipation of the last judgment.

~o In that day a man shall cast forth the idols of his silver,
and the idols of his gold, which they made to bow themselves down
to moles and to bats; .
~1 To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the clefts of the
craggy rocks, for dread of J ehovah, and for the glory of his mag­
nificence, when he ariseth to terrify the earth.
~~ Cease ye from man, in whose nostril is breath: for how much
is he esteemed?

7582. Here is set forth the last judgment. The words to bow
themselves down to moles (vs. ~O), refer to those who hide them­
selves in the dust of the earth; and to bats, to those who hide them­
selves in the clefts of the craggy rocks, etc. These gods are lik­
ened to moles and bats because they are gods of shade. In verse
~~, to desist from man in whose nostril is breath means to desist
from wisdom, from one who is endowed with the Holy Spirit, that
is, from a wise man; for he will be esteemed, the others being
insane. s

1 For, behold, the Lord, Jehovah Sabaoth, doth take away

from Jerusalem and from J udah the staff and the stay; the whole
staff of bread, and the whole stay of water,
~ The mighty one, and the man of war; the judge, and the
prophet; and the diviner, and the old man,
• In the autograph, this explanation of verse gg comes immediately after n.
7583, where it commences with the words" In verse gg of the preceding chapter."
Swedenborg had evidently forgotten to give this explanation when commenting
on chapter g.
IV Ad. p. 5 9

3 The captain of fifty, and the man honorable in faces; and

the counsellor, and the man learned in muttering; and the man
skilled in enchantment. 9
4 And I will give boys to be their princes, and mockers shall
have dominion over them.
5 And the people shall be oppressed, a man by a man, and a
man by his companion: the lad shall lift himself up against the old
man, and the despised against the honored.
6 For a man shall take hold of his brother in the house of his
father: Thou hast clothing, be thou a prince unto us, and this
stumbling block be under thy hand:
7 He shall take hold in that day, saying, I will not be a sub­
duer; for in my house is neither bread nor clothing: make me not
a prince of the people.
8 For Jerusalem hath stumbled, and Judah is fallen: because
their tongue and their doings are against J ehovah, to rebel in the
eyes of his glory.
9 The hardness of their faces doth answer against them; and
they tell their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. 'Voe unto their soul!
for they shall reward evil unto themselves.
10, 11 Say ye to the righteous, that it is good: . . . Woe
unto the wicked! . . .
l~ As for my people, infants are their taskmasters, and women
rule over them. 0 my people, thy leaders are misleaders, and have
blotted out the way of thy paths.
18-15 Jehovah hath stood up to contend, . . . Jehovah will
come to judgment . . . for ye have set on fire the vineyard; the
spoil of the poor is in your houses. . . . Ye beat my people to
pieces, and grind the faces of the poor; . . .

7583. That in the last ti11U!s all wisdom, that is to say, the in­
teUigence of truth and the wiU of good, will be taken away from
the Jews, etc.; likewise from Christians so called.
7584. The staff and stay (vs. 1) are power, consequently, the
power of being wise. Bread and water are the things by which are
signified spiritual and celestial gifts. The mighty one (vs. ~) is he
who elsewhere is called" mighty in strength" 1 and, consequently,
• See n. 7584 notes.

1 Translated in the A.V., mighty man of oow'ur.

10 IV Ad. p. 6
ISAIAH Ill: 1-15 [7585-7586

wise. He is likewise called a man of war, for he who is wise is a

man of war, fighting with spirits; and likewise a judge, a prophet,
etc. The captain of fifty (vs. g) means the understanding, for
the intellectual mind is set over all else. The counsellor and the
learned itn mutteritng [and the man skilled in enchantment]-but
others translate [the last two terms] differently, namely," a skilled
artificer" 2 and "intelligent in eloquence." S Boys to be princes,
and mockers who shall have dominion' (vs. 4) signify those who
are unwise and insane, thus unwisdom and insanity. Unwisdom
Ilnd insanity are described in verse 5; for the love of self will then
reign, and this love induces unwisdom and insanity. So distant is
it from wisdom, because so far removed from God Messiah who is
Wisdom, that it laughs at wisdom.
7585. [A man shall take hold of his brother, etc.] (vs. 6).
This means that they will seize on some doctrine which will lead
them, but a fallacious doctrine. At times something of truth is
drawn therefrom, but they rush on in darkness. In verse 7 is set
forth a doubt as to whether he will hold fast. The causes of their
unwisdom and insanity are told in verse 8, namely, depraved
thought and depraved action; thus a false doctrine which causes
them to be against God Messiah. The eyes of his glory means
7586. The hardness of their faces (vs. 9), that is, their hard­
ened faces. As to what faces means, see elsewhere. It is the in­
teriors which are hardened. The sin of Sodom is adultery, and
this is what the worst kind of idolatry is called, inasmuch as they
• Schmldlus' translation is doctus mU$sita.tionia (learned of mussitation or
muttering); and Tremellius' peritus artifox (a skilled artificer). The Hebrew
word thus translated comes from the root W"ln which means, to, fashion,
fabricate, and also to speak softly, whisper, murmll,r-used of magicians and
soothsayers. Tremellius adopts the first meaning, and Schmidius the second.
• Schmidius' translation is perit'IU incantationis (skilled in enchantment),
and Tremellius' intelligen.'l eloq1tentiae (intelligent in eloquence). The Hebrew
root ftln; means to whisper, mutter magic formulas, practice magi,c. Tremellius
has arbitrarily interpreted it to mean, to $peak eloquently. In the Apocalypse
Revealed, SWedenborg adopts Schmidius' translation in both these cases.
In the margin of his Schmidius' Bible, Swedenborg notes Tremellius' trans­
lation and explains it as follows: "Skilled artificer; this is the work of charity
and is worship in externals. It is called artificer from work. Intelligent in
eloquence, that Is, learned. EIoi'J'U8nce is doctrine. Thus man is described from
faith, from his inmost to things external. Thus then is a wise man described."
• The autograph has pueri qui dominab1.tntuT, et ltUdifioo.toreB (boys who shall
have dominion and mockers), but this is clearly a slip, for the Author intended
to follow Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 6 11

mingled holy things with profane. These subjects are continued

in verses 10 and 11, and the righteous man is taken up. Dominion
by infants (vs. Ifl) is dominion by unwisdom. 3 Dominion by
women is dominion by cupidities. The leaders are those who make
man to be thus delirious, being pontiffs, priests, Levites, kings,
fathers, etc. Against these are now uttered the words in verses 13
to 15, it being they who have burned the vineyard, that is, the
church and true doctrine, etc., etc.

16, 17 Moreover J ehovah said, Because the daughters of Zion

lift themselves up, . . . Therefore Adonai will make bald the
crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and Jehovah will lay
bare their secret parts.
18, flO, fl3 In that day Adonai will take away the adornment
of the fetters on their feet, and of networks, and of crescents, . . .
Tiaras and anklets, and headbands, . . . Mirrors, and fine cotton,
and mitres, and cambrics.
fl4 And it shall come to pass, that instead of sweet spices there
shall be decay; . . . and instead of a cloak a girding of sackcloth;
burning instead of beauty.
fl5 Thy men shall fall by the sword, and thy strength in war.

7587. These verses t"eat of thei1' doctrines, that all beauty and
fOTm will depart fr01Tt them; for that 'will be taught which is wholly
contTary to the truth and opposed thereto. Their doctrines are
described by daughters (vs. 16) ; for the daughter of Zion is the
true church (but now corrupted), and therefore daughters are
doctrines, These doctrines place everything in external form, the
forms being here described, but not in things internal. There­
fore they adorn themselves in various ways, which yet are vanities,
and by virtue of these they lift themselves up, etc. What the con­
dition is when internals recede, is described in verse 17, to wit, that
the crown of the head, being that which is in the more interior or
superor place, is made bald, and the secret pa1'ts, being that which
is in the outmost and lowest place, will be laid bare. Thus the op­
posite will follow, order being wholly inverted. In verses 18 to fl3
are set forth the ornaments of true doctrine as they were repre­
sented in brides, nay, and in priests, each ornament having its own
• Reading insa1nentiae for insa1Jientia.
IV Ad. p. 7
ISAIAH Ill: 16-26-IV: 1-4 [7588-7589

signification. Thus these forms of utmost beauty will be taken

away. 'What will foUow in their place, this being the opposite, is
set forth in verse 24, ending in the statemeht that there will be
burning instead of beauty, the burning coming from insane loves
and the fires of cupidities. It is from these that they will receive
their beauty. l\{oreover, this can now be known to every man;
for who is thought to be more wise and more decorous and beauti­
ful than one who lives genially and indulges cupidities, etc., etc.?
They shall fall in war (vs. 25), that is, they will succumb, as is
their wont, in every tempta;tion.

26 Therefore thy 6 gates shall howl and bewail; and she who
made herself clean shall sit on the earth.

1 And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, say­
ing, We will eat our own bread, and clothe us with our own ap­
parel: only let thy name be named upon us; gather in our reproach.
2 In that day shall the offshoot of Jehovah be for comeliness
and for glory; and the fruit of the land for magnificence and an
adornment for the escape of Israel.
'3 And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he
that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy; everyone that is
written unto life in Jerusalem:
4 VVhen Adonai shall have washed away the excrement of the
daughters of Zion, and cleansed the bloods of Jerusalem from the
midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of purg­

7588. H e1'e is described the state of those 'who will be in dread

and will be insane .. and then the state of those who will enter into
the lcingdom of God. This now follows from what has preceded,
and it is illustrated by the words said by God Messiah concerning
the five insane virgins who wished to buy oil from the five sane
virgins [Matt. 25 1 ].
7589. In chapter 3, verse 26, is described the wailing of those
who are in dread and in insanity, that is, in need. The gates are
• The Hebrew is her.
IV Ad. p. 7 13

their minds which lie open to the house; the purged land r is heaven.
7590. The words in verse 1 are a consequence of dread. 'Vhat
is set forth is the dread of barrenness, because there is then nothing
which can inherit heaven. Thus they flee to those who shall be in
Jerusalem, and, like the insane virgins, desire to buy oil from them
and so to learn things spiritual and celestial; but then the door is
shut, etc. The offshoot of J ehovah (vs. ~) is faith in God Mes­
siah; the fruit of the land, the works of charity; the escape of Is­
rael, those who are the remnant, of whom more will be said. Those
spoken of in verse 3 are the elect who ar~ to be called holy. They
are holy because the righteousness of God Messiah is imputed to
them; for their excrement is washed away, and the bloods [of Jeru­
salem cleansed], not by sacrifices, but by the spirit of judgment,
and by the spirit of purging, that is, by the merit and righteous­
ness of God Messiah; see above, chapter 1*16.18, and what pre­
cedes there.

5 And Jehovah will create upon every habitacle of mount Zion,

and upon her convocations, a cloud by day and smoke; and the
splendor of a flame of fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be
a covermg.
6 And the tabernacle shall be for shade in the daytime from the
heat, and for a refuge, and for a covert from flood and rain.

7591. Here is described the protection of those who will be in

the kingdom of God Messiah. The habitacle of mount Zion (vs.
5) is heaven, wherein are the blessed. So likewise the tabernacle
[vs. 6], also called convocations, but with a distinction; for it is
said, Upon all the glory shall be a covering. In the day, it will
be a cloud and shade round about, and at night the splendor of a
flame of fire. Thus nothing will enter which is from things natural
and mundane, etc., etc., and so they can no longer be infested as in
life when they were in combat.
T This refers to Tremellius' translation which, together with his notes, is as

follows: Wherefore, 10ith her gates (Le., all the borders of Judah) mourning
and 10ailing, when purged (Le., emptied of inhabitants and goods and with build­
ings in ruin, the land, thus troubled, is said to bewail) she shall Bit (namely,
Zion, bewailing her calamity) on the earth. A literal translation of the Hebrew
is, And her gates shall lament and bewail; all.d she 8hall be innocent, to the earth
8ho 8hall Bit.
* The autograph has "9."
14 IV Ad. p. 8
ISAIAH IV: 5-6-V: 1-7 [759~-7594

1, ~ I will sing to my beloved . . . touching his vineyard.
. He planted it with a noble vine; and he built a tower in the
midst of it, and also hewed out a winepress therein: and he looked
that it should make grapes, and it made wild grapes.
3 And now, 0 inhabitant of Jerusalem, and man of Judah,
judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.
4 ~That more was to be done to my vineyard, that I have not
done in it? wherefore looked I that it should make grapes, and it
made wild grapes?
5, 6 And now, I will make known to you what I will do to my
vineyard; . . . I will make it a desolation. . .. I will command
the clouds that they make no rain to rain upon it.
7 For the vineyard of Jehovah Sabaoth is the house of Israel,
and the man of J udah the plant of his delights. . .
7592. These verses treat by similitude of the church planted
with the sons of Jacob, and which became wholly idolatrous, and
therefore is to be destroyed.
7593. It is explained in verse 7 that the vineyard is the house of
Israel, and, consequently, his church, and that the man of Judah
is his plant, and, consequently, is the doctrine concerning God Mes­
siah. The like is sometimes set forth by God Messiah by compari­
son with a vineyard, by which the same thing is signified as by para­
dise, a garden, etc. Wherefore, the subject treated of in the spir­
itual sense is the church and the doctrine of faith; the former is
the house of Israel, and the latter, the man of Judoh.
7594. The noble vine (vs. ~) is the doctrine of faith in God
Messiah. The tower in the mid.~t is that wherein is the winepress,
where are the works of charity from which is built a tower where­
from is seen heaven and the kingdom of God Messiah. Grapes are
those works of charity from which this wine is now pressed out.
Wild grapes are the law in externals which carries with it iniquities
and thus damnation. In verses 3 and 4, he asks whether anything
more can be done. This is confirmed everywhere. N ever were
miracles lacking, never prophecies, never the Word of God, never
exhortation, reward, and punishment. That church was guarded
lest idolatry invade it; for when 8 the true doctrine of faith had al­
• Reading qwrun for qui".

IV Ad. p. 8

ready gone off into idolatry, that church was instituted that they
might know who it is to whom all the rites of the ancient church
had regard, and how that all had become corrupted. Wild grapes,
therefore, are false doctrines and, consequently, doctrines concern­
ing strange gods. Wherefore they will be unprotected. Thus all
is then turned into idolatry, this being what is signified in verses 5
and 6; for when they are no longer protected, evil and insane genii
rush in and pervert everything, etc., this being the case when God
Messiah withdraws his face. The rain which falls down is learning
from heaven, and inspiration, for then the harvest grows, the con­
trary being the case when there is no such rain.

8 Woe unto them that join house to house, that fasten field to
field, till there be no place, and ye dwell alone in the midst of the
10 For ten acres of vineyard shall make one bath,9 and the
seed of an homer shaH make an ephah.
11, 12 ""Toe unto them that rise up in the morning at dawn,
that they may follow strong drink; . . . but they regard not the
work of J ehovah, . . .
13, 14 Therefore my people shall go into captivity. . . .
Therefore hell hath enlarged her soul, and opened wide her
mouth. . .
15, 16 And the man is depressed, and the male humbled. . . .
But let Jehovah Sabaoth be exalted in judgment, and the holy God
be sanctified in righteousness.
17 And let the sheep feed at their own fold, and the sojourner
eat the waste places of the fat ones.
18 Woe unto them that draw iniquity with rQpes of vanity, and
sin as the rope of a cart;
19 That say, Let him make speed, let him hasten his work, that
we may see: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh
and come, that we may know!
20 Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put
darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for
sweet, and sweet for bitter!
21 Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and intelli­
gent before their own faces !
• Schmidius adds of wine.
16 IV Ad. p. 9
ISAIAH V: 8-~3 [7595-7598

~~ Woe to heroes in the drinking of wine, and to men of valor

in the mixing of strong drink:
~3 W·hich, for a gift, pronounce the wicked righteous, but take
away the righteousness of the righteous from him!

7595. These are the curses which follow when God Messiah
withdraws his face. That they signify, as above [no 7573], the
time of his two advents, is evident from the closing words (vs. 30).
7596. The devastation or desolation is described in verses 8 to
10~not the desolation of the people but of their interiors, as of
things spiritual and celestial, these being signified here as elsewhere
by desolation and devastation. The more the peoples, that is, the
more the false. doctrines, the greater is the desolation. This is ap­
plied to the vineyard~that its ten acres will not yield a bath of
wine, and the seed of a homer will not yield an ephah (vs. 10).
Their insanity is described in verses 11 to 14 by a comparison with
drunken men, and then their punishment, this being the second
damnation which follows when God Messiah withdraws his face.
They become as drunken men, and so they perish.
7597. When they are in depression and misery, then prayer is
made that Jehovah Sabaoth may be exalted, and the holy God be
sanctified (vs. 15-17)-but by others such as the gentiles who may
be feeding in their fold and eating the waste places of the fat ones,
that is, who may have understanding and may feed their minds on
the doctrine and the Word that is delivered to them, etc. The
third thing wherein is the curse, is that they doubt concerning God
Messiah; for he will be to them a stumbling block, as was prophe­
sied to them concerning him. 'Vherefore they say that the counsel
of the Holy One of Israel should come, that they may know (vs.
19). They looked for earthly glory; the heavenly they despised,
etc. This sin is likened to the rope of a cart which carries the re­
maining iniquities, etc. (vs. 18).
7598. In verse ~O, prediction is made as to what they will now
say when the counsel of the Holy One of Israe1 comes, namely, that
they will invert and pervert all things, and will speak what is op­
posed, etc., etc. They are cursed because they persuade themselves
that they are wise and intelligent when yet they are insane (vs. ~1).
Their insanity is described by drunkenness (vs. ~~, ~3). They
who think themselves wise are called heroes in the drinking of wine;
IV Act p. 10 17

and they who think themselves intelligent, men of valor in the mix­
ing of strong drink. According as they understand, so do they
act, and in verse ~3 as elsewhere their deeds are described by the
measure of righteousness; for they placed righteousness in the
work of the law. l

~4 Therefore as lit tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, and

the flame consumeth the refuse, so their root shall be as rottenness,
and their flower shall go up as dust: because they have refused the
law of Jehovah Sabaoth, and despised the speech of the Holy One
of Israel.
~5 Therefore is the anger of J ehovah kindled against his peo­
ple, . . . and the mountains are commoved and their carcase hath
become filth in the streets; yet, in all this his anger is not turned
away, and his hand is stretched out still.

7599. The style in verses ~4 and ~5 is wholly prophetic. The

effect of the anger of J ehovah is described and expressed by a fire
whereby tlley will be consumed as though they were nothing; for,
being without the doctrine of true faith, they had no powers what­
soever. Therefore they are likened to stubble and to refuse.
Their interiors are expressed by a root, and their exteriors which
flow therefrom by a flower which will flyaway as dust and conse­
quently as nothing. 2 The reason is, because 3 they have refused
the law of J ehovah Sabaoth, and despised the speech of the Holy
One of Israel, that is, the internal law, this being the law, and the
speech of the Holy One of Israel. And now the anger is described,
that is, the punishment, this being the anger; for when the anger of
Jehovah thunders, the mountains also are commoved. Here, how­
ever, it is not said they are consumed, for it is His own people who
are treated of, a people which also is in terror; but they who have
despised the speech of the Holy One of Israel will become as filth
in the streets.
1 The comment on verses 22 and 23 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written

in the margin.
I This first part of n. 7599 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the

I Reading quia for qui.

18 IV Ad. p. 10
ISAIAH V: 24--30 [7600

26 For he hath lifted up a sign to the nations from afar, and

hath hissed unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, he
will come with speed swiftly.
27 He is not weary among them, nor doth he stumble; he shall
not slumber nor sleep; and the girdle of his loins is not loosed, nor
the latchet of his shoes taken off.
28 Whose arrows are sharp, and all his bows bent; his horses'
hoofs are counted like rocks, and his wheels as a whirlwind;
29 His roaring is as a lion's; he roareth like young lions, and
rageth and layeth hold of the prey, and seizeth it, and there is none
to snatch it away.
30 In that day, I say,4 he shall rage against him as the raging
of the sea; therefore he shall look down upon the land, which, be-
hold, is darkness; anguish, and the light grows dark in the ruins

7600. Verse 26 treats of the nations which are to be called to-

gether, both in the first advent of God Messiah and in the second.
It treats of nations to whom will be given a sign from afar. Here
from afar involves many things, both in respect to space and in
respect to doctrine, etc.; so likewise the end of the earth. Verses
26 to 29 are a prophecy concerning God Messiah, and concerning
his two advents. Of these it is said that he will come swiftly; that
he will not be weary nor stumble against what would impede; for
there is nothing that can come in his way. He shall not slumber,
that is, delay, nor sleep; the girdle of his loins is not loosed, as is
done when travelers come to hostels and stay there; likewise the
latchet of his shoes is not taken off-a simile also taken from trav-
elers. These similes, moreover, involve much else. Whose arrows
are sharp, and all his bows bent [vs. 28]. Arrows are truths which
penetrate, and bows are the things which the arrows contain. 5
Horses' hoofs are likewise a simile, being taken from travelers on
horseback. Horses are things belonging to the understanding of
truths. Hoofs, like rocks, are hard, that they may break through
and penetrate; this answers to the sharp arrows and bent bows.
Wheels-likewise a simile taken from travelers-from their speed
and penetration, are also like a whirlwind, so that there can be no
• Schmidius' translation of the Hehrew and.
I This sentence is emphasized hy " Ohs., Ohs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 11 19

resistance. The comparing of Him with a lion and with young

lions (vs. ~9) is common and occurs frequently, as when speaking
of Judah [Gen. 49 9 ] ; 6 also his laying hold of the prey-see the
prophecy concerning Benjamin [ibid. vs. ~7] where the like oc­
curs; for when the subject treated of is the prey which He will
seize from the devil, He is then likened to a lion.
7601. As in the beginning of the chapter, so also at the end, the
subject treated of is the two last days, the one about'the time of the
first advent of God Messiah, and the other about the time of his last
advent. Then both Judah and his crew, which has no faith, will
rage against him as the raging of the sea (vs. 30). Wherefore it
is foretold by God Messiah, that in the end of days the sea shall be
tumultuous [Luke ~12()] because there is no faith, but unwisdom
and infidelity. Here this is compared to the darkness which he
will see in the land; and that the light which is given will grow dark
in the ruins.

7602. This chapter, from verse 1 to the end, is a prediction that
in the two last times there will be desolation, that is, no faith in God
]I{ essiah; and that then the ancient seed will rise again.

1 . . . I saw Adonai sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up,

and his borders filled the temple.
9l Seraphim were standing from upon him: each one had six
wings; with two he covered his faces, and with two he covered his
feet, and with two he did fly.
3 And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, Je­
hovah Sabaoth; the fullness of all the earth is his glory.
4 And the posts of the thresholds were commoved at the voice
of him that cried; and the house was filled with smoke.

7603. Adonai (vs. 1) is the Lord of all, that is, is God Mes­
siah. The temple is his heaven; and inasmuch as his borders fill
the temple, he himself is heaven as he is the kingdom of God. By
the seraphim (vs. ~) is meant his heaven, the seraphim being so
called by reason of the offices which are to be performed. Because
• This sentence is emphasized by " Obs., Ohs.," written in the margin.
~o IV Ad. p. 11
ISAIAH VI: 1-8 [7604

heaven is not holy before Him, it is said that with two wings they
covered their faces, and with two, their feet, thus covering things
interior and exterior. With two they did fly that they might
convey commands. By 'Wings are likewise signified times; by the
two with which they covered their faces, ancient times, and by
those with which they covered their feet, the last times. By those
with which they flew, they announced what would come to pass.
The holiness spoken of in verse 3, and the thought of His holiness,
is to the end that they may be sanctified in heaven. In these words
is contained the confession and acknowledgment that J ehovah God
alone is holy, and that his glory fills the universe. The word holy
is thrice repeated because of the Trinity. It is said fullness be­
cause nothing in the universe is living save J ehovah God. What
i.s signified in verse 4 is, that heaven was thus filled with holiness;
for from the holiness, a holy horror came into the whole of heaven,
even to the posts, that is, to the ultimate heavens. By smoke, as in
many previous passages, is signified the fullness of glory, etc.

5 Wherefore I said, Woe is me! for I am cut off; because I am

a man unclean of lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people unclean
of lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah Sabaoth.
6 But one of the seraphim flew unto me, and in his hand a live
coal, he had taken from off the altar with tongs:
7 And he touched my mouth, and said, Behold, this hath
touched thy lips; therefore thine iniquity is taken away, and atone­
ment is made for thy sin.
8 Then I heard the voice of Adonai saying, Whom shall I send,
and who will go for us? And I said, Behold me; send me.

7604. By Isaiah are meant the ancient prophets, in that, al­

though they lived in iniquities, nevertheless they could prophesy
concerning the Holy One of Israel. He calls himself unclean as
to the lips with which he was prophesying (vs. 5). Therefore
these words are applied to those things which were on the altar
(vs. 6) and by which atonement was made for them, to wit, by fire.
Therefore by fire are signified all the rites of atonement. Then,
atonement having been made for him after the manner of the old
church (vs. 7, 8), he could prophesy. Many men prophesied un­
der other conditions, though in various ways; but as regards the
IV Ad. p. 1~ U

several prophecies concerning God Messiah and his advent, his

power and his kingdom, this was the office of those who had been
sanctified by an external ritual.

9 And he said, Go, and say to this people, Hearing, ye hear,

but understand not; and seeing, ye see, but learn not.
10 Make fat the heart of this people, and make heavy their
ears, and bedaub their eyes; lest perchance they see with their
eyes, and hear with their ears, and their heart understand, and
they be converted, and there be healing for them.

7605. These words appear exceeding harsh, and they are re­
peated in the New Testament [Matt. 13 14 , Mark 4 12, Luke 8 10 ,
J ohn 1~40]. Yet they are truths, in that intelligence and wisdom
or understanding and being wise was wholly taken away from them,
as Moses also says, to wit, that Jehovah had not yet given them a
heart to understand [Deut. fl9 4 ]. The same thing can be evident
from the prophecies, these being wrapped up in such obscure terms
that not even the prophets understood them. This also is the rea­
son why what is said concerning the two advents of God Messiah,
concerning his kingdom, and concerning life after death, etc., is
said so obscurely. For they were such that they could not compre­
hend them since inwardly they clung solely to earthly things, and
had they then been opened up to them, they would have mingled
holy things with profane, and so would have applied these also to
their idols which they worshipped in their heart; and then therE
would no longer have been any remedy. Wherefore, lest they
should wholly have perished, it was the mercy of God Messiah that
the arcana of heaven should be so uttered that they would not
understand. The fall from things inmost, and from light into
darkness, is much greater than a fall from things exterior and from
darkness, etc. Moreover, from the very beginning of reformation,
the reformation of mankind is such as it is in the individual man,
that is to say, it is from externals to interiors, from interiors to
things more interior, and then from these to things inmost. Such
is the succession, and such has been the succession from the very be­
ginning of reformation. 8 Of the more interior man, the Jews knew
• This part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 1~
ISAIAH VI: 9-18 [7606-7607

little; the !ll0re interior man was first disclosed by God Messiah;
the-i~mo~t man is to be revealed about the end of days. This also
is the reason why mysteries were indeed to be told, but in obscure
They were told them that there might be healing for them (vs.
10), for they could indeed be healed, though only for a very short
time; but when they fell back into their former idolatry, this very
healing would be of the greatest injury and danger. Thus a heal­
ing which would thrust them deeply into hell was of no advantage
to them. 9
11 Then said I, Adonai, how long? And he said, Until the
cities be laid waste . . . and the land be brought to solitude.
1 ~ [And] 1 J ehovah will remove men, and the wilderness shall
be multiplied in the midst of the land.
18 Scarcely the tenth part shall be therein any more . . . and
yet it shall be for utter destruction. For, as when the oak is cut
down, and the ilex,2 the stock of them; 3 his stock, a seed of holi­
7606. The last times are predicted in verses 11 and 1~, and both
there and frequently elsewhere, they are described by solitude and
desolation. What is meant is spiritual solitude, even in the midst
of the land, that is, with those who are believed to be holy; for at
the last time there is no faith, and this is spiritual solitude. There
was no faith at the time 6f the first advent of God Messiah, and
there will also be no faith at the time of his advent into glory; and
I venture to say that in heaven also, respecting the state of which,
etc., much might be told, there will be few [in the faithJ.4
7607. The words in verse 18 contain arcana, to wit, that the
whole tree which has grown up from a root ever since the first time
of reformation is in all respects like an oak which must be entirely
cut down, or like a forest which has degenerated, or a vineyard
wherein are only wild grapes, etc. The stock which remains and
which is called the seed of holiness, is the primitive church imme­
diately after the time of Noah, and the primitive church imme­
• This last paragraph is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
1 Omitted by Schmidius.

• The Hebrew is the ilex and th.e oak.

• Schmidius supplies the word remaineth..
• The last half of n. 7606 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 18

diately after the advent of God Messiah. This is the stock that
remains, and is the seed of holiness. From this, in the last time,
will come a new tree and so a new paradise will be created, etc., et.c.
This then is what is had in view in the beginning of the chapter,
namely, that he saw Adonai sitting upon a throne high and lifted
up, and his borders filling t.he temple [vs. 1] ; and that the seraphim
cried Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah ,Sabaoth, the fullness of all the
earth is his glory (vs. 3) ; and that the posts of the temple were
commoved at the voice of him that cried (vs. 4), etc.

1 And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz . . . king of Judah,
that Rezin king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of
Israel, went up to Jerusalem to war against it, . . .
3-5 Then said J ehovah unto Isaiah, Go forth now to meet
Ahaz. . . . And say unto him, . . . Syria, Ephraim, and the son
of Remaliah, have taken evil counsel against thee, . . .
7-9 Thus saith Adonai J ehovih, It shall not stand, neither
shall it come to pass. For... within threescore and five years
shall Ephraim be torn to pieces, that it be not a people. . . .

7608. These words pertain to Ahaz and to the things signified

by the acts of Ahaz and by his two enemies, being the king of Syria
and the king of Samaria. 5 Ahaz was the worst of kings; he sacri­
ficed to idols [~ Kings 164 ] ; he t.ransferred the altar of Damascus
to Jerusalem. 6 His two enemies were the king of Syria and the
king of Samaria. The latter took away a large captivity but re­
stored it [~ Chron. 28 8 se q.]. The king of Samaria together with
the Ephraimites waged war against him [ibid. vs. 6 seq.]. There­
fore, in the proximate sense, the predictions in the present text are
against the king of Syria or Damascus, and against the king of
Samaria, that is, against Ephraim, Ephraim being here taken for
the ten tribes (vs. 8 and also vs. 17).
• That is, the king of Israel (2 Kings 16 6 ).
• Ahaz did not transfer the Damascus altar to Jerusalem, but, admiring its
beauty, he had the high priest at Jerusalem build a copy of it, and this he set
in the place of the altar of burnt sacrifices, and used it in his worship (2 Kings
1610- 16 ) •

IV Ad. p. 14
ISAIAH VII: 1-16 [7609-7611

10, 11 And Jehovah added to speak unto Ahaz, saying, Ask

thee a sign from-with Jehovah [thy God] ; 7 direct it to the depth,
or lift it upward.
U But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt J ehovah.
13 Therefore he said, Hear ye, I pray, 0 house of David; Is
it a small thing for you to weary men, that ye weary my God also?
(~1J, Therefore Adonai(hi~s~J giveth you a s~: Behold, a vir- )
gin hall cou<l,eive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Im- \
- '=
'15 Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse
evil, and choose good.
16 For before the child shall know to refuse evil, and choose
good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken before her
two kings.

7609. This is a clear prophecy concerning the advent of God \

Messiah, that he would be b~n of a virgin, and that this would
come to pass in the end of days when they no longer understood
anything, and'consequ:ently ;e;.e not wise in anything.
7610. The sign for which Ahaz asked was a miracle, whether in
heaven or on earth. Therefore it is said, Direct it to the depth, or
lift it upward (vs. 10). But Ahaz did not wish this, for to ask for
sigDs or miracl.~sj~_tC2-J~mpt God. From this it can be evident
what the religion of the old church had been, in that they did not
wish to have miracles but simply to believe. This, moreover, is the
case elsewhere. But the Jews and many among them were con­
tinually wishing to have miracles; nay, they asked for them, as did
Abraham, and Gideon [Judg. 6 17 ], etc., and also the people in the
wilderness. This is tempting J ehovah. Those to whom is shown
the mercy of God Messiah, are given not miracles but faith without
miracles. This moreover is what is had in view by the words in
verse 13, that they wearied God because they continually wished to
have miracles and yet,hardened their heart and did not believe.
~0 [Therefore Adonai himself giveth you a sign], vs. 14.
ThIS then is the mir!cle of miracles which Adona.i himself gives, to \ \
wit, that the Messiali,1hc SavlOr of the world, wQllkl be born, whose J
n;~e ~h'al( be God with~:;'-~~'~n;'~n-'h~~a virgin.- From this it
-- ....--..=::
, Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 14

is also evident that it is God, born Man, who will save man. A
clearer prophecy is not possible. - --­
7612. By butter (vs. 15) are signified all things ce~l which
he will have willihim, while honey signifies every sweet tIiiiig which
flows from things c~l. TJiat butter or fat has this significa­
tion can be evident ITOill the fat which was sacrificed, and was not
given to anyone to eat, as neither was the blood, etc. That such
things are signified, namely, things heavenly, is indicated by the
words, that he may know to refuse evil, and choose good, these be­
( ing things spiritual and celestial, etc.
7613. The time prior to His knowing to reject evil and~se
good (vs. 16) signifies the time of his advent before he took it upon
him to manifest himself, this being done after he had been tempted.
That this came to pass when no faith in him remained in Judea,
that is, ill the end of the days of that people in the land of Canaan,
is also predicted in this verse, to wit, that the land which they ab­
horred will be forsaken by her two kings. As to what is meant by
two kings in the spiritual sense, this can be evident from the things
which made them abhor, being the two so-called loves, the love of '.

neaven, etc. ­
self and the love of the The land which is abhorred is )

17 J ehovah shall bring against thee, and against thy people,

and against thy father's house, days such as have not come, from
the day that Ephraim departed from-with Judah; even the king of
18 For it shall come to pass in that day, that Jehovah shall
hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost end of the rivers of Egypt;
and for the bee that is in the land of Asshur.
19 And they shall come, and shall rest [all of them] 8 in the
rivers of desolations, and in the clefts of the rocks, and in all
thickets, and in all guiding paths.
20 In the same day, by the king of Asshur, shalt Adonai shave
with a razor that is hired, in the passages of the river,9 the head,
and the hairs of the feet: and it shall also consume the beard.
7614. In these verses is predicted the desolation previously
treated of and here more fully described. In verse 17 it is de­
• Omitted by Schmidius.
• Schmidius adds Euphrates.
26 IV Ad. p. 15
ISAIAH VII: 17-~5 [76140

clared that there has never been such desolation. Here the de­
parture of Ephraim from Judah is taken up, by which departure
is signified that faith departed; for Ephraim signifies the two fruc­
tifications, and also the birthright which was transferred to
Ephraim and departed from Judah. By the king of Assyria, in
the proper sense, is here meant ;the king of Babel; but the cap­
tivity of Babel involves their perpetual captivity which came from
the time of the advent of God Messiah. In verses 18 and 19 the
desolation of the rand is described, being a desolation in respect to
faith, and consequently in respect to intelligence and wisdom, and
so in~~ct to the spiritual mind which will then be wh,oll;y emIDY
( and deserted; for ep~mi~..2ViJln~sh._in frQ.ID without and will have
th~ dominion. This is here described by the flies in the uttermost
end of the rivers of Egypt, that is, il1.b.ell; and by the bee that is
in the land of Asshur or B1'llel where are id~~tries, etc. The riv­
ers of desolations, or the desolate rivers, signify those things in the
mind which can comprehend things truly spiritual and celestial;
likewise, in the clefts of the rocks. As to what rocks signify, see
above [no 4196, 7500]. The things which remain will be occu­
pied by true doctrine, and so in all thickets and in all guiding
paths. Thus the comparison is continued. Thickets, moreover,
are the like things. Dy the king of Asshur (vs. 9W) is meant the
devil or hell, in that it will consume things more interior, external,
and mediate. The more interior are the head, the outmost are the
hairs of the feet, the mediate are the beard. Thus, nothing human
remains, just as there remains nothing whole, as was said above
(Isa. 1 6 ,7). By the Euphrates is meant the border to that mind;
thus by the passages are meant all entrances, so that no!hing
will remain.
911 And it shall come to pass, in that day, that a man shall re­
vive the calf of a bull, and two sheep;
9l9l It shall come to pass, I say, 1 because of the multitude in the
making of milk, he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shaH ev­
ery one eat that remaineth in the midst of the land.
913 And it shall be in that day: Every place wherein were a
thousand vines for a thousand of silver, shall be for briers and
1 Schmidius' interpretation of the Hebrew and.

IV Ad. p. 15


~4 With arrows and with bow shall one come thither; because
al1 the land shall be briers and brambles.
~5 But as to all mountains which shall be hoed with the hoe,
there shall not come thither fear of the brier and the thorn: but it
shall be the sending of the ox and the treading of the sheep.

7615. In these verses is described the state of those who are vivi­
fied by faith, and the state of those in whom is desolation. That
those who are then revived by faith in God Messiah will eat butter
and honey (vs. ~~), that is, will enj oy the things signified by these,
see above, verse 15; for this will be given them by God Messiah.
Thus, this same is now received, and, for the sake of the applica­
tion, it is here called the calf of a bnll, and two sheep (vs. ~1), from
which will come great abundance such as that abundance is de­
scribed. Those who are said to remain are those who will be in
the land of Canaan. This, moreover, was for~s~a<!~,ved.i~_t}2~M>­
tivity of Babylon, after which none of them was left, for the resi~
due fl~d i~toEgypt~-~-t~~ ti-I{i~g-;-M26T~-'Th~~, byiTlos;-that
re;~ained -in the mid~t;;f the land, others are meant. That it will
be wholly forsaken by J udah, is indicated in verses ~3 and ~4, the
desolation being thus described. As against this, in verse ~5, are
continually set the opposite things, and the verse --- ends .---.
with ---._-.
f who will receive faith from Goq ~e~siah. These are called moun­
t\ tains which will be hoed, and where will be, not briers and brambles,
but ploughed land and a sheepfold, etc.

1, ~ :Moreover Jehovah said lmto me, Take thee a great roll,
and write upon it . . . concerning Le-maher-shalal-hash-baz.
And for witness I will call me faithful witnesses . . .
3 Therefore I went unto the prophetess; and she conceived,
and bare a son. Then said J ehovah unto me, Call his name Maher­
4 For before the child shall have knowledge to cry, My father,
and my mother, the strength of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria
shall be taken away before the king of Assyria.

7616. The signification of these words is obtained from the

things which are signified by the acts of Ahaz and the kings that
~8 IV Ad. p. 16
ISAIAH VIII: 1-10 [7617-7618

followed him. That Ahaz called on the king of Assyria for help,
and that he took Damascus and afterwards Samaria also, is evi­
dent from history. These aets make clear what the present words

5 And Jehovah added to speak further unto me, saying,

6 Forasmuch as this people hath refused the waters of Shiloah,
going softly, and taking joy with Rezin and the son of Remaliah;
7 Therefore, I say/ Behold, Adonai bringeth up upon them the
waters of the river,s strong and many; the king of Asshur, and all
his glory: and he shall come up over all his streams, and go over
all his banks:
8 [And] 4 he shall go through Judah, he shall overflow and
pass over; he shall reach even to the hill; and the movements of his
wings shall be the fullness of the breadth of thy land, 0 ImmanueI.
C~=;Associate yourself, 0 ye people, but ye sha}l_~eJ)_rQ.~ght to
confusion; and give ear, all the ends of the earth; gird yourselves,
(ju~S-hall be brought~.~sion; gird yourselves, b~~h..all
be brought to confusion.
--l1fTak!" coul!.sel toge"llier, bU!.-_~~__fl..h_aJL£Qm~~-t:.9 __nought; ye
speak the word, but it standeth not; for God is wi~us.

7617. Because 5 -;;ththe~s before the first advent of God

Messiah, d the C . . called, afte! it, have desp"is~e j)
d~!!i!l'e 0 -.:.. 1t,-tfierefoTi71i'ey will be imbued M7h false doc­
7618. To refuse the waters of Shiloah,6 going softly (vs. 6)
means to refuse the true doctrine and the Gospel; and this because
they take joy in Rezin who was the king of Damascus, whose altar
and idolatry Ahaz transferred to Jerusalem, and in the idolater
Pekah, the son of Remaliah, being one who passed over from the
true doctrine to idolatry. That idolatry of two kinds is here sig­
nified by Rezin and the son of Remaliah, can be evident from their
history; for Judah could not have taken joy from Rezin and
• Schmidius' translation of the Hebrew and.
3 Schmidius supplies the word Euphrates.

• Omitted by Schmidius.
• Reading quia for qui.
• [Marginal note by the Author:] Shiloah was a fountain near Jerusalem.
IV Ad. p. 16

Pekah, inasmuch as he waged war with them, and they led away
much captivity, etc.
@; The waters of the river (vs. 7), that is, of Euphrates, are
false doctrines. They are strong and many, inasmuch as this
river flooded the whole land, that is, perverted true doctrine. The
king of Asshur is he who brought on these waves. By the king of
Asshur is meant tl~il who was on the other side of Euphrates
and thu~-;utside the land of Canaan ; and so his instruments, such
as~l/.l,trous Jews of that day, and they who are the leaders of
1\1Babylon a:{ thIS day. He is called glory because they are boast­
ful and ascnEedivine power to themselves. These waters, being
damnable doctrines, will go up over all the streams of Jerusalem
or orthe r~e~ 7 Shiloah, and over all his banks.
02'0) He shall go through Judah (vs. 8), th~!.Js, th~ugh_the ')
chur~and her confession. Even to the hill-~e al­
most submergecr.-The movements of his wing~ will fill thehOIy i
land, that is, true do"ctrine, this being the holy land. That it is j
the holy land thatfs"'i;"i'eant, is evident because it is called the land
of Immanuel. vVhat follows, being their counsels and imagina­
tions, etc., is compared t<;> wings, for the text now continues that
they take counsel together in society, but it shall come to nought
vs. 9, 10); they deliberate as to how th~..Y_-!I!aL extinguish the
J( doctrine of true faith, and et are in the utmost terror. So was ~ it
_~ of old, and so also a t· y; or w at thev do will come to
nought, because God is with us, that is, Immanuel, of whom see
cEapter 7, ~~i4.

11 For Jehovah spake thus to me in making firm the hand;

that he might teach me n.£.t""!~_V{~1~j!!....!.~~9ithis people, say­
1~ Ye shall not say, A covenant, concerning anyone of whom
this people saith, A covenant; and y~ shall l!.<.>iJ.~!!~~r, nor
be in dread.
18 J ehovah Sabaoth, him shall ye sanctify ; 10-r...he-is-J'.Q.YL1~!1r,
al:9-J-lf-y-our .<:I_read.
14 For he shall be for a sanctuary; though for a st0l!.L2f
stumbling and a rOCKltLQJfence to the two houses of Israel; for a
snare and a noose to the inhabitant of Jerusalem.
T See preceding note.
80 IV Ad. p. 17
ISAIAH VIII: 11-18 [76n-76~3

15 For many among them shall stumble and fall, and be

broken; and they shall be snared, and be taken.
16 Bind up the testimony, seal the law for my disciples.
17 And 8 Yet will I wait for J ehovah, though he hideth his
faces from the house of J acob; and I will be steadfast for him.
18 Behold me and the sons whom J ehovah hath given me for
signs and for wonders in Israel; from-with Jehovah Sabaoth, who
dwelleth in [the mountain of] U Zion.

7621. These words are a clear prophecy concerning God Mes­

siah, that faith must be had in him alone u:.J:.0...o..ut fear of any other;
and that many will take offence because of the things which would
happen to him which they do not understand.
7622. In that this doctrine is made firm, this is said to be done
by making firm the hand (vs. 11), for thus it is the truth; first that
they should not act like them; [and second], they shall not asso­
ciate with any other (vs. 1~), and so shall not conspil"e against him
w.ith oth~?-,_ thus with idolaters,' as did the people. These con­
spired with idolat~~;b~~' they feared them, as did Ahaz and
others, fearing, namely, that the idols or gods of the gentiles could
do all things. The God of Israel alone is to be feared, that is, God
Messiah who is'Jehovah (vs. 13).
7623. He will be for a sanctuary (vs. 14), because he is the tem­
ple of God. A stone of stumbling-He is as a stumbling block.
The text treats of the temple, and therefore of stone and rock; for,
by reason of the signification of the temple, He also is called a
Stone and a Rock. In the proximate sense, the two hmlses of I s­
rael are the house of J udah and Israelites; but in the universal
sense, they stand for all.JY1UL'!ish it to be themselves who are sig­
ni1k<;lJry.-!h~ hou~J:..QLGod. Therefo~'t~-[hese-;:i~ohe~his
day for a stone of stumbling, inasmuch as they do not believe, but
take offence, whj!~_ trus~ing.Jn..!~~Il.l~elves.I;),J:19 tbeiL.own imagina­
i:i2E' He is also a snare and a noose to those in Jerusalem who
are imbued with the true doctrine; for, unless they embrace God
Messiah with faith, they also are easily taken. In verse 15, the
first point has reference to the rock, and the second to the snare.
By many is meant the greater part. They are called many be­
• Schmidius here adds the explanatory words add thou.
• Omitted by Schmidius.

IV Ad. p. 18

cause it is those taken in Jerusalem who are meant, being those

who are in the doctrine of true faith.
7624. That these words are said t<.0:heir posterity and also to
those who will be taught and who will be His disciples, is indicated
in verse 16. They are called my disciples because it is God Mes­
siah himself who spoke. Their waiting and steadfastness is spoken
/ of in verse 17. He hi4..eth his faces [from the house of lQ£gb] be­
' cause they did not wish to understand; nor'
were they ableto) inas­
( m~ as they were idolaters, and faith ought not to waver; fo;U;y
had signs (vs. 18). The first sign was that a virgin would bear a
son (chap. 7 14 ) ; the second is in ve~~e g of the present chapter.
The sign is also called a wonder. He calls those $ons whom .Te­
hovah gave him for signs and for wonders in Israel. That these
signs were given by God Messiah is indicated by the words from­
with J ehovah Sabaoth, who dwelleth in Zion, that is, in heaven.
His seat is called Zion, and his heaven Jerusalem; or, what is the
same thing, his seat is Jerusalem and his heaven is the land of
Canaan according to its borders, of which elsewhere.

19 And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto Pythons,! and
unto soothsayers that hiss and mutter: Shall not a people seek
unto their God? the dead for the living?
~o The law and the testimony: 2 if they speak not according to
this word, surely, to none will there be dawn.
~1 For he who shall pass through it, shall be confused and fam­
ished: and it shall come to pass, that when he is hungry, he shall be
angry, and shall curse his king and his Gods,S and shall look up­
~~ He shall look also unto the earth; but, 10, anguish and dark­
ness; bedimmed shall he be in anguish, and driven in darkness.
1 See n. 6155 note.

• In Schmidius' translation, these two nouns are in the accusative case, and
Schmidius prefixes them with the word quam'et (he will inquire of, or seek)
taken from verse 19. The Hebrew is unto the la'l() and unto the testimony (as
in the A.V.) corresponding in the Hebrew to verse 19, Seek unto Pythons.
3 C'il~~. This is a plural form, but in the vast maj ority of cases it is used
as a singular. Here Schmidius and with him Castellio and Tremellius (and also
Swedenborg in Apoc. Explic. n. 386) translate it Gods, while Pagnini, the Vul­
gate, the A.V., and the Swedish Bible translate it God.

IV Ad. p. 18
ISAIAH VIII: 19-~~ [76~5-76~9

7625. That they who do not worship God Messiah willlabor un-
der a lack of all things.
7626. Verse 19 treats of those who so suffer themselves to be
persuaded that they acknowledge others as God who yet are wholly
dead, being those who, as of old, so also at this day, worship saints,
as they can them, and their idols. The old idolatry remains, but
it is more wicked because they have m,ade a pretext of these saints
for the sake of the preservation of their own power, when yet God
Messiah alone is holy. A comparison may be made between the
old idolatry and that of today.
7627. He will seek God and the law and the testimony (vs. ~O) ;
that is, God Messiah himself who, in the supreme sense, is the Law
and the Testimony, as seen in the ark, in the midst whereof was the
law and the testimony. In the inmost sense, the law and the testi-
mony signifies every 4 law of the interior man, and consequently the
interior man himself, etc. If they seek not God Messiah, to none
of them will there be dawn; that is, none will have the light of truth
which will shine as the dawn of the morning; consequently, neither
will they have heaven; for the time of dawn is the time in which the
kingdom of God Messiah is to come.
7628. To one who does not seek him and the things which are
his, there will be complete indigence in things spiritual and celes-
tial, because no faith. This indigence and poverty is described by
the famine and hunger which will come at the time of death and at
the last time. The consequence is that he will be angry as one who
lacks food, and that he will curse the king (vs. ~1), that is, Him
who is King to eternity. At the same time, he will curse his own
gods whosoever they are. Thus he wiII look upward toward
7629. Being angry and receiving no help therefrom, he will
look toward things below (vs. ~~), that they may comfort him-
but in them is anguish; and that they may teach him-but in them
is darkness. In lower things, unless looked at from things above,
is mere anguish or affliction, and darkness. Because the affliction
and the dimness will be simultaneous, they are here conjoined as
though they were one. Wherefore it is said bedimmed in anguish,
and driven in darkness.
4 [Crossed off: 1 doctrine concerning God.
IV Ad. p. 19 33

1 For it shall not be bedimmed with him who was put in an­
guish at the former time; but he shall alleviate in the land of
Zebulun and in the land of Naphtali; and the latter time he shall
make heavy toward the sea, across Jordan, in GaIilee of the gentiles.

7630. This lot remains for those who shall be living, both at the
end of the time of their life and at the end of times; not so with
those who have previously been bedimrned and afflicted. It shall
not be bedimmed and put in anguish, that is, there shall not be
darkness and anguish with those who formerly or at the forme1'
time had been put in anguish, that is to say, who have suffered
temptations. :1"01' them is the land of Zebulun and the land of
Naphtali. The land of Zebul~tn is cohabitation, and it will be
Zebulun who will dwell at the shore of the seas and at an haven of
ships, and thus in safety (Gen. 49 13 ). Naphtali is he who has
wrestled and prevailed; thus he will be as a hind let loose, etc. (ibid.
vs. 21; see further, Deut. 33, vs. 18 and 23). But the latter time,
that is, he who was afterwards put in anguish and darkened, will
be made heavy toward the sea, across Jordan, in Galilee of the gen­
tiles, where is no heaven but a land inhabited by those who are in
darkness and anguish; for Jordan was the border, etc. Galilee of
the gentiles, however, refers to the words that follow, for GaIilee of
the gentiles was not across Jordan; 6 see the next verse.

2 This people that walk in darkness have seen a great light:

they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath
the light shined.
3 Thou hast multiplied the nation, thou hast restored unto it
great joy: they shall be made glad before thee according to the
joy in harvest; as they exult when they divide the spoil.
4 For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff
of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor; as in the day of Midian.
* In Schmidius, who follows the Hebrew, chapter 8 consists of 23 verses,
and chapter 9 of 20; but in other versions (the Swedish Bible, Tremellius and
the A.V.), as noted by Swedenborg in the margin of his Schmidius Bible, verse
fl3 of chapter 8 is entered as verse 1 of chapter 9. The translation follows the
numbering of the A.V.
• Here Swedenborg draws two dashes, indicating that a reference to the Bi­
ble was to be supplied. See 1 Kings 911.
34 IV Ad. p. 19
ISAIAH IX: 1-7 [7631-7683

5 For every crowd shall be confounded by an earthquake, and

the garment defiled with bloods; and it shall be for a burning, the
food of fire.
~For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the
government shall be upon his shoulder: and he called his name
Wonderful, Counsellor, God, the Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince
of Peace.
QJl'Q.ih.UQ£IT!I&~. .Qi-ZQ.Y..IT~!~0 .~~.Q.p-~ce__th~re ...~h!11L~0
end; upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom; to establish
it and to found it in judgment and justice fr~~_h~!1_~fo':!.~_~en
~~ity. The zeal of J ehovah Sabaoth will do this.

7631. These verses are a clear prophecy concerning God Mes­

siah, that he will establish the church with the gentiles.
7632. They who walked in darkness and in the land of the
shadow of death (vs. ~) were the gentiles, who are also signified
by G.IlJ.ilte, spoken of just above [n. 7630]. These will see a great
light; for they who live in light and have fallen into darkness can­
not see light, thinking darkness to be light. Not so those who
from this darkness come into light. Thus the light has passed
from the Jews to the gentiles., inasmuCIlas-the -Jews could -;;'0
longer see it. 6
~he joy with which the gentiles embraced the faith is
foretold in verse 3. This also came to pass, for they were in such
great joy that they went to meet death before [they would give up]
the faith and the light therefrom. Application is made to the joy
in harvest because they were a new harvest. They exult as when
they divide the spoil, for t~s had the utmost hatred of the gen­
tiles and held them in subjection. As these had been made glad,
so the gentiles, now victors, would be gladdened, etc. ; but the words
should be more closely examined in the text, as to whether it is the
spoil or the harvest at which they exult. The Jews had been the
victors and held them in subjection. They are now given liberty,
this being her.: signifi~ breaking..~~:fOEe~~~_~~wor the
shoulder, the rod of the oppressor vs. 4). The day of Midian is
~e when· [the Midfanites j were conquered by Gideon (Judg.
7-this may be looked up).
• No. 763~ is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. ~o 35

7634. The earthquah~e (vs. 5) is the last day of the first advent
and of the second. But an earthquake signifies the turmoil and
sedition of those who are on earth and also of those who are in
heaven. ; for it will come to the point that when there is no longer
any faith, all ~~~~_~e in turm?il.~s ~~ a CC1!!c}.lssion and quak­
( ing-Brine land. But they whose garment is defiled zvith bloods,
that IS, who are unclean and profane or are defiled !ith ca!:!
pleasures, shall be f01' a burning, the food of fire, these being the
effects of cupidities.

rI ing
7635. In verse 6 there is again a most clear prophecy concern­
God Messiah. He is called child and son because he is a Man
and because he is the Son of Jehovah. His shall be t7~~Kovern­
ment, that~ower in heaven and on earth. The name which is
given him by J ehovah his Father is Wonderful, by reason of his
'tmiracles and of the Miracle of miracles, in his ~:ing born a Man
r and becoming Ri hteousness; ounsellor, from the counsels of Je­
hova is Father; God. the Hero, because he is the Conqueror of
the devil; Father of Eternity, because he is from eternity and to
( eternity; Prince of Peace, because he alsme proc~.d peac~.l9..!:. the
w<:>.dP, and gbr_~~_p'~~.ce to Jh9.~~wJ12-.2"orship_himfr~ith.
7636. Furthermore, to the increase of government and pt!.!!:f.e;
there shall be no end _6:s. 7), that is, no end to the enlarging onl"is
government and tq'Pe~~,· inasmuch as he is from eternify to eter­

nity and is infinite.' Upon the throne of David, to wit, in the land
of Canaan, in Jerusalem and Zion. that is, in heaven where is his
\...- throne; thus upon h~s kingdom. 7 " These words cannot be fitting
---:::> to any of the sons of David; still less the words that follow ~ to
establish it and to found it in judgment and ,justice from hence­
forth even to eternity. These are the things which were promised
to David, and mention of which is so often made by David. That
His kingdom [is established] in judgment, that is, in truth, and
founded in righteousness, is evident. The zeal of Jehovah Sabaoth
will do this. ~~L.lo.Y~Z.eaLako iDvolves justice, in that his
enemies will be subdued and will become the footstool of his feet.

8 Adonai sent a word into Jacob, and it fell into Israel,

9 That all the people may know, even Ephraim and the in­
habitant of Samaria; saying from haughtiness and pride of heart,
, No. 7635 and this first part of n. 7636 are both emphasized by "Obs.,
Obs.," written in the margin.
36 IV Ad. p. fll
ISAIAH IX: 8-21 [7687-7638

10 The bricks have fallen, but we will build with hewn stone:
the mulberry trees are cut down, but we will change to cedars.
11 Therefore Jehovah shall exalt the adversaries of Rezin
above him, and join his enemies together;
12 The Syrian from the east, and the Philistines from the
west; and they shall devour Israel with every mouth. For all this
his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
13 For the people hath not turned unto him that smiteth them;
and Jehovah Sabaoth they have not sought.
14 Therefore J ehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail,
branch and rush, in one day.
15 The old man and the honored in face, is the head; and the
prophet the teacher of a lie, the tail.
16, 17 And they that preach that this people is blessed, lead
them astray; and those of him that are blessed, are swallowed up.
. . . for everyone is an hypocrite and an evildoer, and every
mouth speaketh foJIy. . . .
18 For wickedness burneth as the fire: it devoureth the briers
and thorns; and kindleth the thickets of the forest, that they mount
up like the lifting up of smoke.
19 [Therefore] 8 in the burning wrath of Jehovah Sabaoth the
land is darkened, and the people hath become as the food of the fire:
they shall not spare, a man his brother.
20 And if he cut off on the right, he shall be hungry; and if he
eat on the left, they shall not be satisfied: they shall eat every man
the flesh of his own arm:
~1 Manasseh, Ephraim, and Ephraim, Manasseh: together
they are against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned back,
but his hand is stretched out still.

@ These verses signify that he will uproot t7~s because

o the~r ride and the mut~h:.q,tred arisi'lii the&I!:...o-;;Z:- ­
7638. In verse 8 both houses are meant and consequently both
times and both churches. The reason why Ephraim is brought in
(vs. 9) is to be drawn from the story of Ahaz; for Ephraim was
then against Judah [2 Chron. 28 7 se q .]. What is meant are the
two enemies, and these are understood from the times [in which
they lived]. Their pride is described, being the love of self; to
• Added by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 21 37

wit, that they will construct their own palaces and their own gar­
dens (vs. 10) -by which words as also by the cedars of Leba­
non is frequently signified pride; and this because, order being in­
/ verted, they despise heavenly things, and think them lowly. Hence
( then their ruin by their enemies. These enemies are spiritualen;­
~ and are the i<!~latri~s_whicl? will devour them. Th;; they are
crimes and the penalties of crimes, the various crimes being signi­
fied by the adversaries of Rezin, by the Syrians and Philistines, etc.
(vs. 11, 1~). But because they are not cOllverted by dread of pun­
iShment, they will be wholly cut off, the complete cutting off being
( signified b.x. the cutting off of head and tail. and rush (vs.
·13, 14). This is explained in verse 15; for with th~ destruction..of
those, ~ho miO'ht have taught, there is no longer anyone who will
teach them. Verse. 16 sp.e~ks of who teac~x:y..ersely, and,
while leading the pe~ple astray, prea~h-that- they are blessed.
J Ver..s!.-.17 gec1ares t at the are all evil and stu i<L.:with._-scarcel'y a

single exceE!:ion. In verse 18 Ehls pri e or ove of self is compared

to a fire which devours and kindles the whole, and thus the thickets
ofthe forest,tin-they mount up as smok;. The comparison with
fire and smoke is continued in verse 19.
7639. In verse ~o the love of.2lf is des_cribe<h_l~L}"i!l that what­
soever it snatches, itJetls hungry. It is never satisfied, and a
man will be ag3:i!~.Lpis br()ther; fo they hoi(l;]l iD- hatred, and
loie· !!()~J2~t themselYes. Hence they will not spare, a man his
brother, and they will hunger and not be satisfied. Nay, they will
e~t the flesh of their own arm, that is to say, th~wn compan~ns
( and themselves; for within these is a like hatred. Therefore they
rend themselves, as rr;nd;-f~n-~~ge, etc. -Such is.!pe
love-or self. It is hatred against all men, against the neighbor,
-==a> and agl!;inst their own selves. This description is further contin­
ued in verse ~l, to wit, tilat brother is against brother, this being
meant by Manasseh being against Ephr--;'im, and Ephraim against
Manasseh. These were brothers, and Ephraim dwelt in the midst
of Manasseh. Thus they were against their own selves an~e
the flesh.of their own arm. They are agamst u ah; they hold
together when opposed to another. After-'!..ards the rend each
~. These are their I,mish~nts; but becaus~ they are not con­
~.!2Y.pun~hments,~~ich follo~~.!."imes as effects follow causes,
since they do not wish to know that these are punishments, there­
38 IV Ad. p. ~~
ISAIAH X: 1-4 [7640-764~

I fore it is so often said that f01" all this his anger is not turned back,
I but his hand is stretched out still.

1 Woe unto them that set up statutes of iniquity; and to them
that write, they have written grievousness;
2 To turn aside the poor from judgment, and to snatch away
the judgment of the miserable among my people; that widows may
be their spoil, and that they may plunder the fatherless!
3, 4 And what will ye make of the day of visitation and devas­
tation? it shall come from afar. To whom will ye flee for help?
and where will ye lay down your glory? . . . For all this his anger
is not turned back, but his hand is stretched out still.

7640. The damnation in the day of the last judgment of those

who are unrighteous.
... 7641. Their crimes are set forth by way of unrighteousness,for
they place righteousness in the works of the law, and yet entirely
omit interior rightl::ousness. But these words must also be taken
in their spiritual sense, this sense being the genuine meaning of the
prophets. Consequently, these words are directed against those
who are iniquitous in the spiritual sense. Their laws which they) \
cherish and accordin to which the exercise their crimes are called
s atu,tes 0 iniquity (vs. 1). The words in verse 2 occur fre­
quently. It is the poor in spirit who are meant; they are spir­
itually _!!1~able. Wido~~ ar~jJ1Ose_'v.ho al·~~e.£ti!.~~-.J:he
und~rst.!'l:I1QiI!~~L.mjrit!1althings. The fatherless are those who
are under others and have faith in others, being under the pro­
tection of others. It is the faith and conscience of these that they
7642. In verse 3 and elsewhere it is the last judgment that is
called the day of visitation and devastation. That it is the last
judgment that is meant is indicated, for it is said it shall come frorn
afar, and to whom will ye flee for help? Natural men explain the
day of visitation as being the day of the captivity and desolation
of Jerusalem; but that it is th~i':lJ: of the last judgment can be
evident both from many sayings in the Divine Word and from
many other considerations; for the subject treate_d of is the rem­
nant, t~~i.! jo.r,._pea~::_and glor , andalso the king upon the throne
IV Ad. p. 23 39

of David who is to reign forever; and in no way did these things

come to pass. At the same time the text treats of the punishment
of the wicked, of the reward of the faithful, etc., etc.

5 Woe, 0 Asshur, the rod of mine anger; and the staff of mine
indignation is in their hand.
6 I will send him against ~n hypocri~ic~....Eation, . . .
7 Howbeit he will not think aright . . . for his heart will be
to destroy . . .
8 For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings?
9-11 . . . Is not Samaria as Damascus? As my hand hath
found the kingdoms of the idol; and their graven images from
Jerusalem and from Samaria; Shall I not, as I have done .unto
Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols?
1!2 But it shall come to pass, that when Adonai hath finished
all his work in mount Zion and in Jerusalem, I will make visitation
upon the fruit of the pride of heart of the king of Asshur, . . .
13 Because he hath said, In the strength of my hand I have
wrought, and by my wisdom; for I have understanding: therefore
I will remove the border of the peoples, and will plunder their treas- )
ures, and as a man of power will cast down the inhabitants:
14 As men gather eggs that are left, so shall I gather all
the earth, .
15 Shall the axe glory against him that cleaveth therewith?
. . . as if the rod moveth against them that lift it up; .
16 Therefore the Lord, Adonai Sabaoth, . . . shall kindle a
hearth, as the hearth of a fire.
17 And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One
for a flame: and it shall burn and devour his thorn and his brier
in one day;
18 And shall consume the glory of his forest, and his Carmel,
from the soul even to the flesh: . . .

7643.- Under the name of Asshur, these verses treat in general

of those 'Who afflict both churches, and s1!..ecifically of the modern
Babylonians, these being described. In the ultimate tense they
.. [Preceding this paragraph, the following is crossed off by the Author:]
Verses 5 to 19. The subject treated of is the house of God from which the
judgment will commence. The subject now is those who serve as instrum~ts'Jj
._ for E.~Il~s~~~ and afflicting; thus­
40 IV Ad. p. !l3
ISAIAH X: 5-~5 [7643

treat of"pje .4evil and !* 1\1

infernqlE:!wlwhic~e them a.r:..d..!!!!Ji:.f,h
also are
~ ca instry/,mezzt.y of 1JJ!nishment
_ amd therefore arrogate power
to themselves, etc. Asshur is called the rod of anger and the staff

of indignation (vs. 5) ; for God Messiah does not exercise anger

or punishment; but when he turns away, because they turn them­
selves away, thAt crew ruSlles upon them, and this accordin to the

deKree i!!.. whicE_~!t_e-YJ.grn away. It is attributed to God Messiah,

however, by reason of his authority, etc. Verse 6 tells who they
are, against whom the smiters are sent, namely, not the faithful but
the unfaithful. In verse 7 Asshur is described as thinking of noth­
ing 9 else than the exercise of punishment. His resultant pride is
described in verse 8. Verses 9 to 11 tell his tho~hts, that hewill)j
d~all things and ,subject them to himself, and declare himself
king of the universe.1.J!.~.J!idth~ kings of Babel. Thus he does not
will to spare the residue. That judgment will commence from the
house of God is told in verse 1~. He will then come to those who

C afflicted them, and they are punished because of their pride in the
pow~,'lnk th~~.~_~v.!:~~have. Then,..i~ a I~~ way,
verse 13 describes the Bab lonians that is all those who are meant \1
by t e Babylonians, and specifically the modern Babylonians, that
here as e sewhere ey a trl ute emytl1ing- t~-' th~mserves; and
yearn for the ossessions of others. Their counsel (vs. 14) is to
t~end that j%~J'._m~_~thj.SJ2..Q:w.:~.LC..9..D1inuany. In verse 15, it
is set forth that they have no power, any more than an ax, or rods,
-,:) and that thex::are mere ins~nts. Punis~ment JQJlc;L~s~ve
of self and cupidities ; and in verse 16, this punishment is compared
t~fi'~;:--Truth and goodness will themselves be a punishment to
( theII!. (vs. 17) ; hence their destruction (vs. 18).

~o But it shall be in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and

the escape of the house of Jacob, shall no more add to lean upon
their smiter; but shall lean upon Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel,
in truth.
~1 The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto
the mighty God.
~~ For . . . the consummation is. determined, righteousness
• Reading nihil aliud for aliud.
IV Ad. p. ~4 41

!'l3 For Adonai, J ehovih Sabaoth, maketh consummation, even

determination [in the midst of] 1 all the earth.
!e4 Therefore thus said Adonai, J ehovih Sabaoth, 0 my people
that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of Asshur; he shaH smite thee
with a rod, and shall lift up his staff over thee, in the way of Egypt.
!'l5 For it is yet a very little while, when the indignation shall
be consummated, and so mine anger against their destruction.

7644. That the remnant in Israel will then be adopted but the
number thereof will be determined, the others being consumed and
still to be consumed. The remnant will no longer fear either the
powers of men or the devil, these being the smiters, because the
instruments; but will cleave to God Messiah (vs. !'l0). The rem­
nant is called the house of J acob and the remnant of J acob (vs.
Q1), because the house of J acob, where was the temple, represented
heaven, as above [no 7579]. Moreover, the Messiah also is called
Jacob; he is said to be the Mighty Jacob, and he is everywhere rep­
resented by Jacob. That the number which shall be consumed was
determined, is clearly evident in verse !'l!'l and also elsewhere, as
that before the Amorites were consumed, the number of their crimes
was predetermined [Gen. 15 16 ], and so, frequently in other places.
This determined number, and indeed, in the entire globe, is further
trell;ted of in verse !'lS. Wherefore these remnants shall no longer
fear those who are meant by Asshur. In the way of Egypt (vs.
!'l4, and also vs. Q6) means the way of the people to the sea Suph
where they perished. Thus the same thing is signified by the
slaughter of the Egyptians. The consummation or desolation will
still persist (vs. Q5). It is also described in the Apocalypse.

!'l6 Then shall Jehovah [Sabaoth] 1 stir up a scourge for him

according to the plague of Midian at the rock Oreb: and his staff
shall be upon the sea, and he shall lift it up in the way of Egypt.
Q8 He shall come against Aiath, he shall pass over to Migron;

!'l9 They shall pass over Mabara: Geba is a lodging for us;
Hormah will tremble; Gibeah of Saul will flee.
30 Howl with thy voice, 0 daughter of Gallim: hearken, 0
Laish; Anathoth shall be in misery.
1 Omitted by Schmidius.
4!'l IV Ad. p. ~4
ISAIAH X: 9l6-39l-XI: 1-4 [7645-7646

31, 39l Madmenah shall wander; the inhabitants of Gebim shall

gather themselves . . . Is it not yet day to stand in Nob? . . .

7645. In what way the persecution still persisted until those

that remained were consumed and at the same time Babylon per­
ished. Thus many names occur here which have a signification in
the time of the last day; for these things never came to pass in the
land of Canaan. Each place has its own signification, respecting
which elsewhere, God Messiah granting. Concerning the final
( slaughters, see the Apocalypse, for they signify the state of the
church, that is, of faith.
1 And there shall go forth a rod from the stem of J esse, and a
shoot out of his roots shall bear fruit.
2 And the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the spirit of
wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the
spirit of knowledge and of the fear of J ehovah.
3 . . . he shall not judge at the sight of his eyes, neither seize
after the hearing of his ears:
4 But he shall judge the poor in righteousness, and seize with
equity the miserable of the earth: but he shall smite the earth with
the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay
.!:he wicked. .

7646. A clear prophecy concerning the advent of God Messiah;

also concerning 2 the last judgment in the end of days. The stock
that remains is called the stem of J esse (vs. 1) ; for the rest of the
tree with its branches perished. Therefore it is called a rod which
shall arise, and a shoot out of his roots, and this-i§.. the Messiah wh.o
is so~often treated of. He is described in verse 9l; and in verse 3,
it is said that he will judge, namely, will judge to life the poor in
( spirit and the miserable, but will smite the wicked with justice and
truth (vs. 4) ; for they to whom justice is not imputed perish of
their own justice and are condemned from the law of justice.
Z Swedenborg first wrote de Ad"ento Dei 1l'Iessiae ad ultimum jud·icum (con­

cerning the advent of God Messiah for the last judgment). Above the line, he
then added tum (also) to be inserted before ad. The translation is based on the
assumption that he inadvertently omitted to make the necessary change of ad
ultimum judicum to de ultimo judicio.
IV Ad. p. 25 43

~ Therefore the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the
leopard shall lie down with the kid; . . . And the bullock and the
bear shall feed; . . . And the sucking child shall play on the hole
of the viper, . . .
9 None that doeth evil, or corrupteth himself, shaH be in all
the mountain of my sanctuary: for the earth shall be full of the
knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea.
10 Therefore in that day the Gentiles shall seek the root of
Jesse, which shall stand for a sign of the peoples; and his rest shall
be glory.

7647. That there will then be a concord of all, nor 1Dill c1,(,pidi~
ties and evils any more be insistent. Whe1'efore inj1,(,ries will no
longer come from them. These verses treat of life in the mountain
of holiness, that is to say, of the life of those, especially in the other
life and in His kingdom, who are joined together by love of God
Messiah; for the enemies, that is, the devil's crew, which is signified
more especially by Asshur, will not come thither. Wherefore, by
the fierce animals which are with the mild are signified affections
which are quiescent and which bring in no harm. Each animal has
its own signification. It is added that there shall be rest, because
the earth is full of the knowledge of Jehovah (vs. 9] ; that is to say,
those who are in the land of Canaan, that is, in heaven, will be wise,
it being wisdom that is meant by knowledge. Hence peace and
rest (vs. 10),· for they all seek after God Messiah who is hcre
called the 1"00t of J esse and previously the" shoot out of his roots"
[vs. 1 J. The root of J esse is therefore faith. From these roots
will arise a shoot and from the trunk a rod; for thus, that is, by
means of faith, God Messiah is born, as it were, and lives in each
individual, etc., etc.

11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that Adonai shall add
his hand a second time to acquire the remnants of his people, which
were left by Asshur, and by Egypt, and by Pathros, and by Cush,
and by Elam, and by Shinar, and by Hamath, and by the islands
of the sea.
" The present comment on this verse is referred to by Swedenborg in a note
in his Schmidius' Bible at chapter 111.
44 IV Ad. p. ~5
ISAIAH XI: 6-14 [7648-7650

12 And he shall lift up a sign for the nations, and shall assem­
ble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of
Judah from the four wings of the earth.

7648. That then they will be gathered to God Messiah from the
whole globe. The enemies and the lands of the enemies are men­
tioned in verse 11, and by them are also meant false doctrines.
The sign (vs. 12) is faith in God Messiah, for it is said in verse 10
that the root of Jesse shall stand for a sign, and by Jesse there, is
meant God Messiah. By Israel are meant those who have under­
gone temptations and become victors; by Judah, those who confess
God Messiah. That Israel or Judah 3 was not thus gathered, is
known to everyone.

13 Then the envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the enemies of

Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah
shall not vex Ephraim.

7649. That there will then be no d'ifferences among those who

will be gathered together. By EphraiJrn are meant the two fructi­
fications, and consequently those who bear fruit, to wit, the fruit
of faith which is charity, and the fruit of charity, being the works
of the internal law. By Judah are meant those who confess God
Messiah, for by Ephraim are signified the gentiles who have lived
in innocence and have not known the Messiah. These then are the
two peoples [vs. 10], etc., etc.

14 But they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines to­
ward the sea; together shall they spoil the sons of the east: Edom
and Moab, shall be the sending of their hand; and the sons of Am­
mon their obedience.

7650. That many will be subjected to them, but they will be

those who are outside the borders of the heavenly Canaan. Men­
tion is made of the Philistine toward the sea, because there was the
border at the west. The sons of the east-at the east were the
Syrians and Chaldeans. Edom and M oab were also at the borders,
as likewise were the sons of Ammon. By these nations are meant
• The autograph has Israel (non) seu Is'rael non collectu8.
IV Ad. p. 26 45

various peoples who shall be driven out of heaven but who yet will
perform services to them. In the spiritual sense, similar services
which shall serve the celestial man, etc., are also meant.

15 But J ehovah . . . shall shake his hand over the river; 4 and
he shall smite it in the seven streams, and make a path with the
16 Then shall be an highway for the remnant of his people
which are left, from Asshur: like as it was to Israel through the
sea,6 when he went up out of the land of Egypt.

7651. That the remnant will go up in safety through the places

of the damned, that is, will be drawn out from damnation. The
Euphrates was a border like the sea Suph, for both were cut
asunder that the people might pass over. 6 The seven streams are
seven ages, and thus all the ages, from the first day of the new
creation to the last. They will go up who are called the remnant.

1, fl Therefore in that day thou shalt say, I will confess thee,
o Jehovah. . . . Behold, God is my salvation; I will confess, and
not be afraid: . . .
4 And in that day shall ye say, Confess Jehovah, call upon his
name, declare his works among the people, make mention that his
name is exalted.
5, 6 Sing unto J ehovah; . . . Cry out and shout, thou in­
habitant of Zion: for great in the midst of thee is the Holy One
of Israel.

7652. The confession and song of those who shall be in the

kingdom of God Messiah. All confession looks to the Holy One
of Israel. 'Wherefore it is here said I will confess Jehovah (vs.
1, 4). The song is also a confession, for in the last verse it is
said, Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, for great in the
midst of thee is the Holy One of Israel.
• Schmidius here adds the word Euphrates.
• The Hebrew is in the day, as in the A.V. The Hebrew for day is ~,~ and
for sea ~~ and it would appear, as with Schmidius, that the true reading in this
verse was ~~.
• See notes to nos. 3985, 400ll, 46!r.J.
46 IV Ad. p. fl6
ISAIAH XI: 15-16-XII: 1-6-XIII: 1-5 [7653-7655

7653. In this chapter from verse 1 to the end are described

t ~e
t dVf!.nts of God Messiah, that is, how he is to come; also the

~r.£..Jlf_t e dev station then, this also being described. At the

end of the chapter [vs. 19 seq.] is described the cfJ:Jl11J.l e devasta­

tion of those who are meant by the Babylonians.

1 The burden of Babel, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see.

fl Lift ye up a sign upon a high mountain; raise up the voice

unto them; shake the hand, that the gates of princes may come in.

S I have commanded my sanctified ones; I have also called my

heroes in mine anger, even those made glad at my magnificence.

4 The voice of a multitude is in the mountains, . . . a voice

of the tumult of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: . . .

5 They come from a land afar off, from the end of the heavens;

Jehovah, with the vessels of his anger, to destroy the whole land.

The burden is called the burden of Babel (vs. 1), from

the urden of a woman in travail, as in verse 8, etc. Thus, by

Babel are here meant all those who have been treated of previously.1

B.x Babel are meant, in general, all the enemies of the church of

GOQ'""'Messia III e en Ire globe; speCl ca , ws about the

tIme of {he lirsCadvent 0 God_Mess!a _who co~ even to the

( second advent. About the ti f the second advent of God Mes- \\ :)n-l
siah, the "'are more es eciall the Roman wrestlin schoo"f;i;;:the IJJ
ultimate sense, the infernal crew which now thinks itself to rule in
heaven, and whose lea er IS the devil. s
7655. What is describe inverses ~ to 5 is that the advent of

God Messiah is to be announced beforehand. This is signified by

the words which God Messiah himself said, to wit, that he will come

with angels, and these in clouds with trumpets [Matt. fl4 30 , 31].

The first advent was announced beforehand by miracles, thus by

Elias, and by many others. 9 The--.second...adYent is likewise to be

announced beforehand, this being what is meant i; the text. To

liT up a sign in a high mountain (vs. ~)-the sign is faith in God

T [Marginal note by the Author:] What Babel is.

• No. 7654 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
• Reading plur88 alio8 for plura alia (many other things).
IV Ad. p. ~7 47

Messiah,~~bove [n. 7648]; and to lift up a sign in a high

mountain is to preach the faith which has now died out. There­
fore the text adds, raise up the voice unto them, and this from a
high mountain, from heaven, that it may then be heard in every
direction. To shake the hand means to signify to them that they
should he x:ken. The sanctified ones are called together (vs. 3),
being those who are justified by the righteousness of God Messiah;
these are called holy. Here, as elsewhere, those are call~es
who have strength, that is, faith. They are made glad at the mag­
nific~nce-the magnificence is the kingdom of God Messiah, which
is frequently described by magnificence, this being a customary
word. In verses 4 and 5 is described the tumult thence arising,
being the tumult of those who are schismatics, etc., etc., etc.

6 Howl ye; for the day of 3ehovah is nigh; it shall come as a

devastation from the Lightning hurler.
7 Therefore all hands hang down, and every heart of man
8 And they shall be terrified; pangs and pains take hold of
them; they bring forth as a woman in travail: they are amazed, a
man toward his companion; faces of flames are their faces.
9 Behold, the day of 3ehovah cometh, cruel, and of indigna­
tion, . . .
10 For the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof
give not their light: the sun is darkened in his rising, and the moon
maketh not her light to shine.
11 . . . I will cause the haughtiness of the proud to cease, and
will humble the pride of the violent.
1~ I will make man precious above pure gold; and 1 of man
above the gold of Ophir.
13 Therefore I will shake the heaven, and the earth shall hasten
out of her place; in the indignation of 3ehovah Sabaoth, and in
the day of the burning of his anger.

7656. The day j.~ ni 11. (vs. 6) because the time when these
things shall come to pass will then be nigh. Thus the howl.
The comparison of these last times with devastation occurs every­

--- - -
where; and also the statement that there will ever where be terror
1 Schmidius here adds the words the son.
48 IV Ad. p. 27
ISAIAH XIII: 6-18 [7657

as of those who areJ~!rified by lightning, etc., to which the ter or

is ere likened; and this because to them he appears as the Light­
n~hurler (vs. 6, 7). Verses 8 and 9 treat of the last judgment
as it will take place in heaven and on earth. The comparisons are
taken from the pain of women in travail-and this because in their
mi~ . have inwardl cherished such offs ring; and also from
flames. Everything is here described by sinUJ..itJJ.des such as are
l represented in the heavens, and the signs whereof stand out in
men on earth. Hence the prophetic st)'le, etc., etc. The words
in verse 10 occur also elsewhere. That da)' is compared to a day
that is cloudy and greatly darkened; for a itch black cloud will J J
occu their minds, so that .' seeiVK-what truth is, what
goodness, etc. etc. The last judgment is set forth in verse 11,
and this by reason of the causes thereof. Verse 12 shows that then
there will be almost no faith save in the remnant spoken of before
[n. 7644]. In verse 13 the terror is again spoken of-a terror
arising from causes that are~w adduced.

14 And it shall be . . . as a flock having none to gather it;

they shall look back, a man to his people, . . .
15 Everyone that is found shall be thrust through; and every
one that is gathered together shall fall b)' the sword.
16 And their infants shall be dashed down before their eyes;
their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.
17 Behold, I will stir up against them, the Mede, which shall
not value silver; and shall not have delight in gold.
18 And their bows shall dash the young men down; and they
shall have no pity on the fruit of the belly; their eye shall not spare
the sons.

7657. The description of the terror and vastation is continUed)

in verse 14-that they no longer have a leader. So also in the
individual; each one looks to his own false doctrines. But,l~ok­
ing'thitherward, the)' will fall (-;s. 15)-.-Thet;xt then describes
in what wa they will di~. The comparison in verse 16 is taken
fr~ savagery in war. Their infants are the births which they
have brought forth fron:. t~Eir rinci les. Their hous~s are all

ithat the knowin t .Jng~piritual which they have formed from

thos-;-principles. Their wives are the passions which they love,
IV Ad. p. !8 49

etc. By the M ede (vs. 17) who is cruel is set forth the enemy.
So he is set forth by others according to times and places, etc.
These enemies are those who exercise revenge and punishment, and
who, being smiters, hold nothing in esteem. Here silver and gold
are taken in both senses. After this, in verse 18, mention is made
of the enemy, the smiter, and then what was said in verse 16 is
repeated, though with some difference..

19 Thus Babel, . . . shall be as the overthrowing by God,2

Sodom and Gomorrah.
910 It shall not be inhabited to eternity, . . . and the Arabian
shall not abide there, . . .
n But ziyim shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of
ochim; and the daughters of the night owl shall dwell there, and
satyrs shall dance there.
9l9l And ziyim shall give answer in her palaces, and dragons in
palaces of delights. But her time is near to come, and her days
shall not be prolonged.

7658. In respect to Babel, see verse 1. Its overthrow is de­

scribed, as being like the overthrow of Gomorrah and Sodom (vs.
19), and this for the like crimes in both senses. Their complete
devas.tation is described., in verse 9l0, and likewise th~ devastation. of
}tthe kmgdom of the dev~l m<:>re eXEressly m th.~_011owmg
c~r. ""The Arabian was a man who journeyed from place to
place and made his abode anywhere, as do many who pitch their
tent in whatsoever place they come to. Thus they do not remain.
Consequently neither do those who waver in their doctrine and
wander hither and thither, remaining nowhere. Ziyim and ochim
(vs. 9l1) are birds of night; consequently, in minds, they are the
like thi~ __~hich terrify and so which dwell in the wilderness.
Palaces (vs. 9l9l) are the magnificent things in their doctrine which
they have so greatly extolled. There shall dwell night birds, that
is, the things which are meant by birds of night, being evil_s-p-irits
who wish to live only in shade,--rlc. As to its being--sa:idthat the
time is near, this has been said from the first time to this last. The
reason is, because it is near in each time and thus in every single
individual; for with those who die there is no time to the last judg­
• Here Scbmidius adds wllereby he oV6,'threw.
50 IV Ad. p. ~8
ISAIAH XIII: 19-~~XIV: 1-8 [7659-7660
ment. The time was also believed to be near at hand by the Apos­
tles ; and it was so stated in order that they might be ever prepared;
for were man to know the time when the thief will come, then he
would take precautions, etc. [Matt. ~443, Luke 1~39], by his own
prudence. In the sight of man, universal periods appear to be
long, etc., etc.
1 For J ehovah will have mercy on J acob, and will choose Israel
anew; that he may set them upon their land: and the stranger shall
cleave to him, and join himself to the house of J acob.
~ And the peoples shall take them, and bring them to their own
place: and the house of Israel shall hold them for an inheritance
upon the land of Jehovah, for servants and handmaids: that they
may take captives, those which captured them, and have dominion
over their oppressors.
8 And it shaH come to pass in the day that J ehovah shall give
thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy commotion, and from the
hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve,

7659. After their captivity, as after temptations, Israel will re­

turn to rest; and this in general and also in particular.
7660. The discourse concerns J~b (vs. 1) because it is by
him that the representation is effectZcr.' He was led into captivity
and was delivered therefrom, and this many times. Therefore
when the first church of God Messiah is meant, which was insti­
tuted in J acob, then J acob is mentioned; and therefore it is said
that God Messiah also became J~. But in almost every case
the name Israel is added, and indeed with a notable difference [be­
s= ....- - ­
tween the two] ; and this in order that a wrestler may be under­
stood, ]leing one woo has been tempted; for when a man has Imf­
fered temptations, etc., then, from being J~b, he becomes IsraeJ.3
As to what the return to tlle-Tallif01 Canaan signifies, tl~ the
reader may see in many places above, as, for instance, when Jacob
returned from Egypt to the land of Canaan, and so likewise from
other captivities, and finally from the captivity by Babel, which is
here foretold but which involves the same thing. After the advent
of God Messiah, he could no longer be brought back, and therefore
3 This sentence is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. ~9 51

others then followed who carried the signification. These things

are what are meant by the prophets in the more interior sense, etc.,
etc. The stranger is treated of in the next following verse.
7661. Here as above [chap. 11 14 ], it is strangers who will serve
t~~~ (vs. ~) ~ beingortIiOs-e~I~ofiy reasonoTTgn~nce are norof
the faith in God Messiah; for it is evident from various passages
that many will come in from other places. Those who entered into
- - ~ a covenant with the people J acob, and yet served t em, ~treated
of lilii1ai1ypIaces. They WIll thus lie t 1I1gs of service; for-;her­
ever there is dominion, there are things which serve, but as hand­
maids and servants. He~e this is indicated in plain words. Else­
where, as above (chap. 11 14 ), these strangers are said to dwell in
the borders of the land of Canaan. \'Vhat is meant in the spiritual
sen~bs these things Qf service may also be seen above [no 4498],
to wit, cupidities. Thus, in the universal ~se, those will be se~'v-
ants to others who are still led by passions and affections _which are
JJ I not heavenly, etc., etc. The words in verse :'3 have regard to t e
verses which follow, and which show how they will then speak con­
cerning those who are meant by Babe!.

4 That thou shalt utter this parable concerning the king of

Babel, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the lust for gold
5 J ehovah hath broken the staff of the wicked, the rod of the
6 He . . . that ruled the nations in anger, suffereth persecu­
tion, without 4 may hinder.
7 The whole earth is at rest, quiet: they resounded with a
shout of joy.
8 The oak trees also rej oice because of thee, the cedars of
Lebanon; since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.
9 Hell from beneath is moved because of thee to meet thee at
thy comiilg: it hath stirred up the Rephaim because of thee, even
all the powerful ones of the earth; it hath made all the kings of the
nations rise up from their thrones.
10 All make answer and say unto thee, Art thou also become
weak as we? art thou become like unto us?
11 Thy magnificence is sent off into hell, the tumult of thy
• Schmidius here adds the words anyone who.
52 IV Ad. p. ~9
ISAIAH XIV: 4-~'1 ['1661

harps: the worm is spread under thee, and the little worm covereth
1~ How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the
dawn! thou art cut down to the earth; thou art become weak be­
low the nations.
13 And thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into the
heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of heaven: 5 I will
sit also in the mount of assembly in the sides of the north.
14 I will ascend above the heights of the cloud; I will be like
the most High.
15 Yet thou shalt be sent down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee [shall narrowly look upon thee] ,6 shall
consider thee: Is this the man that made the earth to shake, king­
doms to tremble?
17 He hath made the world into a wilderness, and destroyed its
cities; he opened not the hOllse of his prisoners?
18 All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lay down with
glory, a man in his own house.
19 But thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre; as an abom­
inable shoot, the raiment of those that are slain, those thrust
through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as
a carcase trodden under feet.
~o Thou shalt not be joined with them in the sepulchre; for
thou hast destroyed thy land, thou hast slain thy people: the seed
of evildoers shall not be mentioned to eternity.
~1 Prepare slaughter for his sons because of the iniquity of
theil' fathers; that they rise not again, and possess the land, and
the faces of the land be filled with cities.
~~ For I will rise up against them, the saying of Jehovah Sa­
baoth, and will cut off' from Babel the name, and residue, and son,
and grandson, the saying of J ehovah.
~3 I will also make her a heritage for the bittern, and pools of
waters; and I will overturn her with besoms of destruction, the say­
ing of Jehovah Sabaoth.
~4, 25, 2'1 Jehovah Sabaoth hath sworn, . . . That I will
break Asshur in my land, and trample him upon my mountains
. . . For Jehovah Sabaoth hath decreed, and who shall disannul
it? . . .
• The Hebrew is God.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. ~9 53

7662. .:I'!!~!'Lv!...!!!:.gain t!..~~.!-!!f lli!l2!l. Heu, by Babel is

m,!!!:!!.~_!!!!!!.~._especia:!!:JL the devil, that he was cast out from heaven,
this being also according ~oJf.!e pro~qfJ~hn_8:\. oc. a 9 J.
7663. This parable is spoken of the king of Babel (vs. 4).
Thus there is a sLmilitudEl._'tith the. Babylonian__captivity, from
which t~ were afterwards delivered. But the similitude is fur­
ther extended tQol11o.~._~everal things which are meant by Babel,
and especially to the faet-th-;'t-tiJ° rrl is ~onguere<Lkth~ho
h~~~!J_e.~.!!.. tempted-bu.t it i.8. by 0 'fessiah. Therefore the sub­
ject here specially treated of is the victory after temptations, for
thus that which was previously spoken of is continued. The para­
ble is taken from one wh.<?l!as-!..~d\!ced~hem j&~ude and made
s~ of all their riches, as was done by the king of Babel and fre­
quently by others, at which times they made spoil of everything.
Being brought to a stand, he can now have no lU!1.f.2Lgp~he
goods of man. The staff (vs. 5))s power, and so likewise the rod
by w}!ich p~!1ishment also is signified. 'Vith respect to Babel and
the things which are meant by Babel, her punishment is described
in verse 6. Therefore, in verse 7, the text continues, that after he
has fallen in the way described, then the earth is at rest, that is,
men have peace; this is their shout of joy.
7664. [The oak t1"eeS also rejoice because of thee, the cedars of
Lebanon; since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us],
vs. 8. They who shout and rejoice are not only the cedars in Leb­
anon but also the oak trees there; for Lebanon is likened to a para­
disaical garden, the trees there being great cedars and also oaks
which are trees of a lower sort; other interpreters,7 however, have
fir trees which are a species of cedars. These also were in use in
the construction of the tent of assembly and of the temple of Jeru­
salem. Look up the Hebrew text. s That no feller came up is a
further description of their rest.
7665. [Hell from beneath is moved because of thee to meet thee
at thy coming], vs. 9. By hell is meant the whole infernal crew,
whose leader is th d viI. lis crew was lkewise cast down, for it
i;""said in the nex~e, " Art thou also become weak as we? art
1 Namely, Tremellius, Pagnini, the Vulgate, the Swedish Bible and the A.V.

Castellio has pine tj·ees.

8 The Hebrew is r.;,i~ the exact meaning of which is not known. The LXX
translates it sometimes cyprua and less often cedm' and oak. Perhaps the word
comprised several kinds of trees.
54 IV Ad. p. 80
ISAIAH XIV; 4-11 [7666-7668
thou become like unto us?" Thus by the king of Babel, what is 1
here specifically treated of is the devil. Hell embraces all thos~
who st le themsel:fes km sand :r.rinces of the universe, thus, all
( the yrou.d. As to how all these now address their leader, this fol-
lows in the series.
'1666. [All make answer and say unto thee, Art thou also be-
come weak as we? art tho7t become like unto us?], vs. 10. This
means that he has become weakened, in whom nevertheless they
placed their hope because of his st·ng. ~ one in hell ac-))
knowledges his leader who theY- t k-I2rince, for the call
themselves lord.-£! the univers~, nay, Jehovah, an also the 01
S irit; and so far as pow~is left each individual he sur es
u~d I!!.Qre and more. But because power is not given to
any of them save a few, theJ:ef.on the..y acmQ..wledge tbese-kw
as their princes and kin s. These princes 9 say that they adore
Jehovah, but such is the insanity infused by some that the st le
themselves God of the universe, and so w O'e wa with those who
adore ~od Messiah. Bu0.-ilioulLbe2elating marvels ~ I J]
[to tell more] .c~ncerning: these princely spirits, etc. etc., by
reason of the end that there will be as many genera and as many
species of spirits as there are enii and human natural minds,
etc. I is he§e_then who now address the devil,
he has deceived them 1

7667. [Thy magn'ificence is sent off into hell, . . . the worm is

spread under thee, and the little worm covereth thee], vs. 11. Here
is described how th jl is now cast down. He is called the devil
who is the ~of all; ~-~~il itself, as also he is called; in
whom is nothing of good; whose soul is earthl.. That he is cast
down to the earth is here ;;ignified by crawling things and worms
which are deep in the earth. Therefore it is also said that their
worm shall not die [chap. 66 24 ] because theirs is an....eart souP
766 [How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the
dawn! thou art cut down to the earth; thou art become weak below
• Reading principos for principatus (principalities). See Table of Contents
in loco; but see n. 7668 fin.
~The in.dented-PJlrt of n. 7666 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, s.v., Dii, Jehovah, Odium, Spi,'itus; and, together with n. 7776,
s.v., Genius. See Table of Contents.
• No. 7667 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 31 55

the nations. And thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into
the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of heaven: S I will
sit also in the mount of assembly, in the sides of the north. . . . 1
will be like the most High. Yet thou shalt be sent douJn to hell, to
the sides of the pitJ, vs. 12-15. 'What was just said is now con­
firmed. He is called Lv,cifer and the son of the dawn because he so
called himself, to wit, that he went before them as Lucifer 4 ~s
( before the sun when it rises, h~.J?ein~ their leader and standard
bearer. That he was cast down, is expressed thus: C'lLt down to the
earth where is the worm which will devour him, that is, the pangs of
conscience, this being the worm in the spiritual sense. The naii.<>ns

I were called b them the uncircumcised wh n th t'V to des ruc­

}~ as we ~ad in many places. --- Here, t erefore, the lowest ofall
are signified, ~at they are below the lowest. Things inferior
are circumstanced according to the degree of evil in hell. In~e
13 is the finest description of his ride and his strivinO", to wit that
[ h~ished to posses~l.:!eavelU! be in the place of th~ GPd of.lhe
universe and thus above all the heavens; for it is said he wishes to
ascend into the heavens, above-tile ~ars of heaven, etc. The mount
of assembly is heaven where all angels assemble, thus assembling in
Jerusalem, in mount Zion. In the sides of the north-perhaps the
temple of Jerusalem was there. Moreover, Babel was at the north
of the land of Canaan, etc., etc. In verse 14, his pride is contin­
ued, and his boas:!;jng before those who are -called hell, where are
thos~ powerfut on~s and principalitie~ spoken of in v~s~ 9.' - H;is
cast down into darkness, to the sides of the pit (vs. 15), that is to
say, where is darkness. Hell also is called a pit and a sepulchre.
There he will sit at the sides, bound, etc.
7669 [They that see thee, shall consider thee: Is this the man
that -;;ade the earth to shake kin d s to trmnble?J, vs. 16. This
shows how that they now cast invectives against him because he de­
ceived them. In the_spirituI\.l ~ e prid~or lov~f, ava­
ric or lov _of t~ld, this love, so c!tlled, being puffed u by
\the devil_by mea~ Qi his~rR..w. Thence arises al(- ride. His
words are bo~ul. In verse 17 are set forth the things ~
'done, and of w ich he ma, that he.1wtJL~the

j \w~to--;;-wilderness,that is, has stolen1 awa all faith in God

iw~h; and so a ~ the citi~.2 E!p,dS9J1Se uentl

, The Hebrew is God.

< Lucifer is one of the names given to Venus, the morning star.

56 IV Ad. p. 32
ISAIAH XIV: 1~-~1l [7670-7671

(~illds. Nor did he release his prisoners; for all those belonging
to him were called prisoners or captives.
7670. [All the kings of the nations . .. lay down with glory .
. . . But thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre; as an abom­
inable shoot, the raiment of those that a1'e slain, those thrust
th1-ough with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as
(t, W1'case trodden under feet. Thott shalt not be joined with them
in the sepulchre; fo!.. thou lwsCdeslroyed thy land, thou hast..!.!Em
thy people: thfLseed....Qi ~viJ:doers E!:.a~l not be mentioned to eternity],
vs. 18-~O. Here the comparison is taken fromtho~e who r~mllin
in the sepulchre and those who are cast out from the sepulchre; for
they who had been defiled were taken out of the sepulchre and
thrown on the ground to be trampled on as the mire. This was the
case with many in Bethel at the time of J osiah [1 Kings 13 2 ;
~ Kings ~31u-20]. To be cast forth out of the sepulchre was an-'
utte' bo ination. Therefore, because he is below the nations [vi.
l~J, that is, be QF the lo~ t, and these lowest remain in their sepul­
chres, while he was cast out of the sepulchre, as the com}larison
oes; so.J:!is damnation is greater than the damnation oJ others.
F~r this reasoILhe is called an abominable shoot, the raiment of
those that are slain, who were thrust through with the sword, and
were outside the sepulchre, as was Jezebel [Q Kings 9: 36, 37], etc.,
and who, after being trampled under foot, are let down into the pit,
etc. He will not be . oined with for the reasQn-lliat he has
destroyed the land a~d s~il!J~e eople. He is called also the seed
o evil aoers.
7671. [Prepare slaughter for his sons because of the iniquity of
their fathers; that they rise not again, and possess the landJ, vs. 9l1.
Because those who remain are now treated of, and these are called
~S!lllSrbeing of his s~ed, therefore it is all the wicked w~ ~ow
meant. These are called his sons. As to w 0 are specifically
~t here, this cannot well be said, but it is known that they are

those whose fathers were wicked men and idolaters. They of whom

it is said that they shall not rise again and possess the land, are

they who are specifically meant by Babel about the time of the

first advent of God Messiah, see above n. 7654, 7663] ; for then

( first is he cast down because deprived of power. Later, however,

he is somewhat loosened; see the Apocalypse [9l0 1- 3 ]. It seems,
IV Ad. p. 32 57

therefore, that it is these who are meant by Babel in the verse that
now follows.
7672. [For I 7uill rise up against them, the saying of J ehova.h
Sabaoth, and will cut off from Babel the name, and residue, and
son, and grandson, the saying of J ehovah], vs. 22. It is said that
Jehovah would rise up against them, and immediately afterwards,
that he will cut off from Babel the name and residue, and son and
grandson, thus that whole stock. This, moreover, was done; for
all faith in God Messiah and so all intelli~nce and wisdom was then
taken away from them. That such sons are to be cut off is con­
firmed by the repetition of the words The saying of J ehovah, which
are repeated a third time in verse 23.
7673. [I will also make her a heritage for the bittern, and pools
of waters: and I will overturn her with besoms of destruction, the
saying of J ehovah Sabaoth] , vs. 23. This verse describes where
his heritage will be, to wit, in pools of waters where are bitterns
(see the Hebrew text). 5 To overturn with besoms means, to over­
turn it so that nothing may remain, as when dust is turned over,
etc. This is confirmed in verses 24 to 27.
28 '" In the year that king Ahaz died was this prophecy made:
29 Be not glad, whole Philistia, because the rod of him that
sriJiteth thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth
a basilisk; and his fruit a flying prester.
30 And the first born of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall
lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall
slay thy remnant.
31 Howl, 0 gate; cry out, 0 city; Philistia is melted; thou the
whole; for from the north cometh smoke; nor is there a solitary
one in his assemblies.
3fl VVhat then shall he answer, the messenger of the nation?
• Authorities greatly differ as to the meaning of "lDi' (here, and also in the
Author's theological works, translated bittern). Pagnini, Castellio, the Vulgate,
and the Swedish Bible have hedgohog,' Tremellius and Schmidius and the A.V.,
bittern. Robertson (Thes. Ling. Sanct.) discreetly says that" it is the name of
a bird, to us unknown."
* Guided by the sense of the words, both Schmidius and Tremellius here de­
part from the Hebrew numeration and make verses 28-32 of chapter 14 consti­
tute the whole of chapter 15; and incorporate chapter 15 of the Hebrew in their
chapter 16, verses 1-9, making that chapter consist of 23 verses instead of 14 as
in the Hebrew. The translation follows the Hebrew numeration which is re­
tained in the A.V.
58 IV Ad. p. 33
ISAIAH XIV: 2~-3~ [7674-7675
That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and the miserable of his people
sh;lrhav~ h~p-; in her.
7674. These verses treat of th.QH~~whichhave their abode
with the interE.E!.!...nan 6 and continually infesthim. and whi~h must
be purged away.
7675. At that time the Philistines had dominion also over the
land of Canaan, but Hezekiah, the son of Ahaz, put them to flight,
as stated in the Books of the Kings [2 Kings 188 ] and the Chron­
icles [2 Chron. 28 18 ]. This is the proximate meaning of their not
being glad at the death of Ahaz. But by Philistia or the fhilis-\
tines are meant those things which have their ab£-<i~~!ih the jn­
ternal man, and continuali infest him; for it i; well known that
the external man is to be subjugated and must serve the internal.
In this way they can dwell together. Meanwhile there is continual
combat until the things [spoken of] are reduced into order.
Therefore ever since the time of Abraham and Isaac this is what is
meant in the spiritual sense b the Philistines. T erefore Abra­
ham, and afterward Isaac, after many disputes concerning the
fountains of waters, entered into a covenant with Abimelech, king
of the Philistines. Later, many things came to pass with respect
to the Philistines which involve the same things, to wit: There was
a war of Saul with the Philistines, and later, when Saul had been
perverted by them, he succumbed. But David, who in the inmost
~~nse re resented the i~!.~~_~ man, conquered them in many bat­
tles and su Jugatedthem. 7 After this ~~~ freguentlY_I.:~_~led.
Therefore, in the Prophets, in many passages, as in Isaiah 11 14 ,
Ezekiel 25 16 , Zephaniah 2 5 , by the Philistines are meant those who
dwell at the border of the sea, that is, as above [n. 7048], i~e
c~.t! iscences of the body, these ~~i~g the §.ea; for these con­
cupiscences are to be cast toward the borders of the sea and, when
subjugated, will be of service. From this it can be evident that
the like things occur in societies; for society is formed as a body
wherein the like things occur in resp~t to the siate.-of their church.
F-;':om th;d-;cription of th;;_~l!i!i~tines it can thus be eVide~ho
t~~~~jn the bog.y_of fuLch'y_rch, namely, those who are contin-)
ually_jnj~tingJ.hl::__ ~_hl!rch. of ~e _tEye_ f;~th, and with wh~re ,
• Reading lwmine for hominia.
, This middle part of n. 7675 is emphasized by .. Obs" Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 33 59

continual combats; Ilnd so, those who infest the residue. Thus,
these words apply to every single society of the church, both primi­
tive and modern, in general and u}1i~sally. There are Philistines
everywhere; it is among them that those live who belong to the
( church of God Messiah.
7676. Therefore the external man or the things of the external
man, being variously smitten by the internal, that is, by those
things which are called a conscience arising from knowledges out
of the Word of God Messiah, is made lad when it sla s that which
smites it (vs. ~9) ; for he thinks that he can then live at rest, and
indulge in his cupidities. The gerpent's root is hereditary evil.
( The basilislc or haemm'rhoid 8 is the serpent which continually bites
. into. that which.is__bor_n_()l.l:!.er_~<Jitary evil. Its fruit is what is
called a flying prester,9 being th~vil thoughts which spring out
from that root, for which reason they are called its fruit. The
flying prester,9 being his frnit, are all the evils which come there­
from and so consume him. Therefore, in verse 30 it is said that
this root and also the remnant will be killed with famine. Thus
they could no longer infest the internal man, but will be subju­
gated. Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed. These are the
things which are of faith, things which are of faith being called
the firstbo1"n. The poor are those who are called poor in a spir­
itual sense. Thus they will live in peace, this being expressed by
the needy who lie down in safety.
7677. Thus Philistia will be conquered and will howl (vs. 31).
Here as elsewhere, this is expressed by gate and city, and by the
melting of the heart. The smoke from the north means the dark­
ness which will come from the northern part of the land of Canaan
where are mere shades, the kingdom of Babel being there. As to
what is meant by a solitary one in his assemblies, look up the He­
brew text,1 Verse 3~ means that they will then acknowledge that
.Jehovah has founded the church; but, God Messiah granting, these
matters might come out more clearly at another time.
8 For Schmidius' basilisk, TrernelIius has haemo·rrhoid.
• See n. 7339 note.
1 Schmidius' translation of the Hebrew is literally correct, but Swedenborg's

desire to consult the Hebrew was probably aroused by the curious translation by
Tremellius, which is: N01' will anyone by himself look to himself in his com­
panies. Equally variant are the other translators. Castellio has none being ab­
sent in his assemblies; the Vulgate, there is none who shall flee his 1'ank; Pagnini,
there shall not be a solitary one in his times; the A.V., none shall be alone in his
appointed times, and the Swedish Bible, none is alone in his tent.
60 IV Ad. p. 34
ISAIAH XIV: ~9-3~-XV: 1-9 [7678


1 The burden of Moab. Surely in the night AI' is laid waste,

Moab is cut off. Surely in the night leir of Moab is laid waste,
[is cut offJ.2
5i!, He is gone up to Baj ith, and to, Dibon, the high places, to
weep over Nebo, and over Medba: Moab shall howl: on all his heads
is baldness, every beard is shaved.
3 In his streets they shall gird themselves with sackcloth: upon
her housetops, and in her streets, everyone shall howl, going down
into weeping.
4 And Heshbon cried out, and Elealeh: their voice was heard
even unto Jahza. Therefore the armed men of Moab shouted; his
soul shall be sick unto him.
5 My heart crieth out over Moab; his fugitives unto Zoar, as
an heifer of three years: for as to the going of Luhith, he shall go
up therein with weeping; for in the way of Horonaim they shaH
raise up a cry of breaking.
6 For the waters of Nimrim shall be desolations: for the grass
is dried up, the herb is consumed, the kitchen herb 8 is not.
7 Therefore the abundance they have gotten, and that which
they have laid up; they shall carry them off upon the torrent of
tne willows.
8 For the cry is gone round about the border of Moab; the
howling thereof unto Eglaim, and the howling thereof unto Beer­
9 Because the waters of Dimon are full of blood: for I will
bring added things upon Dimon; a lion upon the escape of Moab,
and upon the remnant of the land.

7678. [The burden of Moab. SU1'ely in the night Ar is laid

waste, Moab is cut off. Surely in the night Kir of Moab is laid
waste J, vs. 1. As to what Moab signifies, this cannot as yet be evi­
dent except that one can gather something from the passages per­
tinent to Moab, and from this can make some deduction; as, for
instance, that he was the firstborn of Lot (Gen. 1937 ) ; that when
the people passed over Jordan, they sat down in the plains of Moab
* See note to verse 28 of the previous chapter.

% Omitted by Schmidius.

3 See n. 7683 note.

IV Ad. p. 34 61

where Jericho was in sight; that it was Moab together with Midian
who led Balaam to curse the people, and that Balaam then prophe­
sied that a Star from Jacob and a Sceptre from Israel would dash
to pieces the corners of Moab (Num. ~417) ; that the people com­
mitted whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and worshipped the
Baal of Moab, for which reason many of them were slain (Num.
~5[1-(1) ; that it was then commanded that Moab should not be
distressed because his land would not be for an inheritance (Deut.
~(18], 19); that nevertheless Moab gave passage to the people
(ibid. vs. ~9) ; that it was there that Moses died and was buried
(ibid. 34 6 ) ; that in that region the Reubenites, the Gadites, and
half the tribe of Manasseh were allotted their inheritance, for
which reason it is their land and their cities (as I think) which are
principally mentioned in this chapter; (yet this land is also called
the land of Moab, for the Amorites took it from Moab [Num.
~126. 28], while the land which Jacob's descendants took was taken
from the king of the Amorites) ; furthermore, that the Israelites
served Moab eighteen years (Judg. 3 12 se q .) ; that David conquered
Moab, with whom he had previously hidden in the cave of Adullam
(1 Sam. ~~1-5, ~ Sam. 8 2 ) ; that Moab was wholly beaten by three
kings, to wit, by J ehoram, king of Israel, by J ehoshaphat, king of
J udah, and by the king of Edom, in accordance with the utterance
of Elisha (Q Kings 3 1 - 17 ) ; that Mesha, king of Moab, offered his
firstborn for a whole burnt sacrifice (ibid., vs. ~7) ; that Moab was
one of the borders of the land of Canaan, mentioned above by
Isaiah 11 14 •
7679. From the above passages it can be deduced that Moab
signifies those who place righteousness in the works of the law,
and so put their trust in themselves. Therefore Reuben and Gad
and also half the tribe of Manasseh obtained their inheritance there,
and thus outside the land of Canaan; 4 (and in chapters 15 and 16,
it is mainly places belonging to the tribes of Reuben and Gad that
are mentioned;) but the passage [into the land] was the Jordan;
for when the internal law is separated from the external, it is such
trust in one's own powers that remains. As to what is meant by
the whoredom of the people with the daughters of Moab, see what
• [Marginal note by the Author marked" Obs., Obs.":] Because Reuben was
the firstborn and likewise Manasseh, but both lost the birthright, therefore it is
Jacob who is now meant by the firstborn who were in this land [Conf. chapter
1430 ].
6~ IV Ad. p. 35
ISAIAH XV: 1-4 [7680-7681

has been said at that passage en.

7405 seq.]. With regard to AI'
of Moab, see my Excerpta. 5 That it was fitting to Moab, that
they were laid waste in the night, follows from the night in which
they are living, being the night of the external man without the
internal; day comes from the internal man, that is, by means of the
internal man.
7680. [He is gone up to Bajith, and to Dibon, . . . to weep
over Nebo, and over Medba; Moab shall howl: on aU his heads is
baldness, every bea,rd is shaved. In his streets they shall gird
themselves with sackcloth: upon her housetC?ps, and in her streets,
everyone shall howl], vs. 9!, 3. Dibon, being a land of cattle, was
the inheritance of Gad (Num. 39!3, 34).6 Dibon was the inheritance
of Reuben 7 (Josh. 13[9], 17). Nebo was the inheritance of the
Reubenites (Num. 39!3, 38) ; it was near the plain of Moab where
Moses died (Deut. 34 1 se q .; and elsewhere, see the Collecta 8).
Medba or Medeba 9 also was the inheritance of Reuben (Josh.
13 16 ). The head being shaved, and also the chin, signifies that it
is bare, its bareness being thus set forth. A like formula of speech
concerning a shaved head was frequently in use [to denote] that
there was no internal there. The streets of a city are like the
streams of a river. As it is in the house, so shall it be everywhere
in the city; for the one follows from the other. By sackcloth is
everywhere signified a state of mourning.
7681. [And Heshbon cried out, and Elealeh: their voice was
heard even unto J ahza. Therefore the armed men of M oab
shouted; his soul shall be sick unto him], vs. 4. H eshbon was the
inheritance of Reuben (Num. 39!3, 37, J osh. 13 17 ). It was ceded to
the Levites or Merarites (ibid. 9!1 39 ). That land as far as Diboll
was taken from Moab by the Amorite (Num. 9!1 27-30) ; but the peo­
• See Appendix, s.v., Al'.
• The autograph has Numbers 39: 3, 4, but this is clearly a slip for 39: 3, ~t,
as seen in Relandus's Palestina (p, 546), a copy of which was in Swedenborg's
library, and which he consulted when writing the present text.
7 Relandus, in his Palestina (p. 546), says: "Dibon. A city inhabited by
the trihe of Gad, is said by Moses, Num. 3;Ja, 34, J osh. 13 9 ,17, to have been gh'en
to the Reubenites. Some cities situated in the portion of the tribe of Reuben
were afterwards inhabited by the Gadites. Hence it is that sometimes we read
of some cities given to the Reubenites, of which it is written in another passage
that they were inhabited by the Gadites."
• See Appendix, s.v., Nebo.
• Tremellius spells the word thus and, in Joshua 13 16, Schmidius also.
IV Ad. p. 36 63

pIe Jacob took it from Sihon, the Amorite king of Heshbon (Num.
~1[24],31). Elealeh was also an inheritance of Reuben (Num.
3~3. 37). J ahza likewise was an inheritance of Reuben (Jash.
1318 ), It is clear, therefore, that the subject here treated of is
the Reubenites, and by them, the people of Jacob who adored the
law in externals, in that they shouted there; and their soul shall be
7682. [My heart c1'ieth out ove1' Moab; his fugitives unto Zoar,
as an heifer of three years: for as to the going up of Luhith, he
shall go up therein with weeping; for in the way of H oronaim they
shall raise up a cry of breaking], vs. 5. Zoar (the little city) 1
was the city whither Lot fled from Sodom (Gen. 19 22 ,23,3°). It
is described in Genesis 1310, 14 2 ,8. VVherefore what is said here,
namely, that they were fugitives from Sodom to Zoar, has regard
t.o Lot. As an heifer of three years. Respecting the heifer of
three years which was burned outside the camp that its ashes might
be of service, see Numbers 19; but see whether those words har­
monize with the present text, or whether this was another heifer in
place of it, [The expression] is borrowed from the shouting
of the heifer of service on the third day [being the day of the Last
Judgment] ; 2 therefore the three years, etc. As concerns Luhith
and H oronaim, the meanings are as yet hidden. H oronaim 3 is
Beth-Horon (respecting which, see Joshua 1010) where [five
kings] were slain, Hence what is asked for is their slaughter, the
subject treated of being the cutting of them off.
7683. [For the waters of Nimrim shall be desolations: for the
grass is dried up, the herb is consumed, the kitchen he1'b is not.
Therefore the abundance they have gotten, and that which they
have laid up; they shall ca1'ry them off upon the torrent of the wil­
lows], vs. 6, 7. Nimrim was a river by the city of Nimrah which
was in the land of Moab. It went to the Gadites (Num. 3~3, 36;
J ash. 13 27 ). The subject treated of here and in the remaining
1 The words in parentheses are Schmidius' translation of the word ZOal' in

Genesis 1922.
2 The addition in brackets is made on the basis of what the Author says of

this verse in his Index BibUcus, s.v., 'l'1'e.y, namely: An heifer of three years
stands for the natural mind laid waste; it is so expressed from the third day,
being the time of the Last Judgment.
• In the margin of his Schmidius' Bible at this verse, Swedenborg gives the
reference J er. 4-8: 3, 5 referring to Horonaim.

64 IV Ad. p. 36
ISAIAH XV: 5-9 [7684-7685
verses of the chapter, is their waters, that they will be desolations.
By waters are meant things spiritual. [In the Word,] rivers, for
the most part, are taken which are at the borders; thus, in the pres­
ent case, the river which forms a border in the inheritance of Gad.
When things spiritual and celestial are lacking, the grass dries up
and the herb is. consumed so that there is not even a kitchen herb
such as is accounted lowly; 4 thus nothing green. As to what is
meant by the torrent of the willows whither they will carry away
that which is laid up, see the Hebrew text. s The place whither
they seek flight is here set forth, and [it is said] that they trans­
ferred their things thither.
7684. [For the cry is gone round about the border of Moab;
the ho'Wlvng thereof unto Eglaim, and the howling thereof unto
Beer-eli·m], vs. 8. The cry is from the mourning which is contin­
ued by the heifer of three years [vs. 5]. Eglaim seems to have
been in the wilderness, as was Beer-elim, that is, the fountain of
Elim (for there were twelve fountains in Elim) to which place they
came from Marah (Exod. 15 27 ). The wilderness of Sin was be­
tween Elim and Sinai (Ex od. 161 ). From Elim they journeyed
to the sea Suph (Num. 3310 • 11 ). How far the cry will reach, can
thus be inferred.
7685. [Becaltse the waters of Dimon are full of blood: for I will
bring added things upon Dimon; a lion upon the escape of M oab,
a,nd upon the remnant of the land], vs. 9. Where the waters of
Dimon were, is not known. By one author 6 it is said that the wa­
ters of Dibon and of Dimon are the same waters. Dimon is the
inheritance of J udah (J osh. 15 22 ). Whether this means that they
will escape even to Judah where the waters are full of blood, lS
not yet known. There the remnant will perish by the lion.
• The word used by Schmidius is olus (a kitchen herb, especially cabbage,
colewort, turnip, etc.). The Hebrew pi' means simply a green thing.
• The Hebrew is SnJ which occurs many times in the Bible, but always as
meaning a brook or tor1'ent, or the valley through which the brook runs; and
C':::li.lI willow trees.
• The author referred to is Jerome, in his Comment on Joshua 15, where he
notes that because of the waters quietly flowing thither, that town, even to his
own time, was called Dibon or Dimon indifferently. Jerome is quoted by Re­
landus in his Palestina, page 546.

IV Ad. p. 37 65

1 Send ye the lamb of the ruler of the earth from the rock to­
ward the wilderness, unto the mount of the daughter of Zion.
~ For it shall be, that, as a wandering bird, a cast out nest,
so shall be the daughters of Moab at the passages of Arnon.
g Offer counsel, execute judgment; make as the night thy
shadow in the midst of noon; hide the outcasts; discover not him
that wandereth.
4 Let mine outcasts abide in thee, 0 Moab; be thou a hiding
place for them, before him that layeth waste. For the oppressor
hath ceased, the wasting is consumed, those that trampled under
foot are consumed from the land.
5 And the throne is made firm by mercy, and he sitteth upon it
in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judg­
ment, and hastening righteousness.
6 We have heard of the haughtiness of .Moab; he is exceeding
haughty: his pride and his haughtiness, and his wrath: his lies are
not firm.
7 Therefore Moab shall howl; all Moab shall howl: the founda­
tions of Kir-Hareseth shall mourn, being surely stricken.
8 For the fields of Heshbon have fallen away; as to the vine of
Sibmah, the lords of the heathen have broken down the branches
thereof; even until they reach unto J azer, they wandered into the
wilderness: her shoots ·are torn away, they are gone over the sea.
9 Therefore I will weep over J azer the vine of Sibmah with
weeping: I will water thee with my tears, Heshbon, and Elealeh:
for upon thy vintage and upon thy harvest Hedad is fallen.
10 And joy is taken away, and exultation o~t.9f ~~I!1el; and
in the vineyards there is no singing, ne~ther j ;;yful shouting: the
treaders tread out no wine in the presses; I have made Hedad to
11 \Vherefore my bowels are commoved like an harp because
of Moab, and mine inward parts because of Kir-haresh.
1~ And it shall come to pass, when it is seen that Moab is weary
upon the high place, he shall come to his sanctuary to pray; but
he shall not be able.
13 This is the word that Jehovah then spake over Moab.
* See note to chapter 1428.

66 IV Ad. p. 37
ISAIAH XVI: 1-14 [7686-7687

14 But now 3ehovah hath spoken, saying, ·Within three years,

as the years of an hireling, and the glory of Moab shall become vile
in all the great multitude; and his remnant very small, not strong.
7686. [Send ye the larnb of the mler of the earth frorn the rocll~
toward the wilderness, nnto the monnt of the daughter of Zion],
vs. 1. The lamb of the ruler of the earth is the righteousness
which took away sins; for a lamb or ram was sent into the wilder­
ness that it might take with it the sins of the people [Lev. 1621 - 22 J.
Thus it was sent to the rnonnt of the daughter of Zion. The
mount of -tEe daughter of Zion in the wilderness is no other than
HOreb or Sinai where is the law; and when this mountain is called
th~ mount oJ the ~gJ1ter of Zion and the lamb sent forth from
the rock, then by it is~ the internallawSV
7687. [For it .~hall be, that, as a wandering bird, a cast out
nest, so shall be the danghters of M oab at the passages of A mon],
vs. 2. The passage of Arnon was the border of Moab; see many
passages in the Collecta. 8 From here up to verse 6 follows an
exhortation to those whQ... plac~t:ighteousness_in t~e l~w in ex­
~nals, that they flee to the righteousness of God Messiah; (but
verses 1 and 5 treat openly ~f God Messiah, that h~ becam~ !!iKht- \ '
eo~ and_so bore sins;) thus that the should now re ent. In J
the text they are called a wanderi icl.Jn hatJhe..y_think vaguely r
and do not know what the want; for there is with them a alit
.2f.~1!illty, and thjs hesitates as to whether a thjn r is so. 'j

This has happened even now, in that things from the Law
which were around me clung to them as a doubt. That when
properly understood, these words mean what has been said,
and not the cutting off of Moab as properly understood, can
be concluded quite clearly from the several explanations; for
without them, all the words of this prophet in the present pas­
sage would have no sense, the sense in the letter being other­
wise so obscure that no one can draw anything from it. 9
The passage of Arnon is toward the wilderness where is " the lamb
of the ruler of the earth from the rock toward the wilderness, unto
his paragraph is emphasized by " Obs.," written twice in the margin.
See Appendix, s.v., Arnon.
S ­
• This indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in the Index to his
IV Ad. p. 37 67

the mount of the daughter of Zion " [vs. 1]. In the supreme sense,
this is God Messiah, who is the Lamb of G2.d, this being the same
thing as the Lamb of the Ruler of the earth-the lamb which takes
( away the sins of the world [John 1 29 ].1
7688. The words in verses g and 4 being an exhortation, they
are now urged to deliberate as to whether it is not so. Therefore
it is said, Offer counsel, execute judgment; and especially that they
should thus make as their night their shadow in the midst of noon.
The shadow is theirs. [It is said] the midst of noon because it is
in clear light and in truth. Hide the outcasts, namely, they should
receive those whom they have cast out and have not acknowledged.
Wherefore the text continues, Let mine outcasts abide in thee, 0
M oab, and be thou a hiding place for them, befoTe him that layeth
waste. That the oppressor hath ceased is because the Lamb of God
has come who has taken all power away from the oppressor, that is,
the devil; and because those have been consumed who trampled
them under foot. 2
7689. This is still more openly confirmed by these words: And
the throne is made firm by mercy, and he sitteth upon it in tru,th
in the tabernade of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and
hastening righteousness (vs. 5). These words have reference to
the oppression-that the devil is judged, and He hastened right­
eousness-and their meaning is to be applied to the punishment of
the oppressor and to the righteousness to be imputed to the sons
of Jacob, because He is King and is possessed of all power; for he
sits in the tabernacle of David, namely, as priest (as also at times
was David), and on the throne as King. For the throne is now
made firm by mercy toward the human race.
7690. [We have heard of the haughtiness of M oab; he is ex­
ceeding haughty: . . . Therefore M oab shall howl . . . the foun­
dations of Kir-Hareseth shall mourn, being surely stricken] (vs.
6,7). And now follows Moab's answer, being the answer of those
who place righteousness in the law in externals, to wit, that he still
does not believe, but is exceeding haughty with pride, because de­
sirous of elevating himself above an, and of having dominion in
heaven and on earth. Thus did the Moabites of that time, who
were the descendants of Jacob. So also do those of the present
1 The latter part of n. 7687 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the

1 No. 7688 is emphasized by " Ohs., Obs.," written in the margin.

68 IV Ad. p. 38
ISAIAH XVI: 3-11 (7691-7692

time who likewise place all righteousness in good works; and, be­
cause of the riches for which they yearn, they give men remission
of sins, and heaven, etc., at pleasure. Kir-Hm'eseth 3 or Hareseth
will then mourn or howl. Hareseth was the place where the three
kings smote lVloab so completely that nothing was left (2 Kings
3 25 ), The like is indicated here, in that the foundations mourned,
being stricken; for the remnant will then perish (see chapter 159 ) ;
the exhortation then commenced, being of no avail.
7691. [Fa?' the fields of Heshbon have fallen away; as to the
vine of Sibmah, the lO1'ds of the heathen have broken down the
branches thereof; even umtil they reach unto Jazer, they wandered
1:nto the wilderness: her shoots are torn away, they are gone over
the sea], vs. 8. Here the vanishing away of all grass, even to the
kitchen herb [chap. 15 6 ], is again described. But now the com­
parison is taken from a vine whose shoots are torn away. Their
wandering into the wilderness and going over the sea Suph has ref­
erence to other thing~, but the signification is the same--that it be­
came a wilderness, and they went over the sea Suph, or into the
place of the damned. Sibmah was the inheritance of Reuben
(Num. 3238 ; Josh. 13 19 ), Jazer was a land which went to the
Gadites, but it was a city of the priest, ceded to the Levites or
Merarites [1 Chron. 6 81 ], which latter are likewise treated of; see
Numbers 32 1 • 3 ,35 • ; Joshua 1325 ; that it was ceded to the Levites
(ibid. 21 39 ). Therefore J azer is called the vine of Sibmah, for the
Levites represented a vine.
7692. [Therefore I will weep over Jazer the vine of Sibmah with
1'IJeeping: I will water thee with my tears, Heshbon, and Elealeh: for
upon thy vintage and upon thy harvest Hedad is fallen. And joy
is taken away, and exultation out of Carmel; and in the vineyards
there is no singing. . .. I have made H edad to cease. Wherefore
my bowels are commoved like an harp because of M oab, and mine
inward parts because of Kir-haresh] , (vs. 9-11). J azer is called
the vine of Sibmah. He sheds tears over Moab who is here meant
by Heshbon and Elealeh. Heshbon also was a considerable city of
the Levites, and Elealeh a city of Reuben. Thus they belonged to
both. As to Hedad, look up the text, for it is translated rhythmic
• In g Kings 325 , Schmidius translates Kir-Hareseth, the wall of Hareleth.
" The autograph has " Num, gg4, 30."
IV Ad. p. 39 69

beat! and also a 5 mournful sound. Hedad seems to be the song

which they sang in the vintage season, as is evident from the next
verse. Carmel is used here because it signifies a wood and a vine­
yard, for it was in Carmel (as I think) they had the dealing con­
cerning wine; see 1 Samuel, chapter ~5, concerning Nabal. Con­
cerning the vineyards in Carmel, see 9l Chronicles 9l6 10 ; and con­
cerning the wood, Isaiah 10 18 .* The subject here treated of is
vineyards. In the text, the comparison is continued from a vine­
yard, by which is signified gladness which is turned to mourning.
In verse 11, the weeping and the mourning is continued, because,
being admonished, he does not repent. Kir-haresh seems to be the
same as the Kir-Hareseth 6 in verse 7 where Moab was wholly
7693. [And it shall come to pass, when it i.y seen that M oab ·is
weary upon the high place. he shall come to his sanctl£ary to pray;
but he shall not be able]. vs. 12. 'lVhen Moab sees himself so com­
pletely conquered that he is wearied upon his high place, for being
an idolater he sacrificed upon high places, he will then come to the
sanctuary to pray or implore, but he <~hall not be able. Such is
the case with those who more interiorly persuade themselves, even
to the putting on of principles from which they cannot afterwards
recede. Being convicted by the truth, when they are wearied, they
wish to make supplication; but because the nature of thejr princi­
ples resists, they cannot. This is clear in itself from many testi­
monies of experience,
which I would be unable to bring forward. That is to say, it
is clear that those who are imbued with such principles and
• Celeusma (Tremellius' translation) is a Greek word which signifies the
command given by the chief of the oarsmen to designate the time to the rowers.
The Hebrew word "'il occurs five times in the Hebrew Bible, and in every case
the context indicates the meaning shouting; in every case also Schmidius, and
likewise Swedenborg in his Theological \Vorks, uses the transliteration Iiedad.
Castellio, Pagnini and Tremellius translate it a rhythmw beat, and the latter
notes that the word means" the voice of criers and merrymakers during harvest
and fruit gathering." The Vulgate has the voice of the wine treaders,' the
Swedish Bible, a song, and the A.V., shouting, and in the margin, ala.rm.. I do
not know of any Lexicon or translation which gives the interpretation mournful
• [Crossed off:] sad.

.. In the A.V., Carmel here is translated fruitful field.

• Schmidius has correctly transliterated the Hebrew word in verse 7, but in

verse 1l he has Haresh instead of Hares.
70 IV Ad. p. 39
ISAIAH XVI: U-H [7694-7695
with a nature therefrom, such that they are imbued with the
love of self and with self-righteousness therefrom, cannot pray,
even though they wish to. They see the truth outside them­
selves, but within them is that which fights against it!
7694. [But now Jehovah hath spoken, saying, Within three
years, as the years of an hireling, and the glory of M oab shall be­
come vile], vs. 14. That this prophecy as spoken extends specifi­
cally to the people J acob, is evident. In the universal sense, how­
ever, it treats of all those who wish to justify themselves. This
now follows in general. By the three years are thus meant the
three times so often spoken of above. Hirelings are those who are
led for the sake of gain. "What further these words signify cannot
yet be evident. It seems that they look to the last time.

7695. The subject treated of in this chapter is Damascus. Re­
specting this city, it must be premised that Damascus was a city or
land in the time of Abraham; for it is said that Abraham pursued
his enemies [even to Hobah which is] at the left of Damascus (Gen.
14 1U ) ; his servant Eliezer was a Damascene [ibid. 15 2 ]. This city
was in Syria, wherefore it is called" Syria of Damascus" [fl Sam.
8 6 ; 1 Chron. 186 ]. It was not far from Syria of the rivers,8 from
whence it was that Terah and Abram came; for the city of N ahor
where was Rebekah was in Syria of the rivers [Gen. fl4 10 ].9 There
also were the mountains of the east; see my Collecta/ under the
words Assyria and East. Balaam is said to have been from the
mountains of the east [Num. fl3 7 ], and J acob to have journeyed to
the land of the sons of the east [Gen. ~91]. The sons of Sheth 2
were there, among whom was the ancient church of God Messiah,
even to the time of Eber when it became idolatrous, as is evident
from the last chapter of Joshua. The primitive church then
passed over to certain places in the land of Canaan, such as Salem
where was Melchisedek [Gen. 14 18 ] and others. Therefore, lest
t The indented part of n. 7693 is cited by the Author in the Index to his

MemorabiUa, s.v., Oratio. See Table of Contents.

• [Crossed off:) which was Mesopotamia.
• In the A.V., it is translated 1Jfesopotamia. The Hebrew is .dram (Syria)
of the rivers.
1 See Appendix, s.v., .d88yria, East.

tit is Shem that is meant; see Genesis 1021. Confer n. 1563 note.
IV Ad. p. 40 71

Abraham and thus his descendants should become entirely per­

verted, he was commanded to journey to the land of Canaan where
the true doctrine was still flourishing. Because Damascus was a
considerable city of Syria, that is, of the sons of the east, and had
become idolatrous, therefore the prophecy is now taken from that
city and is extended to all who have turned aside from true faith,
as did not only the sons of the east but also the descendants of J a­
cob and, finally, after the advent of God Messiah, Christians them­
selves. The subject here treated of is, therefore, the continuation
of the true faith of the church in the midst of apostates who had
become external and internal idolaters; thus the two last days,
when 8 these apostates or idolaters will perish; and so, the two days
of judgment, the one at the first advent of God Messiah, and the
other at the advent of God Messiah into glory.
1 The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is cast off and
is not a city; but is become the heap of a ruin.
~ The cities of Aroer are deserted: they shall be for flocks
which shall lie down, and there is none to terrify.
:3 The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the king­
dom from Damascus; and the remnant of Syria shal be as the glory
of the sons of Israel, the saying of Jehovah Sabaoth.

7696. That apostates from the true faith will perish, a few re­
maining. Here the chapter first treats of the gentiles and at the
same time of the Israelitish people who are likewi,se classed as gen­
tiles. As to what is meant by Damascus which was a city of Syria,
see what has just been said [no 7695], namely, that it became an
idolatrous city while primitively it had been a city of the sons of
the east where was the ancient church. Thus, by that city and by
Syria are meant the nations of the ancient church and, at the same
time, the nations of the new church. Therefore, to distinguish
them from the Jews, Damascus is assumed for idolatry, this being
the character of the city. It was from there also that Ahaz trans­
ferred an altar to Jerusalem [~ Kings 17 10 seq .] ; concerning Da­
mascus, etc., etc., see the Collecta. 4 The cities of Aroer (vs. ~)
• Reading quando for quod.
• See Appendix, s.v., Damascus.
IV Ad. p. 41
ISAIAH XVII: 1-8 [7696

were cities belonging to the heritage of Gad, and consequently

were cities of the Israelites; and by the Israelites, that they may be
distinguished from the Jews treated of later, are also meant the
gentiles. The flocks shall lie down there, because it was a wilder­
ness; for in both senses the flocks are taken as being the flocks of
Laban. As regards the word terrify, see the Hebrew text."
Ephraim (vs. 3) also is taken for the Israelites, and so for the
gentiles, but for those on the other side Jordan; see Ephrai1Tt
there. 6 Their fortress was their mountains, for they dwelt in the
mountains. These shall cease. The kingdom shall cease from Da­
mascus, it having held the kingdom for a long time; see the Col­
lecta. 7 And the remnant of Syria shall be as the glory of the sons
of Israel. Thus it will be the remnant from the gentiles in whom
the primitive church would be continued; 8 see above [n. 7349,
7355,7368] concerning Balaam who came from there.

4 For in that day it shall come to pass, that the glory of Jacob
shall be rubbed down, and the fatness of his flesh made lean.
5 Nor, I say,9 shall it be as when the standing harvest is gath­
ered, and his arm reapeth the ears; and it shall be as one that gath­
ereth ears in the valley of Rephaim.
6 Yet clusters of grapes shall be left in it, as the shaking of a
fig tree,! two or three berries in the top of the branch, four or five
in the fruitful branches; the saying of Jehovah the God of Israel.
7 In that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall
have regard to the Holy One of Israel.
8 And he shall not look to the altars, the work of his hands, nor
look to that which his hands have made, or the groves, or the open
air statues.
• From the context in which that word is used in the Bible, there can be no
doubt that the Hebrew ',n means to tremble, to be afl·aid. In the present text,
it is used in the Hiphil or causative conjugation, and means to ca.118e to tremble,
to terrify. It is so translated in all the versions consulted, except in the Swedish
Bible where it is translated shall dr'ive them out.
• The word I1lere undoubtedly refers to the Collecta. See Appendix, S.v.,
7 See Appendix, S.v., Damascus.

8 What is here said of the remnant is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in

the margin. •
• The Hebrew is And it shall come to lJasS a8when, etc.

, The Hebrew is olive tree.

IV Ad. p. 41 73

7697. That, except as to a few, the same thing wul happen to

the house of Jacob or Judah as to the nations; it is these few who
are here treated of. It is said in that day (vs. 4), because the same
thing will happen to the house of J acob as to the nations, to wit,
that his g10ry will be rubbed down and he be made lean; but that a
few will remain, is evident from the words that next follow. The
house of J acob is that house which at this day is named J udah.
The words in verses 5 and 6 very clearly signify that few will be
left remaining, being those who are of the true faith, as were some
at the time of the advent of God Messiah; for there was a little
church among the Jews. Moreover, the Apostles were Jews, and
some of the Jews were believers, as is evident from many sayings in
the New Testament. These then were the few. The valley of
Rephaim was the border of the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 158 ) ;
see many passages in the Collecta concerning Rephaim,2 and there
concerning the valley of Rephaim. The comparison here is taken
from the standing harvest and from fruetifications. l~or this rea­
son God Messiah is 11ere called Jehovah, the God of Israel; but
previously [vs. 3] where the subject was cities, a fortress and a
kingdom, it is said Jehovah Sabaoth. The Maker (vs. 7) is the
Former in both senses, being the new Creator, and is the same as
the Holy One of Israel. The subject here is the small remnant.
Thus, they will not look to idolatry (vs. 8). What is treated of,
therefore, is those who have not bent their knees to Baal in its
proper sense, as we read elsewhere. What is meant, in both senses,
is idolatry external and internal. External idolatry has indeed
ceased with the Jews at this day, but internal idolatry remains, and
this from many causes. The external must needs have ceased.

9 In that day shall the cities of his refuge be as the forsaken

things of a wood, and as a branch which they left before the sons
of Israel; and there shall be desolation.
10 Because thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and
hast not remembered the rock of thy refuge; therefore shalt thou
plant plants of delights, but thou shalt sow it the sprig of a
11 In the day shalt thou make thy plant to grow, and in the
• See Appendix, s.v., R6plwim.
74 IV Ad. p. 4fl
ISAIAH XVII: 9-14 [7698

morning thy seed to flourish: the harvest shall be a heap in the

day of possession and the sorrow desperate.
l!il Alas, the tumult of many peoples; as the seas are tumultu-
ous, so shall they be tumultuous; and the clashing of nations, as
the clashing of many waters shall they make a great noise.
13 . . . but he shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far off;
and shall suffer persecution as the chaff of the mountains before
the wind, and as straw before the whirlwind.
14 About the time of evening, behold, terror; before the morn-
ing he is no more. This is the portion of them that make prey of
us, and the lot of them that spoil us.

7698. These verses treat of the many who remain and will per-
ish. Because these many are treated of, it is here again said in
that day. They will not have cities of refuge because these shall
'be as the forsaken things of a wood and there shall be desolation.
The branch refers to the branch in verse 6 where are some berries.
Here, however, there are none, but only desolations. The cause is
adduced in verse 10, to wit, that they have forgotten God Messiah
who is the God of salvation and the Rock of refuge. This is the
same as is said elsewhere, namely, that they shall plant vineyards,
but others shall take them and make wine for themselves, as is said
many times in the Prophets, and (as I think) in the Books of
Moses. s It will be taken away from them because they have be-
come idolaters. In infancy and sometimes in youth they were
good; afterwards they became degenerate, as is almost always the
case. The same thing is continued in verse 11, to wit, that thence
will come sorrow, etc. Verse 12 treats of peoples and nations.
Here, as elsewhere, and so in the Apocalypse [19 6 ], their multitude
is compared to waters. That the last time is likened to the tumult
of seas, see in the New Testament here and there. Seas are men-
tioned by reason of their great tumult, for such will be the tumult
of the proud, etc. Although tumultuous and wishing to possess
heaven, yet they are scattered as chaff in the mountains and straw
before the whirlwind (vs. 13), that is to say, they will be utterly
powerless. Verse 14 is a prediction that about the time of evening
there will be terror, nor will onc of them be left remaining when
the morning comes; and this in heaven as on earth. About the
• Deut. ~880.

IV Ad. p. 42 75

time of the first advent of God Messiah, the infernal crew was like­
wise tumultuous; but because it was subjugated, there arose terror,
as is well known from what is said in the Old Testament. That this
is the case, is confirmed by the last words-that such will be the lot
of the spoilers. It is said that spoil us, because it was an angel of
God Messiah who spoke by the prophet.

1 Woe to the land overshadowed with wings, which is beyond
the rivers of Cush:
2 That sendeth messengers into the sea, even in vessel,s of reed
upon the faces of the waters; go, ye swift messengers, to a nation
distraught and peeled, to a people terrible from when it was and
since; a nation meted out and trodden down, whose land the rivers
have despoiled!
3 All ye inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth, see
ye, when he lifteth up the sign of the mountains; and when he blow­
eth a trumpet, hear ye.
4 For so Jehovah said unto me, I will take my rest, and I will
behold in my habitacle like It dear heat upon light, like a cloud of
dew when the harvest grows warm .
.5 For before the harvest, when the flower is perfect, and the
ripening grape shall be a flower; and he shall cut off the twigs with
pruning knives, and take away the branches; he shall cut them off.
6 They shall be left together for the bird of the mountains, and
the beast of the earth: . . . shall despise it.
7 III that time there shall be brought unto Jehovah Sabaoth, an
offering, a people distraught and peeled; and from a people ter­
rible from when it was and since; a nation meted out and trodden
down, whose land the rivers have despoiled; to the place of the
name of Jehovah Sabaoth, the mountain of Zion.

7699. That at the last judgment all in the entire globe will be
IJresented, and the evil will perish and the miserable be saved.
Those who are evil are compared to those who are black, hence to
an Ethiopian, that is, to those who are beyond the rivers of Cush
(vs. 1). Concerning Cush, see the Collecta. 4 The judgment will
COIlle to all in the entire globe; first to the miserable, being those
• See Appendix, s.v., Cush.
76 IV Ad. p. 43
ISAIAH XVIII: 1-7 [7700

who are called trodden down and peeled, whom the rivers have de­
spoiled (vs. ~, 7), that is, whom those things have overwhelmed
which are signified by rivers, such as temptations and evils. That
it will come to all, is here expressed by those who are sent into the
sea and upon the faces of the waters; and this that comparison may
be made with those whom the rivers have despoiled and who are like
vessels of reed. That these will come to the mountain of Zion is
evident from verse 7. That it is the entire globe that is meant, is
confirmed and explained in verse 3. The sign of the moumtains and
the tru,mpet signify the calling together which was done by trum­
pets. So in other passages. That this will come to pass by means
of angels, and that Jehovah God will do it from heaven, is signified
in verse 4. There his peace is described, for it will be charged on
his angels. Moreover, the time also is signified; but look up the
Hebrew text, especially as regards the word light/ etc. The time
is signified by the harvest and the grape (vs. 5). By the branche.~
which shall be taken away as faggots, are meant the evil who will
perish, and who are the subject treated of in the present series.
Verse 6 treats of those who are damned; and verse 7, of those
spoken of in verse ~, that they will be brought as an offering to the
place of the na,me of J ehovah Sabaoth, the 11wttntain of Zion.


7700. This chapter treats mainly of Egypt, and, at the end of
the chapter, also of Asshur and Israel. As regards Egypt, by
Egypt in this chapter is meant intelligence. [Here (vs. 1~)] and
elsewhere, this is called by them wisdom, Egypt being a land where
their priests and others were called wise. In process of time, how­
ever, that intelligence, like all their good, became magic, by which
is also meant science and intelligence in natural things. Thus
Egypt here involves all science in natural things, and when man is
actuated by an evil affection, this wholly deceives him. 'When, 'by
reason of his being ruled by cupidities, science and human intelli­
gence therefrol1l rules man and so acts as his leader; consequently,
when order is inverted; then it wholly deceives the man and hurls
• Schmidius' translation of the Hebrew is literally correct, and in his theo­
logical works, Swedenborg makes what is essentially the same translation.
* The notes on this chapter are referred to by Swedenborg in the margin of
his Schmidius' Bible at Genesis 99.
IV Ad. p. 44 77

him into the densest shades because into falsities. It does this to
such an extent that the man then thinks himself to be the more wise
the more he is insane; and thinks himself to be the more in light,
the more he is in dark shades; for intelligence, which in itself is
spiritual, then favors all that the man lusts after. Therefore, in
the Word of God Messiah, human philosophy and intelligence are
so often held in detestation. But, being spiritual and a gift which
is given to man above brute animals, nay, which makes man to be
man, intelligence in itself is never damnable. It must exist from
the light of truths; but then the man is not governed by his own
passions,6 but his mind is governed by God :Messiah by the min­
istrations of His angels. Then, in place of falsities come truths,
and intelligence becomes true intellectual light; for he is then ruled
by Love itself, and consequently by His angels, the loves of heaven.
Thus there is then intelligence. Therefore, Paradise consisted of
two trees, the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge 7 of good
and evil, being the tree of intelligence. 8 Adam could never have
been deceived by any evil affection, for he was in a state of integrity
and knew not evil. His disposition was perfect. Wherefore he
could not have been deceived by anything save an intelligence which
comes from sciences,o and these from the experience of the senses.
This intelligence could deceive him and could induce on him another
and, indeed, a natural disposition. In this way could come his fall,
but not, as said above, immediately from any cupidity. As to how
intelligence operates upon the will, that is, upon the affection by
which the will is ruled; and as to how the will or its affection op­
erates upon intelligence; innumerable things can be told, and these
have been treated ~f here and there. But since it comes in here, let
it be merely observed that the new paradise must also have two trees
in its midst, namely, the tree of life and afterwards the tree of the
knowledge of good and evil, being the tree of intelligence. The
intelligence, however, will then obey, and so consists only of truths.
Wherefore, as is evident in the present chapter from Isaiah, Egypt
will be adopted. This can be seen from verse 19 to the end.

1 The burden of Egypt. Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a light

cloud, and cometh into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt are greatly
• (Crossed off:] and, consequently, science does not then have dominion.
, Or science. •
• (Crossed off:] But because Adam wished to rule himself­
• Scientiae, sciences or knowledges.
78 IV Ad. p. 44
ISAIAH XIX: 1-17 [7700

moved before him, and the heart of Egypt is melted in the midst
of it.
~ For I will commingle Egypt with Egypt, that they fight, a
man against his brother, and a man against his companion; city
against city, kingdom against kingdom.
S And the spirit of Egypt shall be emptied in his midst, and I
will swallow up his counsel: and they shall enquire of idols, and
wizards, and Pythons/ and soothsayers.
4 But I will shut up the Egyptians in the hand of a harsh lord j
and a fierce king shall rule over them; the saying of the Lord 3 e­
hovah Sabaoth.
5 And waters shall fail from the sea, and the river shall be
dried up and parched.
6 And the streams shall recede; the rivers of Egypt 2 shall be
broken up and dried: the flag and the reed shall wither.
7 The paper-reeds by the stream, by the mouth of the river,
and every seed of the river, shall dry up, be driven away, and be
no more.
8 Therefore the fishers shall mourn, and all that cast angle into
the stream shall be sad; and they that spread net upon the faces of
the waters shall languish.
9 And they that make linen of silks shall blush,s and they that
weave curtains;
10 And the foundations thereof shall be crushed, all that make
hire from the pools of the soul.
11 Surely the princes of Zoan are fools; the wise men of the
counsellors of Pharaoh, their counsel hath become brutish. How
shall ye say unto Pharaoh, I am a son of the wise, a son of kings
of antiquity?
1~ Where now are thy wise men? that they may tell thee now,
and may learn what 3ehovah Sabaoth hath counselled over Egypt.
IS The princes of Zoan are become fools; the princes of Noph
are carried away; 4 and have led Egypt astray, the cornerstone of
his tribes.
14 3 ehovah hath mingled in his midst a spirit of perversities;
1 See n. 6155 note.

2 See n. 7706 note.

2 See n. 7708 note.

• The Hebrew is deceived.

IV Ad. p. 44 79

therefore they have led Egypt astray in all his work, as a drunken
man is led astray in his vomit.
15 Neither shall there be any work for Egypt, which head and
tail, branch and rush, may do.
16 In that day shall Egypt be like unto women, and shall trem­
ble and be in dread before the moving of the hand of J ehovah Sa­
baoth, which he shall move over it.
17 And the land of Judah shall be unto Egypt for a trembling;
everyone that maketh mention thereof shall be in dread within him­
self; because of the counsel of Jehovah Sabaoth, which he coun­
selleth over it.

7701. That at the last time hnman sciences, etc., which have de­
ceived man and hurled him into dark shades, will be pertnrbed.
7702. [Behold, J ehovah rideth upon a light eloud, and cometh
into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt are greatly moved before him,
and the heart of Egypt is melted in the midst of it], vs. 1. He that
rideth upon a light elond is inteUigence; for here, as elsewhere, a
horse is intelligence. But it is a light cloud, because relatively to
man, both cloud and lightness are predicated of man's intelligence,
as likewise are wings or flying. In ancient times these things were
well known; and after such intelligence was perverted and became
science and magic, this knowledge remained in the form of many
stories which were afterwards handed down, as in the story of the
flying horse [Pegasus] which, with his hoofs, broke open the foun­
tain where the virgins, the intelligences, were said to have dwelt.
The idols of Egypt are greatly moved. This signifies that natural
science was greatly moved, whence is magic, this being the idols of
Egypt. The idols of Egypt are all human philosophy wherein
trust is placed; for unless it understands, it will not believe. All
such things are therefore the idols of Egypt, etc., etc. The heart
of Egypt is all that which leads the man, etc., etc.
7703. [For I will commingle Egypt with Egypt, that they
fight, a man against his brother, and a, man against his companion;
city against city, kingdom against kingdom], vs. 2. Hence come
schisms and heresies, all of which derive their origin from man suf­
fering himself to be led by that self-intelligence or ratiocination
which streams forth from his loves and cupidities, these being his
leaders. Such is the case among fellow men in society, and such in
80 IV Ad. PI 45
ISAIAH XIX: 1-6 [7704-7706

each man. Hence comes all fighting and hatred, this being ex­
pressed in the text in due order, from simple things to things more
universal; for, so long as a man is natural, so long do such dissen­
sions exist. Therefore, by Egypt, here and also elsewhere, is
meant the natural man; but in the present text, the natural man
who seems to himself to be wise; thus, the love of one's own under­
7704. [And the spirit of Egypt shall be emptied in his midst,
and I will swallow up his connsel: and they shall enquire of idols,
and wizards, and Pythons, G and soothsayers], vs. 3. The spirit of
Egypt is emptied, and his counsel swallowed up, when man is in
such shade that in things spiritual and celestial he understands
nothing. This is the case at this day, and to such an extent that
men doubt whether there is a spiritual and a celestial, for they call
everything natural. Thus that man is an Egyptian who adores
nature; and everything that he adores in nature and in himself is
his idol. Such things are also wizards, and are also called Pythons
and soothsayers. The magic of the Egyptians is what at this day
is called natural philosophy, and'this seduces men.
7705. [But I will shut up the Egyptians in the hand of a harsh
lord; and a fierce king shall rule over them], vs. 4. The hand of a
harsh lord is he who deceived Adam; for the prince of the world,
as he is called, is their master, and, having a natural soul, he has
dominion over them. He is called a fierce king because he is car­
ried away solely by the cupidities of the world and self. Fierce­
ness is attributed to these because in them is nothing mild and
gentle but hardness, as in a scorching fire. Not so the flames of a
mild fire to which heavenly love is compared.
7706. [And waters shall fail from the sea, and the river shall be
dried up and parched. And the streams shall recede; the rivers of
Egypt 6 shall be broken up and dried: the flag and the reed shall
wither], vs. 5, 6. TV aters from the sea are the spiritual things
which come from the ocean; for man's soul is such that spiritual
things are continually flowing in; hence the understanding of those
things that come from the scientifics of the memory. But what is
meant when the waters fail is that the spiritual things which come
• See n. 6155 note.
• The Hebrew is The l'ive'l's of dofence, Schmidius had evidently mistaken
",m (defence) for C,.,m (E,qypt).
IV Ad. p. 46 81

from heaven are wholly lacking. Consequently also the rivers,

that is, every river, being everything which does not have within it
the spiritual [and] celestial, is said to be parched and dried up, for
it is dried up by the fire of cupidities. The st1'eams shall recede,
that is, shall put on an opposite order; hence the drying up. This
drying up, moreover, is described, being so great that nothing
green remains, as is wont to be the case on river banks, etc.
7707. [The paper-reeds by the stream . .. and every seed of
the river, shall dry up . . . The fishers shall mourn, and all that
cast angle into the stream shall be sad], vs. 7, 8. Paper reeds
(papyri) were plants of Egypt, from which were made the codices
on which they wrote; hence the word papyrus. It was called A
papyms Aegyptia, biblus Aegyptia, and papyrus Nilotica, because
reeds not unlike it grew at the Nile. Thus what are here treated
of are vegetations, both plants and herbs, which grew round about
[a river]. They are called the seed of the river because the latter
gave them fruitfulness. A comparison is also drawn from the fish
that swim therein. Thus there will no longer be any living thing,
but all will be dead; for with all his science and reason, the natural
man is yet without life, seeing that life consists only in heavenly
love and in the light arising therefrom.
7708. [And they that make linen of silks shall blush, and they
that weave curtains; and the foundations thereof shall be crushed,
all that make hire from the pools of the soul], vs. 9, 10. Here is
described the philosophy which from its own inventions produces
many arguments to persuade man that all things are to be ascribed
to nature. Thus it is all the learned who are meant here. As to
verse 9, look up the Hebrew text, for the interpreters greatly vary.1
Those are meant who deceive man, etc. 8 The more one is imbued
with philosophy, the greater the blindness and the shade; it in­
creases according to abundance. This can be demonstrated in
many ways.
, So far as possible, a literal translation of the Hebrew would be " and shall
be ashamed (or blusiI) the workers of linens 111p,.,tt1 and the weavers ,."n.
This is the only place in the Bible where these two Hebrew words occur, and
what they mean is left to the ingenuity of the translator. Tremellius renders
them respectively and of noble goods and white good8; Castellio, choice linen
and nets; the VUlgate, co~rnbing (and weaving) fine good8; Pagnini, (linens)
combed (and perforated) nets,' the A.V., fine fia:c and net works. The Swedish
Bible, who make good yarn and bind nets.
I The words after" etc." are written in the margin and marked" Obs., Obs."

8~ IV Ad. p. 46
ISAIAH XIX: 7-15 [7709-7710

7709. [The wise men of the counsellors of Pharaoh, their coun­

sel hath become brutish. How shall ye say unto Pharaoh, I am a
son of the wise, a son of kings of antiquity? lVhere now are thy
wise men? that they may tell thee now, and may learn what Jehovah
Sabaoth hath counselled over Egypt], vs. 11, U. Their wisdom
will be that of brutes, brutes being unable to sensate otherwise. A
natural man of such sort is wholly an animal man, his life being
similar [to that of brute animals]. Similar also is the life of his
reason, being a reason made up from natural life, that is, from the
life of cupidities. Here it should be observed that in ancient times,
times when men were ruled by God Messiah, there was a different
wisdom. Therefore they [here] boast that they are sons of an­
tiquity and sons of the wise, when yet they are anything but this.
Nevertheless, there is no wisdom when, as is said [1 Cor. 120] God
Messiah has made all their wisdom foolishness, as we read in many
passages; 9 see also as to the meaning of the words in those pas­
sages. This is the counselling over Egypt.
7710. [The princes of Zoan are become fools; the princes of
Noph are carried away; 1 and have led Egypt astray, the corner
stone of his tribes. J ehovah hath mingled in his midst a .vpirit of
perversities; therefore they have led Egypt astray in all his work,
as a drunken man is led astray in his vomit. Neither shall there be
any work for Egypt, which head and tail, branch and rush, may
do], vs. 13-15. Zoan was an ancient [city in the J land of Egypt
(see Numbers 13 22 ), likewise Noph 2 [Jer. 441, 46 14 ,19, Ezek.
30 13 ,16]. Thus the meaning is that the ancient wisdom, which is
called the corner stone (but see the Hebrew text),s was carried
away and Egypt led astray. That Egypt is said to be the place
of wisdom can be evident from the present series; thus it is called
the corner stone and this was the primary stone outside the temple.
How they became perverted is described in verse 14. An evil
• See A Philo8opher8 Note Book, p. 108 and 504.

I The Hebrew is deceived.

'In the autograph, after Noph, come two dashes, as though the Author
meant to add references.
• Schmidius' translation is literal, except that carried a1DaY should be de­
cei"ed, and corner8tone should be corner. In his theological works, the Author's
translation is deceived and cornerstone. The reason for Swedenborg's desire to
look up the Hebrew text was doubtless because, instead of cOl'lIerstone, Tremel­
lius has the extremity, this being his interpretation of the Hebrew word mean­
ing a corner or angle.
IV Ad. p. 46 83

spirit is called a spirit of perversities because he inverts [order]

and becomes 1ike a drunken man when his head aches and he vomits
what he has taken in. The work will no longer be perfect (vs. 15).
(As to what the remaining words 4 mean, this can be evident from
other passages where like words occur.)
7711. [In that day shall Egypt be like unto women, and shall
tremble and be in dread. . . . And the land of Judah shall be unto
Egypt for a trembling; everyone that 1naketh mention thereof
shall be in dread within himself; because of the counsel of J ehovah
Sabaoth, which he counselleth over it], vs. 16, 17. The subject
now is the last day, being the time when [the natural man] will be
so disturbed that he knows nothing whatever; for the natural man
who is being regenerated is reduced to ignorance, nay, to dread,
because he sees that sciences have perverted him. The land of Ju­
dah is faith without self~intelligence. The land of Judah is the
land of Canaan which extended as far as the river of Egypt; thus
it is heaven, etc.; see many passages in the Collecta concerning the
land of Canaan." This faith, being finite, feels dread. The nat­
ural man, when he is being regenerated, is brought into terror, etc.

18 In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt

speaking the lips of Canaan, and swearing to Jehovah Sabaoth;
each shall be said, Ir-Cheres. 6
19 In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst
of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Jehovah.
flO And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto Jehovah
Sabaoth in the land of Egypt; for they shall cry unto J ehovah be­
cause of the oppressors, and he shall send them a Saviour, and a
Prince, that he snatch them out.
!'l1 Then J ehovah shall become known to Egypt, and the Egyp­
tians shall know Jehovah in that day; and they shall make sacrifice
and mincha, and shall vow a vow unto Jehovah, and perform it.
flfl Thus shall Jehovah smite Egypt, smiting and healing: and
they shall return unto J ehovah, and he shall be intreated of them,
and shall heal them.
• Reading caetera for intol'ea (meanwhile).

'See Appendix, s.v., Canaan.

• See n. 7713 note.

84 IV Ad. p. 47
ISAIAH XIX: 16-=-~O [77U-7714
7712. That at the last time the ancient wisdom will return, and
there will be an understanding of truths whereby God Messiah will
be known.
7713. [In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt
speaking the lips of Canaan, and swearing to J ehovah Sabaoth;
each shall be said, Ir-Cheres. 1 In that day shall there be an altar
to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar aJ tlte
border thereof to Jehovah], vs. 18, 19. The five cities are the
whole body of experiences, being the experiences of the five senses.
From these comes all their science, for science abides in experience
alone, as in its own city, etc., etc. The things which dwell in that
city will speak the lips of Canaan, that is, things which pertain to
the heaven of God Messiah, for they are said to be sworn to J e­
hovah. As to Ir-Cheres, this may be looked into as to whether it
designates the city of the sun or the city of destruction. S It is
possible that both are designated, for they are things which have
destroyed man, and things which will enlighten him, as the sun does
the earth. The city of the Sun, however, seems to be designated,
and this is the intellectual mind born therefrom. The altar to
J ehovah will be in the midst of the land of Egypt, that is, among
the intelligent, and in the intellectual mind, what is meant being
the worship of God Messiah. Of old, moreover, a statue at the
border was in place of an altar. This has reference to those things
in the mind which are nearest toward the soul, etc.
7714. [And it shall be for a sign . . . in the land of Egypt:
f07' they shall cry unto J ehovah because of the oppressors, and he
shall send them a Saviour, and a Prince, that he snatch them out],
(vs. ~O). The oppressors are things arising from reasonings, and
which have persuaded to other things. He will hold such reason­
, After b'-Cheres, Schmidius adds in italics the translation the city of the
• A literal translation of the Hebrew would be Ir-Cheres shall be said to one
(or each). Tremellius has, Each shall be said to be a city of destruction; the
A.V., One shall be called The city of destruction; the Vulgate, The one shall be
called The city of the s'un; Castellio, One of which shall be called Heliopolis
(Greek for the city of the sun); Pagnini, The city Heres shall be said to the one;
the Swedish Bible, .One of them shall be called Ir-Cheres. The usual Hebrew
word for sun is ~~~ which occurs many times in the Bible. In the present case,
however, the word used is Oin (clwres) which occurs four times in the Bible, in
three of which it undoubtedly means 8'!m. The reason whv some translators have
the word destruction is that for Oin (cheres) they read Oin (cherem) which
means destruction.
IV Ad. p. 47 85

ings in hatred, seeing that they continually wish to oppress the

truth. Thus he will come to detest such science. That rational
mind, being finite so that it comprehends nothing of things divine,
is in continual rebellion, etc., etc. By a Savior and Prince, in the
inmost sense, is meant faith; in the supreme sense, it is God Mes­
siah, who, when he leads man, snatches him away from such things
as pervert faith. What is said in verse ~1 then follows, signifying
conversion and regeneration. The words in verse ~~ also follow
from what has preceded.
~3 In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to
Asshur; and Asshur shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into
Asshur, and the Egyptians shall serve with Asshur.
7715. That understanding and will, will then conspire as one;
for as intelligence was separated from will in Adam, as said above
[n. 7700], and science then seduced him, so at the last time they
will be reunited. Hence, in the new paradise two trees will again
exist in the midst. Therefore, it is said that there shall be a high­
way out of Egypt to Asshur; and Asshur shall come 'into Egypt,
and Egypt into Assh~(r, and the Egyptians shall serve with Asshur.
As concerns Asshur, it is not Babel that is meant, as neither are
magicians here meant by Egypt. Asshur was a son of Shem (Gen.
1022 ), and his posterity came to the land of the east where is
Asshur, and where dwelt his descendants (ibid. vs. 30); see the
Collecta concerning the East and concerning Asshur,9 for many
passages are met with; indeed, it is evident from the journeying
of his posterity, that they were sent to the east and to Asshur that
they might then return to Paradise. See also Genesis ~518-that
of old, Asshur round about Egypt was like a garden of Jehovah;
and also ibid. ~11. 14-that the rivers from Eden came to the land
of Havilah and to Asshur; see, moreover, what Balaam prophesied
(Num. ~423. 24). Thus, Asshur was an eastern land, and by this
is signified the love whereby the will is ruled, and consequently the
will itself. This land was related to and coterminous with Egypt,
etc., etc. Shur and Asshur are then the same, the one being Syria,
and the other Assyria, etc.

~4 In that day Israel with Egypt and Assyria shall be a trine ;

a blessing in the midst of the land:
• See Appendix. s.v., Ll."hll/I' and Ealt.
86 IV Ad. p. 48
ISAIAH XIX: ~1-~5 [7716-7717

~5 Whom Jehovah Sabaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed is

Egypt my people, and Asshur, the work of my hands, and Israel
mine inheritance.

7716. That heaven 1vill thus consist of three classes, the supTeme
of which is here repTesented by Israel, the second by Asshur, and
the third by Egypt. Respecting Israel, the reader may see what
was said above [n. 7648], that by him is meant the heavenly man,
inasmuch as by Israel in the land of Canaan was represented the
priesthood of God Messiah, and, consequently, those who live from
saving faith. The lands, moreover, were thus coterminous [with
Egypt] ; for there was the land of Canaan, and also Syria or As­
syria, which here make one. The case is the same in the man who
is being regenerated by faith. By ISTael are meant those who have
been endowed by God Messiah with saving faith. These are a
blessing in the midst of the land, that is, in inmosts ; and are called
an inheritance. By Asshur are meant those who are endowed with
a good disposition and who, without any further intelligence, be­
lieve and obey simply because God Messiah has so said. These are
called Asshur in a good sense. They are here the work of the
hands of Jehovah, and this because love has influx immediately into
their will. By Egypt here are meant those who become regen­
erated by means of the understanding, so that the understanding
is reunited to love. These are called a blessed people. To the
above look many things which are said concerning the migration
of the gentiles from the time of Adam and Noah, etc., etc.

7717. The subject in the preceding chapter was Egypt, by
which is meant human intelligence and philosophy which leads man
into shade and blindness; the blindness being the greater, the more
abundant the science; for falsities or fallacies then continually in­
sinuate themselves under the appearance of confirming arguments
which seem like truths when yet they are falsities. Hence the
shades become denser, and the blindness greater, so that at last
there is no darkness so great as with those who are called learned
and erudite. So likewise with one who wishes to be led by his own
prudence and puts his trust in the counsels of his own mind; con­
IV Ad. p. 49 87

trary to every opinion held by the vulgar, he is the most imprudent

of all men. 1
7718. In this chapter, Egypt is again treated of. The chap­
ter treats also of Cush, that is, Arabia which was near Ethiopia.
That Arabia was neighboring on Ethiopia is evident from some
passages in the Chronicles; 2 see the Collecta concerning Ethiopia,
Arabia and Cush; 3 and that the ancient wisdom flourished in that
part of Ethiopia as also in Arabia, can be evident from the queen
of Arabia, of whom wisdom is predicated and, indeed, such wisdom
that it can be called enigmatic. Moreover, that mystical wisdom
flourished there is evident enough from profane writers. 4 There­
fore the text now treats of both Egypt and Cush, that is, of the
natural science previously referred to, conjoined with the enig­
matic, wherein of old consisted eloquence. And since these spring
from an evil origin, that is, from cupidities and the loves of self
and the world, they are nothing but nudities, there being nothing
essential within them. By such science men pretend to things celes­
tial and spiritual, etc., when yet their mind or affection is wholly
remote therefrom. vVherefore, when this science is taken away,
there remains only that foul nakedness which is set forth in the
present chapter. By the king of Asshur [vs. 1] is here meant the
cupidity which takes Egypt and Cush into captivity and then the
nakedness becomes apparent because then he remains in that cu­
pidity. This science is also that harsh lord spoken of in verse 4
of the preceding chapter 19.
1 In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon
king of Asshur sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took
~ At that time Jehovah spake by the hand of Isaiah the son of
Amoz, saying, Go and loose the sackcloth from off thy loins, and
put off thy shoe from off thy foot. And he did so, walking naked
and barefoot.
3 And Jehovah said, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked
naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt
and Cush;
1 No. 7717 is emphasized by " Ohs., Obs.," written in the margin.

'2 Chron. 21: 16; 22: 1; 26: 7.

• See Appendix, s.v., Ethiopia, Amb'ia, Gush.

• See A Philosopher's Note Book, p. 508.
88 IV Ad. p. 49
ISAIAH XX: 1-~ [7719-77~O

4 So shall'the king of Asshur lead the captivity of Egypt, and

the mob of Cush that is to be carried off, lads and old men, naked
and barefoot, even uncovered buttocks, the nakedness of Egypt.
5 Then they shall be affrighted, and shall blush, because of
Cush their expectation, and because of Egypt their adornment.
6 And the inhabitant of this isle shall say in that day, Behold,
such is our expectation, whither do we flee for help to be snatched
away before the king of Asshur? how shall we free us?

7719. Th'is chapter treats of human rerisd01n or human philoso­

phy and 'its nakedness when it is taken away; and that then comes
despa'ir, in that no help can come therefTorn. This is a continua~
tion of what is contained in chapter 19, verses 1 to 17.
7720. [In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, . . . and
took it; J ehovah spake by the hand of Isaiah the son of A 1nOZ, say~
ing, Go and loose the sackcloth from off thy loins, and put off thy
shoe from off thy foot. And he did so, walking naked and­
foot], vs. 1, Q. This furnished the occasion for the prophecy.
Ashdod was a city of the Philistines, and when captured [by the
Assyrians], was a menace to Judah. Lest, therefore, they be in­
vaded, they wished to ask help against the king of Assyria from
Egypt and Cush. As concerns the representation in verse Q, it
must first be known that at that time it was frequently the case that
the things of which the prophets prophesied were then represented
by the prophets themselves; for it was in tlus way that the arcana
of heaven came down to those spirits who were then ruling the man,
the representations before the spirits being similar; and inasmuch
as the prophets were external men, it behooved them to put these
representations on. 5 Therefore it is said of Saul that when he
prophesied he lay naked throughout the whole night [1 Sam.
1924 ] ; and different actions are related of other prophets, of
whose ridiculous gestures and gesticulations much is recorded.
Yet the representations were heavenly, but, as was said, they were
representations which came down in this form to the proximate
spirits and so into nature. Of these matters many notable things
can be told, but, by the grace of God Messiah, this will be done
here and there in another place. Another reason [for the actions
of the prophets] is that all the rites consisted in representations,
and these were removed from the man [who represented]. Thus
, This part of n. 77fJO is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 50 89

they came out of heaven and returned to heaven. The natural

things were merely significative. This moreover is the reason why
the prophetic speech was woven of continuous like representations,
so brief and concise that one who is ignorant of these representa­
tions could never comprehend from them the things which are said
in the Prophets. In these sayings the letter is wholly dead and
sometimes is without any sense. 6 Such sayings, moreover, were ad­
mired because they savored of the wisdom of the old church. Af­
terwards, when the interior sense 7 is disclosed, shades of this kind
are dissipated and naked truths set forth. But because the world
still clung to these sayings, symbolic expressions followed together
with an explanation of them, etc., etc.
7721. As to the loosening of the sackcloth, this was the showing
of his nakedness, the loins signifying the loves in the natural man,
and, when the natural man is the subject spoken of, profane loves.
Therefore also the like occurs elsewhere; as in respect to Aaron,
that he should not go to the altar unless his loins were covered
[Exod. 9l8 42=43] ; also of Adam, that he was ashamed at his naked­
ness [Gen. 310]. The putting off of the shoe also signifies that
filthy natural things which should be covered over, would be re­
vealed. Thus it is said of him who was not willing to perform the
Levirate, that he should take off his shoe; and he was called " he
that hath his shoe loosed " [Deut. 9l5 10 ] , that is, shameless. These
words are now applied to those who are skilled in natural science
and eloquence, and thus in ingenuity, as they call it, and to the
learned or erudite. V\Then these things are taken away from them,
that is, when the man is brought into captivity, then his nakedness
7722. [Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked. . . . So
shall the king of As.~hnr lead the captivity of Egypt . . . naked
and barefoot, even nncovered bnttocks. . . . Then they shall be
affrighted, and .~hall blnsh, becanse of Cnsh their expectation, and
becanse of Egypt their adornment. And the inhabitant . .. shall
say, . . . whither do we flee for help?], vs. 3-6. These words
have now been explained, and also what the king of Asshur (vs. 4)
signifies, to wit, cupidities by which they are led away captive, or
of which they are afterwards despoiled. This is also called nalced­
• [Crossed off:] Nor could men understand the parts written in a clear style.
, The autograph has man.
90 IV Ad. p. 51
ISAIAH XX: 3-6-XXI: 1-10 [779l9l

ness and likewise uncovered buttocks. They will then blush and
be affrighted (vs. 5) when they see themselves thus naked or de­
spoiled of those things which they call adornment or ornaments,
and of the things which they were expecting,S it being from these
that they expect their help, as above [n. 77QO], etc., etc. And now
in verse 6 comes the shame of those who attribute everything to
themselves and their own intelligence, and thus nothing to God
Messiah. Then, when this is taken away from them, they see them­
selves to be naked and led into captivity by the king of Asshur, etc.,

1 The burden of the desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the
south for passing through; it cometh from the desert, from a ter­
rible land.
Q A harsh vision is declared unto me; the treacherous one deal­
eth treacherously, and the waster layeth waste. Go up, 0 Elam:
besiege, 0 Madai ; all his groaning will I make to cease.
S Therefore are my loins filled with a great pain: pains have
taken hold upon me, as the pains of a woman in travail: I am cor­
rupted and do not hear; I am perturbed and do not see.
4 My heart went astray, terror affrighted me: the dusk of my
desire hath he set to me for trembling.
5 Prepare the table, watch the watchtower, eat, drink: arise,
ye princes, anoint the shield.
6 For thus hath Adonai said unto me, Go, set the watchman,
let him see, let him proclaim.
7 And he saw a carriage, a couple of horsemen, the carriage of
an ass, the carriage of a camel; and he heard a hearing; a great
8 For he cried as a lion: 0 Adonai, I stand upon the watch­
tower continually in the daytime, and upon my charge am I sta­
tioned all the nights:
9 And, behold, [there cometh] 9 the carriage of a man, a cou­
ple of horsemen. And he answered and said, Babel is fallen, is
fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto
the ground.
• Reading expectabant for expectab'Unt.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 51 91

10 0 my threshing, [and] 1 son of my threshing floor! what I

have heard from-with Jehovah Sabaoth, the God of Israel, that
have I told you.

7723. The subject here treated of is the expectation of the last

judgment when there shall be desolation ove1' the whole world.
7724. [The burden of the deSC1·t of the sea. As whirlwinds in
the south for passing through; ,it cometh from the desert, from a
terrible land], vs. 1. By the desert of the sea is meant the desola­
tion of the last times previously spoken of. The whirlwinds which
come from the desert are the tossing of the ocean of which God
Messiah speaks [Luke ~125]. They who come from the desert,
that is, from desolation, that is to say, from those who are deso­
lated; from a terrible land, that is, from hell, for immediately after­
wards the text treats of the waster.
7725. [The treacherous one dealeth treacherously, and the
waster layeth waste. Go up, 0 Elam: besiege, 0 .1l1adai; all his
groaning will I make to cease], vs.~. The waster is the devil and
his crew. But now comes solace. To go up and lay siege~as to
whether this is active or passive, see the Hebrew text. 2 The Elam­
ites were in Samaria, having been brought thither from elsewhere
when they were taken to the city of Samaria [Ezra 4 9 , 10]. Thus
they were peoples beyond the Jordan descended from Elam the son
of Shem (Gen. 10 22 ), and because he was a son of the east, Elam
was commanded to go up. So likewise Madai who was a son of
Japheth (Gen. 10 2 ). Of these two it is said in verse 5 at the end,
" Arise, ye princes, anoint the shield" ; and in verse 6 of the follow­
ing chapter Elam is spoken of in almost the same way as here.
They are now commanded to arise against Babel, a city of Nimrod
the son of Ham [Gen. 10 10 ]. 'What these words signify can be
gathered from those three brothers. That by the king of Babel
is meant the devil, and thus by Babel, his crew, see Isaiah 14, verse 4
to the end; and that it is about to perish, Isaiah 13, verse 19, and
in many passages elsewhere. It is said all his groaning will I make
to cease. That this is not said to the prophet who had the vision
from heaven, is evident from the beginning of this verse and also
from verse 10.
1 Omitted by Schmidius.
2 In the Hebrew, both words are in the imperative active of Kal.
IV Ad. p. 5~
ISAIAH XXI: 1-8 [7726-7728

7726. [Therefore are my loins filled with a great pain: . . .

terror affrighted me: the dusk of my desire hath he set to me for
trembling. Prepare the table . . . arise, ye princes, anoint the
shield. For thus hath Adonai said unto me, Go, set the watch­
man], vs. 3-6. Here is described solicitude concerning the desert
of the sea (vs. 1), or the desolation; and that the treacherous one
and the waster were thus laying waste. He had this solitude within
him, because he wished to know whether or not Babel, which had
made the whole world drunk, had fallen. That Babel fell, that is,
that, at the last times, the crew of the devil was wholly destroyed,
see above [no 7654,7663]. The heaven of God Messiah is contin­
ually in this expectation. Thus it is described harshly, and there­
fore the vision or prophecy is called harsh [vs.~]. It is said the
dusk of desire because the expectation lasted on to the end, even
until they were wearied; but at the end of verse 5 it is said that the
princes should rise up for war with Babe!. To anoint the shield
is to enter not into worldly war but into heavenly. This is what
their anointing represents. The description of the expectation is
continued in verse 6.
7727. [And he saw a carriage, a couple of horsemen, the car­
riage of an ass, the carriage of a camel; and he heard a hearing; a
great hearing], vs. 7. The representation is now set forth as fol­
lows: The watchman, being the one who sees things to come, saw a
carriage, a couple of horsemen, the carriage of an ass, the ca,rriage
of a camel. All this signifies that they now returned to intelligence
and wisdom, it being these that are signified by a carriage, a couple
of horsemen; thus, that the first light of intelligence came; for it
was dusk in the human intellect, and the morning or the light of
dawn was awaited. Thus they were anointed; for in the first place
was a couple of horsemen, then the carriage of an ass, being things
of service, and then the carriage of a camel, being a carriage
wherein lords rode. A great hearing, that is, a great sound. As
to the carriage and the horsemen fighting Elam, see the next chap­
ter, verses 5-7.
7728. [For he cried as a lion: 0 Adonai, I stand upon the
watchtower continually in the daytime, and upon my charge am I
stationed all the nights], vs. 8. By a lion is meant every mighty
man who has strength, that is, who has faith in God Messiah, he
being here the watchman previously spoken of En. 7727] ; that is
to say, every faithful man who awaits for and desires the coming
IV Ad. p. 52 93

of God Messiah. That the heaven of God Messiah is continually

awaiting this-this I can declare; for they have the kingdom of
God Messiah within them, and therefore think of it continually,
and so stand upon their charge day and night.
7729. [Babel is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of
her gods he hath broken unto the ground. 0 my threshing, son of
my threshing floor! what I have heard . .. that have I told you],
vs. 9, 10. Here now is presented the final outcome, which is that
Babel has fallen, that is, the devil's crew in heaven and on earth.
As to her graven images being broken, see above [no 7654, 7663].
To these words is referred that which was said above [n. 7685J
concerning the Lion who broke them. It is said a threshing floor
and son of a threshing floor because now is the time of harvest, be­
ing also the time when the harvest will be gathered into barns. 3 It
is this time that is signified.
7730. How many are the short representations occurring in
these verses can be seen by anyone, and from them it is evident
that the prophetic style of that time was woven 4 of continual rep­
resentations. On most of these, light is thrown by the similitudes
of God Messiah. 5

11 The burden of Dumah. He calleth to me out of Seir,

Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?
12 The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the
night: if ye will enquire, enquire ye: come, return.

7731. This is a prophecy concerning the first advent of God

Messiah, and that the advent for judgment is to be expected.
Dumah was a city in the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15 52 ) ; thus
by this city is meant J udah. The cry is out of Seir; what is sig­
nified by mount Seir has been explained here and there in other
passages. Seir will be an inheritance because Edom is there.
Thus the cry is out of Seir, because it is the first advent of God
Messiah that is signified. And now as before, it is asked, What of
the night? Will the morning come? that is, will God Messiah
come, who will disperse the night and have the morning with him?
3 Reading hor"ea for hordea (barleys).

• Reading concinuata for continuata.

, No. 7730 is emphasized by " Ohs., Obs.," written in the margin.

94 IV Ad. p. 53
ISAIAH XXI: 9-17 [773~

From the words in verse 1~ it is evident that the morning did then
come, but yet it was night; and that therefore he is still to be
expected; then will the morning, that is, solace, come to those in

13 The burden of Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye

pass the night, ye bands of Dedanim.
14 Ye inhabitants of the land of Tema bring water in the way
of him that is thirsty; with his bread they meet him that wandereth.
15 For they wander before swords, before the outstretched
sword, and before the bent bow, and because of the grievousness of
16 For thus hath Adonai said unto me, Within a year, accord­
ing to the years of an hireling, [and] 6 all the glory of Kedar shall
be consumed:
17 And the remnants of the numbers of the bow of the mighty
sons of Kedar shall be few: for J ehovah the God of Israel hath

7732. That human intelligence will fall; and that at the last
time those who are truly wise will be few. That Arabia (vs. 13)
signifies human wisdom, see above [no 7718] ; for in Arabia flour­
ished an intelligence such as was enigmatic. This was indeed
drawn from the old church but it had degenerated. The Dedanim
are the descendants of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. ~53) ; for their
sons were sent toward the east where also were the Arabs. The
forest in A rabia is the above enigmatic 7 intelligence. T'eman was
also from the same region, see J oshua 1~, verse 3. Tema 8 was a
son of Ishmael (Gen. ~515). The land of the Temanites is men­
tioned in Genesis 36 34 • These 0 are commanded to give water to
him that is thirsty, and bread to the wanderer. Being descendants
of Ishmael, it was these who would refresh them; of Ishmael we
have previously treated. Of the above intelligence it is predicated
• Omitted bv Schmidius.

, Reading enigmatica for enatica. The Latin editor, however, reads Br1·atica.

'1r-l'l'1 (Ternan) is not the ~r-l'l'1 (Terna)" referred to in verse 14 of the

text Timan means the south, and in the A.V. is so translated in Joshua ilIa
but the alternative Teman is put in the margin.
o In this passage it is the Temanites, and not the Temaites that are men­
tioned; see preceding note.
IV Ad. p. 53 95

that it is wandering, and that they are close to being slain; for such
intelligence hurls man into extreme dangers. Therefore they wan­
der before swords, before the outstretched sword, before the bent
bow (vs. 15). It is said the grievousness of war, because these men
are infested by the devil more than others; for with them he can call
forth and set before them more blinding arguments than he can
with others who are more ignorant. A year or the years of an
hireling (vs. 16) is the time which will intervene between the first
advent of God Messiah llnd the second. This time is called both a
year and years. They are said to be hirelings who are brought,
as though into a vineyard, etc., and then at the end of that year,
that is, within a year, all that intelligence wherein he glories, will
be consumed. Kedar is Arabia, being the land here treated of; for
the subject of these verses is Arabia. The remnants or numbers
will be few, being those who are called the bow of the mighty (vs.
17). Might or strength is faith. Consequently, there will be few
who are endowed with faith.

1 The burden of the valley of vision. What of thee here, that
thou art wholly gone up to the housetops?
Q 0 thou that art full of tumults, a tumultuous city, a city of
merriment : thy pierced ones are pierced by the sword, and were
not slain in battle.
S [All] 1 thy masters are wandering together, they are bound
before the bow: all that are found in thee are bound together; they
have fled from afar.
4 Therefore I said, Look away from me that I may deport me
bitterly with weeping; persist not to comfort me, because of the
vastation of the daughter of my people.
5 For it is a day of tumult, and of treading down, and of per­
plexity to Adonai J ehovih Sabaoth in the valley of vision; destroy­
ing the wall, that the shouting may be to the mountain.
6 For Elam hath borne the quiver with the carriage of a man,
with horsemen; and Kir hath uncovered the shield.
7 Therefore it came to pass, that the elect of thy valleys were
1 Omitted by Schmidius.

96 IV Ad. p. 54
ISAIAH XXII: 1-14 [7733-7734

filled with the carriage, and the horsemen, setting, have set 2 even
at the gate.
S And he uncovered the covering of Judah; therefore thou
shalt look in that day to the armory of the house of the forest.
9 Ye have seen also the breaches of the city of David, that they
are many: and ye have gathered together the waters of the lower
10 And ye have numbered the houses of Jerusalem, that ye
may destroy the houses to fortify the wall.
11 Ye made also a ditch between the two walls for the waters
of the old fishpool: but ye have not looked unto the makers thereof,
neither had respect to the Former thereof from afar.
1~ Therefore in that day shall Adonai Jehovih Sabaoth call to
weeping, and to wailing, and to baldness, and to putting on sack­
13 For behold gladness and joy; killing oxen, and slaying
sheep; eating flesh, and drinking wine: it is for eating and for
drinking; for to morrow we die.
14 That which is revealed in [mine] 3 ears Jehovah Sabaoth;
If this iniquity shall be atoned for you till ye die, said Adonai J e­
hovih Sabaoth.

7733. These verse.~ treat of the external man and his fantasy,
e.ypecially with the Jews.
7734. [The burden of the 'valley of vision. What of thee here,
that thou art wholly gone up to the housetops? 0 thou that art
full of tumults, a tumultuous city, a city of merriment: thy pierced
ones are pierced by the sword, and were not slain in battle], vs. 1, ~.
The valley of vision is fantasy, this being in a valley, and when go­
ing up to the housetops is predicated of it, what is signified is the
thought arising therefrom. Their houses had roofs which repre­
sented high places, as is said in some passage respecting Saul, if I
mistake not. 1 The city is called a city which is tumult'uou,s; for
when thought governed by heaven does not rule a city, they make
tumult like insane men. It is said to be of merriment, because they
have nothing save the sensation of the pleasures of the senses and
• Here Schmidius adds the explanatory word camp.

I Omitted by Schmidius.

• Confer I Sam. 925.

IV Ad. p. 54

of the body. They are said to be pierced by the sword, when there
is no truth, truth being, as it were, the sword which pierces them.
Wherefore th!.L~re slain sBir~1!:I.~lly. And were not slain in battle,
for there was no temptation in which they succumbed, it being one
who has succumbed in temptation who is said to be slain in battle.
7735. [Thy masters are wandering together, they are bound
before the bow: . . . they have fled from afar], vs. 3. The mas­
ters are the things which are truths. They are spoken ~o
should have the mastery. All truths look to faith, and, by faith,
to God Messiah, consequently, to his kingdom. All these masters
are wandering, bound by the bow, as previously were those who
were pierced by the sword [vs.~]. Nay, they have fled away, be­
cause there is no such truth [in the man's mind]. Angels of God
Messiah who can produce no effect on such a mind, are then said
to have been bound and to have fled away; although they are not
bound. (But these words, being hard sayings, should be explained
more skillfully.)
7736. [Therefore I said, Look: away from me that I may de­
port me bitterly with weeping; persist not to comfort me, because
of the vastation of the daughter of my people], vs. 4. What is
here meant in the inmost sense is truth, which makes lamentation;
and consequently faith, and, in the supreme sense, God Messiah.
It is here represented that He wept over Jerusalem [Matt. ~387;
Luke 13 84 ] ; for tb~a!!:.ghter of that people is the represen~tive
( church which was with the Jews. The church which was in an­
cient times was indeed solemnly resuscitated with the people of
Jacob, but there was never aught but vastation. 5
7737. [For it is a day of tumult, and of treading down, and of
perplea:ity . . . in the valley of vision; destroying the wall, that
the shouting may be to the mountain], vs. 5. Here is told the end
-what will arise therefrom in the day [of tumult], that is, in the
day of judgment, which day is foretold when those things are said
which were previously spoken of in verse 4. That day is called a
day of tumult and of treading down, that is, of vastation and per­
plexity, in that in the valley of vision they know no counsel. Man
is called a valley of vision because his whole mind is a fantasy, etc.
Destroying the waU. The city is the intellectual mind, and, in the
inmost sense, faith. The wall is destroyed because the city is laid
• No. 7736 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
98 IV Ad. p. 55
ISAIAH XXII: 3-9 [7738-7789

waste. The shouting is to the mountain even till it is heard by God

Messiah. Hence the bitterness in the weeping spoken of in verse 4.

7738. [For Elam hath borne the quiver with the carriage of a

man, with horsemen; and Kir hath uncovered the shield, There­
fore it came to pass, that the elect of thy valleys were filled with the

carriage], vs. 6, 7. Respecting Elam, see verse ~ of the preceding

chapter ~l. Of him it is also said that he would arise and anoint

the shield (ibid. vs. 5), for then Babel fell [ibid. vs. 9]. It is he

therefore who will destroy the valley of vision which at that time

was the valley of Jerusalem. Elam was the son of Shem; hence

came the Elamites; see the Collecta. 6 As to what Kir is in this

verse, see the Hebrew text: for here he is put in place of Madai,

the son of Japhet, in verse ~ of the preceding chapter. He was in

the land of the east, see Kir,8 inasmuch as he was in the land of

Moab where were the sons of the east, and where also was Syria. 9

The carriage of a man, and horsemen signify intelligence and wis­

dom, and consequently truth, it being these which attack and de­

stroy them. The elect of the valleys are those valleys in which

they can look upon them coming. As is the wont in prophetic

sp~eech what is here set forth is a battle and an attack.

739 [And he uncovered the covering of Judah; therefore thou
sha took in that day to the armory of the house of the forest. Ye
have seen also the breaches of the city of David, that they are

many: and ye have gathered together the waters of the lower fish­
pool], vs. 8-9. To uncover the covering of J udah is to uncover
faith in God Messiah. The armory of the house of the forest is
that which is called their collection gathered t~ether by the rat:/
bis and others, 1 whereby they wish to defend the!!!,.selves agai~st
those who will show them that everything in their prophetical books I
looks ~ God Messiah. They see that the breaches of the city of
. David are many, for the things which they wish to adduce in oppo­
sition do not hang together; and men see many unconnected things,
as to which they can say nothing. The waters of the lower fishpool
• See Appendix, s.v., Elam.

, The Hebrew text has Kir.

8 See Appendix, s:v., KiT'.

• Confer Amos }5, 97.

(')rhis apparently refers to the T~d, a voluminous collection of anCient))

comments on the Mishna which, in turn, is a record of the unwritten laws

handed down orally from the time of Moses, and embellished with the comments

and interpretations of the Gemarists.

IV Ad. p. 55 99

are likewise those same collections; and because they are sordid, .la
they are called wJ!.!§:~..J)Ltkl<?_~«:!_ fish~?l; for there were many
I fish pools in J erusalem:;n
7740. [ Ye have numbered the houses of Jerusalem, that ye may
destroy the houses to fortify the wall], vs. 10. They wish to take
from the houses to repair the ruin of the wall. These words also
I involve that in order to defend themselves they take ~all that they
l can find, but it does not suffice.
--7741. [Ye mad~ also a ditch between the two walls for the waters
of the old fishpool: but ye have not looked unto the makers thereof,
neither had respect to the Former thereof from afar], vs. n. So
, likewise with th~h. The old sh ond is that collection with
11 the rabbis, e~c., which they have drawn from the Ancients, and
from which come their val:io~~}a~.les. But they have not looked

represeut.lloti¥.e...cilurch and its faith in God Messiah. These An­

cients are called makers because they lived in primitive times and,
to "the Ari-cients·wno co~st;u"Ct~d those fables, that is, to the ancient

as it were, founded that church; but the Former is God Messiah.

To himj,h~y-ll.ay_~~_!~~ res£.ect, as elsewhere they had no
[ respect to the Holy One of Israel, and did not see him even from
7742. [Therefore in that day shall Adonai, Jehovih Sabaoth
call to weeping, and to wailing. . . . For behold gladness and joy;
. . . it is for eating and for drinking; for to morrow we die.
That which is revealed in (mine) 3 ears, .Jehovah Sabaoth; If this
iniquity shall be atoned for you till ye die, said Adonai J ehovih
Sabaoth], vs. 1~-14. Therefore now is every tumult, desolation
and perplexity (vs. 5), these being here described by the customary
signs of mourning. See many signs of mourning elsewhere.
What is now said is the speech of those who live in that state, but
the words refer to the things that follow-that such things come to
the ears of God Messiah. Such is the state of all who live as ex­
ternal men and in the valley oT vision [vs. 1]. Then comes the
answer, that their iniquity will not be atoned for even till they die,
a formula which is familiar elsewhere, and which signifies that such
iniquity will not be atoned for. Because they said, What of it?
tomorrow we die, etc., answer is given them in like words.
• No. 7789 is emphasized by " Obs.," written fOUl' times in the margin.
• Omitted by Schmidius. -:::::=::
100 IV Ad. p. 56
ISAIAH XXII; 10-19 [7743

15 Thus said Adonai Jehovih Sabaoth, Go, get thee now unto
the treasurer, unto Shebna, which is over the house [of the king]:
16 What doest thou here? and who is with thee here? that thou
hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here? 0 he that heweth him out
a sepulchre on high, that graveth an habitacle for himself in a rock!
17 Behold, Jehovah carryeth thee away, 0 man, with a carry-
ing, and covering, covereth thee.
18 Turning, he will turn thee round with a turning, as a ball,
unto a land, broad in spaces; there shalt thou die, and there the
chariots of thy glory shall be the shame of thy lord's house.
19 For I will drive thee away from thy station; and from thy
place will I overturn thee.

7743. That the Jewish church, being unfaithful, will wholly

perish. Shebna was a scribe or treasurer (see 9l Kings 18 18 ; and
concerning his being sent to the prophet, Isaiah, ibid., 192 ). It
was a position of great honor, respecting which, see further in the
passages cited. In addition to him, Eliakim (spoken of in verse
910 seq.) also was sent to Sennacherib, the king. These two men
are now presented; the former, that is, Shebna, represents ~e
who are pre~cts of the Jewish church; for which reason, Shebna is
here called a treasurer, and it is said that he was over the house of
the king,5 the house of the king being the church in the land.
Thus, besides other prefects, it is chiefly priests that are meant, as
is evident from verse 911 seq.; consequently the church itself. III
zenera], all unfait.hfuU_erv~!1.!s.~rL~ncly_ded h~e. He is asked
what he is doing, and who he is (vs. 16), to the end that answer may
be given him. ~ hew oneself out a sepulchre on high is to lift
oneself up above others. To "grave "ii'habitacle in a rock is t~ll
there, as thouE._.~~~~llJdJ)~_h!!:PPy..1?:b.~~.~o thers. Elation or
~e is thus described, because they who wish to mount on high,
and who condemn others in comparison with themselves, d~h.ew
?~eP.t!.~~hre in the deep 6-for they die. Then (vs. 17) folIows ..i
a description of how he will be laid low-that he will be carried
away and covered over, the carrying away referring to the height,
and the covering over to the hiding place in the rock. This carry-
• Added by Schmidius.
'The words of the king are an addition by Schmidius.
• in alto.
IV Ad. p. 57 101

ing away is likened to a ball which is pushed down to a land broad

in spaces (vs. 18), where he has long run his course and circled
around. But there he will at last die, and so his glory will become
the shame of his lord the King. From the same cause, and accord­
ing to the prediction, follow the words in verse 19, to wit, that he
will be driven away and cast out, this being the overturning from
his place.
As to what further these words signify in heaven where are
principalities and prefectures, this can indeed be said in many
words (as concerning Abraham, Moses, and others, of whom
nevertheless there must here be silence); for they were gradually
removed from their place, the degree of descent being accord­
ing to the degree of their ascent, etc. These likewise repre­
sented the treasurers and prefects of the house of the King,
thus representing the fathers of the church. 7

~o And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will call my

servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah:
n And I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him
with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his hand,
that he may be as a father to the inhabitant of Jerusalem, and to
the house of J udah.
~~ And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his
shoulder; that he may open, and none shall shut; and shut, and
none shall open.
~3 And I will fasten him, a nail in a faithful place, that he
may be for a throne of glory to the house of his father.
~4 And they shall hang upon him all the glory of the house of
his father, of sons and of grandsons, all vessels of very little, from
vessels of cups even to all vessels of harps.
~5 In that day, the saying of Jehovah Sabaoth, shall this nail
that is fastened in the faithful place recede, and when it is cut out
and falleth, the burden that is upon it shall also be cut out: for J e­
hovah hath spoken.

7744. The Jewish churfh being abrogated, it is now set iQrth

th'!..~_the church of the JIentiles wil'f/ollow, to Which will be given
, This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memo­
!'abilia, s.v., Dii, Domi'/lU8, GeniWJ, JehofJah and Spiritu8.
See Table of Contents.
10~ IV Ad. p. 57
ISAIAH XXII: 9lQ-9lS [7745-7746
that which was taken away ff'om the former church. The subject
treated of in the supreme sense is God Messiah.
7745. (I will call my servant Eliakim. . . . And I will clothe
hill~ with thy robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will
commit thy government into his hand, that he may be as a father to
the inhabitant of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah], vs. 9l0, 9l1.
By the servant Eliakim are meant those who are of the church of
the gentiles; thus the faithful. Therefore he is called th~-~~t
~f Adonai, JehoviKSabaoth (vs. 15), that is, of God Messiah. He
is clothed with a robe and girdle, which were the insignia of a
priest; hence his government, and hence his being the father of J e­
rusalem, that is, of the true Christian church. The house of Judah
is the same thing, to wit, in the inmost sense, those who are of the
confession of the true faith. What is meant in the supreme sense
is the Messiah, as clothed with the priestly garment, and that he will
have power over all men, and is called the Father of the church and
of all the faithful. .
7746. [And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his
shoulder; that he shall open, and none shall shut; and shut, and
none shall open. And I will fasten him, a nail in a faithful place,
that he may be for a throne of glory to the house of his father],
vs. 9l9l,9lS. It is predicated o(.th«: church of God Messiah. that...!.o )
i~ is given the key to open and to shut; buiJ;his-'p'~~I]gtlQGod M~s­
siah alone, to whom is given all power in the heavens and on earth
[Matt.9l818 ]. It..&pr.edi.cated..2Uhe church, beca~e...Q.fthem
can do anything save what God Messiah wills. The true son of the
church is led by Hi~;h-;-~lso professes that he can do nothing
whatever from himself, and that all is of God Messiah. One who
attributes such power to himself can never be a son of His church;
for with the man who believes that he can open anything from him­
self, and does so open, heaven is closed-ag4...t he reve~se. Conse­
quently, here, in the supreme sense, it is God Messiah who is meant.
This nail (vs. 9lS) is fixed in a faithful place when fixed with those
who have such faith as was mentioned. Thus, by the nail is meant
that power which has been described; and when it is fixed in a faith­
ful place, it is then for the glory of God Messiah who is the Father
of the church. In the supreme sense, it is God Messiah who is
treated of, that to him who is the throne of the glory of Jehovah
his Father is given all power in the heavens and on earth.
IV Ad. p. 58 103

7747. [And they shall hang upon him all the glory of the house
of his father, of sons and of grandsons, all vessels of very little,
from vessels of cups even to all vessels of harps. In that day, the
saying of Jehovah Sabaoth, ,Yhall this nail that is fastened in the
faithful place recede, and . . . the bU1'den that is upon it shall also
be cut out], vs. ~4, ~5. This is again repeated; for from the nail,
that is, from that power, is all the glory of Jehovah his Father.
Therefore he is also called the glo1'y of his Father, just as the
church is called the glory of God Messiah, and also of His sons
and grandsons; look up the Hebrew text, for here the translators
vary~ All vessels, from the little to the great, means all things
which pertain to the worship of Him, etc. That this nail which is
fixed in a faithful place will recede, involves both churches. It was
fixed in a faithful place in the primitive church and also in the new
church immediately after the advent of God Messiah; but in both
churches it is said to recede when there is no longer faith. That
the burden that is upon it shall be cut off signifies that this will be
done after God Messiah has instituted his kingdom, which is deliv­
ered to Jehovah his Father, according to the words which Paul
speaks-whose words may here be adduced. 9 But it is evident 1
from the series of things, that the burden will be cut off, that is,
the promise to Abruham, Isaac and Jacob, which was a grievous
burden; and this will be cut off when they have wholly deceived God
Messiah and have become unfaithful; for then the nail will fall.
(!)A literal translation of the Hebrew would be, They shall hang upon hi1n
. , . ott'spring and iss'lIe; all ve8sels, the little, from vessels of cups and even to
vessels of psalter-ies, The word here translated issue occurs only once in the He­
brew Bible, and its meaning is gathered from the context only. Various trans­
lators take it to mean sons or daughters, or grandsons. The translation by
Pagnini is essentially the same as the above; also that by Schmidius, and Swe­
denborg in his Theological Works, except that they have grandson for is8U8.
Tremcllius, his p1'oduce and his return, all instruments, even of the smallest, both
instruments of cups and inst-ruments of skins; the A.V., the offspring and the
issue, all vessels of small quantity and all vessels of flagons; Castellio, g1'andsons
and descendants, every leMt household stuff from bMins to all musical instru.­
ments; The Vulgate, various kinds of vessels, every little vessel from vessels of
cups to eV81'y work of mWl-icians,o the Swedish Bible, Children and children's
children, e'Dery small stuff, both drinking cups and all kinds of musical instru­
• " Then cometh the end, when he (Christ) shall have delivered up the king­
dom to God, even his Father; when he shall have laid down all rule and all au­
thority and power" (1 Cor. 15 2f ).
1 The autograph has significatu1' (is signified), but the context indicates that

this is a slip for constat.

104 IV Ad. p. 58
ISAIAH XXII: fl4-fl5-XXIII: 1-16 [7747

1 The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for she
is laid waste, so that there is no house, neither shall anyone enter
in; from the land of Kittim it shall come to them plainly.
fl Be still, ye inhabitants of the isle; thou merchant of Zidon
that passeth over the sea; they have infilled thee;
3 And through many waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of
the Nile,2 her produce, to be the commerce of nations.
4 Blush, 0 Zidon: for the sea hath said, the stronghold of the
sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth, and I have
not brought up young men, I have raised up virgins. 3
5 When the report 4 to Egypt, they shall be seized with sorrow:
as at the report of Tyre.
6 Pass ye over to Tarshish ; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle.
7 Is she good cheer to you? her antiquity from the days of
eternity? her feet shall carry her afar off for exile.
8 Who hath counselled this over Tyre, that crowneth herself?
whose merchants are princes, her traffickers the honoured of the
9 Jehovah Sabaoth hath counselled it, to defile the magnificence
of every adornment, to make vile all the honoured of the land.
10 Pass through thy land as a river [unto the] S daughter of
Tarshish: there is no more a girdle.
11 He stretched out his hand over the sea, he shook the king­
doms: Jehovah hath given a commandment against the merchant,
to destroy the strongholds thereof.
Ifl And he said, Add no more to be of good cheer, 0 thou op­
pressed virgin of the daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over to Kit­
tim ; 6 there also shalt thou have no rest.
13 Behold, 0 land of the Chaldeans; this people is not, 0
Asshur; he hath founded it into heaps; they will set up their watch
towers, raise up their palaces; yet he shall bring her to ruin.
14 Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for your stronghold is laid
* In the margin of his Schmidius' Bible at Genesis 9 zs , the Author refers
to the notes on this chapter.
• The Hebrew is ri1ler.
• See n. 7750 note.
• Here Schmidius supplies the word cOffleth.
• Added by Schmidius.
• See n. 7749 note.
IV Ad. p. 58 105

15 And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be

given to oblivion seventy years, according to the days of one king:
after the end of seventy years Tyre shall be as the song of an
16 Take an harp, go about in the city, 0 harlot given to obliv­
ion; strike elegantly, multiply song, that thou mayest be called to

7748. That human learning will become of no account.

7749. [The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for
she is laid waste, so that there is no house, neither shall anyone en­
ter in: from the land of Kittim it shall come to them plainly], vs. l.
Tyre was a city on the sea in the neighborhood of the land of Ca­
naan which flourished with commerce and abounded in wealth; a
city to which merchandise was carried from all.places. By riches,
in the spiritual sense, is meant all learning. This is brought in
from every place, as of old merchandise was brought to Tyre.
The places mentioned in the text also signified the things whence
come cognitions. The ships of Tarshish were ships which brought
various wares such as apes, etc., and also gold; see the Collecta. 7
Kittim 8 was the grandson of Japheth (Gen. 10 4 ), from whom were
the isles of the nations (ibid. vs. 5). Tarshish likewise was a
grandson of Japheth from whom were the isles of the nations (ibid.
10 4,5). It was these men then who carried like wares to the land
of Canaan, and this through Tyre; and since by these wares are
signified spiritual riches, that is, the cognitions of things, whence
comes erudition; and since these were carried into the land of Ca­
naan through Tyre; it can be evident what is signified by the bless­
ing of Japheth [by Noah], that" he shall dwell in the tents of
Shem" [Gen. 9 27 ]. In the present chapter the vastation of Tar­
shish is first treated of; meaning that human erudition will become
of no account. It bec~~s---;'-oth~g in human minds when these
grow old, for then, from these sciences, principles have been drawn
and a disposition induced. It also becomes of no account in the
end of days. But, accordillg to the-prophecy, it will afterwards
come into use, a-s is evident from verses 17 and 18. Moreover, it
1 See Appendix, s.v., Tarshish, Tyre.
s tl'1'l:::l. In the A.V., this word is written sometimes Kittim and sometimes
as in the present verse Chittim.
106 IV Ad. p. 59
ISAIAH XXIII: 1-7 [7750-7751
becomes of no account after death, for then it is only th~..2isposi­
tion drawn therefrom that lives and rules. Thus the human in­
Wieet i~_Qf servi.~~!_~._0~~n<!_~~~!:.-~i~J~~s~!i_'?-~-._~iY __!h~reby- be
iml'iued within which all those things are then present which
previously during life had been present in the cognitions which
formed it; as, for instance, in the affections-of which elsewhere. 9
7750. [Be still, ye inhabitants of the isle; thou, merchant of
Zidon. . . . And throu,gh many waters the seed of Sihor, the
harvest of the Nile, he" produ,ce, to be the commerce of nations.
Blush, 0 Zidon: for the sea hath said, . . . I have 1 raised up vir­
gins], vs. ~-4. The inhabitants of the isle (vs. ~) are the descend­
ants of Canaan or Ham; for the land of Canaan is frequently called
an isle. Zidon also was a grandson of Ham, being the firstborn of
Canaan (Gen. 1015 ). Thus, by their wares are meant the cogni­
tions of natural things which seduce man, as also does magic, etc.
Sihor (vs. 3) was a border of the inheritance of Asher, as also was
Zidon (Josh. 13 3 , 1926 • 28 ).2 The Nile 3 or Egypt is the place
where was the natural science, magic. Here the several words
must be observed--'rnany waters, the seed of Sihor, the harvest of
the Nile, her produce and her commerce. In verse 4 it is said,
Blush, 0 Zidon, and this because of her vile wares, being natural
sciences which seduce I?~n, iI!:__that h~J>?-~s~~~f. .thj!'J~l!rning. which
( he calls a virgin; for he holds himself in esteem on account of such
\. learning, wl1e"il yet he has been seduced. So likewise Egypt (vs.
5) ; they grieve because of the vastation.
7751. [Pass ye over to Tarshish . . . . Is she good cheer to
you? her antiquity from the days of eternity? he" feet shall carry
her afar off for exile], vs. 6-7. It is said that they should pass
over to Tm'shish (vs. 6); that is, should favor those cognitions
which can serve for use, as said in the last verse of this Chapter.
It is asked whether she is worthy of gladness (vs. 7) because she is
called a vj!il~li~1h~~~:-s"Fe-is -f!i~·W!ido.~~iirch.~was ip_primitive
• The latter half of n. 7749 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the
1 Schmidius, and all the translators consulted, here adds a negation: I have

not raised up virgins. In his present comment, Swedenborg rejects this nega­
tive. He does the same in his Theological Works, though there the English
translators have inserted it without comment.
• In Josh. 19 26 , the A.V. has Shihor, but in chap. 133 , Sihor. In the Hebrew,
the spelling is the same.
• This word is added to verse 3 by Schmidius. The Hebrew is the river.
IV Ad. p. 60 107

times, or from the days of eternity, that is, the truth? The answer
is-'~v~n'that-she will be an exile. That she will be cast into exile
is the counsel taken by God Messiah (vs. 8). The learned called
themselves princes over others, and honored, because learned and
wise. That she will be wiped out, is s~t forth in verse 9. Thus
Tyre also will be commanded to pass over to the daughter of
Tarshish, as before. There is no more a girdle, that is, she is not
a virgin who was girded with a g"uale i t1gti she isc~n;I~-;;:clot,
see verses 15 ana 16. ---x5to what a girdle is (vs. 10), see ~lse­
where0 His kingdom in man is set forth in verse 11; that he
occupies the whole of it. This verse treats of man's vastation.
Sidon also, who was the grandson of Ham [Gen. 10 15 ], is com­
manded to pass over to Kittim, who was the grandson of J a pheth
(vs. U).
7752. [Behold, 0 land of the Chaldeans: this people is not, 0
Asshur; he G hath founded it into heaps; they will set up their watch
towers, raise up their palaces; yet he shall bring her to ruin], vs.
13. The land of the Chaldeans was the land where was the primi­
tive wisdom; for which reason the Chaldeans were called wise men.
Look up as to whether they were from Chul,6 the grandson of Shem
[Gen. 1023 ]. Asshur was the son of Shem; but here the interpret­
ers greatly differ; look up the Hebrew text. 1 If it is that they set
up watchtowers and raised up palaces, and he shall bring her to
ruin, then this is the work of wisdom, etc.
7753. [Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: . . . Tyre shall be given
to oblivion s~-'J.nty years, according to the days of one king:
• See n. 5823.

, Schmidius explains he as meaning God.

• The word Chaldea is from the Greek xaMatos. In Hehrew the Chaldeans
are C'''lW:!l (Casdim).
T Literally translated, the text would read: Behold, this land of ChaJ/dim;

the people waB not; ABBhur haB fo'unded it for ziyim; they set up her tower, (or
watch towers),. they raised up he·r palace,. The Hebrew word ziyim occurs six
times in the Hebrew Bible, and in five of these, Swedenborg, in his Theological
Works, uses the transliteration ziyim; in the sixth (Ps. 79 9 ), in one place he
translates it iBlands, and in another, following Schmidius, he translates it bar­
barians. The translation of the present verse in Pagnini and also in the A.V.,
is literal; but Pagnini translates ziyim as dweller, in tho dese·rt, and the A.V.,
them that dwell in the wildernes,. The Vulgate: As,hur haJ/ founded it; he hath
lod her strong ones into captivity, they have undermined her houses-here the
word ziyim is ignored; the Swedish Bible translates it ships; Castellio, dwellers
in the wood; (in one place Swedenborg has wood demons) and Schmidius, heaps,
though in other places he has ziyim.
108 IV Ad. p. 60
ISAIAH XXIII: 8-18 ['T'i54

Take an harp, go about in the city, 0 harlot given to oblivion], vs.

14-16. Now is the wailing over the devastation of Tyre, and, as
it seems, over Sidon also, as to which, see verses 4 and 5. As is
customary, the time of their oblivion is compared to a time of sev-
enty years; for seven years or days or times, and seventy, are cus-
tomary formulas by reason of the signification of the times of crea-
tion, so often spoken of above. Therefore this time is called the
days of one king or kingdom. s These words have regard to the
last times. She is _~IE'par~.~_~o a h~_rlot.i~':-'!§) fr~~y
causes, becausesne' mingles herself with things which pertain to a
~~~~~ she wl!.0!fpfoJillles, etc.~-etc. -

~ And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that
Jehovah will visit Tyre, that she may return to her harlot hire, and
commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the
faces of the globe.
(18) And then shall her merchandise and the hire of her fornica-
tion be holiness to J ehovah: it shall not be laid up nor held back;
but her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before Jehovah,
to eat, to satisfy themselves, and to cover themselves with the old.

7754. That at the last t·ime cOJJ:!!:itions._<!.L~hi1l:gs._ ~~l serve [or

use in things hea~enly. Cognitions will then return, the false min-
gle<fwith1he true. They will be holiness to .Jehovah-this has the
same cause as the circumstance that the spoils of enemies were
sanctified to J ehovah; for, as was said [n. 7749], they can serve a
manifold use, serving, namely, to instruct the human intellect in
things that are to be believed, and so to form its disposition, etc. ;

for when man is led by God Messiah, every science 9 is applied to
its own use, being thus applied in its own order. N othillg scien-
tific is possible in nature which does not, in its own way, confirm the
truth thaftJle·kfrt-dom of. G~-d MessTi~i;th~-~~d of all creation,
~tc~ ~~. --Moreover, iti-;-from this that;';;~;; is reformed, tl!.~s be-
ing done ~the~L~tiol~ QLtb~_lJ.!1~ding-butof an under-
standing of truths and goodnesses fitting in with love and thus
forming an affection wpich remains aft~!. _the man's death. Within
the a:ff;ctIo~hereis then intellig~nce. In thi;'~-';y does that which
• Tremellius' translation.
• Or knowledge.
IV Ad. p. 61 109

is inferior serve those who will have faith, that is to say, her mer­
chand'ise shall be for them that dwell before Jehovah, to eat (that
is, for the nourishment of the mind), to sa.tisfy themselves (which
then follows) and for clothing. Look up the text as to whether it
is to clothe themselves by the old, etc. 1

1 Behold, Jehovah maketh the earth void, and maketh it empty,
and he shall overturn its faces, and shall scatter abroad its inhab­
~ And it shall be, as the people, so the priest; as the servant,
so his master; as the maid, so her mistress; as the buyer, so the
seller; as the lender, so the borrower; as the taker of usury, so the
giver of usury [to him.] 2
3 Being emptied, the earth shall be emptied, and being spoiled,
shaH be spoiled: for J ehovah hath spoken this word.
4 The habitable earth 3 shall mourn, it shall be confounded; the
world shall languish, it shaH be confounded; the height of the peo­
ple of the earth is languishing.
5 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; be­
cause they have transgressed the laws, passed over the statute,
made vain the covenant of eternity.
6 Therefore a curse shall devour the earth, and they that dwell
therein shall suffer for guilt; for the inhabitants of the earth shall
be burned, and rare the man that shall be left.
7 The new wine shall mourn, the vine shall languish, all that are
glad in heart shall mourn.
S The joy of the drums shall cease, the tumult of the merry
shall cease, the joy of the harp shall cease.
9 They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be
bitter to them that drink it.
10 The city of emptiness is broken: every house is shut up,
that none may come in.
(9The Hebrew is for a covering of the p'IW. This word, translated old~­
curs o~ once in the Hebrew Bibl~ an!i_t!'.!!JlsI!,l,.l:Ql.Lg(;[.~LaLt.Q.l!&
.. meaning.
PagiUm s lransi~tioil is (orcOve;i:n.qihe" oid; the Vulgatc, clothed even to old
age; Tremellius, strong covering; the A.V., du.rable clothing,' Castellio, exceed­
ingly well clothed; the Swedish Bible, well clothed.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
• The Hebrew is simply the earth.
110 IV Ad. p. 61
ISAIAH XXIV: 1-13 [7755-7757

11 A cry over wine in the streets; all joy shall be commingled;

the gladness of the land shall be exiled.
192. In the city is left a waste, and the gate shall be pounded
even to devastation.
13 For so shall it be in the midst of the lr.nd in the midst of the
peoples, as the pressing of an olive, as the grape gleanings when
the vintage is done.

7755. Here is described the desolation of man in particular,

and the desolation of the world at the last time.
7756. [.lehovah maketh the earth void, and maketh it empty,
. . . And it shall be, as the people, so the priest; . . . Being emp­
t'ied, the earth shall be emptied. . . . The habitable earth 4 shall
monrn, it shall be confounded; the world shall languish . . . the
height of the people of the earth is languishing], vs. 1-4. The
human mind is compared to the earth, and when the latter is said
to be empty it means a mind without the understanding of truth
and the will of good; in the inmost sense, without saving faith.
This is ascribed to Jehovah by reason of his power-this, however,
is a customary formula of speech-when yet it is due to the per­
versity of man when seduced by evil spirits, and so to the perversity
of evil spirits. Hence it follows that it is the inhabitants who are
the things spoken of, for the earth is given to them as the dwellers
therein. In the human mind as in human society, there are sub­
ordinations. The government of the one can be learned from the
government of the other. Tl!:fLl!.e~'[Jle is _~~~~~j~J~ed, the
priest he who instructs, and so in the rest of verse 92.. 'Vhen order
is perverted, then that has dominion which ought to serve. But
what is here treated of is the first state of desolation. A void,
emptiness, and desolation are one and the same. Hence the mourn­
ing, the confusion, and the languor. The height of the people (vs.
4), that is, high peoples, being those who ought to rule.
7757. [The earth also is defiled nnder the inhabitants thereof;
because they have transgressed the laws, . . . made vain the cove­
nant of eternity. Therefore a curse shall devonT the earth, and
they that dwell the1'ein shall suffer for gnilt; . . . and rare the
man that shall be left], vs. 5-6. The inhabitants (vs. 5) are those
inhabitants previously treated of [n. 7756], who are in a mind
• The Hebrew is simply the earth.
IV Ad. p. 61 III

which is profaned. The cause of the profanation is that they ~ve

transgressed the law and the covenant of eternity. As to what is
signified by laws and the covenant of eternity in the ex~l, ~­
tern aI, more in!erior, i~st and so in the supreme sense, this can
be evident from what has previously been said. The covenant of
eternity is what is inscribed on man, that he may continually look
to the kingdom of God, and consequently to God Messiah. Hence
the curse and the punislflment (vs. 6) ; for they are led 5 by their
cupidities which are from the loves of the body and animus, etc.
He is called a man who is in truth, thus that which is intellectual
and that which is good; in the inmost sense, that which is faithful.
About the time of the end of the world, when there will be no in­
telligence, no wisdom, no faith, there will be little of this left; and
this in a universal sense as in a particular in each indivdual.
7758. [The new wine shall mourn, the vine shall languish, all
that are glad in heart shall mourn. The joy of the drums shall, the tumult of the merry . . . the joy of the harp], vs. 7, 8.
Here, because by the earth is described the human mind, therefore
things which are from the earth are mentioned, such as new wine
and the vine or wine, and, consequentlYLev~y~pi.!!ill.UIHLmes­
tial thing which~cb~~!:_~ the mind. All that are glad in heart, that
is, all gladness, shall be turned into mourning. ~L~it:i.tual and
c~~~ial_i~will likewise cease. In verse 8 divers kinds of internal
joys are described, and the various causes which arouse those joys,
which latter cease when the causes cease. As to what celestial joys
are, this none can know save one who, by the divine
mercy of God Messiah, has learned it; and because I have had
that experience now for a length of time, I can say only this,
that they are ineffable, and were they to be expressed as to the
least part-for they cannot be described-..-!!Q...~~E.~h2Jl~not
ha~ the experience could believe it. Nothing whatever comes
up which is not conjoined with this ineffable joy by a thousand
\ varieties, etc., etc.6

7759. [They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink
shall be bitter to them that drink it], vs. 9. This comparison is
taken from the joy of the inhabitants of earth. That with those
• Reading d'Ucuntur for dicuntur (they are said).
• The indented part of n. 7758 is cited by the Author in the Index to his

Memorabilia, s.v., Ga'Udi1Im. See Table of Contents.

112 IV Ad. p. 6~
ISAIAH XXIV: 6-16 [7760-7761

who are to~k(U;JY-lill_e.YiLco_I1§s~nce,things which are joys of

the world are altogether bitter, can be well known to many, as also
it can be known by those who are in mourning, and still more by
those who are in internal mourning. As to the nature of spiritual
bitterness in the midst of external joy, this also I have learned by
experience, because
for a long time I also have been afflicted with that bitterness, a
!J.~ttern~~.? which can~!?ibe.~~~ribed. B"li't-of these matters (if
it be well pleasing to God Messiah) in a description of my
temptation. 7
7760. [For so shall it be in the midst of the land in the midst of
the peoples, as the pressing of an olive, as the grape gleanings when
the vintage is done], vs. 13. In verse 10 to U it is called a city of
emptiness or an empty city,S because of the desolation which is de­
scribed. Here it is described to the understanding by the pressing
of an olive, that is, by what remains of the olives after the oil has
been pressed out; for then there is nothing in them but what is vile
and is thrown out. So also with the grape gleanings; after the
vintage has been done, they give rise to mud, etc.

14 They shall lift up their voice, they shall shout a jubilee; be­
cause of the magnificence of Jehovah, they shall cry aloud from
the sea.
15 Therefore honor ye Jehovah in Urim; in the isles of the sea,
the name of J ehovah the God of Israel.
16 From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs.
Glory to him that is righteous. . . .

7761. That the nations in the whole globe will come to the king­
dom of God, that is, to God Messiah. Their joy is expressed by a
Jubilee,9 which was done everyJiftietb.s~I!I1_tl:u!~ at the end of
da;p. From the sea and in the isles of the sea, means
, The indented part of n. 7759 is not cited by the Author in the Index to his
Jjf emorabilia.
• Tremellius' translation.
• Schmidius translates '~i' jubilabunt (they shall shout a jubilee, i.e., shall
shout for joy). But the verb pi has no connection with the jubilee. It means
simply to shout aloud, to shout for joy, etc.
, Tl~ograph has seve.~tieth.
IV Ad. p. 63 113

i_~lhlO enti!~lobe; for the subject treated of is a land which has

been made desolate, thus, those to whom cognition has been given
but who have perverted every doctrine; hence the desolation in the
midst of the land spoken of in verse 13; to cry out because of his
magnificence, is to celebrate Him and make invocation, etc., etc.
Urim-other interpreters have fires, and others valleys-look up
the text; 2 but the Urim was upon Aaron's breast. It was called
" holiness" [Exod. 3930]. Therefore the meaning is that they
must adore in holiness. By the 'isles of the sea also are meant all
gentiles. The God of Israel here as frequently elsewhere is he
who is to be adored, namely, God Messiah. The nations will like­
wise rejoice. Glory to him that is ,·ighteou.Y (vs. 16)-he alone
is righteous who became righteousness, being God Messiah.

16 . . . Then I said, My leanness! my leanness! woe unto me!

the treacherous act treacherously and deal treachery of treacheries
17 Dread, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, 0 inhab­
itant of the earth.
18 And it shall come to pass, that he who fl.eeth from the noise
of the dread shall fall into the pit; and hc that cometh up out [of
the midst] S of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the cataracts
from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth are greatly
19 Breaking up, the earth is broken up; bursting asunder, the
earth is burst asunder; being greatly moved, the earth is greatly
20 Staggering, the earth shall stagger like a drunkard, and
'The Hebrew is tl'i~ (urim). This is a plural form of the word i~~ and
means flaming lights. '\Therever it occurs in the Hebrew Bible, the context in­
dicates that it refers to the Urim (Urim and Thummim) in the breastplate of
the high priest. The singular form of the word occurs five times, and in every
case the context indicates the meaning fil'e or hearth, and it is so translated by
Swedenborg in his Theological 'Vorks. In the present verse, Tremellius and the
A.V. have in the fires, but the A.V. adds the marginal alternative in the valley,.
Pagnini and the old Swedish Bible have the valleys (changed in the modern
Swedish Bible to lands of the East-as the place where the light of the sun rises,
being opposed to the isles of the sea, meaning the west). Castellio has by clar­
ity; the Vulgate, in doctrines-the translation given by Jerome. The translation
valleys rests on Rabbinical tradition which takes Urim in this text to mean, by
opposition, the place where is little or no light; and so, a cavern, or valley, where
light comes only slightly from above (Robertson, Thes. Ling. Sane., p. 9).
• Omitted by Schmidius.
114 IV Ad. p. 63
ISAIAH XXIV: 16-9l3 [776~

shall be moved this way and that, like a hut; for the transgression
thereof shall be heavy upon it; therefore it shall fall, and shall not
add to rise.

7762. That at this there will still be m01),rning and a greater

desola,tion. Now follows their most bitter wailing, because they
hear the joys of the celestial, Hence their grief increases, and
with the utmost bitterness, their leanness is acknowledged, and so
the cause of the desolation, being their treachery (vs. 16). Dread
is what does this so that the man wishes to return to the way; but
he then falls into the pit (vs. 17), that is, into error-falling into
a pit where is darkness means lapsing int.o error. The snare is the
scruples into which he then falls, and then he is caught by the devil.
The discourse is addressed to those who are in the desolated land
previously spoken of. These things are further described in verse
18 ; for such is man, that, in the dread which arises after the wail-
ing, he wishes to turn to God from his own prudence. But then
he faUs into the pit (for the subject treated of is the inhabitant of
the land) ; that is, he wanders hither and thither when at last he
falls and knows not whither he is going. Help is given him to rise
up, so that he may then seize upon the means; and by these he wills
once more to help himself by his own powers. But then he falls
into various doubts, the one springing from t.he other. Thus he is
caught in a snare; for, because there is desolation, the cat.aracts
from on high are opened, and from t.he depths spring up in abun-
dance evil affections in which the devil has the dominion; for there
is nothing sound. This is again described in verse 19. The eart.h
is said to be broken up and burst asunder, when the nat.ural mind
so wholly actuates the rational mind that it seems to have rushed
into it. Yet it can never rush into it but acts from without, etc.
The natural mind is still further described in verse 910 where it is
compared to a drunkard, and this, because the man [staggers] in
his scruples wherein he is caught as in a snare. Hence his total
fall, this being described in the words it shall not add to rise, that
is, to rise by his own powers.

~l' And it shall come to pass in that day, that Jehovah shall
make visitation over the host of the height on high, and over the
kings of the earth upon t.he earth.
IV Ad. p. 64 115

~~ And they shall be gathered together, in a gathering; he

that is bound upon the pit; and they shall be shut up upon the en­
closure; but after a multitude of days they shall be visited.
~3 Then the moon shall blush, and the sun be ashamed, when
J ehovah Sabaoth shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and
before his elders shall be glory.

7763. After the last desolation, they will be visited, will ac­
knowledge, and will then remain in shame. 'Vhat is deseribed is
the last judgment, this being described, here as elsewhere, by a
visitation upon those in heaven, who are called the host of the
height on high, and upon those on earth who are adjoined to them,
that is, over the kings of the earth (vs. ~1) ; consequently, over all
in the heavens and on earth. Also those already treated of, both
spirits and men, who have fallen into the pit. There they will be
held and shut in until they have paid the uttermost farthing, ac­
cording to the words of God Messiah [Matt. 5 26 ]. That they will
then be delivered from the pit is stated in verse ~~; for then they
will come to acknowledgment. 'Vhen they are drawn out from
this second pit, then, following the acknowledgment, comes shame.
By the moon and the sun is meant the natural mind in the rational;
for the moon rules their night, and the sun their day, thus all is
natural. The moon is then their fantasy, and the sun every evil
cupidity from which the moon has its lumen.
7764. Verse 133 treats of the state of the faithful at that time.
Mount Zion and Jerusalem is heaven. Jehovah Sabaoth or Je­
hovah of hosts, is God Messiah. The elders are the heads of
those who are in the kingdom of God Messiah, consequently, all.

1 J ehovah, thou art my God; I will exalt thee, I will confess
thy name; for thou hast done wonderful things; counsels from
afar, truth, faithfulness.
~ For thou hast made of a city an heap; of a defenced city a
ruin: a palace of strangers from a city; it shall never be built.
3 Therefore shall a powerful people honor thee, a city of vio­
lent nations shall fear thee.
4 For thou hast become a stronghold to the poor, a stronghold
to the needy when distress was his; a refuge from the flood, a shade
116 IV Ad. p. 64
ISAIAH XXIV: fll-!l3-XXV: I-Hl [7765-7766

from the heat; for the breath of the violent is as the flooding of a
.5 Thou shalt humble the tumult of strangers, as dryness in an
arid place; as heat by the shadow of a cloud, he shall hold back the
offshoot of the violent.
6 And in this mountain shall Jehovah Sabaoth make unto aU
people a feast of fat things, a feast of lees, of fat things full of
marrow, of lees refined.
7 And he will swallow up in this mountain the faces of the cov­
ering, the covering over all peoples, and the vail that is spread over
all nations.
8 He will swallow up death to eternity; and Adonai Jehovah
will wipe away tears- from off all faces; and the reproach of his
people shall he take away from off all the earth: for J ehovah hath
9 And one shall say in that day, Lo, this is our God; we have
waited [for him],4 that he may deliver us: this is Jehovah; we have
waited for him, we will exult and be glad in his salvation.
10 For in this mountain shan the hand of J ehovah rest; there­
fore Moab shall be threshed under him, as straw is trodden down
for the dunghill.
11 And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst of him, as
a swimmer spreadeth forth to swim: and he shall humble their pride
with the barriers of their hands.
U And the stronghold of the refuge of thy walls shall he lay
low, cast down, and bring prostrate to the ground, even to dust.

7765. The glorification of God Messiah, and the thanksgiving

of those who are in heaven that they have been delivered from their
enemies. These enemies are described, being those to whom revela­
tion has been made, and who for this reason are haughty.
7766. [Jehovah, . . . thou hast done wonderfu1 things; coun­
sels from afar, truth, faithfulness. For thou hast made of a city
an heap; . . . a palace of strangers from a city; it shall never be
built. Therefore shall a powerfu,l people honor thee, a city of vio­
lent nations shall fear thee. For thou hast become a stronghold to
the poor, a stronghold to the needy . . . for the breath of the vio­
lent is as the flooding of a wall. Thou shalt hu,mble the tu,mult
• Omitted by Schmidius,
IV Ad. p. 64 117

of strangers, as dryness in an arid place; as heat by the shadow of

a cloud, he shall hold back the offshoot of the violent], vs. 1-5.
Verse 1 is a glorification which is offered by the elders in J eru­
salem, spoken of in the end of the preceding verse. They now see
the wonderful counsels from of old, 5 that they are true and good;
they are called t1'uth and faithfulness. The counsels are, that the
city, that is, the land previously spoken of, is laid waste (vs. 2).
The things taken up in this verse are strangers who are wicked, it
being they who are had in view. Their palace is pride and the love
of self; this love will wholly fall. The counsel to strangers, being
the wicked, is by means of punishments. A powerful or mighty 6
people (vs. 3) are those who have acquired faith, whence is strength
and fortitude. Terrible 6 nations are also those who have faith,
for these are held in fear by their enemies. Faith in God Messiah
carries with it what now follows in verse 4, namely, that they know
and believe that their stronghold is God Messiah, and, indeed, a
stronghold to those who are poor and needy, that is, who believe
that they have nothing whatever of themselves. 7 The more man
believes that he has nothing of active forces, and that God Messiah
can do everything, the more he is powerful and strong and mighty.
Hence the words which then follow; for while man is living, there
is a perpetual assault by evil spirits or the devil's crew. It is said
wall because they wish to occupy the intellectual mind, etc. From
their heat or their dried up love, arises tumult (vs. 5). God Mes­
siah holds that heat back by the shadow of a cloud which is called
the offshoot of the violent, doing this by their darkness, it being
their darkness that is called the offshoot, etc.
7767. [And in this moU'htain shall Jehovah Sabaoth make unto
all people a feast of fat things, . . . of lees refined. And he will
swallow up in this mountain the faces of the covering, . . . the vail
that is spread over all nations. He will swallow up death to eter­
nity; and . . . wUl wipe away tears from off all faces; and the re­
proach of his people shall he take away], vs. 6-8. The feasts as
described in verse 6 signify spiritual and celestial joys. The deli­
cacies, from which all dregs have been purged, are delicacies in
things spiritual, in that the righteousness of God Messiah is im­
• Tremellius explains f"om afar off as meaning from distant time, from of
• Tremellius' translation .
• This sentence is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
118 IV Ad. p. 65
ISAIAH XXV; I-H~ [7768

puted to them; hence holiness is predicated of feasts. The lees are

not then seen because they are not stirred up. They still remain
in the roots, but they are turned into such a form that the holiness
of God Messiah can be imputed to them; for they are no longer
stirred up by the devil's crew which has then been driven out.
There will be intellectual light, that is, the understanding of truth;
for then will be seen the " counsels from afar" [vs. 1], that is,
truth and goodness. The shade which is dispersed is compared to
a veil-the faces of the covering (vs. 7). These are matters of
the understanding; the feasts pertain to the love, etc. This will
be in mount Zion, fm" all people, that is, for those who have ac­
quired faith; these are said to be the peoples of mount Zion, etc.
Death (vs. 8) is the damnation which Adonai Jehovih, that is, God
Messiah, win swallow up.s He will also wipe away every tear, that
is, all mourning and grief. [He will take away] reproach, inas­
much as in life they have been affected by reproach.
7768. [And one shall say in that day, Lo, this is our God; . . .
we will e:r:~tlt and be glad in his salvation. For in this mountain
.~hall the hand of J ehovah rest; therefore M oab shall be threshed
under him. . . . And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst
of him, as a swimmer . . . and he shall humble their pride with
the barders of their hands. And the stronghold . . . of thy walls
shall he lay low, cast down, and bring prostrate to the ground, even
to dust], vs. 9-12. Faith is described by the confession of faith in
God Messiah (vs. 9). To be glad in his salvation is to be glad in
him, he being salvation. There will be salvation in heaven; but
outside heaven the wicked man, here meant by Moab (vs. 10), wjll
be tormented. Moab is the son born to Lot and his hrst-born
daughter [Gen. 1937 ]. Thus, by Moab are meant those who min­
gle profane things with holy; consequently those to whom revela­
tion has been made, and who have then adulterated things holy;
likewise, and this follows therefI'om, those who trust in their own
powers, this being adultery with one's own daughter, and conse­
quently Moab. Because revelation was given them, therefore they
are haughty; they trust in themselves, and so are compared with
those who swim (vs. 11), who continually wish to throw themselves
up on high, and who wish to present themselves at the other bank.
• The autograph has ab.ttel·get (will wipe away), but this is apparently a
IV Ad. p. 66 119

But they will be laid low by the barriers of their hands, these being
their own forces wherein they trust. Other interpreters translate
it the flood gate., of his hands, 9 etc. Verse l~ treats of pride and
its imaginary strongholds treated of elsewhere. This pride is cast
down, brought prostrate to the ground, and so to dust. The lay­
ing low is thus described, because such also is the representation of
pride being laid low.

7769. From this chapter, and also from other prophetic writ­
ings of that time, it can be very clearly evident that much is lack­
ing which is not expressed, but which nevertheless is involved in
the words. The reason is that, for the most part, the spirit
that speaks sees before him things which cannot be expressed in
words, and these then fan into expressions similar [to those in the
prophets] but differently with one prophet than with another. 1

How many the things are which are contained within, seeing
that the thought and hence the speech is spiritual, to this I can
bear witness. Nevertheless they can never be expressed, and
if expressed, they would seem disjointed; for a single idea fre­
quently requires a whole exposition. Therefore, the things
contained in the prophetical writings can never be explained
by any spirit, nor by man; only by God Messiah who spoke
through the angels. 2
• Tremellius translates it he 10ill lay low his pride with the floodgates of his
own hands. To this he adds the explanatory note, wHh the broadest and most
powerful hands whereby he 10ill compres,' the pride of rebels, as 1vaters are held
back by ban'iers and floodgates. Because this interp1'etation is more fitting with
the allegory, we prefer it to othe1's, The Hebrew word for barrier or flood
gates, and also windows, and which is so translated by Swedenborg in his Theo­
logical Works, is i1:Jj~ ('aroobah); but in the present verse, it is i1!lj~ ('orbah),
T", -: T : T

which occurs only once in the Hebrew Bible. 'Vhile some translators have taken
the two words to have the same meaning, others have given their own meaning to
the second of them. Thus, the Vulgate has shall humble his glory with the st1'ik­
ing of his hands; the old Swedish Bible, with the m'm of his hand; the A.V.,
with the spoils of their hands; Pagnini, with the craft of his hands.
1 This first part of n. 7769 is emphasized by .. Obs., Ohs.," written in the

1 The indented part of n. 7769 is cited by the Author in the Index to his

Memorabilia, s.v., Propheta, Verbum, Vox; and, together with n. 7517, s.v., Lo­
qui. See Table of Contents.
uo IV Ad. p. 66
ISAIAH XXV: l~-XXVI: 1-4 [ '1'i 70-'1'i'1l

7770. Therefore, since such wondrous expressions stand forth,

the interpreters, in order that some meaning may emerge, add con­
necting words, one doing this differently from another. Hence
the meanings that can exist in one small verse are as manifold as is
the number of the interpreting translators. But from its inmost
contents, and, consequently, from the connection of the antecedents
with the consequents, the sense of the letter stands out. 3

1 In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah: We

have a strong city; salvation will he set her walls and outworks.
~ Open ye the gates, that a righteous nation which keepeth
fidelities may enter in.
3 A figment that is stayed, thou wilt preserve it, peace, peace;
for it trusteth in thee.
4 Trust ye in Jehovah to eternity; for in Jah Jehovah is the
rock of eternity:

7771. That he will be .mved who puts his trust in God Messiah.
It was customary for a song to embrace what was contained in that
which went before; therefore, the present words refer to those
which precede. The land of .Judah (vs. 1) is the land where is
faith, thus it is the faithful. Theirs is a strong city, its strength
being set forth later. Because the subject here is a strong city,
therefore mention is also made of a wall and outworks (vs. 1), and
also of the gate (vs. ~) by which those enter into that city who are
faithful, that is, who have faith in God Messiah. Their fidelity or
faith, this in the inmost sense being fidelity, is described in verse 3,
to wit, that he whose thought rests on God Messiah, and who places
salvation and strength in him, will have peace and peace (vs. 3),
that is, peace exterior and interior. The reason is that he puts
his trust in God Messiah. Trust and faith are then described in
verse 4. Trust is the effect of faith. J ehovah is God Messiah, as
likewise is J ah J ehovah. He is the Rock of eternity, and is fre­
quently so called. The above verses refer to mount Zion and
, :-':0. 7770 is emphasized by " Obs., Ohs.," written in the margin.

IV Ad. p. 67 121

5 For he hath cast down the inhabitants of the height, the lofty
city; he hath humbled it; he hath humbled it, even to the ground;
he bringeth it down to the dust.
6 The foot shall trample it, even the feet of him that is afflicted,
the steps of the poor.

7772. That the proud who trust in themselves will be cast down.
These words, that their city will be brought down, are set over
against those which have just been uttered [vs. 1-4], and they
correspond to those which were said above of the enemies, especially
of Moab; see verse 1fl. of the preceding chapter.

7 The way of the just is right: the course of the just is right,
thou triest it.

7773. That God Messiah directs the steps of those who are
called the poor in spirit and the afflicted. These the reader may
see treated of above [n. 7630, 7646, 7676]. This is a continua­
tion of the words from verses 1 to 4. They treat of those who
have confidence in God Messiah. They are here called the afflicted,
the poor, the just [vs. 5-7] ; see verse 4 of the preceding chap­
ter fl.5.

8 And the way of thy judgments, we have waited for thee, Je­
hovah, thy name, and the remembrance of thee, the desire of the
9 'Vith my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, ",,-jth my
spirit within me have I waited for thee in the morning: for when
thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world learn
10 Let the wicked be spared, he learneth not justice: in the land
of justice he will deal perversely, and win not see the magnificence
of Jehovah.
11 J ehovah, thy hand is lifted up, they will not see: they shall
see, and blush for hatred of the people; fire also shall devour thine

7774. That they shall know what justice is; but not so those
who act perversely. As to the words in verses 8 and 9, these have
Ifl.fl. IV Ad. p. 67
ISAIAH XXVI: 5-14 [7775-7776
been spoken of above, at chapter ~5B. To wait for God Messiah,
and to desire him, is the part of those previously spoken of [n.
7773], for they then learn what justice is. Justice comprises
truth and goodness, etc. A wicked man (vs. 10) cannot even see
what justice is, nor, consequently, can he see the magnificence [of
Jehovah] ; nay, he will not see even in the land where they teach
truth and good. Because they fall into the pit, they do not see
when the hand of J ehovah is lifted up (vs. 11), that is, when they
are being punished and are in the pit. After visitation has been
made they will see and will blush, see chapter ~423 • ; but they will
blush for hatred of the people of God Messiah. The hatred is the
fire consuming the enemies; but look up the Hebrew text. 4

1~ 0 Jehovah, thou wilt ordain peace for us: for thou also hast
wrought ail our works in us.
13 Jehovah our God, lords beside thee have had dominion over
us: only by thee have we been mindful of thy name.
14 The dead shall not live; Rephaim shall not rise again: be-
cause thou hast visited them [and] 5 blotted them out, and hast de-
stroyed all memory of them.

7775. That God Messiah alone rules man.

7776. God Messiah is the all in his people; therefore it is said
that he wrought all their works (vs. 1~). As concerns other lords
(vs. 13), these have dominion when God Messiah loosens the reins.
But they have dominion only so long as the reins are loosened, and
not the least beyond. This I can confirm and bear witness to
from such manifold experience that it would fill many pages.
It was given me to observe the very moments of their domina-
tion, and how that they could not go the least step further.
This, evil spirits also were able to observe. Nay, I have many
times spoken with them concerning this matter, for, by the di-
vine mercy of God Messiah it was conceded me to speak, with-
out any danger, with spirits of divers dispositions, to whom was
given the power of operating and, as it were, of having domin-
* The autograph has" 249."
• Schmidius' translation is literal, except that hatred should be zeal or jeal-
ousy, and the verse should end fire shall devour them, thine enemies.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 68 1~3

ion. The things which sometimes happened on such occasions

would be exceedingly many to relate, and are worthy of men­
tion, but for the present the following is sufficient, to wit, that
they persuade themselves that they act from their own power,
and so think that they have dominion. They are also held in
this opinion, and this from many causes, such spirits being un­
willing to be persuaded otherwise. Yet I can solemnly swear
that they do not have the least particle of power, but are merely
instrumental causes in order that men may be punished, that
they may be tempted, and so may be reformed; for without
these spirits as instruments, man cannot be reformed by tempta­
tions; nay, they then absorb the man's evils, for they carry the
evils off to themselves, etc., etc. 6

It is said in verse 1~ that God Messiah works all things, and in

verse 13, that by him alone are they mindful of his name, that is,
call upon his name; for no one can call upon the Lord save by God
Messiah, etc.
7777. The dead (vs. 14), that is, the damned, do not live, that
is, they do 1I0t revive and they no longer have dominion. The
Rephaim are their primates (that there are principalities, as it
were, this the reader may see stated above En. 7743]); for the

their greatest 2.!!..e, their deity, some having one, and some an­
other. Most have him whom they adored during their life,
such as A~raham. A great many have I~~c; no one whom I
have heard 11as J acob. Many also have Moses, but not with
such great honor, and so forth. Thes are the rinces of those
who are of the Jews, but others adore other men. Conse­
quently the papists will adore their own saints a~deilies, and
so must needs peris , as well as certain of their deities, being
such of them as receive that adoration and wish so to be wor­
shipped. (See elsewhere En. 1~15 3116] as to what i aid-of
( P~r.) Such is their state in heaven. The like spirits are
meant when the Rephaim are treated of. As to the Rephaim,
see, moreover, the Collecta; also as to those whom .J oshua drove
• The indented part of n. 7776 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, s.v., Mal'Um, Permiss,jo, and Potentia, and, together with n. 7666,
s.v., Genius. See Table of Contents.
124 IV Ad. p. 69
ISAIAH XXVI: 15-18 [7778-7779

out of Hebron, who are caned Anakim. 7 Look up as to

whether Rephaim signifies devoid of life, as the other inter­
preter 8 has it. 9

To visit them means to judge and so to exterminate them. The

day of visitation is the day of judgment. As to their being cast
down and so blotted out from their memory, see what has preceded.

IQ Thou hast added to the nation, 0 Jehovah, thou hast added

to the nation: thou art glorified: thou hast removed all the ends
of the earth.
16 Jehovah, in anguish have they sought thee, they cried out
with murmuring; thy chastisement is with them.
17 Like as a woman with child draweth near to her delivery,
is in travail, crieth out in her pains; so have we been before thee,
18 We have conceived, we have been in travail, we have as it
were brought forth wind; we have not wrought the salvation of the
earth; neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen.

7778. That the pious previously treated of are tempted even

until there is, as it were, no hope left.
7779. In the inmost sense, " to add" (vs. 15) is to bless. Look
up as to whether this word signifies also to bless, for it is used with
the utmost frequency. 1 " To remove all the ends of the earth from
7 See Appendix, s.v., Rophaim, Anakim.

• This sentence is written in the margin. The other interpreter, Tremelli s

(with whom agree the A.V. and the Swedish Bible), translates Rephaim as those
devoid of life. The verb ~~i (l'apha') means to heal and, according to ~f.,
the noun therefrom means " a giant, being one who is powerful to heal, that is,
to save man from oppression. In the plural it is also used of dead giants"
(~oJl l'llJu...Lin • Sanct.). But in this meaning (adds Robertson), Bux­
torf assumes ~~i as standing for i1~i (to decline, grow weak). In the plural,
it is thought to mean simply the dead. In the present passage, The Vulgate
( translates it giants; Castellio, the empty. In his Theological Works, SwelJ,en-
I bor alwa s e the He~r~ word llephaim. ­
• The indented part of n. 7777 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memombilia, s.v., Dii and Spiritus. See Table of Contents.
1 The word in question is ~O' (yasaph). It occurs very frequently in the
Bible, often with the same meaning as the English word add, but more often
as an accompaniment to a verb indicating the continuation or repetition of an
action; e.g., he added to speak, meaning, he spoke further, or again. It never
means to bless.
IV Ad. p. 69 Hl5

them "-look up in the text whether he removed the enemies, or

removed the ends, 2 etc.
7780. Verse 16 treats of their affliction and temptation. Verses
17 and 18 treat further of their affliction and temptation. To
bring forth wind-examine the text as to whether it is like the pain
of colic. s They are afflicted even to despair, even till there is no
safety on earth. The complaint is that the inhabitants of the
world have not fallen, for in the next verse the answer is given that
the Rephaim will fall. That
temptations are continued to the utmost endurance of the man,
even until there is no hope left, is a fact which I can confirm
by experience. Later, however, comes help. One reason why
temptation is thus continued is that, in the temptations, the man
may know what his own nature is, [and what he would be] un­
less God Messiah lifted him up; that so he may acknowledge the
mercy of God Messiah. This I have many times experienced
in a marvelous way.4

Therefore, now comes elevation; for, as is well known, temptation

is continued even to the death of the body, as in the case of mar­
tyrs, etc., etc.

19 Thy dead shall live; my dead body, they shall rise again;
awake and cry aloud, ye inhabitants of the dust: for thy dew is
the dew of kitchen herbs, but the earth, the Rephaim, thou hast
cast down.
20 Go, my people, enter into thy chambers, and shut thy door
after thee: hide thyself as for a little moment, until the anger pass­
eth by.
21 For, behold, J ehovah cometh out of his place to make visi­
tation upon him, the iniquity of the inhabitant of the earth; the
earth also shall disclose her bloods, and shall no more conceal her
• Literally translated, the words would read, thou ha8t made far of! the entU
of the earth.
• Literally translated, the words would read: We have given birth to spirit
(breath, wind).
• The indented part of n. 7780 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, s.v., Desperatio, Tentatio. See Table of Contents.

126 IV Ad. p. 70
ISAIAH XXVI: 16-19 [7781-7783

7781. Now comfort comes to the afflicted, namely, resurrection,

both during life and after death.
7782. [Thy dead shall live; my dead body, they shall rise
again; awake and cry aloud, ye inhabitants of the dust: for thy
dew is the dew of kitchen herbs, but the earth, the Rephaim, thou
hast cast down], vs. 19. This verse treats of the resurrection of
the dead, that is to say, of those who rise again during the life of
the body. At the same time, it treats of those who will rise again
after the life of the body, the law being that he who rises again
during the life of the body also rises again after the life of the
body. The resurrection, like the kingdom of God Messiah, com-
mences in man while living in the body; for he is being prepared
for life and enters into life while living here. With such men, the
death of the body is merely a continuation of the heavenly life.~
7783. In the life of the body, the dead are such things as are
mortal; likewise the dead body. These, however, do not rise
again but are condemned to earth, wherein are such things as do
not make the earth fruitful since they do not give any life to its
plants or herbs. The comparison is taken from those things which
wither away into earth, and then produce new vegetations. These
dead and cadaverous things are not such that from them the earth
will revive, but are like the dregs left after distillation, and are
sterile. This meaning is deduced from the words that precede and
those that follow. From those that precede, to wit, "We have not
wrought the salvation of the earth" (vs. 18) ; and from those that
follow: Thy dew is the dew of herbs [vs. 19]. The inhabitants of
the dust, to be spoken of presently, are called thy dead who will rise
again. These are distinguished from the dead who will not live
(vs. 14; spoken of also at the end of the present verse) ; and like-
wise irom dead bodies, by which are meant things damned; for un-
less his cupidities die, the man cannot rise again. (Concerning the
death of cupidites, see elsewhere, namely, that, being subjugated,
they do not have the dominion but obey.) So likewise after life.
The body properly so called does not rise again, but that interior
part and the more internal parts together with the soul which are
spiritual. Still, they are called dead things and dead bodies be-
cause in themselves they are both dead and damned; but they will
• No. 778~ is emphasized by " Ohs., Ohs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 70 lQ7

have life from the Savior of the world; for until man rises again,
he is condemned. The above may be illustrated and explained by
other passages in the Old, and especially in the New Testament.
Awake and cry aloud, ye inhabitants of the dust. Here, and also
in the words thy dew is the dew of kitchen herbs, the comparison
with the earth is continued. By dew is signified that which falls
down in the morning and makes the plant to be raised up from the
earth and resuscitated. Kitchen herbs were plants of the lowest
class, and of old were the rejected among plants. By kitchen
herbs is also meant every herb. As regards the Rephaim or, ac­
cording to other interpreters, those devoid of life, 6 concerning
whom see verse 14, they will not rise again; for in themselves they
can have nothing of life. By not rising again, however, is meant
not rising again to life. Of death is predicated, not resurrection,
but death-but spiritual death, etc. 7
7784. [Go, my people, enter into thy chambers, and shut thy
door after thee: hide thyself as for a little moment, until the anger
passeth by], vs. ~o. Comfort for those who are in life is contin­
ued, the comfort, namely, that for a little while they may hide. To
enter into his chambers, while the man is living in the body, means
to enter into himself and reflect; and to shut the door, staying there
while the anger passes by; that is, not to admit such things as draw
him into things contrary; for temptation is very like the anger of
God Messiah, when yet it is never anger but love, to the end that
the man may thus be regenerated. So likewise with those who
will rise again after the life of the body; to them the chamber is
the sepulchre, the door to which is closed. It is a little moment
from the time of His death to the last judgment; for with those
who are in heaven there is no time such as is with those in the life
of the body. That for the former there can be no time can be
from many considerations; for, unlike those in the body, they
do not reflect on the future, and from the past gather the things
that are to come, and so measure spaces of times, as does man.
N or do they have anxiety and solicitude, which also insinuate
the remembrance of time. Such is their state. Therefore, to
• Tremellius' translation.

, No. 7783 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

us IV Ad. p. 71
ISAIAH XXVI: lW-~1 [7785

them, from the time of their death to the last judgment is but
a little moment, even though they were to live for some thou­
sands of years. If you ask them where they have been for so
long time, they do not know. If you ask them what they
will do should they go elsewhere, this also they do not know,
depending entirely on the will of God Messiah. Yet their pres­
ent state of life is hardly distinguishable from the state of man's
life. As further concerns their life, and the difference between
the life of spirits or of those living after the death of the body,
and the life of man in the body, God Messiah granting, this sub­
ject will be continued elsewhere when occasion offers. Mean­
while, the state of those who are in the heaven of God Messiah
is a state of the utmost felicity. They have no anxiety because
no remembrance of the past nor any solicitude for the future,
and, what is the greatest of all, none for the present. But the
state of the unhappy will be a continuous anguish in the pres­
ent time, one grief being continued into another to perpetuity,
etc. 8

7785. [For, behold, J ehovah cometh out of his place to make

visitation upon him, the iniquity of the inhabitant of the earth; the
earth also shall disclose her bloods, and shall no mOTe conceal her
slain], vs. 9l1. Here also the subject treated of is temptation, for
then it appears as though there were anger, since in temptation
God Messiah visits man's iniquity that it may be taken away; see
above [n. 7784]. Then all things are made manifest and come
forth, this being here expressed by laying bloods bare and not
concealing the slain. It is after the life of the body that mean­
while, that is, before the coming of the last judgment, the iniquity
of men is visited, nay, and also of those who have died; and that
bloods are disclosed and the slain are not concealed. But the con­
clusion concerning the heirs of the kingdom is given in verses 1~
and 13 of chapter ~7 which next follows. Meanwhile, the subject
of visitation or judgment over those who are damned is now con­
• The indented part of n. 7784 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, s.v., Felicitas, F'·um, Pl'aetel'itum, Tempus. See Table of Con­

IV Ad. p. 7~ 129

1 In that day Jehovah with his sword, hard and great and
mighty, shall make visitation upon Leviathan the long serpent, and
upon Leviathan the crooked serpent; and he shall slay the whales
that are in the sea.

7786. That in the time of the first and second judgment, visita­
tion will be made upon the enemies of God Messiah in the Jewish
The subject in the preceding verse, being the last verse of
chapter ~6, was the visitation upon the inhabitant of the land, by
whom is meant the posterity of Jacob which was in the land. In
the verses that follow, the subject is the vineyard which God Mes­
siah has planted; and at the end of the chapter, verse 1~, its
borders are set forth. Thus the subject specifically treated of
[here] is those who were in the Jewish church. As to who are spe­
cifically meant by Leviathan, this can be evident from Exodus
3~34, where it is said that visitation will be made upon them in the
day of visitation. 9 Thus it can also be evident that by Leviathan
the crooked serpent is meant, specifically, Aaron, and, in general,
all the priests his descendants, and their like. It is said crooked
because, like Aaron, they set up many lies in order to extricate
themselves. See the chapter concerning Aaron's answer to Moses
[Exod. 3~22-24]. As to who he and they are who are meant by
Leviathan the long serpent, this also can be evident; but of this
elsewhere. By whales are meant all those who were the heads of
the tribes; consequently, every crew of which they were the heads
and seducers.
7787. The visitation is twofold., The one was when God Mes­
siah first came into the world; for then spiritual desolation occu­
pied them, inasmuch as they were wholly smitten with blindness, a
blindness which continues in the midst of Christians to the present
day. This desolation was followed by the laying waste of their
land, and by perpetual captivity, this being the effect; for, as it
was with them in things spiritual, so correspondingly was it in
things natural, such being the state of the representative church
• These words were said concerning Aaron and the worshippers of the golden

ISO IV Ad. p. 7~
ISAIAH XXVII: 1-9 [7787

that, when they had spiritually transgressed, the effect was at

once represented. This can be evident from a great number of
examples. 1 The second visitation, which is what is specifically
meant in the present text, is that which will be made on the day of
the last judgment, for then they will be slain by a sword, hard and
great and mighty-by a sword being meant truth-in that they
will plainly see that they have been rebels against God Messiah and
so will be slain, as likewise will all others of that church. 2 As con­
cerns the desolation of the land in general, it should be known that
it is a desolation of faith, or the absence of faith; for then to those
who are in the heaven of God Messiah, the land seems as a desola­
tion, obscurity, and so forth.
~ In that day answer ye unto her,3 a vineyard of pure wine.
3 I Jehovah do keep it; in moments, I will water it: lest any
have desire 4 over it, I will guard it night and day.
4 Anger is not mine: who will give me a thicket of briers and
thorns in battle? I will go through them, I will burn them to­
5 Or who will take hold of my strength? he shall make peace
with me; he shall make peace with me.
6 J acob shall make them which are to come, take root: Israel
shall blossom and bloom, that the faces of the world may be filled
with produce.
7 Hath he smitten him according to the stroke of him that
smote him? hath he slain him according to the slaughter of them
that are slain by him?
8 With measure, when he dismissed her, he contended with her;
he meditated on the rough wind in the day of the east wind.
9 Therefore by this shall the iniquity of Jacob be expiated;
and this is all the fruit; to take away their sin; when he hath set
all the stones of the altar as scattered chalkstones, the groves and
sun images shall not rise up.
1 This first part of n. 7787 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the

2 What follows in this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in

the margin.
• Here Schmidius adds the words that she is.
• The Hebrew is 'i'E:l (to visit, to punish, etc.). This word has a wide vari­
ety of meanings, but no context in which it occurs suggests the meaning to de­
IV Ad. p. 73 181

7788. These verses treat of the Jewish church, that it was so

greatly guarded by God Messiah, but 5 that he received from it the
reward that they worshipped idols. Under the figure of a vine­
frequently used by God Messiah, etc., etc.-verse ~ treats of the
church, and so of that posterity. He requires her answer. God
Messiah has kept and watered her (vs. 3), that is, has continu­
ally sent prophets and taught her, and guarded her night and day.
If anyone should desire her, he would then defend her. He does
not become angry; he has no fire; and if anyone should invade her
with brier and thorn, that is, if anyone sowed briers and thorns in
that vineyard, he would root them out or burn them (vs. 4). He
who wishes to believe, or to receive from God Messiah faith, that is,
strength, and so wishes to have peace, that man will have peace (vs.
5). The descendants of both Jacob and Israel will then be blessed
and will abound with produce (vs. 6). Verse 7 asks, Have they
done so? in that they are punished according as they have
wrought; that is to say, they have slain the prophets and have
ever been murderers. In the supreme sense, it is 6 the Messiah
who is meant-has he deserved this of them? The words in verse
8 cannot be understood except from the Hebrew text. 7 Mean­
while, the meaning seems to be that at the time when he was living
in tranquillity and the east wind was blowing, Jacob then medi­
tated concerning a rough wind, how that he would rebel in divers
ways. In verse 9, the question is asked 8 whether iniquity can be
expiated thus, and whether this is the reward, in that she has been
so greatly guarded; whether their sin can be thus removed, when
they have rended, as it were, all worship, this being expressed by
the words that they set all the stones of the altar as scattered chalk
stones; for he has confounded and commingled them. [At the end
of the verse], see whether in place of not, it should be have not­
, [Crossed off:] by reason of their transgressions, that church could not but
• [Crossed off:] God.

, As far as is possible, Schmidius has made an absolutely literal translation.

• Schmidius' words Quare per hoc expiabitur were apparently taken by Swe­
denborg to be a question, although there is no question mark. The Hebrew is
l::l~ (therefore). Had Schmidius used a question mark, the translation would
read: In what 1vay ahall the i'niquity of Ja.cob be expiated by thia?

18~ IV Ad. p. 73
ISAIAH XXVII: ~-18 [7789

"have not the groves and sun statues risen up? " or " if not," as
is the expression elsewhere. 9

10 For the defenced city is solitary; the habitacle sent away

and left in the wilderness: there shall the calf feed, and there shall
he lie down,.and consume her branches.
11 V\Then the harvest thereof shall dry up, be broken off: the
women come, they make light therewith; for it is not a people of
understandings: therefore their Maker will not have mercy on
them, and their Former will not be gracious unto them.
1~ And it shall come to pass in that day, that Jehovah shall
cut off from the spike of the river even unto the river of Egypt.

7789. Therefore he can show it no mercy, but it will become a

desolation. This then is the consequence or effect and so the deso­
lation, to ~it, that the city which had been guarded and safe 1 will
become a habitacle left in the wilderness (vs. 10), that is, desolate.
The text then passes on to the vine. There the calf shall lie down
and feed on its branches. The calf is the Egyptian calf, for none
other can be meant, inasmuch as these words have reference to the
things previously spoken of in Exodus, chapter 8~. It is the
harved or branch 2 which will dry up (vs. 11), and then women
will break up these branches and cast them into the fire. Thus
the desolation is continued because they have no intelligence.
Therefore mercy cannot be shown· them by their Maker and
Former, that is, by God Messiah. In verse 1~, as at times pre­
viously, the land of Canaan is described as to all its extension from
the river even unto the river of Egypt. Concerning the extension
of the land of Canaan to the rivers, see elsewhere.

12 . . . and ye shall be gathered one to the other, 0 ye sons

of Israel.
18 And it shall be in that day, that the great trumpet shall be
• The Hebrew ~, t:l~ (if not) is frequently used as an interrogative: whether
so and so i8 not? There is no t:l~ in the present text, and Schmidius' translation
is literally exact.
1 The autograph has sola or .~ala alone, but the context suggests that tlllS is

an error for salva.

t Tremellius' translation is, When the bmnch thereof is dried 'Up (the brancl>­
lets) will be broken off, 1'JQmen will come and .,et fi"e to U.
IV Ad. p. 74 ISS

blown, and they shall come which are perishing in the land of
Asshur, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall bow down
themselves to Jehovah in the mountain of his holiness, in Jerusalem.

7790. The subject here is the gentiles, that wheresoever scat­

tered, they will be gathered together on the day of the last judg­
ment, and will come into the kingdom of God Messiah. By the sons
of Israel (vs. 12) are meant the gentiles. The last judgment is
what is signified by the great trumpet (vs. 18), it being by the
trumpet that the people were called together. By Asshur and
Egypt are here, meant specifically those who came into captivity
there, but, in general, all who have been captives, and, conse­
quently, who have been tempted, etc. ; thus, all in the entire globe,
wheresoever scattered, who shall constitute the true people Israel.
As to what Asshur and Egypt are in a good sense,see above at
Isaiah 1923 - 25 [no 7715-16]. To bow down oneself to Jehovah
in the mountain of his hoz.iness, in Jerusalem means to bow down
oneself to God Messiah in heaven.

1 Woe to the crown of pride; to the drunkards of Ephraim;
to the fading flower of his glory and beauty; which are upon the
head of the valley of fat things, of them that are confused with
!l, 8 Behold, mighty and strong is Adonai, . . . the drunk­
ards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet:
4 And the fading flower, . . . shall be as the hasty fig when
summer is not yet; . . .
5 In that day shaH Jehovah Sabaoth be for a crown of adorn­
ment, and a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people,
6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth upon judg­
ment, and for strength to them that turn away the battle from 3 the
7, 8 But they also do err through wine, . . . the priest and
the prophet err through strong drink; . . . For all tables are
full of the vomit of that which is thrown up. . . .
9 Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make
• The Hebrew is to.
184 IV Ad. p. 74
ISAIAH XXVII: U-l8-XXVIII: 1-10 [7791

to understand what is heard? them that are weaned from the milk,
plucked from the teats.
10 Precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon
line, line upon line; here a little, there a little:

7791. Against the doctrine of the Jews, especially of the priestB

and rabbis, of which they are proud, that it is the raving as of a
drunken man. The crown of pride (vs. 1) is their doctrine, of
which they were proud, thinking themselves to sit in the seat of
Moses. They are called drunkards of Ephraim by reason of mani­
fold causes. Concerning Ephraim, that he became the firstborn
in place of Reuben, that he dwelt in the mountain, see the Collecta. 4
Thus, Ephraim is here taken for the doctrine 6 of the Jews, and
their traditions and explanations. He is called a fading flower
upon the head of the valley of fat things. In the proper sense,
the valley of fat things means those who are fat with knowledge,
especially the priests and rabbis. Respecting this comparison,
see more below. Those who are confused with wine are the same.
This doctrine and these drunkards will perish (vs. ~, 8). The
comparison [with a fading flower] can also be understood in a
different way; for their doctrines were unripe and bitter, etc. (vs.
4). God Messiah alone is the crown and diadem (vs. f» ; thus the
crown refers to kings, and the diadem to priests. He alone is in­
telligence and wisdom, and therefore is intelligence and wisdom in
those who are called the residue of his people, spoken of above [n.
7696, 778~]. These words refer to those that follow concerning
God Messiah. He gives judgment to those who sit in judgment,
as do kings, and to those who wage war, being the war of the
church, as do priests (vs. 6). The priests and scribes, etc., are
those who are drunk, till at last they vomit upon the tables (vs. 8) ;
as is the wont with the drunkenness described in verse 7; for, be­
ing drunk, their doctrine is like vomit upon the table at which they
sit. Thus there will be none who can be taught save children (vs.
9), those who are adult being of the drunkards who are continually
drunk. What is said in verse 10 refers to children, as to how they
are taught; but it also refers to the verses that follow; for, because
• See Appendix, S.v., Ephraim.
• Reading pro doctrina for per doctMlIam.

IV Ad. p. 75 185

they do not understand, they call the new doctrine as follows: Pre­
cept upon precept, etc., here a little and there a little.

11 Therefore with mockings of the lip and with another tongue

doth he speak to this people.
Ifl To whom he said, This is the rest ye shall leave for the
weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: but they would not hear.
13 Therefore the word of J ehovah unto them shall be, precept
upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line;
here a little, there a little; that they may go, and stumble backward,
and be broken, and snared, and taken.
14 Wherefore hear ye the word of J ehovah, ye men of derision,
speakers of parables 6 among this people which is in Jerusalem.
15 Because ye have said, 'Ve have made a covenant with death,
and with hell we have made a vision; when the scourge of the flood
shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made a
lie our trust, and in falsity have we hid ourselves:
16 Therefore thus said Adonai Jehovih, Behold, I will lay a
stone in Zion, a stone of trial, a corner of price, of a foundation
laid down: he that believeth shall not make haste.
17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and justice to the plum­
met: but the hail shall overthrow the refuge of a lie, and the waters
shall flood the hiding place.
18 And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and
your vision with hell shall not stand; the scourge of a flood; when
it has passed through, ye shall be to it for a trampling.
19 From the time that it shall pass through it shall take you:
for morning by morning shall it pass through, by day and by
night; and it shall be, a commotion only to make the hearing to
flO For the bed will be shorter than that one can stretch him­
self: and the covering narrower than that one can gather himself.

7792. That God Messiah will teach them true doctrine and this
will be a stumbling block to them because they will not understand
it by reason of their drunkenness.
7793. [With another tongue doth he speak to this people. To
whom he said, This is the rest ye shall leave for the weary;
• See n. 7794 note.
136 IV Ad. p. 75
ISAIAH XXVIII: 11-15 [7794

but they would not hear. Therefore the word of Jehovah unto
them shall be, precept 'upon precept, . . . here a little, there a lit~
tle; that they may go, and stumble backward], vs. 11-13. True
doctrine is a strange speech and another tongue which they will
not understand, being men before whom he has set forth the doc­
trine of peace (vs. IQ), which they would not hear (Luke 19 42 ).7
They will deride that doctrine, saying, as the words in verse 13
read, precept upon precept, etc., here a little, there a little; for
they who remain solely in ultimates, that is, in the letter, and do
not draw therefrom the spiritual and celestial sense, wherein is the
life of the Word of God Messiah, cannot see the connection of
things. Thus, since such has been their nature, to them the Word
of Jehovah will be such that they stumble and fall; for to him who
has, it will be given, and from him who has not, it will be taken
away. It is of these that God Messiah says that intelligence is
not given to them, but to the unlearned [Matt. 11 2 5, Luke 10 21 ],
and that their intelligence is foolishness. 8 This can be confirmed
by many passages, etc.
7794. [Wherefore hear ye the word of J ehovah, ye men of de­
rision, speakers of parables among this people. . .. Because ye
have said, We have made a covenant with death, . . . for we have
made a lie our trust, and in fa,lsity have we hid ourselves], vs. 14,
15. It is here said that they who are spoken of are deriders and
also are the chief men of the people, for, judging from the inter­
preters, the word seems to signify both rulers of the people 9 and
among the people, speakers of parable.Y who lay before them enig­
matical sayings and rabbinical trifles, etc. The cause of their
drunkenness and blindness is that they say such things in their
heart. They cannot say them with their lips for they can under­
stand them but do not wish to. They see the truth, as though
from afar off, etc. But because it is repugnant to them, for then
they cannot live according to their genius, therefore they cast
themselves into these thoughts, to wit, that when they die they will
be wholly dead, and will remain in the grave in an ultimate sense;
that they do not wish to live in light but in darkness, etc. Thus,
as a consequence, they have no concern as to whether this is a lie
1 This reference seems to have been a later addition to the text.
8 Confer 1 Cor. 319, 20.
8 Tremellius' translation. The Hebrew word, ~~t), means both to rule and
to speak in lJarables or proverbs.
IV Ad. p. 76 137

and falsity, provided only they deceive the common people, and so
are able to live according to their genius, etc., etc. Nay, they
then have no concern, ~Lthey make a covenant with the devil,
and so with death and hell; see also verse 18. Nor do they have
any concern if 1 they see that it is a lie and falsity, for they then
wish to lie hidden in falsity, etc.
7795. [Therefore thus said Adonai Jehovih, Behold, I will lay
a stone in Zion, a stone of trial, a corner of price, of a foundation
laid down: he that believeth shall not make haste], vs. 16. This
verse manifestly treats of God Messiah and the true doctrine of
faith, a doctrine which they deride. That God Messiah is the
stone laid in Zion, this the reader may see frequently stated above;
for in the Ancient Church, by a stone is always meant God Mes­
siah. See what Jacob said of the stone which he anointed [Gen.
fl8 17 ] ; what Israel said, namely, that He is " the stone of Israel "
[ibid. 49 24 ], and elsewhere. A stone of trial is a stone tried by
temptations. A corner of price-the corner stone called a corner
was most precious because from it came the form of the whole. It
is a foundation laid down, in that all ~s founded upon it. He that
believeth shall not make haste-look up the Hebrew text as to
whether it does not signify, they shall not be terrified/ etc.
7796. [Judgment also will I lay to the line, and justice to the
plummet: but the hail shall overthrow the refuge of a lie, and the
waters shall flood the hiding place], vs. 17. By judgment is meant
the understanding of truth and good; by justice, the faith whereby
man is justified; also what that justice is whereby men are justi­
fied. These are laid to the line and to the plummet, that is, they
shall be taught justly. Then the lie will perish, and they will not
be able to hide themselves in falsity; for waters will flood the hid­
ing place wherein they hide. That they will perish in their doc­
trine, is the consequence.
7797. [And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and
your vision with hell shall not stand; the scourge of the flood, . . .
morning by morning shall it through, by day and by night:
and it shall be, a commotion only to make the hearing to under­
stand], vs. 18-19. Respecting the covenant with death, see above
1 Reading si for sic (thus).
• The word In question, ~,n, occurs many times in the Hebrew Bible, but
always with the meaning to make haJIte.
138 IV Ad. p. 76
ISAIAH XXVIII: 16-~~ [7798-7799

[n. 7794]', for they who teach a doctrine such as that which the
Jews and their pontiffs have handed down, make a covenOlTlt with
death, and a security bond 3 or vision with hell. That in this
t~ will_p~I.:.~~h, is here expressed by comparison with a flood,
of which mention is so often made. The comparison is taken
from the Flood when that world perished wherein were the Ne­
philim, being apostates from the true faith,4 and wherein the
sons of God went in to the daughters of men [Gen. 6 4 ] ; see the
explanation at that place [n. no]. That it will pass through
'morning by 'morning means as often as any light shines forth, light
being likened to morning. It will then be by day and by night,
that is to say, it will alternate that thus there may be light and
shade in their minds, and so commotion for understanding, etc.
7798. [For the bed will be shorter than that one coo stretch
himselfJ, vs. ~O. The bed being too short, etc., signifies that their
rational sphere will be so contracted that they cannot stretch them­
selves beyond the bed; for their doctrine carries this with it,
E..amely, Jh.a.t they cannot extend themselves further. That these
words refer to the understanding, is evident from the words that
immediately precede. See whether these words refer to those which
are said in verse 1~ concerning rest, the weary and refreshing.

~1 For Jehovah shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be

indignant as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his
strange work; and perform his operation, his strange operation.
~~ Therefore deride not, lest your chastisements grow strong:
for I have heard from-with Adonai Jehovih Sabaoth, a consumma­
tion, and decision upon the .;}-Wle land. -­

7799. That they will perish in their doctrine. Their perishing

is likened to the slaughter of the Philistines in Perazim by David
(~ Sam. 5 20 ), for which reason it was called Perazim-the place of
breaches; 5 and in Gibeon where many kings were smitten (Josh.
1010 ae q .). That it is called a strOlTlge work is because he does not
will so to act with them; but because he cannot act otherwise by
reason of their perversity, it is said his work, etc., etc. The deci-
I Tremellius' translation.
• This is Schmidius' explanation of what is meant by the Nephilim in Gene­
sis 64.
• This is the translation supplied by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 77 139

sion is over the whole land, that is, over all who are of that doc­
trine, by the whole land, here and elsewhere, being meant the land
where dwelt the Jews.

913 Hearken ye, . . . give heed, and hear my speech.

9l4, 915 Will the plowman plow all day to sow? . . . will he
not scatter gith 6 • • •
~6 He shall chasten him unto judgment; his God shall teach
9l7, 918 For gith is not threshed with a threshing instrument,
. . . it is beaten small into bread; . . .
919 This also hath gone forth from-with Jehovah Sabaoth; he
hath made counsel wonderful, he hath magnified wisdom.

7800. This is compared with a sower, and thus with the harvest.
The words in verse 9l3, that they may give heed to the similitude,
belong to those that follow. The comparison with what a sower
does, continues in verses ~4 and 9l5. In verse ~6 it is plainly stated
that the words there pertain to doctrine and thus concern the means
whereby they may learn, namely, the words, he will chasten him unto
judgment, and also that God Messiah will teach them. The words
in verses 917 and 918 can be understood by the application. That
God will bring into effect what he has decreed is set forth in these
words, He hath made counsel wonderful, and hath magnified wis­

7801. In the supreme sense, the things contained in this chapter
treat of God Messiah; in the inmost sense, of his church.

1 \Voe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city where David fixed his seat!
add ye year to year; set bounds to the feasts.
9l Yet I will distress Ariel, and there shall be sorrow and sad­
ness: and it shall be unto me as to Ariel.
3 And I will pitch camp against thee with an array, and win
•nltp, a species of plant grown in the East. Wbat specific plant it is, is
not known except from Rabbinic tradition. Pagnini, Tremellius, Castellio and
the Vulgate translate it gith, or its equivalent nigella or melantlti1un; the old
Swedish Bible, peas; the A.V., fitches, a word apparently made for the occasion.
140 IV Ad. p. 78
ISAIAH XXVIII: !t3-!t9-XXIX: 1-4 [780!t

lay siege against thee with a post, and I will raise forts against
4 And thou shalt be humbled, thou shalt speak out of the
ground, and humbly out of the dust shall thy speech sound: and
thy voice shall be, as of a Python, out of the earth, and thy speech
shall murmur out of the dust.
7802. These verses treat of temptation and persecution, even to
utter humiliation. That Ariel (the lion of God) 7 is the city of
David where was mount Zion, see vs. 7. 8 Therefore in verse 1,
it is said the city where David fixed his seat. In the supreme sense,
therefore, Ariel signifies the Messiah who is the Lion of God, the
mountain of Zion; in the inmost sense, those who are of the true
church. To add year to year and to set bounds to the feasts-as
to what this means, see the Hebrew text as to whether it means to
live, and to worship God. 9 The distress (vs. !t) is that which the
Messiah had. It is also the temptation which the church and her
sons have. Hostility and laying siege is predicated of .Jehovah
Sabaoth (vs. 3), when yet it is not he who lays siege and does
hostile acts, but he sends the devil and his crew to infest and dis-
tress, as is the case in every temptation; for in what follows [vs.
7, !to], it is said that the enemies who laid siege are scattered as
nothing, and this can never be predicated of any other enemy save
the devil and his crew. In verse 4 is described humiliation, as the
7 This translation of Ar'iel is given by Schmidius.

• The autograph has 8.

o There can be no doubt as to the correctness of the translation add yea"
'upon year, but the translators greatly differ as to the meaning of the words
that follow and which Schmidius renders festa definite (set bounds to the
feasts). Pagnini has the lambs shall be beheaded, and in a marginal note, they
shall cut the lambs' th"oats; Tremellius, they shall cut otT the heads of the sacri-
fices of the feasts, but he notes that the literal meaning is they shall cut otT the
heads of the feasts. The Vulgate, the solemnities of the feasts are unrolled
(presumably what is meant is that they are disclosed) ; CasteIlio, Let the throats
of the victims of the feast be C1tt; the A.V., Let them kill sacrifices; the Swedish
Bible, Keep the holy days. The Hebrew is 'ElP)~ o~m (chaggim yinkophoo).
Chaggim undoubtedly means feasts. The difficulty is with the verb nakaph.
Lexicographers give this word a great variety of meanings, according to the
context in which it occurs. Thus, the A.V. translates it cut otT the head, de-
stroy, cut down, encompass, enclose, go around. The root idea, which Schmidius
adopts, seems to be to enclose, surround, limit, and from this the translators
have inferred the meaning to cut around, Le., to cut the throat, and according
to Rabbinical tradition, this was accounted as obedience to the command to cut
off the head (Robertson, Thes. Ling. Sacra, p. 618).
IV Ad. p. 78 141

effect of temptation; for temptation looks to humiliation, and it is

utter humiliation that is here set forth.

5 Moreover the multitude of thine enemies shall be as tine dust,

and the multitude of the violent as a husk that passeth away; yea,
it shall be exceeding sudden.
6 Thou shalt be visited . . . with storm and tempest, and the
flame of devouring tire.
7 And the multitude of all the nations that tight against Ariel,
shall be as a dream, a night vision. . . .
8 It shall be as when an hungry man dreameth, as though he
were eating; but he awaketh, and his soul is hungry: . . .

7803. That all enemies will then be dissipated. Their dissipa­

tion is likened to fine dust and to a husk (vs. 5). Verse 6 shows
how they will be dissipated,-and in verse 7 and likewise in verse 8,
this is likened to a dream.

9, 10 Stay yourselves, and wonder; . . . for Jehovah . . .

hath closed your eyes: the prophets, and your heads, the seers, hath
he covered.
11, Ij2 And the vision of all is become unto you as the words
of a book that is sealed, which one giveth . . . to him that know­
eth not letters . . . and he saith, I know not letters.
13, 14 And Adonai said, Forasmuch as this people draw near
with their mouth, . . . but their heart is far removed from me,
therefore, . . . the wisdom of their wise men shall perish,

7804. That the enemies are smitten with such blindness that they
understand nothing whatever. In verses 9 and 10, it is made clear
that these verses look to the Jewish people; and in verses 11 and Ij2,
that this people understands nothing in Moses and the Prophets.
Verses 13 and 14 give the reason why they do not understand.

15, 16 Woe unto them that are deeply wise above J ehovah,
hiding their counsel, . . . while they say, Who seeth· us? .
Shall the work say of its maker, He made me not? . . .
14! IV Ad. p. 78
ISAIAH XXIX: 5-9l4-XXX: 1-5 [7805-7806

17-19 Is it not yet a very little while, and Lebanon shall be

turned into ploughed land, . . . and from obscurity, and dark­
ness, the eyes of the blind shall see, . . . and the poor among men
shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.
9l0, 911 and all them that make iniquity ripen, shall be
cut off: That cause the just man to turn aside to vanity.

7805. The enemies have smitten them with such great blindness
that they think J ehovah God does not see anything, and so sees not
the figments of their heart (vs. 15-16). The time will then come
when those will see who, like the gentiles, are in shades; and these
will acknowledge God Messiah (vs. 17-19). Those will perish who
preach things false and vain (vs. 9l0, 9l1).

9l9l Yet J ehovah, who redeemed Abraham, hath said unto the
house of Jacob, Jacob shall not now be ashamed, .
913 For when he seeth his children, the work of mine hands,
. . . they shall fear the God of Israel.
914 And they that erred in spirit shall know intelligence, and
they that have been disturbers shall learn doctrine.

7806. That the church of God Messiah will understand Moses

and the Prophets. Jehovah who l"edeemed Abraham 1 (vs. 9l9l) is
God Messiah who redeems those who are of the faith. Those are
the house of J acob who are of the church of God Messiah, which
the house of J acob represented. Thus, in this text J acob is he or
those who are of the church of God Messiah. His children (vs.
9l3) are sons of the church, being the work of the hands of God
Messiah. These will acknowledge God Messiah. They will un­
derstand and receive the true doctrine of faith (vs. 9l4). These
verses, therefore, are a continuation of the words in the preceding
chapter '[ vs. 11 seq.] concerning the doctrine of true faith.

1 Woe to the stubborn sons, . . . that make counsel, but not
from me; and that found a molten image, but not from my spirit;
that they may add sin upon sin:
~ That turn away to go down into Egypt; but they have not
J The autograph has J acob.
IV Ad. p. 79 148

asked of my mouth; to strengthen themselves with the strength of

Pharaoh, and to put their trust in the shadow of Egypt!
g Therefore shall the strength of Pharaoh be to you for shame,
and trust in the shadow of Egypt for dishonor.
4 For his princes were in Zoan, and his ambassadors came to
5 Each shall be ashamed over a people that shall not profit
them, either for help, or for profit, but for a shame, and also for
a reproach.

7807. Against those who confide in the powe1'S of their own in-
telligence. Counsel not from God Messiah (vs. 1) is one's own
prudence. A molten image, not from the spirit of God Messiah,
is that which they adored that they might get counsel. To turn
away to go down into Egypt (vs. ~)-Egypt means those who
trusted in their own intelligence and consulted idols. Therefore
it is said, to put their trust in the shadow of Egypt, such intelli-
gence, as it is called, being mere shade, for they think themselves
supremely intelligent above all others. The strength of Pharaoh
(vs, 3) is the same thing, for it is in this prudence and shade that
they place their strength, that is to say, in natural science and
the ratiocination arising therefrom, this being the shadow of
Egypt. The princes of Zoan (vs. 4) have a like signification,
signifying those who think themselves to be supremely wise (Isa.
19 13 ). So likewise Hanes. See whether this is the river Kanah/
the border of the inheritance of J oseph, Manasseh and Asher
(Josh. 168 , 17 9 , 19 28 ). That thus all things will come to shame
and reproach (vs. 5) ; all things contrary will result therefrom, as
is the case when man trusts in the powers of his own prudence;
nay, their very intelligence becomes unwisdom, etc.

6 The burden of the beasts of the south: In the land of anguish

and distress, a young lion and an old lion; before them a viper and
a prester; 3 they carry their riches upon the shoulder of asses,
and their treasures upon the backs of camels, to a people that shall
not profit them.
I This river is spelt1'1Jp (Kanah) whereas the name in the text is CJn
I See n. 7339 note.

144 IV Ad. p. 79
ISAIAH XXX: 6-11 [7808

7 For as for Egypt, it is vanity and emptiness that shall bring

help; therefore have I cried concerning this, Rahab are they, in
their seat.
8 Therefore come, write it upon a table with them, and ex-
press it upon a book; that it may be for the latter day, for ever,
even to eternity:
9 For a people of rebellion are they, Sons of a lie; sons who
will not hear the law of .Jehovah :
10 Which said to the seers, See not; and to them that have vi-
sion, See not things that are right for us; speak unto us flatteries,
to see illusions.
11 Get you out of the way, turn aside out or the path; make
the Holy One of Israel cease from our faces.

7808. He who, in temptations and anguish, goes off to Egyp-

tian or natural wisdom" wishes to know nothing concerning God
Messiah. They are the burden of the beasts of the south (vs. 6)
who, being in the south, see nothing, but still are beasts; for they,
who see nothing, do nothing but what is insane, the one being a
consequence of the other. Therefore the subject treated of is both
the blindness which comes by means of natural sciences, and their
insane actions. In the land of anguish and distress means in the
state of temptation. Before the lion will be vipers, and before the
young lion the flying prester. 4 That the powers of temptations
are likened to the powers of a lion, arises from the cause that God
Messiah in temptations is called the Lion of God (chap. ~92).* In
place of this constancy or of these forces, will be the flying prester,
that is, a conscience remorseful from the thought of things past,
thought being commonly compared to a bird and its wing and to
flying. They then carry their riches to the people (who will be
treated of presently), being the Egyptian people, and consequently
to a ratiocination which is of no profit whatsoever. Egypt, or the
self-wisdom spoken of above [n. 7700, 7717, 7750], is described in
verse 7, as giving no help. Look up as to the meaning of Rahab,
whether it means firmness to remain 5 because there is no strength
• See n. 7339 note.
* See n. 7809 note.
• These words are taken from Tremellius' translation which is as follows:
The Egyptiana will brin,IJ help in '!lain and inanity; therefore I proclaim of this
matter (i.e., of the counsel and purpose of the Jews to send an ambassador),
IV Ad. p. 80 145

in him. Verse 8 declares that what follows is to be observed. To

hear the law (vs. 9) is not only to obey but also to understand.
They are called rebels who do not wish to understand. From what
follows, this seems to be the meaning; for the whole of this series
looks to what follows in order. The seers (vs. 10) are prophets.
They desire illusions, and this that they may never be tempted but
may enter into the kingdom of God without the bread of anguish
and the waters of oppression, treated of in verse ~o. They desire
that the prophets do not write such things (vs. 11), and so do not
write concerning God Messiah. Consequently, they wish to know
nothing concerning God Messiah.

1~ Wherefore, thus said the Holy One of Israel, Because ye

reject this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, on
which ye lean,
13 Therefore this iniquity shall be to you as a breach ready
to fall, a swelling out in a high wall, whose breaking cometh very
14 For it shall break him as the breaking of a potters' bottle
in being broken to pieces that it spare not; and in its breaking is
not found a sherd to receive fire from the hearth, or to draw waters
from the pit.
15 For thus said Adonai Jehovih, the Holy One of Israel: In
rest and quiet shall ye be saved; in quietness and in conndence shall
be your strength: but ye would not.
16 For ye said, No; but we will flee upon a horse; therefore
ye shall flee: and, We will ride upon the swift; therefore shall they
that pursue you be made swift.
17 One thousand before the rebuke of one; before the rebuke
of five shall ye flee: till ye be left as a pole 8 on the top of a moun­
tain, and as a sign on a hill.
that they should have the firmness to remain (Le., if they wish to be strong and
safe, they should not send a legation to Egypt). The words in parentheses are
Tremellius' explanatory footnotes. The Hebrew Ji" (rahab) means pride. A
literal trunslation would read, pride they (or them) to sit. Schmidius trans­
literates the Hebrew word Rahab, but adds the translation proud Egypt;
Pagnini, Strengthen them to sit, which he interprets in the margin as meaning
firmness is their abode; the Vulgate, lJ1·ide so great, be silent; Castellio, their
business would go well if they remained; the A.V., their strength is to sit still;
the Swedish Bible, Rahab 'hall lit still.
• See n. 78Hl note.
146 IV Ad. p. 80
ISAIAH XXX: 12-17 [7809-7812

7809. Because they thus trust in the powers of their own intel­
ligence they will grow weary and succumb.
7810. This is, because when in temptations and anguish they
wish to know nothing concerning God Messiah, and because they
lean on perverseness, that is, on the powers of their own intelligence
which they pervert (vs. 12). To reject this word refers to the
words that precede, in that they do not believe what is said con­
cerning God Messiah. Their weariness and folly in temptations
is compared to the breach of a wall (vs. 13). With them it was a
general breach at which they grow weary; but they succumb, and
also are broken. Concerning the breach, see elsewhere. The
breach is described in verse 14 as being such that nothing of under­
standing remains. His intellectual mind is such a breach wherein
things one and all are perverted and there is nothing coherent. It
is at once disturbed by many things which so upset the matter that
there is nothing in it whereby he can receive 1 fire from the hearth,
namely, can kindle his affections; and whereby he can draw waters
from the pit, that is, may console himself, etc.
7811. Trust in God Messiah is that which saves. From him
comes rest and peace (vs. 15), as said many times; for in itself
peace comprehends everything which follows from faith. There­
fore they wished peace for all, and asked concerning peace that
they might know how it fared with one. 8 'Vhen man puts his trust
in God Messiah he has peace, and then he puts all salvation in him.
The contrary is the case when he puts his trust in himself. 9
7812. To flee upon horses (vs. 16) means to trust in the powers
of self-intelligence, a horse being the understanding. Thus they
flee from God Messiah. This is the reason why enemies will pur­
sue him who turns away from God Messiah. He is at once attacked
by enemies for there is none to defend. How he is then pursued
by enemies is described in verse 17. It is such fear that follows
those who trust in themselves. As to a pole on a mountain, and a
sign on a hill, see the text. l Judging from the series, it seems to
, The autograph has draw.
• This refers to the customary Jewish salutation shalom lekha (peace be
with you).
• No. 7811 is emphasized by "Obs.• Obs.... written in the margin.
1 A literal translation of the Hebrew is as follows: As a pole (or mast or

branchless tree) upon the head of the mountain., and as a sign (or stmldard, or
ff-ag, or sail, Isa. 33:8, or pole, Num. 9}8, 9) upon the hill.
IV Ad. p. 81 147

signify that thus they are driven to such flight that nothing re­
mains save a sign that they had been there, etc.; or, here, as fre­
quently elsewhere, the remnant also are treated of, being those who
did not succumb but had faith in God Messiah; for this remnant is
treated of in what now follows. It is those who were left in the
mountain of Zion and in the hill of Jerusalem who seem to be
treated of in this text, as indicated in verse 19.

18 And therefore will Jehovah delay in being gracious unto

you, and therefore will he exalt himself, to have mercy upon you:
for Jehovah is a God of judgment: blessed are all they that con­
fide in him.
19 For, 0 ye people, he that dwelleth in Zion in Jerusalem,
weeping, thou shalt not weep: pitying, he will pity thee at the
voice of thy cry; when he hath heard, he will answer thee.
~o For Adonai hath given you the bread of anguish, and the
waters of oppression; but thy teachers shall no more be forced to
flee away, and thine eyes may look upon thy teachers:
~1 And thine ears may hear a word from behind thee, saying,
This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand,
and when to the left.
~~ Then shaH ye deem unclean the covering of the graven im­
ages of thy silver, and the clothing of the molten image of thy
gold: thou shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth; thou shalt
call it dung. 2
~3 Then shall he give the rain of thy seed wherewith thou
shalt sow the land; and the bread of the produce of the land; and
it shall be fat and rich: in that day shall thy cattle feed in a
broad meadow.
~4 The oxen likewise and the asses that work the land shall eat
clean fodder, which hath been winnowed with the fan and the fork.
~5 And there shall be upon every lofty mountain, and upon ev­
ery high hill, rivers, conduits of waters in the day of the great
slaughter, when the towers shall fall.
~6 For the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun,
and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven
days; in the day that Jehovah bindeth up the breach of his people,
and healeth the wound of their stroke.
• See n. 7815 note.
148 IV Ad. p. 81
ISAIAH XXX: 18-~5 [781~7816

7813. But those in straits who trust in God M ess'iah will be mar­
velously enlightened. The text now continues from those who
were left remaining and who had not succumbed.
7814. God Messiah will have mercy on them because they trust
in him (vs. 18). The people (vs. 19) are those dwelling in Zion
and Jerusalem who put their trust in God Messiah and are mar­
velously enlightened. What follows concerns this enlightenment.
The subject is weeping and the miserable state, and so the anguish,
of those on whom God Messiah takes pity.
7815. That the subject is anguish is more clearly stated in
verse ~O, in that the Lord gave them the bread of angui.~h, and the
waters of oppression, but they will now become intelligent, that is,
their eyes may look upon their 3 teachers. The subject is contin­
ued in verse ~1-that they teach them the wa;}' of truth. Thus
they will become wise, this being expressed in verse ~~ by the state­
ment, that they will cast out as unclean their graven images or the
covering and clothing thereof, and so the things which have cov­
ered them over, lest those unclean things be seen which are now re­
garded as menstruous cloths and as dung. 4
7816. The rain of seed wherewith the land shall be sown (vs.
~3) means that cognitions will be fertile and will be productive of
produce. Here is described the fruitfulness and the resultant
wealth of the understanding; for the "Vord of God Messiah is like
seed from which comes produce: The land is the mind; cattle are
the things which minister to the understanding as supports; conse­
quently, they are also the sciences, which will then have a broad
meadow, that is, a spacious campus; for there will then be nothing
that does not add confirmation. The subject of ministering aids
and administering means, these being the oxen and asses, is con­
tinued in verse ~4, showing how they win feed, to wit, on nought
but corn. Conduits of waters and rivers (vs. ~5) are all those
things which are derivations from true wisdom. All the rivers
come in order from the fount. God Messiah is the Fount of 'Vis­
dom and Intelligence. The day of the great slaughter, when the
3 The autograph has Ipsius (His).

• Literally translated, these words which Schmidius renders, thou shalt call
-it dung, wouid read: thou shalt say to it, Get thee hence, as in the A.V. The
Hebrew word here translated Get thee hence is N~ (tae) which is the imperative
Kal of N~' he went out,' hut Schmidius takes it to be a contracted form of i1N~
(tse-ah) which means dung, filthiness, etc.
IV Ad. p. 8~ 149

towers shall fall is the day of temptations when others will suc­
cumb; also the day of the last judgment. These words have ref­
erence to those that follow. The light of intelligence and wisdom
is described in verse ~6. Intelligence is the moon; the sun is love;
the light thereof is the wisdom which will be at the time when God
Messiah takes pity on them after temptations, these being the
stroke, the wounds of which are healed.

~7 Behold, the name of Jehovah cometh from afar, his anger

is burning, and the burden is heaviness: his lips are full of indig­
nation, and his tongue as a devouring fire:
~8 And his breath, as an overflowing river, shall divide even
to the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and a bridle
of the seducer on the jaws of the peoples.

7817. That the seducers will be punished. In verse ~7, is de­

scribed the anger of Jehovah because they have turned away as
before, and the spiritual enemy is thus given an opportunity to
invade them; for when the quiet of those who are in the heaven
of God Messiah is treated of, then anger against those who infest
is also treated of, inasmuch as these are outside heaven and will
be driven away therefrom. But look up the words in the Hebrew
text as to how they fit together.~

~9 Yours shall be a song, as of the night of sanctifying the

feast; and joy of heart, as of one that goeth with a pipe to come
into the mountain of J ehovah, to the rock of Israel.
30 Then shall J ehovah cause the glory of his voice to be
heard, and shall see his quiet arm, in the indignation of anger, and
the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and flood, and hail­
31 For by the voice of Jehovah shall Asshur be confounded,
by a rod he shall be smitten.
3~ Then every passing over of the rod of the foundation upon
him whom Jehovah had made to rest, shall be with drums and
harps; and in battles of agitation, he shall fight against him.
33 For Tophet is prepared from yesterday; this also is pre­
• Schmidius' translation is literally exact, except that anger In verse ~7
should be n08tril.
150 IV Ad. p. 8!!
ISAIAH XXX: 926-33-XXXI: 1-9 [7818

pared for the king; he will go down into the depth, the breadth:
his funeral pyre is fire and much wood; the breath of Jehovah is
like a stream of brimstone, it cloth kindle him.

7818. Because they carry on hostility, their punishment is that

their joy will come to an end in the fire of Gehenna. In verse 929
is described the joy of those who carry on hostility; for they wish
to attack the mountain of Zion, this being their continued en­
deavor; and because they have so often succumbed, they are glad­
dened as though they were the victors. This joy of night, being
nocturnal joy is described. When they wish to come thus far,
then take place the things contained in verse 30. Asshur (vs. 31)
is he who is called the tempter and invader. The similitude is
taken from Asshur who so often troubled the people and led them
into captivity.6 As to verse 392, look up the text. T What is here
signified is his chastening; here comes the word rod; it being by
this that they were customarily punished. In verse 33 Gehenna is
described; for Tophet was in the valley of Hinnom where they sac­
rificed men to Molech (see the Collecta).8 Here is described the
fire and the funeral pyre to which those are condemned who are
here meant by Asshur.
1 Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and make
horses their stay, and put trust upon a chariot, because it is much;
and upon horsemen, because they are very powerful; but they look
not unto the Holy One of Israel, neither seek J ehovah !
92 Wherefore he also will be wise, and will bring evil, and will
not take back his words, but will arise against the house of the
malignant, and against the help of workers of iniquity.
3 For Egypt is a man, and not God, and his horses flesh, and
not spirit. When J ehovah shall stretch out his hand, he that help­
eth shall stumble, and he that is helped shall fall, and they all shall
be consumed together.
• [Crossed off:] wben Jerusalem was turned into a condemned city.
, Schmldius' translation seems to be literal so far as is possible. The A.V.,
with which Tremellius is in essential agreement, is: And in every place whe1'e the
grounded staff shall pass, which the Lord shall lay upon him, it shall be with
tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it.
• See Appendix, s.v., Tophet, Hinnom.
IV Ad. p. 88 151

4 For thus hath Jehovah said unto me, Like as roareth the
lion and the young lion over their prey when a fulness of shepherds
cometh forth against him, and at their voice he is not affrighted,
and by their tumult he is not afflicted; so shall J ehovah Sabaoth
come down to wage war over mount Zion, and over the hill thereof.
5 As flying birds, so will J ehovah Sabaoth protect Jerusalem;
protecting, he will also snatch it away; and passing over, he will
deliver it.
6 Return ye unto him from against whom the sons of Israel
have made deep withdrawal.
7 For in that day they shall cast away, a man the idols of his
silver, and the idols of his gold, which your hands have made unto
you, a sin.
8 Then shall Asshur fall by the sword, not of a male; and the
sword, not of man, shall devour him: but he shall flee to himself
from before the sword, and his young men shall be for tribute.
9 And his rock shall pass over from dread, and his princes
shall be affrighted by the banner; the saying of J ehovah, whose
hearth is in Zion, and his oven in Jerusalem.

7819. This chapter is a recapitnlation of what has preceded,

that they should not pnt their trnst in themselves; together with
an exhortation.
7820. They are cursed who put their trust in their own science
and the intelligence arising therefrom, and do not put their trust
in God Messiah. By the horses and chariots of Egypt in verse 1
as previously [n. 7808] is signified their trust in themselves, espe­
cially in their own prudence. Wherefore he also will be wise (vs.
!t). This is a reciprocation; for they answer in this way accord­
ing to rule, being the rule of the law of retaliation, as is also the
case elsewhere. Those who trust in themselves are caUed the malig­
nant or evildoers; 9 also workers of iniqnity, this being the conse­
quent result.
7821. By Egypt (vs. 3) is described self-intelligence in which
one puts trust. It is called flesh, not spirit, inasmuch as it comes
from the flesh, that is, from concupiscences. Thence comes an the
counsel and the reason of those who trust in themselves; for they
think and conclude nothing save what is conformable to the flesh,
• Tremellius' translation which, in this word, is more literal than Schmidius'.
15!t IV Ad. p. 83
ISAIAH XXXI: 1-9-XXXII: 1-5 [78~~-78~3

etc. Intelligence together with confidence is their helper and

abettor. 1
7822. That it is self-prudence and wisdom that is here meant is
plainly set forth in verse 4. There, as elsewhere, God Messiah is
compared to a lion and a young lion. To these are opposed shep­
herds and their voice and tumult, at which he is not affrighted.
The war is a spiritual war and, indeed, the war of the church, be­
cause in mount Zion, the hill whereof is called Jerusalem. The
flying birds (vs. 5) are those whom he protects, and who of them­
selves readily flyaway. Therefore the text describes how he pro­
tects them-that when they flyaway he snatches them up, and
passing by, when they flyaway, he also delivers them lest they be­
come a prey. God Messiah himself said the like thing, namely,
that he willed to gather them under his wings, but they would not
[Matt. 9l3 37 ]. Thus he willed that they should be gathered to­
gether (vs. 6). That they had drawn away, whence came anger,
see above [n. 7643]. This then is a like exhortation.
7823. That they may remember it, he recalls to memory the day
spoken of above, that his sons who will be inhabitants of heaven,
that is, of his heavenly .Terusalem, will cast away their idols, as
above, chapter 30 22 ; and, on the other hand, that Asshur or the
enemy shall fall by the sword (chap. 303l- fin .) ; not by the sword of
any man (vs. 8), for man avails nothing, but by the sword of God
Messiah himself, of which sword, etc., much can be said. Verse 8
also treats of his crew, that they will be servants. The 1'ock (vs. 9)
is that in which he puts his trust. To be affrighted by his banner,
means that they fled therefrom. Love is called a hearth in Zion.
An oven in Jerusalem means bread, and consequently all heavenly
food; it means also the church, etc., etc.

1 Behold, a king shall reign in accord with righteousness, and
as for princes, they shall act as princes in accord with judgment.
9l Then shall a man be as an hiding place from the wind, and a
covert from the flood; as rivulets of waters in a dry place, as the
shade of a heavy rock in a weary land.
1 No. 7821 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

IV Ad. p. 84 153

3 For the eyes of them that see shall not be shut, and 2 the ears
of them that hear shall hearken.
4 The heart also of the rash shall understand that they may
have knowledge, and the tongue of stammerers shall be swift to
speak fine words.
5 Liberal shall no more be said of the fool; neither shall noble
be said of the avaricious.

7824. A description of the wisdom of those who are led by God

Messiah. This chapter commences from the last words of the pre­
ceding chapter. Thus it treats of God Messiah, whose hearth is in
Zion and his oven in Jerusalem. The king (vs. 1) is God Messiah.
To reign in accord with righteousness is to reign with all wisdom.
Princes are those in His kingdom who are called sons of the King,
and so princes. To act in accord with judgment is likewise to aet
with wisdom in compliance with judgment, that is, with law, etc.
A man (vs. 2) means every individual. A hiding place, here as
elsewhere, signifies protection against the wind, and against every
storm and flood. Storms and floods are such things as disturb
man, especially when in states of distress, etc. Rivulets of waters
in a dry place-that he may then be refreshed. So likewise the
shade of a rock; in the shade, a man, when wearied, is refreshed.
The eyes of them that see shall not be shut (vs. 3)-he will not be
turned to this or that error inasmuch as he sees it; that which he
hears, he hearkens to, and obeys. The rash-others have the in­
considerate 3 (see whether it is not the non-intelligence of the fool­
ish) ; these will understand, that is, will see. This corresponds to
the eyes of them that see, while the tongue of stammerers shall
speak fine words, corresponds to the ears which hearken, it being
the same here as in verse S-the blind will see and the dumb speak.
The former stupidity will perish, this having consisted in the fool
being called liberal and the avaricious man noble, that is to say, the
lover of self and the lover of the world. Such men were esteemed
, In the margin of his Schmidius' Bible, the Author has altered this word to
but as in Tremellius.
• The Hebrew "ln~ means to hasten, be hasty. In the present text, the Vul­
gate has the rash,. Tremellius, the inconsiderate (or heedless) j Pagnini, the
hasty, but in the margin he gives the interpretation the fool (or stupid) j stupid
is Castellio's translation, while the Swedish Bible has fools.

154 IV Ad. p. 85
ISAIAH XXXII: 1-14 [78~5

above all others, for among them was the fool, the stupid, the blind,
the deaf, the drunkard, as frequently above.

6 For the fool will speak folly, and his heart will work iniquity,
to practise hypocrisy, and to speak error against J ehovah, to make
empty the hungry soul; and he causeth the drink of the thirsty to
7 And the vessels of his vessels are evil; he will devise wicked
devices to destroy the afflicted by words of a lie, even when the
needy speaketh judgment.
8 But the liberal man deviseth liberal things; and upon liberal
things shall he persist.

7825. Concerning the insanity of those whom the devil leads,

that they are continually endeavoring 4 to pervert the pious, but in
vain. They speak continually against God Messiah, both in their
heart and with their tongue (vs. 6), speaking indeed mere errors.
This is the case by reason of the fact that they suffocate all good
seed, this being the taking away the drink of the thirsty, and mak­
ing empty the hungry soul; this is done in a thousand ways. The
vessels of his vessets-(';~~7), that is, all that is his. The vessels are
the instruments of an evil man. 5 From an evil man flows nothing
but evil. He perverts things by a lie, and so afflicts the needy, and
this when the needy speaks uprightly. But he does this in vain,
for the liberal man still persists (vs. 8).

9 0 women, ye that are secure, rise up, hear my voice; ye trust­

ing daughters, give ear unto my speech.
10 Year upon year shall ye be greatly moved, ye trusting
women: for the vintage is consumed, the ingathering shall not come.
11 Tremble, ye women that are secure; be thou greatly moved,
ye trusting women; disrobe and make thee bare, and gird thee upon
the loins.
1~ They beat themselves over the teats, for the fields of new
wine, for the fruitful vine.
13 Upon the land of my people shall come up the thorn and the
• The autograph has conatur (he is endeavoring), which would refer to the
devil; but the context indicates that this is a slip for conentur. The autograph
affords many examples of such slips.
• Instead of vessel' of ve886I" Tremellius has 6v-il inatrument,.
IV Ad. p. 85 155

brier; yea, upon all the houses of gladness the city of good cheer.
14 For the palaces shall be forsaken; the multitude of the city
shall be forsaken; the high place and the watchtower shall be upon
caves even for ever, the joy of wild asses, the pasture of flocks;

7826. A prophecy concerning security even to the last times,

when there shall be desolation. They are called women and daugh­
ters (vs. 9) because it is evil affections which rule. They are the
nymphs who had not provided themselves with oil before the bride­
groom came, and then they had none [Matt. ~51-13]. By this is
signified the desolation which is also described in the present text.
Year upon year 6 (vs. 10), that is, successively and in process of
time, there will be a consumption. Here as elsewhere, this con­
sumption is applied to the vintage. What is described in verse 11
is that they ought to prepare themselves for mourning. Look up
the text. ' Look up likewise the text of verse 1~, as to whether it
is a preparation for mourning because of the fields of new wine,s
that is, the vineyards and the fruitful vine, because, as taught in
the words that follow, they were about to perish, inasmuch as the
thorn and the brier will come up upon the earth (vs. 13), that is,
upon the Jewish people at the time of the first advent of God Mes­
siah ; and they still continue [to come up]. So will it be upon the
land of His people, that is, upon Christians at the second advent;
and so upon all who are then in gladness and good cheer from an
evil genius, because they are secure and trust in themselves. The
consumption and the final desolation is described in various ways
in verse 14. It takes place as when the body is wasting away and
at last dies. The palace refers to the pride and joy just spoken
of. The multitude that is forsaken is the desolation. The high
place and the watchtower, elsewhere called mountains and towers
and also heights, will be caves, pits where is darkness. The joy of
wild asses-the places where are wild beasts and ferocious animals.
The pasture of floclts-flocks of evil men; elsewhere also flocks
stand for the evil.
• The Hebrew is days upon a yea?'.
7 Schmidius' translation is literal, but be thou, greatly moved should be, be

thou troub led.

S The Hebrew is ,on (chemedh) which meanS desire; but Schmidius evi­

dently mistook it for ,on (chemer) which means wine or new wine.

156 IV Ad. p. 86
ISAIAH XXXII: 9~~o [78~7

15 Until the spirit from on high be poured upon us; then shall
the wilderness be for a ploughed field; and the ploughed field be
counted for a forest.
16 Yet judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteous­
ness abide in the ploughed field.
17 And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the labor
of righteousness quietness and security even to eternity.
18 That my people may dwell in a habitacle of peace, and in
tents of securities, and in calm quietudes.
19 For it shall hail, until the forest lowereth itself; and the
city humbleth itself in humility.
~o Blessed are ye that sow upon all waters, sending forth the
foot of the ox and the ass.
7827. When the desolation comes, then will be the advent of God
111essiah and of thou 7vho carry his kingdom within them, this king­
dom being described. There will be desolation even until the spirit
from on high is poured out (vs. 15). This was done about the
time of the first advent of God Messiah, and it will be done in the
second. Then shall the wilderness be for a ploughed field, that is,
it will be ploughed, and there will be a harvest, see above, Isaiah
9l9 17 • The ploughed field shall be counted for a forest, that is, it
will grow, though not yet into a garden; for what is treated of is
the church of God Messiah at the end of times, in whose sons is the
kingdom of God Messiah. Judgment, that is, wisdom shall dwell
in the wilderness (vs. 16), that is to say, while it is a wilderness,
judgment will dwell in its midst where is the church. As to right­
eousness in the ploughed field-this may be seen better in some
other text, as to whether it is wilderness. o In verse 17, righteous­
ness is described, as being the understanding of truth and the will
of good. Its work or effect 1 will be the peace, rest and security
spoken of above [n. 7811]. So likewise [they will dwell] in peace
(vs. 18). Peace comprehends within it all blessedness. Not that
peace is itself blessedness either specifically or 2 in general; for in
• The Hebrew word translated 11loughed field is ~O":l (carmel) from the root
C.,:l (a fruitful land of gardens). It occurs many times in the prophets, but
always with the meaning a fruitful field or land.
1 'Vhere Schmidius has work and labor, Tremellius has WQ1-k and etrect_ In
Hebrew, the root meaning of the first word is to work, that of the second to
• Reading seu for sed.
IV Ad. p. 86 157

the peace there must be joy, and by means of peace this joy is so
exalted that in no tongue can it be expressed. [For it shall hail,
until the forest lowereth itself] vs. 19. When man enjoys over­
much peace, he becomes secure and proud, like a forest when it
grows on high. Therefore, in order that man may be humbled,
there must be intervening adversities; for peace exist.s in humilia­
tion. So long as man wishes to be anything, wishing thus from
himself, he cannot have peace. Man can never have peace from
himself, for continual cupidities disturb it and bring in disquiet,
inasmuch as they take away confidence in God Messiah, and this
confidence is restored by humility, etc. 8 The final clause (vs. ~O)
is, that they are blessed who are faithful and enact the fruit of
faith. They are compared t.o those who sow by the waters (vs.
520), that is, at the fertile banks, as in other passages where the
same expression is used 4 to those who send forth the foot of the OtT:
and the ass which plough and labor.

1 Woe unto thee, 0 waster, when thou wast not laid waste; and
( unto thee, 0 --gealer-i!!-.1rea£.~ery, when none dealt treacherously
with thee! when thou shalt cease to lay waste, thou shalt be laid

waste; when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they
shall deal treacherously with thee.

7828. Against the devil and his crew, that he troubles the
c urc. The waster is t~ devil and his crew, each member of
which lays waste in his own way. The dealer i . n)s al~o
the devil. His g-ew consists not onlY_Qf his s irits but also of m~n.
He lIlUres the church that is, those who are of the church, solely
from a- d~raved disposition, without any occasioning cause;-for
t~ a;;Qf the church of God Messiah in the heavens and on
earth do not trouble him but-seek in various wa s to bend his~w
t~g~d. Yet he studies ~ l~.L waste the innocent.-~;-~hem, \J
nay, and even little chI ren. To me, )
• This exposition of verse 19 is emphasized by " Ohs., Obs.," written in the
• The Hebrew expression upon the water8 meaning by the 1vater8, and so
translated in the A.V., occurs in Psalm 18, Jeremiah 178 and Ezekie1 1910.

158 IV Ad. p. 87
ISAIAH XXXII: 19-~o-XXXIII: 1-6 [78~9

by the divine mercy of God Messiah, thi§ is evident from such

~old experiep.ce, that I might declare it from daily experi­
ence alone, having been with so many various spirits who in­
fested me in manifold ways, and this without cause, etc., etc. 5
But at last they themselves will be laid waste. Here the prophet
repe~t le same~ords, £being lh -aw ~f retaliation that rules­
as one does~will ij; beAo_n~m. This is tIW cause of many
things that happened with the people J acob, as that it devolved on )
them to attack the enemy with guile, etc., etc.

~ Jehovah, have mercy upon us; we have waited for thee: be

thou their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of
3 At the voice of tumult let the peoples be spread abroad, and
before thy height, the nations be scattered.
4 And let your spoil be gathered, the gathering of the wing­
less locust: as the running to and fro of locusts he runneth because
of it.
5 J ehovah is exalted for he dwelleth on high: he hath filled Zion
with judgment and righteousness.
6 Therefore the faith of thy times shall be the strength of sal­
vations, wisdom and knowledge; the fear of J ehovah his treasure.

7829 A supplication of the church to God Messiah, that he d'is­

perse these treacherous enemies and wasters. J ehovah (vs. ~) is
God Messiah. In this distress and oppression, they say they wait
for him every morning. This was a customary form of speech;
for it became morning when He, for whom they were waiting,
[came into the world] and ~will becom:...~rEin~ wh~ G~s­
siah shall come [into glory J. Hence, for the sake of recollection,
it is said every morning. When the speech concerns the advent of
God Messiah, the angels 'see the morning; hence the words of the
prophet. In verse 3 they make suppli . that the nations 'Qe
scatt~·ed. ay]!:ations were meant tl deviJ's crew for it was the
Can~a~ites whom they called the nations, and these re resented the))
devl's c~w, which would be scattered and given to the curse, and
so would be laid waste. he Jew thought that all who were un­
--=---- ­
'The indented part of n. 7828 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
llIemombilia, s.v., Bonum, lIIaltum, Spiritus. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 88 159

circumcised were such nations; but they did not know that~­
~umcisiQI.l-.Qf thLheart that makes men not e classed among the
nations of this signification, and that thu the them~S'w~he <;­
nations who are meant in man assa es, et. As t e thusrun
about on account of the soil, th y are likened to wingless locusts
and locusts (vs. 4), being worms which infest the grain and the
harvest. Look up the Hebrew text. 1 The customary final clause
of the supplication is that Jehovah, that is, Go~iah is exalted
(vs. 5; elsewhere it is, Blessed be J ehovah). Who hath led Zion
with 'udgment and r·ighteousness, that is, with wisdom, etc. The
words in verse 6 are the words of the church, th~ this will then
come to pass when God Messiah exalts himself (elsewhere, when
he lifts himself up or lifts up his hand) and judges the world
with righteousness. The faith of the times will then be the strength
of salvations; it will be wisdom and knQwledge or intelligel!ce; and
( the fear of Jehovah, being in the supreme and inmost sense love,
will be the treasure. These are words of the ut!P~st beauty. Ex­
amine them from the text. s ---­

7 Behold, their strong one shall cry without: the angels of

peace shall weep bitterly.

8 The paths lie waste, he that passeth on the highway hath

ceased: he hath made vain the covenant, he hath loathed the cities,

he esteemeth not man.

9 The earth mourneth; she languisheth: Lebanon blushed, she

faded away: Sharon hath become as a wilderness; and shaken off

is Bashan and Carmel.

7830. A complaint bewuse of the desolation. As to what is

meant by the strong one (vs. 7) it may be seen in other ways

D'rhis comment on verse 3 is emphasized by " Obs,," written three times in

the margin.

he word ~'cn, which Schmidius translat~s b'ruch'lU (wingless locust),

comes from the root ~cn, to consume. The lexicographers can identify it no

further than that it signifies some kind of destructive insect; though Buxtorf

asserts that it is an insect which consumes the standing grain. The A.V. trans­

lates it caterpillar. The word which Schmidius translates lOC1l-lt is :u (gev). It

occurs only in this text, but a related word:m (gov) occurs twice, when in the

A.V. it is translated g1'a.sshopper with the marginal alternative .qreen wm'm.

Subject to the above, Schmidius' translation is literally correct.

• Schmidius' translation is very literal, but truth should be substituted for

faith, as in ArcalUJ Coe/estia n, 9896.

160 IV Ad. p. 88
ISAIAH XXXIII: 7-~~ [7830

whether those who call are those who are said to be mighty men
and powers, or whether they are the strong; thus that it is heaven
that calls; for the text continues, the angels of peace shaU weep
bitterly, and this because of the devastation, as seen in what fol­
lows. The desolation is described in verse 8. Paths and highways
are truths. The meaning is that they are wandering with respect
to truths. The words he hath made vain the covenant, and those
that follow, concern the devil and his crew; for he reckons the
covenant as nothing, he despises the cities, that is, human minds
and the things pertaining thereto; (as to what is meant by cities,
see above [n. 7713]); he esteemeth not man. Hence the earth
mourneth, she languisheth (vs. 9), the earth being the church, etc.
Lebanon is the enemy and likewise the church. Sharon was the
inheritance of Gad where was a fertile land; being a land of cattle
[1 Chron. ~729], it became a wilderness. So likewise Bashan and
Carmel were most fertile lands; they signify the church of God
Messiah when flourishing.

ION ow will I rise, saith J ehovah; now will I exalt me; now
will I lift up myself.
11 Conceive filth; make ready the stubble: as for your breath,
fire shall devour you. . . .
1~ And the people shall be burned to lime: thorns cut off which
are burned in the fire.
13 Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; and, ye that
are near, know my might.
14 The sinners in Z~ are afraid; trembling hath taken hold
of the hypocrites. Who among us shall remain, with the devour­
ing fire? who among us shall remain with the bearths of eternity?
15 He that walketh in justice, and speaketh rectitude; that
despiseth oppressions for gain; he cutteth off his hands that they
uphold not bribes; he stoppeth his ears that he hear not bloods,
and shutteth his eyes that they see not evil;
16 He shall dwell in the heights; in the munitions of rocks shall
be his refuge; his bread shall be given; his waters shall be faithfuL
17 Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall be­
hold the land of far away.
18 Thine heart shall meditate terror; where is the scribe? where
is the payer? where is the counter of towers?
IV Ad. p. 88 161

19 A hardened people thou shalt not see; a people of depths of

lip that thou helHest them not, barbarous of tongue, that there is
no intelligence.
~o Look u on Zion, the city of our set feast; let thine eyes see
Jerusalem a quiet habitacle, a tabernacle that shall not be taken
down; the pegs thereof shall not be removed for ever, neither shall
any of the cords thereof be torn away.
~1 But there J ehovah is magnificent for us; a place of rivers
and streams, of breadth of spaces; wherein shall go no ship's oars,
neither shall a magnificent ship pass through it.
~~ For .Jehovah is our judge, Jehovah is our lawgiver, Je­
hovah is our king; he will save us.

7831. The anl/TOer of God Messiah, that he will save his own and
will introduce them into his kingdom, this kimgdom being described.
7832. The answer in verse 10 is that God Messiah will lift him­
self up. The words in verses 11 and 1~ signify that fire will de­
vour them, and they shall be cast into furnaces, as stubble or as
dried grass. They are called thorns. These words point to the
words spoken by God Messiah, to wit, that on the day of judgment
they will be gathered together and cast into fire, into the furnace,
etc. [Matt. 134 0-42]. Verse 13 is an exhortation that the words
that follow may be listened to. Because there are none but sinners
~n Zion (vs. 14), it is asked, "Vho will stand in the day ofthe
last judgment? the judgment over sin being called a devouring fh'e,
and the punishment being called the hearths of eternity. The an­
swer is given that it is those who do justice (vs. 15), that is, one
who is wholly a stranger to injustice, and who is so wholly innocent
that he does not even listen to injustice, that is, to bloods, and does
not wish even to see evil, that is, the evil of the internal man; these
things are not [said] of the external man, etc. These will be in
the kingdom of God Messiah, that is, he shall dwell in the heights
(vs. 16). He will be secure, that is, his refuge is in the munitions
of rocks; and will be given ~stial thing.s, that i bread, and spir­
itual thing~that is, ~er; that is to say, celestial and spIritual
nourisnment. They shall see the king, that is, God Messiah in his
beauty (vs. 17), that is, in his goodness and in his glory. The
land of far away is heaven or the kingdom of God Messiah which
has been prepared for the faithful from eternity. As to what is
16~ IV Ad. p. 89
ISAIAH XXXIII: 1 o-~4! [7833-7835

meant by meditating terror (vs. 18), see the text. 9 It would seem
that the meaning is that there is no scribe there, nor any payer,
and no counter of towers; that is, no vain orators like the scribes;
none who yearn for the goods of another; none who is haughty,
etc. Thus thou shalt not hear the deceitful and the insane (vs.
19). 2..:
7833. By JenJ,sa em (vs. ~O) is described the kingdom of God
Messiah. It is called the city of a set feast, being a perpetual
feast. There is peace, or a quiet habitacle and one which will re­
main to eternity. The pegs and also the cords are those who make
connection. These shall not be removed, and can never be torn
away, because there is eternal concord, which is born from love.
There, in his glory, is God Messiah, that is, the Magnificent J e­
hovah (vs. ~1) ; there are all thin s celestial and s iritual, that is,
a lace 0 rivers and streams,. and this in all abundance, that is, of
breadth of spaces. By the sea is signified the place of damnation,
and this because, in the sea Suph, Pharaoh perished, and in the
Flood, the first world. Here therefore, those who sail on this sea
are meant and are set forth by ships with the halyards, mast, and
sails which at first they have; these ships, or such men, will not
sail but will become spoils, as shown in the continuation in verse
~3 where they are treated of.

7834. The contents of the above verses [10-~~] are, that there
is none who is just, so that no one in the heavens and on earth can
be saved; but that God Messiah will save the elect (vs. ~~). This
is the series of these words, as also of the words in chapter 35 up
to verse 4, also verse 10 where the like is said. s
7835. [For Jehovah is our judge, Jehovah is our lawgiver, Je­
hovah is our king; he will save us], vs. ~~. God Messiah is the one
only Savior, who is called Judge from judgment; Lawgiver from
the law, he being the Law itself, and King from power, etc.

~3 Thy ropes are let down; they will not well strengthen their
mast; they will not spread the sail: then shall the prey of the
spoil be divided; multiplying, the lame shall make prey of the
• Schmidius' translation is literal.
2 No. 7833 is emphasized by " Obs.," written four times in the margin.
3 No. 7834 is written lengthwise in the margin, from verse 11 to verse 21.

IV Ad. p. 90 163

~4 And the neighbor shall not say, I am sick: the people that
dwell in thee shall have forgiveness of iniquity.

7836. That the enemies will be dispersed and the prey 1'ecov­
ered. The comparison with a ship is continued in verse ~8. The
halyards are loosed, the mast is not there, nor the sail. They will
then be a prey. As regards the prey which they will divide, see
the explanation at Genesis 49 27 En. 1785, 8049]. Multiplymg,
that is, many things. As to the lame, see the Hebrew text. f
That the lame will leap as the hart, see Isaiah 85 6 • The neighbor
(vs. ~4)-read, as I think, the inhabitant 5 -will say, I am not
sick, that is, not infirm, because his sins are condoned (vs. ~4).
This is the same as the words of God Messiah. "Whether it is
better to say, Thy sins are forgiven, or to say, Rise from thy bed
and walk" [Matt. 9 5 , Luke 5 23 J, for they are the sick whose sins
are not forgiven, while they with whom they are forgiven are the
well, etc.

1 Come near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye people: let
the earth hear, and the fulness thereof; the world, and all the off­
spring thereof.
~ For the anger of Jehovah is against all nations, and his
burning wrath against every army thereof: he hath cursed them;
he hath delivered them to the slaughter.
S Therefore those of them that are pierced are cast out, and
the stench of their carcases riseth up; and the mountains are
melted by their blood.
4 And all the host of the heavens shall waste away, and the
heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall
, A literal translation of the Hebrew is: then is divided the prey of the
plu,.der (or spoU) a mll/tit'ude, the lame are spoili11g the spoil. Tremellius,
Castellio, Pagnini, the A.V., and the Vulgate make the word multitude an ad­
jective, and translate: th61. is the prey of a great spoil divided. The Swedish
Bible has 1llllch costly spoil.
• The Hebrew word occurs many times in the Bible but always as meaning
one dwelling, inhabiting. It is so translated by Tremellius and others. Schmid­
ius seems to have translated it neighbor in order to distinguish it from the peo­
1>16 that dwe!l in it. The word dwell is here a different Hebrew word, meaning
to sit down, settle, abide.

164 IV Ad. p. 90
ISAIAH XXXIII: ~8-!!4-XXXIV: 1-8 [7887-7839

fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling from
the fig tree.
5 For my sword is drunken in the heavens: behold, it shall come
down upon Edom, and upon the people of my net,S for judgment.
6 The sword of J ehovah is full of blood, it is made fat with
fatness, from the blood of rams and of he goats; from the fat of
the kidneys of rams; for the slaughter to Jehovah is in Bozrah,
and a great killing in the land of Edom.
7 And the unicorns come down with them, and the bullocks with
the strong; and their land becometh drunk with blood, and their
dust becometh fat from fatness.
8 For it is the day of the vengeance of .Tehovah; the year of
retributions for the strife of Zion.

7837. That the most grievous punishment is laid down for the
devil and his crew.
7838. The speech in verse 1 is addressed to the entire world;
for the earth and the world with its offspring signify all men,
even those in heaven. Anger (vs. ~) is the punishment, for pun­
ishment has anger within it. N or does punishment appear other
than anger, when yet there is no anger with God Messiah; but
because they turn away, this punishment follows them like anger. T
By nations here as previously [no 78~9J are signified all the wicked,
both spirits and men, etc. In verse 3, their spiritual death is de­
scribed as a stench from their evils. All these words are spoken
comparatively; see Isaiah 66 24 •
7839. [And all the host of the hea'Dens shall waste away, and
the hea'Dens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host
shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling
from the fig tree], vs. 4. That in the day of the last judgment, all
the host of the heavens shall waste away signifies that all in the
heavens and on earth shall be melted; for when the punishment is
laid down, all will then waste away, since none can be saved because
there is none that is not impure; for, from the time of Adam even
to the present day, man has been defiled with crimes and wicked
deeds; and hitherto these have ever been multiplied, and so still
• See n. 7840 note.
, What is here said of anger is emphasized by .. Ohs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 91 165

further defile that root. As regards spirits and angels, neither

are these pure. In his own way each one of them has fallen, for
that before J ehovah God, heaven is impure, and cannot stand­
respecting this, see PauJ.8 Moreover, it is also so stated in the
preceding chapter, when God Messiah gives answer and speaks to
Zion, by which is signified heaven (chap. 3314 ) ; and in the fol­
lowing chapter 35 1 , it is called a wilderness. From this it now
follows that the righteousness and holiness of all in the heavens
and on earth is not in the least way theirs but is imputed to them
by God Messiah, Jehovah God alone being holy. That by Him
the elect win be saved is also confirmed in the preceding chapter
33 22 , and in the following chapter 35 4 • Hence here, in the pres­
ent chapter, is described the damnation of all in .the heavens and
on earth; and in the following chapter, the salvation of the elect
of God Messiah. Thus all the host of the heavens shall waste away.
By the host of the heavens are meant angels and all who are in
heaven and on earth. And the heavens shall be rolled together as
a scroll. The heavens mean those who are in heaven, and not the
heavens as perceived by our sense; for there is no heaven without
inhabitants, it being from these that the heavens are so named.
This signifies a universal change; for before all things are reduced
into their order, they are first rolled together, etc. Then every
tree will be spoiled of its leaf, even the vine and the fig tree. The
elect, however, are treated of in verses 3 and 4 of the following
chapter, where it is said to the elect: " Make firm the fallen hands,
and strengthen ye the shaking knees. Say to them that are rash
in heart, Be firm, fear not: Behold, your God will come for ven­
geance; for the retribution of God he will come and save you." 9
7840. [For rny sword is drunken in the heavens: behold, it shall
come down upon Edom, and upon the people of my net, for judg­
ment], vs. 5. The sword that is drunken in the heavens is the ven­
geance which, by the law of retaliation, answers to those of whom
it is said that they are drunken [chap. ~99J. Upon Edom-con­
cerning Edom, that his land was a border of the land of Canaan,
and a border of the inheritance of Judah, see the Collecta. 1 The
sea Suph was in his land. Hence, by Edam in this text are now
• See Hebrews 14 ,10-12, and confer n. 7fJ8~.
• No. 7839 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
1 See Appendix, S.v., Edam.

166 IV Ad. p. 91
ISAIAH XXXIV: 5-6 [7841

meant those who are outside the land of Canaan and at the sea
Suph; and, indeed, at the southern quarter, the land of Edom be-
ing a border of Canaan at the south. Therefore the sword shall
come down upon those who have been in light. Therefore in verse
5 of the following chapter 35, and also elsewhere, it is said that
the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf shall be opened.
Upon the people of my net; look up the text, as to whether it is
upon the people given to the curse. 2
7841. [The sword of J ehovah is full of blood, it is made fat
with fatness, . . . the slaughter to J ehovah is in Bozrah], vs. 6.
Here are set forth their sacrifices and, indeed, the more fatty parts
which were sacrificed. The sword is vengeance, and its being full
of blood and of sacrifices signifies, as before [n. 783!2], that he is
sickened at their sacrifices because he desires the internal man not
the external. The sacrifices were turned into mere idolatry inas-
much as they saw in them nothing but the blood of those beasts
and their fats. Concerning these sacrifices, see elsewhere in many
places. That the sword was made fat is also a prophetic style of
speech, meaning that it is made fat that vengeance may be exer-
cised all the more. Therefore it was previously said [chap. !21 5 ],
" anoint the shield," etc. Bozrah was a place in Edom, and also
in the land of Moab (see the Collecta 3 at Jer. 49 22 and 48 24 ,25).
What is meant here, however, is Bozrah of the Idumeans. '\Vhether
Bozrah of Moab had survived does not appear from the passage
cited from Jeremiah [48 24 ). Therefore, by Bozrah, those are
meant who are meant by Edom, to wit, those who dwell at the sea
Suph, and, indeed, at the south of the land of Canaan; thus, those
• TremeIlius' translation is, it shall come down upon Edom for judgment
a,lId 'Upon a people devoted (or given) to slaughter; but in his notes, he gives the
literal translation as upon the people of my curse. Pagnini has upon the people
of my CU1"8e for judgment; but he notes in the margin the alternative meaning
of '1Il,y intersection. This latter is the translation of the Vulgate. The A.V, has
the people of my curse; and the Swedish Bible, the people devoted (or given) to
punishment. Castellio ignores the critical word. That word is Cin (cherem)
from a root meaning to cut off', separate, extirpate (according to Robertson's
Thes. Ling. Sane., to excommunicate, to p1'01wunce a curse on); see n. 6555 note.
The literal translation of the present text would therefore be upon the people of
my curse (or cutting off' or destruction). There are, however, six or seven pas-
sages where the context clearly indicates that cherem there means a net, e.g.,
Habakkuk 115- 11, "catch them in their net"; and this undoubtedly has led
Schmidius to adopt this meaning in the present text:. preferring to say the peo-
ple of my net (Le., caught in my net) to the people of my curse.
a See Appendix, s.v., Bozralt.

IV Ad. p. 9!2 167


who have heard the Word of God Messiah and have not been will­
ing to obey it; 4 and so, both the Jews and the Christians, so called,
who have been instructed and do not wish to understand anything.
7842. [Their dust becometh fat from fatness. For it is the
day of the vengeance of J ehovah; the year of retributions for the
strife of Zion], vs. 7, 8. These words answer to the previous say­
ings. Thus the dust becomes fat from fatness, that is, from their
idolatrous sacrifices, etc. The day of vengeance (vs. 8) is the day
of the last judgment, this being called both a day and a year (see
also verse 4 of chapter 35 which follows) ; and, indeed, vengeance
for the strife of Zion. The strife of Zion has been previously
treated of [n. 7587]. The strife of Zion is a strife concerning
God Messiah and his kingdom. Therefore vengeance is taken,
because they have denied God Messiah, etc., etc.

9 Therefore shall the torrents thereof be turned into pitch,

and the dust thereof into brimstone; and the land thereof shall be
for burning pitch.
10 It shall not be quenched night or day; the smoke thereof
shall rise up to eternity: from generation to generation it shall lie
waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.
11 But the spoonbill and the duck shall possess it; and the
night owl and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out
upon it the line of emptiness and the plummet of wasteness.
U As for the nobles thereof, they are not there; they call it a
kingdom, and all the princes thereof shall be nothing.
13 Therefore shall her palaces go up with thorns; the thistle
and bramble in her strongholds: and she shall become an habitacle
of dragons, a court for the daughters of the night owl.
14 And ziyim shall meet with iyim, and the satyr shall come
upon his fellow; yea, lilith shall rest there, and find for herself
15 There shall the blackbird fi make her nest, and lay, and
• What is here said concerning Bozrah is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," writ­
ten in the margin.
• The word thus translated occurs in no other place in the Bible, and the
meanings given it by translators are little more than guesswork. Tremellius has
blackbird; the Vulgate, hedgehog; Pagnini wisely transliterates the Hebrew
Kepoz, but in the margin he gives the translation hedgehog; Castellio and tlle
Swedish Bible, the owl; the A.V., the great owl.
168 IV Ad. p. 9~
ISAIAH XXXIV: 7-16 [7843

hatch, and gather under her shadow: there shall magpies 6 also be
gathered, together with their mate.
16 Seek ye from upon the book of Jehovah, and read: no one
of these shall be lacking, nor shall one or the other have want; for
he hath commanded with his mouth, and his spirit hath gathered
7843. In these verses, hell is described. In verse 9, hell is de­
scribed by fire, and, indeed, a most grievous fire. Torrents, dust,
and earth signify things interior and exterior in those who are
damned. The lasting continuation of the fire is described in verse
IQ-that it will not be quenched; that its smoke will rise up to
eternity; from generation to generation; for ever and ever. In
verse 11 are described their interiors, that in them will be birds of
night, each bird signifying some particular variety in such men;
and, consequently, black night; for their intellectual mind will be
empty and waste. Concerning this emptiness, see above [no 7756]­
All those things which they had previously cried up will then be
dissipated. They called themselves nobles or princes, and styled
their dominion a kingdom. The palaces which they have built in
the air, that is, in vanities, will be destroyed and will be occupied
by thorns, by the thistle and the bramble (vs. 13), by which are
also signified torments. Here the comparison with palaces is con­
tinued [from chapter 32 14 ]-that poisonous dragons or flying
presters will be there, being those who sting even to death; and
there will be shade, etc.; likewise birds of night (vs. 14). Here
the same words occur as before in chapter 13 21 ,22, where likewise
hell was treated of; but see the text. 7 Likewise birds of night (vs.
15), and consequently all manners of terror which come forth from
fantasy. These terrors are as various, as are the birds, etc. The
Book of Jehovah (vs. 16) is the Word of both the Old and the New
Testaments; consequently, it is the Word of God Messiah which is
the Book of J ehovah; for God Messiah spoke from his mouth, and
his Spirit gathered.
• This word occurs twice only in the Hebrew Bible. Most translators ren­
der it vulture or kite.
7 Ziyim, iyim and lilith are transliterations of Hebrew words. The mean­
ings of the first two are unknown, and all that Is known of lilith is that it means
a thing of the night; in his Theological Works, Swedenborg uses both the trans­
literation lilith and also the translation night owl. Ziyim occurs only six times
in the Hebrew Bible (see n. 775~ note); iyim, three times, and With once.
IV Ad. p. 93 169

17 And he hath cast the lot for them, and his hand hath divided
it unto them by rule: they shall possess it even to eternity, to gen­
eration and generation shall they dwell therein.

7844. That in hell there are degrees of punishments. Here the

comparison is taken from things which happened to the Jewish
people, namely, that the land was distributed to them by lot and
by rule. This land, because it became full of bloods, that is, of
unrighteousness and idolatry, will no longer represent the heav­
enly Canaan but hell. This is compared to the land which those
then possessed who deny God Messiah, the one only Savior. From
this the induction is made that there will be degrees or differences
in hell, and this, moreover, is confirmed by the Word of God

1 Let the wilderness and the dry place be glad for them; and
[the plain ofJ 8 the wilderness shall exult, and flower as the rose.
Q Flowering, let it flower, and it shall exult even with exulta­
tion and singing: the glory of Lebanon is given unto it, the honor
of Carmel and Sharon. They shall see the glory of J ehovah, the
honor of our God.
S Make firm the fallen hands, and strengthen ye the shaking
4 Say to them that are rash in heart, Be firm, fear not: Behold,
your God will come for vengeance; for the retribution of God he
will come and save you.
7845. That then God Messiah alone will save the elect. It is
called a wilderness (vs. 1) from the cause previously treated of at
verse 4 of the preceding chapter; also a dry place, because then
they also will be as a wilderness; hence the plain, and the flowering
therefrom. Speaking comparatively from roses which are made
glad in their flower, to flower (vs. Q) means to be glad. [The
honor of Carmel and Sharon.] These places are named from the
fertility of the land,9 the land being fertile and glad. Thus, by
8 Added by Schmidius.

• As to Cal'mel, see n. 78~7 note. Sharon, derived from the root ,)W' (to
be straight, plain, flat) means a plain, with the connotation of a fertile plain,
in which sense it is used in the Bible. .
170 IV Ad. p. 94
ISAIAH XXXIV: 17-XXXV: 1-9 [7846

them is meant the felicity of the elect of God Messiah, thus the king­
dom itself. The words in verse 3 are words of consolation because
they have been in fear of damnation; for it is said that they had
Jet fall their hands, and that their knees shook. As to the rash in
heart (vs. 4), see the text. 1 It means those who have fallen down,
as it were. The consolation is continued. The reason why they
have fear is told-because of the day of vengeance and retribution
in respect to all flesh and every sin; and because there is none who
is not a sinner and defiled by sins. It follows then that all will
waste away, as said in verse 4 of the preceding chapter. That God
Messiah alone will save them is plainly stated in the text, it being
this that is the end which is looked to in what has preceded. The
same is confirmed at the end of verse 9 and the beginning of verse
10, and also in verse ~~ of the preceding chapter 33.

5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of
the deaf shall be opened.
6 Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of
the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and
rivers in [the plain of] 2 the wilderness.
7 And the dry' place shall become a pool, and the thirsty place,
springs of waters: in the habitacle of dragons is his couch; grass
for reed and rush.
8 And a path shall be there, and a highway, and it shall be
called The highway of holiness; the unclean shall not pass through
it; but it shall be for those: the walker on the highway, and the
foolish, shall not go astray.
9 There shall be no lion there, and a ravenous one of the beasts
shall not go up thereon; it shall not be found there; but the freed
shall walk:

7846. Who will pu,t on a state wholly opposite, which state is

1 The word translated raah is niphal participle of the verb "lilO, which means,

to hasten. In the niphal conjugation, it is always used in a bad sense, as mean­

ing to be stupidly rasb. Tremellius translates tbe phrase thoughtless in mind;
but in a note he gives the literal translation rash in hea,rt; the Vulgate, petty (or
weak) minded; Castellio, rash minded; Pagnini, "estlesB in heart. The A.V. has,
of a fearful heart, with a marginal note substituting hasty for feal"ful; the
Swedish Bible, of a bewildered heart.
, Added by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 94 171

7847. The opposite state is described in verse 5: The eyes of

the blind shall be opened, that is, they will understand. The ears
of the deaf shall be opened, that is, they will obey; in the inmost
sense, will receive faith in God Messiah. To leap (vs. 6) means
to walk in gladness, even though lame, and so to live in truth. The
same things are also signified by the words which were said by God
Messiah: If the eye or foot be an offence, let them be plucked out
and cut off, for it is better that he come into the kingdom of the
heavens blind and lame, etc. [Matt. 530, 18 8 ; Mark 9 43 ]. The
dumb is one who has been in ignorance; for waters in the wilder­
ness (vs. 1) are spiritual gifts in the wilderness, that is, in those
who are a wilderness; and there, are celestial gifts, that is, rivers
in the plain of the wilderness-also spoken of in verse 1. Thus,
an things will be opposites.
7848. The dry place (vs. 7, spoken of also in verse 1) becom­
ing a pool (vs. 7), and consequently, [the thirsty place], springs
of waters, means the abundance of things spiritual and celestial.
In the habitacle of drago1!.~ i.~ his couch-look up the text, as to
whether it is not in the habitation of dragons, hi.~ couch is now
grass. 3 Where dragons had their habitation, that is, where had
been deadly thoughts, there is now a glad harvest; for man is a
habitacle of dragons. This language is used by reason of the
continuation of the comparisons with a wilderness. Look up also
whether, in the text, it is for reed and rush, or with reed and rush.
Moreover, in lakes, the verdure is continued to the bank by the
herbage of reeds and rushes. Path and highway (vs. 8) is a cus­
tomary expression, meaning those who live in truth and righteous­
ness, and so in holiness. Hence it is called the highway of holi­
ness. Therefore there shall be nothing unclean there; for to
them is imputed the righteousness and holiness of God Messiah.
The foolish shall not go astray. Here is also the opposite, the
foolish being those who have been in utter ignorance, and so have
, The pointing of the Hebrew does not allow of this interpretation. A lit­
eral translation, including the punctuation, is: in the habitation of dmgons his
C01lCh: gl"ass for (or to) a reed and a rush. Tremellius' translation is, in the
den of dragons, and f01' the couch th61'eof is gmss with reed and r1L8h. The
Swedish Bible has: Whe1'e formerly serpents have lain, shall be grass, reed and
.~tmw; The Vulgate: in the couches (or resting places) where formerly dragons
had their habitation, shall the verdm'e of rush and reed; Castellio: the
lJlace wherein dragons had lain, ;s a place of reed and r1L8h; the A.V., in the
habitation of d1'aIlons 10here each lay shall be grass with reeds and rushes.
17fl IV Ad. p. 95
ISAIAH XXXV: 5-10-XXXVII: 3, 6-7, ~~ [7849-7850

previously gone astray. Verse 9 describes how that there will be

the uttermost safety. Here, in an opposite sense than before [no
78~~], lion is taken for those who invade men and tend them; there­
fore the text adds, a ravenous one of the beasts. As to the words,
the freed shall 1oalk, see above [no 7633, 78~~]. This is the end
had in view by what has been said thus far, for God Messiah alone
is the Liberator, because he is the Redeemer, as now follows.
10 Thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return, and come to
Zion with song; and the joy of eternity upon their head: joy and
gladness shall follow them, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.
7849. And consequently will have eternal joy; that is to say,
they are those who are redeemed. It is said that they shall re­
turn, because they return from the damnation in which they were.
To Zion, that is, to the kingdom of God Messiah, into eternal
joy. Upon their head, because the joy flows in from on high,
from God Messiah alone. It then flows in according to order,
from what is superior or inmost. This is the superior way, and
so joy follows, etc.
3 Thus said Hezekiah, This day is a day of anguish, and of
rebuke, and of reproach: for the sons are come to the mouth of
the womb, and there is not strength to bring forth.
6 And Isaiah said . . . Thus said Jehovah, Fear not for the
words which thou hast heard, wherewith the lads of the king of
Assyria have blasphemed me.
7 Behold, I will send a blast upon him, . . . and I will cause
him to fall by the sword in his own land.
~~ This is the word which Jehovah hath spoken over him: The
virgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee, she hath mocked
thee; the daughter of Jerusalem hath wagged her head at thee.
7850. As to verse 3, it should be observed that in the speech of
those days there were many expressions which savor of prophetic
speech, so that the speech of that time was in many respects not
unlike the prophetic. The reason for this was that there were so
many prophets among them, being many thousands in number,
Ilnd that they spoke in this way; there were also the prophetic
IV Ad. p. 95 173

books which they studied. Hence came many expressions like the
prophetic, although they contained no prophecies. Moreover,
there remained from the Ancient Church many expressions within
which lay hidden arcana, etc.
7851. The words in verses 6 and 7 are Isaiah's, and with re­
spect to them it must be observed that when the prophets preached
anything to .the people concerning slaughter or war with enemies,
etc., then, as seen here and elsewhere (also in chaps. 38 1 , (;-9,39 6 ,7),
they did not speak in the prophetic style. When the prophetic
style is used, then, as said above, the subject treated of is God
Messiah, his kingdom, heaven, the church, its enemies, etc.
7852. What is said in verse 9Ul was quoted in 9l Kings 19; the
reader may see the explanation there [n. 6311]. The prophecy
takes its matter from the fact that Jerusalem was then being be­
sieged by the king of Asshur. It represented the heavenly Jeru­
salem or the church of God Messiah; for they humbled themselves
and made supplication. Therefore by Sennacherib king of Asshur
is meant every enemy of the church, and, in the ultimate sense, the
devil and his crew. This amounts to the same thing, for a man
who is an enemy of the church is led by the devil's crew. But see
the explanation at 9l Kings 19, verse 911 seq.

9 The writing of Hezekiah king of J udah, when he had been
sick, and was recovered of his disease:
10-191 I said, by the cutting off of my days, I shall go to the
gates of hell. . . . I shall behold man no more. . .. :My time is
gone by, it is departed from me as a shepherd's tent:
13-15 I ordered mys~lf even till morning; as a lion, so he
breaketh all my bones: . . . I did mourn as a dove: . . . I.shall
go all my years for the bitterness of my soul.
16-9l0 Adonai, . . . thou hast cast all my sins behind thy
back. For hell win not confess thee, . The living, the living,
he shall confess thee, as I this day: . . . 0 Jehovah,

7853. This is the writing of king Hezekiah, and therefore is

inserted here among the historical particulars. Nevertheless, its
style appears to be the prophetical. That such is the case is
due to the cause which the reader may see above at chapter 37 3 •
174 IV Ad. p. 96
ISAIAH XXXVIII: 9-flO-XL: 1-11 [7854-7855

Yet here, Hezekiah wrote in this way, because he so greatly loved

the worldly life, and did not have faith; for if one so greatly loves
life that from his love he weeps, and if likewise his character is
such as was Hezekiah's, as indicated by certain events in his life,
he can write no differently than he believes, etc.

1 Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God.
~ Speak ye over the heart of Jerusalem, and cry nnto her,
that her warfare is fulfilled, in that her iniquity is atoned for: for
she hath received from the hand of J ehovah double in all her sins.
S The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the
way of Jehovah, make smooth in the solitude a path for our God.
4 Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill
shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the
rugged places plain:
5 For the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed, and all flesh shall
see together: for the mouth of the Lord 4 hath spoken.
6 The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry? All
flesh is grass, and all the holiness thereof, as the flower of the field:
7 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of
J ehovah hath breathed upon it: surely the people is grass.
8 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our
God shall stand for ever.
9 0 Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high
mountains; 0 Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy
voice with strength; lift up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of
.Tudah, Behold your God!
10 Behold, Adonai Jehovih cometh in might, and his arm shall
have dominion for him. Behold, his reward is with him, and the
recompense of his work before him.
11 He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the
lambs into his arm, and carry them in his bosom; the sucklings
shall he gently lead.

7854. A prediction of the advent of God Messiah.

7855. The words in verse 1 are addressed to those who have
been in expectation; for they await God Messiah, and to them are
• The Hebrew is Jehovah.
IV Ad. p. 96 175

these words of consolation. To speak to the heart of one (vs. 2)

is likewise to console, and to announce to the sad the glad tidings
that the warfare is fulfilled, it being by reason of the warfare that
they were sad, because so often iufested by the devil. Therefore,
as follows [in verse 3], they cry out, for their deliverer, that he
may come. After the warfare or temptation, their sin is pardoned
and then they receive, in place of sins, a double measure of spiritual
7856. The voice of one crying (vs. 3) is the voice of one proph­
esying. It is in the wilderness because all the prophets cried out
in the wilderness where was no faith; prepare ye the way of Jeho­
vah-that they should prepare themselves. Thus the way is pre­
pared for Him, being prepared by faith. So likewise make smooth
in the solitude his path. 5 How it is made smooth, thus, what the
smoothing is, is described in the next verse. 6 In verse 4, as at times
previously, the things here set forth are opposites; for ~­
vetted order signifies government by the devil, while a restored and
thus the opposite order signifies government by God Messiah. The
valley is humiliation, whence is elevation; the mountain and hill is
p!i2-e, whence is depression. So likewise what is crooked or false
wTIrbecome straight, true, just; and what is rugged will become
plain. III this wise the path is made smooth. Thus the man is
now being prepared because in this way he is being restored to
order. The glory of Jehovah shall be revealed (vs. 5). The
glory is his advent, for hence comes the heavenly kingdom. That
all flesh shall see the glory, means that the entire globe, here called
flesh, shall see it; for, after his advent, all men saw inasmuch as the
Gospel was preached throughout the whole globe.
7857. The cry (vs. 6) spoken of previously [vs. 3], will be,
that all flesh is as grass which withers, and all holiness or righteous­
ness is as the flower of the field which fades. It is at once explained
that such is the case; and consequently, that when God Messiah
comes, and when he is to come, there is no righteousness in the en­
tire globe, nor any faith, but only desolation. Verse 7, because the
• [Crossed off:] This has regard to the present cry, there was then a soli­
tude, as also there will be.
I [Crossed off:] Verse 4. The preparation consists in this, that all that is
humble shall be lifted up, and all that is haughty shall be pressed dowll. But
these words look to the state of the church into which it will settle.

176 IV Ad. p. 97
ISAIAH XL: ~-14 [7858

spirit of J ehovah hath breathed upon it, is an explanation of the

preceding words. This is the same thing as before when He visits
the world, but it involves more, etc. Let it be explained what gra.~s
is, consequently, what flesh, namely, that it is the Jewish people.
The flower fadeth (vs. 8), that is, all their honor, with the many
things which make their honor, as that they had with them the
Word of God Messiah, in which they did not believe. Hence the
text continues the word of our God, that is, of God Messiah, shall
remain 1 for ever.
7858. That it is the advent of God Messiah which is preached,
is clearly described in verse 9; and this upon a high mountain, that
it may be heard. Zion, that bringest good tidings is the church of
God Messiah, as also is Jerusalem. Say unto the cities of Judah,
that is, in the proximate sense, to the house of J udah, and in the
inmost sense, to those who confess faith; say, namely, these words
which they will preach and announce, Behold your God; and also
this : He cometh in might (vs. 10), that is, in all that is spoken of
later-in wisdom, in power; likewise this: His arm shall have do­
minion for him, that is, power. His reward, being life eternal, is
with him, there being no heavenly life and felicity from any other
source. The recompense of his work (look up the text 8), that is,
his merit whereby men are saved. Verse 11, like many other pas­
sages, describes how that he will be a shepherd, will gather the
lambs, that is, the faithful, in his arm, and will carry them. The
sucklings, that is, the innocent, and those who as yet have no
knowledge of doctrine. These points are amply confirmed by
many passages in the New Testament which the reader may look
up, etc.

1~ Who hath measured the waters with his fist, and leveled off
the heavens with a span; hath comprehended the dust of the earth
in a tierce, and weighed the mountains in a balance, and the hills
in scales?
T Tremellius' translation.

• The Hebrew n'lIEl means the wages or recompense for work, and also
work, according to the context. It occurs frequently in the Bible where, its
meaning is as stated. In the present text the A.V. translates it his work, with
the marginal alternative recompenBe for his work. Tremellius, Pagnini and the
Swedish Bible have hi' work; Cllstellio, hi, prOfit. .

IV Ad. p. 97 177

13 Who hath directed the Spirit of J ehovah? or what man

[was] 0 of his counsel [who] 9 hath made [aught] 0 known to him?
, 14 With whom took he counsel, that he might make him under­
stand, and instruct him in the way of judgment, and teach him
knowledge, and shew him the way of understanding?

7859. That He is Wisdom itself. Verse U is a question, the

answer to which comes from every reader. Such is the style of
speech. These words have regard to the words in verse 14, that is,
to His wisdom; that is to say, that, being God from eternity, and
in things supreme, he is Wisdom itself. To measure the waters of
the universe with a fist, is to know all those things which are signi­
fied by waters. The comparison is taken from a measure. So
likewise to level off the heavens with a span, words which set forth
the size of heaven as compared with him. So likewise the compre­
hending the dust of the earth in a tierce, the weighing the moun­
tains in the balance, and the hills in scales, meaning to know. 1 As
to directing the Spirit of J ehovah (vs. 13), see the text; another
interpreter 2 has who weighethf, that is, who exploreth, the things
which come from Jehovah his Father. What man is of his coun­
sel? that is, who save he is so wise that he can be of counsel?
Who hath made aught known to him?-for he knows all things
from eternity. So likewise the words in verse 14. All these words
signify that he alone is Intelligence and Wisdom.

15 Behold, the nations are as a drop from a bucket, and are

counted as the dross of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles
as a very little thing.
16 And Lebanon sufficeth not for the burning, and the beast
thereof sufficeth not for the whole burnt offering.
17 All nations before him are as nothing; they are counted to
him less than nothing, and emptiness.
• The words in brackets are italicized additions by Schmidius, and were ac­
cepted by Swedenborg.
1 [Crossed off:) and to hold all things in their state.

'Tremellius. The word translated direct is the Hiphil conjugation of the

verb 11:::l which means to be or stand ft"m, upright, and in the Hiphil to make to
sta,nd (inn, and to establish, prepare. The Vulgate has, Who hath helped;
Pagnini, Who hath instTu,cted; Castellio, Who hath adapted the mind of Jova;
the Swedish Bible, Who instl·ucteth. The A.V. is the same as Schmidius.
178 IV Ad. p. 98
ISAIAH XL: U-9l4 [7860

18 To whom then will ye liken God? or what image will ye com­

pare with him?
19 The workman foundeth a graven image, and the caster COY­
ereth it with gold, and casteth chains of silver.
!ilO He that lacketh an oblation chooseth a wood that doth not
rot; he seeketh unto him a wise workman to prepare a graven im­
age, that shall not be moved.
911 Do ye not know? have ye not heard? hath it not been told
you from the beginning? have ye not understood the foundations
of the earth?
9l9l He that dwelleth upon the circle of the earth; and the in­
habitants thereof are as locusts; that stretcheth ont the heavens as
a thing that is thin, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:
!il3 That bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges
of the earth as emptiness.
!il4 Yea, they are not planted; yea, they are not sown: yea,
their trunk is not rooted in the earth: and he also breatheth upon
them, and they dry up; as It whirlwind he taketh them away as

. 7860. That He has all power in the heavens and on earth. In

verse 15, as previ.ously, the nations mean all his enemies. They
are as a drop in a bucket; and they are as dross; look up the text. 3
The isles are also nations. Therefore, what is signified is that all
his enemies, wheresoever they are, are as nothing. The meaning
of verse 16 is that he can never be sufficiently adored, and thus
not by sacrifices. Lebanon, the place where were the wood and the
beasts, means the sacrifices, and thus the things that are signified
by sacrifices; for if the worship shall be as the power, then nothing
can be performed by man. In verse 17 it is explained that these
are as nothing. Because there is no comparison whatever with
the gods of the strangers and their power, therefore verses 18 to
910 de~cribe how they are made; that they aloe as nothing, and that
'The word which Schmidius translates scoriae (dross) occurs twenty-onc
times in the Hebrew Bible, but, except for the present text and possibly one
other, always as meaning cloud or sky. The word comes from the root pnw
(to beat into fine bits, to pound thin). Hence the many clouds, or fine bits,
etc. The A.V. and Pagnini have sma.ll dust; Castellio, a little grain; the Swed­
ish Bible, a mote; the Vulgate, momentum stateme (a particle to turn the
scale); and Tremellius, jlos pttlvisculi (the finest part of the dust).
IV Ad. p. 98 179

it depends on a man that they are formed. as they are and that they
can be moved. It then follows in the series that the power of God
Messiah is over the whole of heaven and over the whole globe.
Such is the series. In verse ~1, they are prepared for what fol­
lows, and this by the question: Has this not been known to you
from every word of God Messiah from the beginning of creation?
from the Scripture concerning creation? etc. Look up as to
whether it is not from the foundation of the earth 4-but it amounts
to the same thing, etc. In verse ~~ is described his power, to wit,
that the entire globe which he rules is of no account or is like
locusts; and that the heavens are as nothing. This is continued
in verse ~3, in that he bringeth the princes to nothing, etc. Here
it is princes of the world that are meant. In verse ~4 they are
compared with plants, this being a common comparison, and it is
said that the princes and judges cannot even be planted, nor take
root, that is, cannot live. The like occurs here as in verse 7 above,
namely, that they wither away when the Spirit of Jehovah breathes
into them. The comparison is taken from the heat of the sun
which, by way of comparison, is here called a breathing or spirit,
etc. That by what has now been said, it is God Messiah who is
meant, is confirmed by the verse that now follows, for it is there
said that the Holy One speaks, that is, God Messiah.

~5 To whom then will ye liken me; to whom may I be like?

saith the Holy One.
~6 Lift up your eyes on high, and see; Who hath created
these things? he who brought out their host in number: he calleth
them all by name, from the multitude of the powerful, and the
strength of the mighty; not a man faileth.
~7 Why sayest thou, 0 Jacob, and speakest, 0 Israel: My way
is hidden from Jehovah, and my judgment is passed over from my
~8 Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard? The God of
eternity, Jehovah, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth
not, neither is weary; there is no searching of his understanding.
• Schmidius' translation is literally exact, and agrees with the translation
by Pagnini. Castellio, the A.V., the Vulgate, and the Swedish BIble add the
word from. as though it were in the original.

180 IV Ad. p. 99
ISAIAH XL: ~1-31 [7861-786~

7861. That He knows all things inmost, and this inmostly.

The words in verse ~5 refer to those which precede and those
which follow. That he may teach them that he knows all things
inmostly, he commands that they lift up their eyes to the heavens
(vs. ~6) ; that they think as to who has created these things, and
moves them, and calls them all by name, that is, knows all men
and all things. It is said name because a man's name embraced
the whole of his life and the life of his descendants, etc. Thus
there is none whom he does [not] know as to his character, his
faculty, his faith. The powerful and the mighty in strength are
those who are of the faith. It is said that he knows these above
all others; he knows the others also, whom, yet, he does not wish
to know. In verse ~7, as previously and elsewhere, the people Ja-
cob is rebuked, in that they say that God Messiah does not know
all things. Does not he know all things who also created all (vs.
~8), and who creates them anew? See the text, as to whether it
is, He fainteth not, neither is weary; 5 if so, the words signify that
he creates all things anew, and that in this he is not faint and
wearied. The end of what has preceded is this, namely, that there
is no searching of his understanding.

~9 He giveth powers to him that is faint; and to him that hath

no powers he multiplieth strength.
30 And young men shall faint and be weary, and youths, stum-
bling, shall stumble:
31 But they that wait for Jehovah shall be renewed in
strength; they shall mount up with the wing as eagles; they shall
run, and not be weary; they shall walk, and not be faint.

7862. That He gives the life of faith. Powers, and strength,

are the life of faith. To him that i., faint, to him that hath no
power." that is, to one who does not believe that he has faith from
himself. All others, being those who think they have powers and
strength from themselves, are not called weary, and to them faith
'Here Tremellius agrees with Schmidius, as also does the A.V. and the
Swedish Bible. The doubt arose perhaps from Pagnini's translation, Shall not
be fatigued nor ,hall he labor, or from a similar translation in the Vulgate, the
Lord . . . ,hall not fail, nor shall he lab or. Castelllo has is tireless and of in--
explicable prudence-but that is hardly a translation. The two words involved
are ~1I' to be weary, fatigued, and N~' to labor, and 80 to be weary, fatig1ted.
IV Ad. p. 99 181

is not given. Verse 30 is against those who trust in their own

powers, and who are here called young men being the strong, and
also, from their age, youths who stumble because faith is not given
them. Those that wait for 3 ehovah (vs. 31) are those spoken of
in the beginning of the chapter, and so are of the sons of the
church of God Messiah to whom faith is given. These are likened
to the eagle which mounts up; for they are lifted up toward God
Messiah. \Vith these there is no weariness as above, nor any faint­
ness, because they are held by God Messiah in the way of faith.
7863. From the above it is now evident that this whole chapter
of God Messiah, that is to say, of his advent; and that this ad­
vent is described. Moreover, were it allowed to confirm what
has been said, by experience, to confirm namely, that God Mes­
siah alone is Wisdom; that he has all power in the heavens and
on earth; that he knows all things inmostly, and is the only
One who gives the life of faith-all which points might now be
confirmed by the experience which, by the divine mercy of God
Messiah, I have had for so long a time-it would fill many
pages. 6
1 Keep silence before me, 0 islands; and let the peoples renew
their powers: let them draw near; then let them speak: together
let us come near to judgment.
~ Who hath raised up from the east him whom he called in
righteousness unto his follower? lIe gave the nations before him,
and made him have dominion over kings; he gave them as dust to
his sword, as driven stubble to his bow.
3 He pursued them, he passed over in peace; by the way he
returned not with his feet.
4 Who hath wrought and done it? he who calleth the genera­
tions from the beginning. I 3ehovah, the first, and with things
that are last, I am the Same.

7864. That to God Messiah is given the dominion of the uni­

verse is here told to the entire world. By the islands (vs. 1) are
• The indented part of n. 7863 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, s."., Dominus, Potentia, Sapientia and Vita. See Table of Con­
182 IV Ad. p. 100
ISAIAH XLI: 1-13 [7864

meant all men in the universe. To renew powers is to renew the

understanding that they may give attention and so may listen.
In verse ~, he asks them whether they know who it is that submit­
ted the universe to God Messiah. He is said to have risen up
from the east. From the east involves many things, to wit, from
eternity; from the rising of the sun, that is, from the morning;
from the origin of all things; he who gives origin to all, etc.
Unto his follower, 7 that is, that he may become the image of J e­
hovah his Father. He the nations before him, that is, he
subjugated all enemies. To have dominion over kings; kings are
those who are of his church. He gave them as dnst to his s7£JQ1·d,
as driven stnbble to his bow; in these words, as before, it is de­
scribed how that before Him they are nothing. As to the mean­
ing of the words in verse 3, this may be seen from the text 8 and
from other like prophetic utterances. So likewise with the words
"to call the generations from the beginning" (vs. 4). Here, as
elsewhere, the answer is that Jehovah is the first and the last; his
being the first and the last meaning that he is the All in all, and
so, as he himself declares [John 1030], is J ehovah the Father who
has subjected all things to him, and has given him dominion over
the whole heaven and the whole world. And because these were
made and exist by him [John 1 3 ], they can also be attributed to
him; but then it is the church that is regarded, as below (vs.
5, 6 The isles saw, and feared; . . . they drew near, and
came. They help, a man his companion; . . .
7 So the workman maketh firm the caster; he smootheth with
the hammer that which must be beaten by a blow, saying, of the
joining, It is good; then he maketh it firm with pegs, that it be
not moved apart.
8 But thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob whom I have
chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend.
9 Thou whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, and
caned thee from the uttermost parts thereof, . . .
10 Fear not, for I am with thee: . . . and have upheld thee
by the right hand of my righteousness.
, The Hebrew is unto his foot.
o Literally translated, the latter part of this verse would read, the path with
his feet he will not ente?·.
IV Ad. p. 100 183

11 Lo, all that wax hot against thee . . . shall be as nothing;

and the men of thy strife shall perish.
1~ . . . They shall become as a thing that is not, and the men
of thy war as nothing.
13 For I Jehovah thy God will make firm thy right hand, say­
ing unto thee, Fear not; I do help thee.
7865. That all enemies are put to flight before him. Verses 5
and 6 treat of all who come. Verse 7 describes how the enemies
join themselves together and so think that they cannot be moved
apart. Then it describes the attack by enemies thus joined to­
gether. In verse 8, in the supreme sense like as previously, it is
God Messiah who is meant [by Israel and J acob] ; but in the in­
most sense faith, and, consequently, all the faithful. In the in­
most sense, Israel is the faithful man who has faith in God Messiah;
in the supreme sense, Israel is God Messiah; and so likewise J acob,
when he is called the seed of Abraham, inasmuch as Abraham sig­
nifies saving faith, etc. ; for then he is the" mighty J acob" [Gen.
49 24 ]. Here he is called Israel when in temptations, etc. From
the ends of the earth and from the uttermost parts thereof (vs. 9)
means from eternity and from the supreme. Thus, this verse
treats of the Messiah as to his Human Nature, and when he was
in temptations when fighting with the devil. It is this that these
words have in view. Verse 10 likewise has in view all who are in
temptations. It relates the same thing as in the previous verse.
His enemies will be as nothing (vs. 11), that is, they will be scat­
tered. They will become nothing whatever (vs. 1~), as indeed
they are before God Messiah, having no power whatsoever. Thus
the subject of dominion is continued. It is further continued in
verse 13, so that this is the end to which the preceding verses look.
14 Fear not, thou worm Jacob, ye dying men of Israel; I am
thy helper, . . . and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.
15 Behold, I have made thee a threshing instrument of a new
threshing instrument furnished with spikes; that thou mayest
thresh the mountains, and beat them small; and thou shalt make
the hills as a husk.
16 Thou shalt disperse them, and the wind shall carry them
off, and the whirlwind spread them abroad: and thou shalt exult
in Jehovah; in the Holy One of Israel, shalt thou glory.
184 IV Ad. p. 101
ISAIAH XLI: 5-~O [7866-7867

7866. That God Messiah will scatter the enemies of the church.
'While the war with the enemy persists, even the church of God
Messiah is in fear, as before [no 781~]. In verse 14 Jacob is the
same Jacob as he who is of the church which the people of Jacob
represented. He is called a worm, by reason of the humiliation;
and [Israel is called] dead, from the fact that at the time he is as
though dead. In this state there is then consolation, and this
from the Holy One of Israel, who is the Redeemer. These words
thus follow in order, according to the times, in that, because, by
the advent of God Messiah, they were then redeemed, the church
must not fear. In the supreme sense, verse 15 treats of God Mes­
siah; in the inmost senses, of the church to which God Messiah has
given power over the devil and his crew, as is evident from the
life of the Apostles, and from the power given them, in that they
cast out the devil [Acts 1618 ], etc. Here first is described the
power that is given them, and then is described the nature of that
power in them; but they [to wit, the enemies], from their pride,
are compared to mountains and hills. Verse 16 treats of their
dispersal, and afterwards of their joy in that they are delivered,
and that they glory [not] from themselves but in God Messiah, etc.

17 The poor and needy are seeking water, but it is not; their
tongue faileth for thirst; . . .
18 I will open rivers upon the slopes, and fountains in the
midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of waters,
and the dry land springs of waters.
19 I will plant in the wilderness the cedar of Shittah, and the
myrtle, and the wood of the olive tree; I will set in the wilderness
the fir tree, the pine, and the box tree together:
~o That they may see, and know, and attend, and understand
together, that the hand of Jehovah hath done this, and the Holy
One of Israel hath created it.

7867. That God Messiah will give to the sons of the church 9
the faith that they acknowledge all things are due to God Messiah.
First is described the state of their temptation (vs. 17), as was
done previously. Water is the spiritual and celestial thing which
they desire. Verse 18 signifies that spiritual and celestial things
• [Crossed off:] wisdom and-

IV Ad. p. 10!t

will be given them. Blit that the words have in view wisdom and
faith, will become clear from the end of the series. In verse 19 it
is still called a wilderness and solitude.! By the trees recounted
in that verse is meant that they are to be created anew and so will
grow into a garden. In verse 9W wisdom and faith are described,
thus the spiritual thing with the celestial which will be given them,
and so the faith that God Messiah alone has done these things. It
is the primary thing of wisdom and faith that man believe that in
himself he is nothing, but in God Messiah, everything.
7868. That there is nothing whatever of power in spirits,
and consequently neither in men, save that they think they
have something of power, of this also I have today spoken
with spirits, a number of whom were around me and spoke
with me, including also those who thought there was something
of power in themselves. These also confessed to seeing that
there was nothing; for they see this, though they do not ac­
knowledge it; but the angels of God Messiah not only see but
also acknowledge and so perceive and understand it. They
who think otherwise, see it from experience, and so outside
themselves. 2 Nov. 7 (0.5.),1746.'*

911 Produce your contention, saith Jehovah; bring forward

your strengths, saith the King of J acob.
9152 Let them bring forward, and announce to us things which
happen: tell of former things what they were . . . or make us hear
things to come.
523 Shew signs into the future, that we may know that ye are
gods: yea, do good, or do evil, that we may behold, and see to­
914 Behold, ye are from nothing, and your work from that
which is not: abomination hath chosen you.
915 I will raise up from the north, one who shall come: from
the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: for their leaders
shall come as mire, and as the potter treadeth clay.
1 In verse 19, where Schmidius has wildemess, Tremellius has solitary land.
1 [Crossed off:] but their pride strives against it; nevertheless, they con­
fessed it with clear voice.
* This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memo­
rabilia, s.v., Potentia. See Table of Contents.

186 IV Ad. p. 1052

ISAIAH XLI: 19-~9 [7869

~6 'Who telleth from the beginning, that we may know? and

beforetime, that we may say, He is righteous? There is none that
telleth, and none that maketh to hear, and none that heareth your
~7 The first to Zion, Behold, behold them: and to Jerusalem I
give a bearer of good tidings.
~8, ~9 And I saw, but there was no man; even among them,
but there was no counsellor; . . . their works are nothing: their
molten images are wind and empti11ess.

7869. That Wee the gods of the nations and their worshippers,
all men are nothing. They inquire into the point, that they wish
to be something because they so think. This is called their con­
tention (vs. ~1). To bring fOTward strengths means to bring for­
ward the powers which they enjoy, that they may set them forth.
In verse ~~ the first point is that their gods are nothing, because
they know nothing, knowing neither that which has been, nor any­
thing that will be, this being their contention. Verse ~g continues,
that by some sign they should tell the future, nay, that they should
do something; it being expressed in this way that they cannot do
either good or evil; that they are nothii1g, and so are an abomina­
tion (vs. ~4), for their gods are as idols. From the north and
from the rising of the sun (vs. ~5) means all men, from the first
time to the last, wheresoever they are. It was the evening prior
to the morning; thus their leaders would come from the north, and
from the rising of the sun,3 etc. Look up the text. 1 That the
leaders are to be trampled signifies that their teachers will be as
mire, etc. The language in verse ~6 is so concise that the text
should be looked up; and so likewise with verse ~7. * Verses ~8
3 [Crossed off:] thus, those who are in shades, and those who are in cogni­

tions, etc.
• Literally translated, the text reads: I have raised up from the north, and
he shall come,' f"om the rising of the sm~ he shall call in my name, and he shall
come in, the leade,'s as mire and as the potter he shall t1'ample clay. This agrees
with Pagnini except that for leade1·.~ he has magistrates. Tremellius has, and
hQ, coming, &hall t1'ample the leaden as mire, and as the potter the clay; the
A.V., and he shall COm8 upon princes as upon morta1', and as the potter tram­
pleth clay. The Swedish Bible, and he &hall walk over the mighty as over clay,
ancl shall trample clay like a potter.
•- The Iitel'al translation of these verses follows: Sl6 Who shall tell from the
head, and we shall know, and from belore the faces, and we shall say, a right801tS
one; but thore is none that telleth, and 1I0ne that maketh to hea,', and none that
IV Ad. p. 103 187

and ~9 confirm what has been said-that they are nothing, are
wind and emptiness. All their trust is in others, and their works
are nothing, etc.
1 Behold my servant, on whom I lean; mine elect, my soul hath
good pleasure; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring
judgment to the gentiles.

7870. A clear prophecy concerning the Messiah, that he is the

one only Love of Jehovah his Father. These words follow imme­
diately after those in the preceding chapter which were foretold
concerning God Messiah; and now the present words are said that
they may acknowledge him and know that he is the one only Son
and Love of Jehovah his Father. He is said to be the servant of
Jehovah his Father, because he served and obeyed him in all things
faithfully. This is predicated of his human nature, by which, by
means of merit, he became righteousness, and underwent tempta­
tions; and by which he fulfilled all the Law, to the least jot. He
who fulfilled the internal and thus the external Law is said to be
the Servant of Jehovah the Father. He says, On whom I lean,
that is, whom he loves; mine elect, because he is the one only One,
both beloved and Elect. It is from him that all others become the
elect and so the beloved. My soul hath good pleasure-these are
words of love and of election. To put the spirit upon him means
that he was God, for, being God from eternity, he is the only
One who has the Divine Spirit; see the concordant passages in the
New Testament, such as Matthew 1~18, and elsewhere. He shall
bring judgment to the gentiles, that is, he will teach the whole

~ He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard
in the street.
S A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he
not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth.
4< He shall not dim, neither shall he break, until he have set
judgment in the earth: and the isles shall have hope in his law.
heareth your words. 97 Fir8t to Zion, Behold, behold them, and to .Teruaalem, a
beal'er of good tiding8 10ill I give.
188 IV Ad. p. 103
ISAIAH XLII: 1-9 [7871-7872

7871. That He is mild in heart and condemns no one. He shall

not cry, nor lift up 5 (vs. 2) ; that is, in temptations he will say
nothing against Jehovah his Father, but will bear everything
meekly. Thus, he will not murmur. That man is said to be a
br'uised reed (vs. 3) who is broken in soul; and miserable, who
grieves and mourns over his sins. Smoking flax shall he not
quench, that is, he who loves, and has little of love, is not quenched.
He shall bring forth judgment unto truth, that is, he will be the
way, namely, the way of truth. These points may be confirmed
by passages in the New Testament. Because in verse 4 it is said
1tntil, it is not therefore to be understood that later he will break
and will quench, but instead of until, there must be another word; 6
moreover, the words that follow should be looked into. 7 Further-
more, the text involves that when he has gathered all the elect, he
will then scatter the devil and his crew. Meanwhile he suffers the
elect to be tempted, but afterwards that enemy, by reason of so
many evils which he has attempted and done, will be condemned,

5 Thus saith God Jehovah, he that createth the heavens, and

stretcheth them out; he that spreadeth forth the earth, and the
produce thereof; he that giveth soul unto the people upon it, and
spirit to them that walk therein:
6 I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness, and will hold
thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant to the
people, for a light of the gentiles;
7 To open the blind eyes, to bring him that is bound out of
the prison; them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.
8 I am Jehovah: that is my name: and my glory will I not
give to another, neither my praise to graven images.
9 Behold, the former things have come, and new things do I
declare: before they come to flower, I make you hear them.

7872. It is foretold that the Messiah will be a Light to the whole

• Schmidius here supplies the words hi' voic9.
• The Hebrew is C'~'-'lI which can mean only until he 'hall 89t or place.
, [Crossed off:] for he will scatter the devil.

IV Ad. p. 104 189


7873. In verse 5, what has preceded is continued, in that the

preceding words and those that follow are said by J ehovah his
Father, although through the Son and through the Holy Spirit
proceeding from both. What is now said is the following: [l]
That it is he who created the universe. This is said in these words,
J ehovah, he that createth the heavens, and stretcheth them out; he
that spreadeth forth the earth and the produce thereof-thus he
created heaven and earth and all that therein is. U~] That he
alone is life. This is expressed by these words, he that giveth soul
unto the people upon it, that is, to those who are in the heavens
and on earth, and [spirit to them that walk therein, namely], spir­
itual and celestial life by his only Begotten, and so the Holy
Spirit to those who are faithful.
7874. And now the text comes to the Messiah; for, in the words
of verse 6, it is he that gives who is described. To call in right­
eousness involves more than can be set forth in a few words. To
call anyone in righteousness is a Divine prerogative. To hold
his hand and keep him means when he was in temptations. That
he will be for a covenant means that the Messiah is the covenant,
as can be evident from many passages. By him a new covenant
was entered into with man. Therefore he is the Covenant in a
manifold sense. That God Messiah is the Light of the gentiles
is evident from many passages and is confirmed by them.
7875. Because he became the Light, therefore the words that
follow in verse 7. Light could never have been given to human
minds unless the Messiah had become righteousness, and unless
heaven were thus again opened; for without the righteousness of
the Messiah, heavenly light can never flow in, and there would be
nought but the shade of night. Therefore it is here said, to open
the blind eyes l Moreover, had the Messiah not become righteous­
ness, all mortals, nay and angels, would be held by the devil as
captives, as can be clearly demonstrated,
and can be confirmed from experience, even as to the mode. 9
From this captivity they were delivered solely by the Messiah.
Therefore it is said, to bring him that is bound out of the prison.
• The indented part of this sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index
to his Memorabilia.
190 IV Ad. p. 104
ISAIAH XLII: 5-U [7876-7877

Both these points are signified by the words, them that sit in dark­
ness out of the prison house. The prison house is applied to the
pit (chap. ~422).
7876. That it is Jehovah, the Father, who says this, inasmuch
as it involves the salvation of the human race, is again confirmed
in verse 8. His name is told in verse 5; the name contains that
which is in him, etc. He says he will not give his glory to an­
other, that is, to no other than his only Begotten, for elsewhere it
is plainly stated that the name of J ehovah is in him (Exod. ~321)
and that his glory is the glory of J ehovah his Father [John 17 5 ] ;
look up elsewhere. By graven images are meant all things which
are dead. That these things were predicted before they came to
pass, is told in verse 9.

10 Sing unto Jehovah a new song, his praise from the end of
the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and the fulness thereof, the
isles, and the inhabitants thereof.
11 Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up; the villages
that Arabia doth inhabit: Sing, ye inhabitants of the rock, cry out
from the top of the mountains.
1~ Let them set glory unto J ehovah, and declare his praise in
the isles.

7877. That therefore Jehovah is to be celebrated by the whole

world. To sing a song (vs. 10) is to celebrate with song; in the
interior senses, most humbly to give thanks, and most submissively
to adore. This is now explained by the words sing praise. The
other words in verse 10 signify that the whole world will do this,
and also heaven, etc. The universe, both heaven and the globe, is
called a wilde1'ness (vs. 11), because in itself it is a wilderness, and
is therefore likened to Arabia. 1 Thus by A rabia are signified all
nations. Inhabitants of the rock are those to whom the Word of
God Messiah has been revealed. Let these cry out from the top
of the mountains, and announce the Gospel; see also elsewhere.
Verse 1~ shows that it is these who celebrate J ehovah and make
announcement to the entire world, the latter being meant by the
1 The Hebrew is Kedar which was a region in Arabia (Relandus, Pale8tina,

IV Ad. p. 105 191

IS Jehovah shall go forth as a hero, as a man of battles he

shall rouse up zeal; he shall shout, yea, shall cry out; he shall be­
come strong over his enemies.
14 I have been silent from eternity; I have been still; I have
contained myself: I will cry out like a travailing woman; I will
make desolate and devour together.
15 I will lay waste mountains and hills, and parch all their
herb; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the
16 That I may lead the blind on a way they knew not; in paths
they knew not I will lead them: I will make the darkness before
them into light, and crooked things into straightness. These are
the words I will do [unto them] / and I will not omit them.
17 They shall turn back, and be shamed with shame, that trust
in a graven image; that say to the molten images, Ye are our gods.
18 Hear, ye deaf; and seeing, see, ye blind.

7878. That infemal enemies will be dissipated. Then, by the

Messiah, righteousness and light will come to the world. In verse
IS, God Messiah speaks as Victor, etc. 3 The words there have
been previously explained many times. When there is combat with
the devil, then, in a similitude drawn from war, there is a predica­
tion of shouting and crying out, although there is no crying out,
etc., just as there is a predication of anger, although there is no
anger; for this comes from judgment alone, and in the moment
when Jehovah God determines it, as can be seen elsewhere. The
words in verse 14 look to the two advents of God Messiah. Around
the time of the first advent, the enemy was conquered and put to
flight; around the time of the second, he is to be dispersed. In the
meantime, silence is foretold; this time is also compared to a giv­
ing birth. Around the time of the advent, the enemies will be dis­
persed; wherefore it is said I will make desolate a,nd devour. So
likewise in verse 15. The laying waste of mountains and hills is
the laying waste of the pride of the devil and his crew. He is
called an herb, because before this they thought themselves flourish­
ing; yet the herb will become parched, as above [vs. 15]. He also
2 Omitted by Schmidius.

• This sentence is written in the margin of the autograph.

19~ IV Ad. p. 105

ISAIAH XLII: 13--~5 [7878

calls those things rivers which he gives to the wicked, namely, cu­
pidities, as spiritual gifts which yet are earthly; these he calls
rivers. These will become islands without rivers, and, as else­
where, pools and lakes which will be dried up. The blind then
come into the light of truth (vs. 16), that is, come to a way which
they had not seen, as above [no 7875] ; for unless the devil is dis­
persed, there is no light. Therefore it is now said that he makes
darkness into light, and perverse things into straight, thus evils
into good. This is done by God Messiah alone. When this light
comes, then it necessarily follows that they will turn back and be
ashamed (vs. 17). They that trust in a graven image, that is, in
all the things that are meant by graven images, thus, in all things
which are dead and which yet they have acknowledged as their
gods. These are also the things which are in man, and are the
man himself when he worships himself and thinks that he lives from
himself, etc. So likewise angels. Verse 18 is the final clause
which the preceding words have in view as their end. This also
has been spoken of above [no 7847].
19 Who is blind, but my servant? or deaf, as my angel whom
I send? who is blind as he that is perfected, and blind as the ser­
vant of Jehovah?
~o Seeing great things, thou yet keepest them not; opening
the ears, he yet heareth not.
~1 J ehovah is well pleased for his righteousness' sake; his law
will he magnify, and make magnificent.
~~ And this is a people despoiled and torn asunder; all the
young men 4 are snared [in holes],5 and are hidden in prison
houses: for they have become as prey, and none snatcheth them
away; as a prey, and none saith, Return.
~3 Who among you will perceive this with his ears? will
hearken and hear backward?
~4 Who gave Jacob for a prey, and Israel to the spoilers? was
it not J ehovah, he against whom we have sinned? and they have not
wished to walk in his ways, neither have they given ear to his law.
~5 Therefore he hath poured upon him his burning anger,
and the violence of battle; and it hath set him on fire round about,
yet he did not acknowledge; and it burned him, yet he laid it not
to heart.
• The Hebrew is all of them.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 106 193

7879. That, because of the disobedience and the non-faith of

the people of God, God Messiah, to the end that they may be saved,
will sustain every assault of the infernal enemies.
7880. That the servant and angel (vs. 19) signify the people
of God, who will be saved, is evident from the series of what fol­
lows. The reason why it is said that he is blind above all others
is because he is in light and neverthe1ess is blinded. Blindness can­
not be predicated of one who is in darkness, etc., etc. That this is
the case is confirmed in verse ~o ; for they saw great things and yet
did not keep them; that is, although great things were revealed to
them, yet they did not believe. Thus, although they heard, they
did not obey. That blindness and disobedience or deafness cannot
be predicated of others, can be sufficiently evident from comparison
[and] from many passages, etc.
7881. Since the subject treated of is a people which will be
saved, being that people which is called the servant of Jehovah,
and which, although blind, will yet see, as frequently above; thus
the gentiles, as will be seen presently; therefore this people was
pleasing to Jehovah because of His Righteousness, that is to say,
because of the Messiah who became Righteousness. "\Vherefore
the text adds, his law will he magnify (vs. ~1). Moreover, in the
supreme sense, the Messiah is the Law which will be magnified.
That is called magnificent which will become magnificent, for hence
is salvation.
7882. Without the Messiah, in that he became righteousness
and so was magnified as the Law, this people would have been
wholly despoiled and torn asunder (vs. ~~), and all would have
been bound, as before, or would have been hidden in prison houses;
for they were entirely concealed, and had they become as prey,
and none had snatched them away, and as a prey, and none re­
turned them, they could not have appeared before Jehovah. From
these words, however, it is evident that they did become a prey,
but were snatched away by God Messiah and returned and deliv­
ered because redeemed. That this was a miracle of miracles, and
is the all in the prophecies, is shown in verse ~8.
7883. Because of the representation, what is meant by Jacob
and lsrael (vs. ~4) is the people of God which was given for a
prey. Of men there is not a single one who is not damned, but
snatched from damnation. This is the reason why they were given
194 IV Ad. p. 107
ISAIAH XLII: 19-fl5-XLIII: 1-4 [7884-7885

for a prey and condemned. This the text adds, namely, that it
was their sins, etc. [that condemned them]. In verse fl5, what is
meant, in the inmost sense, is that it is the people of God which
was thus punished; for straightway, in the first verse of the next
chapter, it is said that they were snatched away and returned or
redeemed; but the punishment did not go so far that they perished.
In the supreme sense, however, it is the Messiah who is meant, that
he bore the whole anger of Jehovah, and thus suffered for the hu­
man race. This likewise is evident from the words of the verse
that follows.

7884. When certain spirits endowed with a natural sour

were now saying that they understood these words differently,
answer was now made them that those who enjoy a natural
soul cannot but understand these words of the prophet natu­
rally; but those who enj oy a spiritual celestial soul under­
stand them spiritually and in a celestial manner, for in no
other way do they understand natural things, etc.6

1 But now thus said Jehovah thy Creator, 0 Jacob, and thy
Former, 0 Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have
called thee by thy name; thou art mine.
fl When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee;
and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou
walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; and the flame
shall not kindle upon thee.
3 For I am Jehovah thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy
Saviour: I gave Egypt for thine atonement, Kush and Seba in
thy stead.
4 Since thou wast precious in mine eyes, thou hast become
worthy of favor that I may love thee: therefore will I put a man
in thy place, and peoples for thy soul.

7885. The words of God Messiah to the elect; that they shall
not fear, inasmuch as they are redeemed.
• This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his MemQ­
rabilia, s.v., Interiora, Litera, Materia, Verbum. See Table of Contents.

IV Ad. p. 107 195


7886. In verse 1, those of the representative church who are

saved are called Jacob, and those who are saved of the new church,
drawn from the entire globe, are called Israel. Creation is predi­
cated of Jacob, and Formation of Israel. The creation, however,
is a creation e novo; for Jacob was an external man who was to
be created anew inasmuch as the old man was to be abolished. The
formation is a formation of the internal man. Fear not, that is,
fear not for the devil and damnation, because being redeemed, they
are under the protection of God Messiah. And because they are
his, they are called by his name. These words involve many
things. That they are safe, especially from the spiritual enemy
and damnation, is seen in verse 9l. Passing through waters and
rivers, and likewise through fire and flame, means passing through
damnation; for damnation is described by both expressions. Thus,
those things in the man which are damned and damning, being his
spiritual things such as thoughts which are waters, and also in­
fernal things or cupidities which are fires, will not condemn; for
with those who are in God Messiah there is no damnation.
7887. This is clearly confirmed in verse 3, in that, being their
Savior, God Messiah has given Egypt, Cush and Seba or Arabia
as an atonement in place of those whom he has redeemed. In the
inmost sense, this signifies that the Messiah suffered himself to be
condemned even to hell, that he might redeem mortal men. Hell
or the place of damnation is described by Egypt, Ethiopia and
Arabia, because the nations there were far from the land of Ca­
naan, and were accursed, as is frequently stated elsewhere. The
same thing is signified when it is said he called his Son out of
Egypt [Hos. 11 t, Matt. 9l 15 J. This is further confirmed in the
next verse, where it is said, I will put a man in thy place, and peo­
ples for thy soul (vs. 4). The peoples are those now spoken of
by whom is signified hell, even to the deepest hell. Seba was a son
of Cush, and a grandson of Ham (Gen. 107 ). That Ham is dam­
nation is well known.
7888. That He did this from pure love, is expressed in the most
tender way in verse 4, the words being words of love. The human
soul was precious in the eyes of God Messiah, and so by the re­
demption just spoken of, it became worthy of favor, that is, was
received into favor, and this from love alone. That he put a man
in thy place is clear, in that he put on man and thus suffered him­
196 IV Ad. p. 108
ISAIAH XLIII: 1-9 [7889

self to be condemned that he might perform the work of redemp­

tion. And peoples for thy soul-for atonement, see above [no
7883] ; peoples means damnations.

5 Fear not: for I am with thee: from the east will I bring thy
seed, and from the west will I gather thee;
6 I will say to the north, Give; and to the south, Keep not
back: bring my sons from afar, and my daughters from the end
of the earth;
7 Everyone that is called by my name, and I have created him
for my glory; I have formed him, yea, I have made him.
8 Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf
that have ears.
9 Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the peoples

7889. That the regenerated will be gathered from the entire

globe. By the east, west, etc. (vs. 5 and 6) are meant all quarters
of the world. By thy seed is meant faith, this being the seed of
the church, that is, of the redeemed. The statement that he will
bring from the east should be well observed; for by the east are
then meant the regenerated who are sons of the east. To gather
from the west, means from those in shade of whom there will be a
gathering. So those in the north are those who are in the densest
shade; this will give (vs. 6) ; and those from the south, the things
which are in light; thus those who are in light come in the last
place. But that the entire globe may be understood when all these
are together according to the degree of their light and shade in
spiritual things, it is further added in the text, sons from afar,
and daughters from the end of the earth, etc. That it is the re­
generated or those who are created anew that are gathered to­
gether, is shown in verse 7. Those who are being regenerated
receive eyes, that is, intelligence (vs. 8) ; before this they had been
blind. So also in respect to ears or obedience. That all in the
universe will be gathered, and that from them election will be made,
is then more fully confirmed in verse 9, for there both nations and
peoples are mentioned. The words that follow in this verse be­
long to the verse that follows.
IV Ad. p. 109 197

9 . . . Who among them will tell this, and cause us to hear

former things? let them give forth their witnesses, that they may
be justified: or let them hear, and say the truth.
10 Ye are my witnesses, . . . and my servant whom I have
chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I
am he: before me was no God formed, neither shall there be after
n I, even I, am Jehovah; and beside me there is no saviour.
1~ I declare, and I save; and I cause to be heard; nor is there
among you a strange one: therefore ye are my witness, . . .
7890. That He who says and does this is the one only Savior.
That he is the sole and one only Savior is clearly evident from
verses n and 1~ to which the words in verse 10 refer. They are
called as witnesses (vs. 10), in order that the confirmation may
be so much the greater. It is to this verse that the words in verse
9 refer, in order that the truth may be confirmed. The words in
verse 11 are what these verses have in view, namely, that there is
no Savior save the sole and one only Messiah. Verse l~-that he
has preached this and declared it by his Word and by the mouths
of the Prophets-is a further confirmation. There can be no
other witnesses save those to whom revelation has been made.
These witnesses are called upon, as also is his servant, that is, he
who is regenerated, etc. In the preceding words and in the pres­
ent, it is also shown that God Messiah who spoke by the Prophets,
etc., is the Word.
13 Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that
snatcheth away from my hand: I work, and who shall take it away?
14 Thus said Jehovah, your redeemer, the Holy One of Is­
rael: For your sake I have sent to Babel, and have thrown down
all their bars, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.
15 I am Jehovah, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your
7891. Who has aU power and whose is the Kingdom. Before
the day was (vs. 13) is the same thing [as from eternity]. He
who has absolute power is from eternity. That here it is God
Messiah who speaks is clear, it being he who, for the sake of the
elect, destroyed all the infernal enemies meant by Babel (vs. 14),
198 IV Ad. p. 109
ISAIAH XLIII: 9-~1 (789~

and all their powers, that is, their bars. The same enemies are
likewise meant by the Chaldeans; for the Assyrians and Chaldeans
were outside the land of Canaan, being the perpetual enemies
thereof. Whose cry is in the ships. Respecting ships, the reader
may see above [no 7749,7836]. Thus ships are assumed for those
who are at the sea 1 and there have ships, respecting which see
above [no 7749-50, 7833, 7836]. The Chaldeans were strangers,
being uncircumcised. In verse 15 it is again declared that the
Messiah is the Creator, that is, the new Creator or the Creator of
the new man; and the King, or he whose is the kingdom.

16 Thus said Jehovah, which hath put a highway in the sea,

and a path in the mighty waters;
17 Which hath led forth the chariot and horse, the army and
the mighty one; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise
again: they shall be set on fire; they shall be quenched as linen.
18 Remember not the former things, neither call to mind the
ancient things.
19 Behold, I make a new thing; now it shall shoot forth; shall
ye not know it? in the wilderness also I will put a highway, in
the solitude rivers.

7892. He forms man anew. To put a highway in the sea and

a path in the waters (vs. 16) is, from being condemned, to render
man spiritual and celestial, !lnd to build 8 the way of heaven. To
lead forth the chariot, the horse, the army and the mighty one (vs.
17), means to give science, intelligence, wisdom and faith, which
had expired and lay wholly extinguished. These words look to
the words that follow, etc. Because the next verse treats of the
new man, and the last preceding verse of the old, therefore it is
now said (vs. 18) they should not call to mind the old in man,
that is to say, the former man; for all things in man will be made
new (vs. 19), by which is meant regeneration. They will also
shoot forth; thus there will be a highway in the wilderness, and a
path in the solitude, as above [n. 7856].
~o The wild beast of the field shall honour me, dragons and
the daughters of the night owl: because I have given waters in the
T Reading ad m4Te for in man (in the sea).

• Substituted for to teach.

IV Ad. p. 110

wilderness, rivers in the solitude, to give drink to my people, my

n A people which I have formed for myself; they shall tell of
my praise.

7893. That all things will tell of His glory. That all things
will tell of his glory is expressed in verse ~o by the wild beast of
the field, dragons, and night owls, but each will tell in its own
way; even evil things, for these will be of service, as will be seen
presently. But it will be the elect before whom the telling will be
done, and who themselves will tell (vs. 9l1), inasmuch as it is they
who are admitted, that they may adore God Messiah.

9l9l-9l4 But thou hast not called upon me, 0 Jacob; but thou
hast been weary of me, 0 Israel. . . . I have not caused thee to
serve by mincha. . . . but thou hast made me to serve by thy
SillS• • • •

915 I, even I, am he that blotteth out thine iniquities for mine

own sake, and I remember not thy sins.
916 Make me to remember: let us plead together: declare thou,
that thou mayest be justified.
917 Thy first father did sin, and thy interpreters have trans­
gressed against me.
918 Therefore will I make the princes of holiness profane, and
give Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.

7894. That no one has anything of righteousness from works,

but that this belongs to the Messiah alone, who from love or for his
own sake, has redeemed man (vs. 9l9l-9l5). They are damned who
put righteousness in the law (vs. 9l6-fin.). By the J acob who was
given to the curse (vs. 9l8) is meant he who was the supplanter, and
they to whom revelation was given and who were instructed in the
doctrine of true faith,. and nevertheless receded. So likewise by
Israel, but then it is the gentiles. In the verses that next follow,
however, by Jacob, the servant of God Messiah, are meant all those
who have served God Messiah from faith; so likewise by Israel, etc.

~oo IV Ad. p. 110

ISAIAH XLIII: ~~-~8-XLIV: 1-5 [7895

1 Yet now hear, 0 Jacob my servant; and Israel, whom I have
~ Thus said Jehovah, thy Maker, and thy Former from the
womb, which helpeth thee: Fear not, 0 J acob, my servant; and
Jesurun, wllOm I have chosen.
3 For I will pour waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams
upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my
blessing upon thine offspring.
4 That they may shoot up among the grass, and they shall be-
come as willows by streams of waters.
5 One shall say, I am Jehovah's; and another shall be called
by the name of Jacob; and another shall write with his hand unto
Jehovah, and name himself by the name of Israel.

7895. That to the regenerated man God 111essiah gives spiritual

and celestial gifts. By Jacob the servant, and Israel the chosen
(vs. 1) are meant all who are regenerated. The Maker and the
Former from the womb (vs. ~) is the new Creator or Reformer.
It is said from the womb because the man is reborn. Verse ~ is an
exhortation not to despair in temptation; thus he is lifted up.
Therefore he is here called J esurun,9 not Israel. lVaters upon him
that is thirsty (vs. 3) means spiritual gifts and also consolations.
So likewise the streams which come therefrom; in the inmost sense,
these are celestial gifts. Being thirsty and dry is predicated of
him because he is in temptation. His seed is all that which is sown
in the man to be regenerated, as in a field. There is a bless'ing, to
the end that they may grow. The offspring are the things which
are born therefrom ; hence the shoot (vs. 4), or the new creature,
as he is called [~ Cor. 5 17 , Gal. 615 ]. Finally, when regenerated,
they are compared to trees around streams of waters. Verse 5
treats of the quality of the new man, that is, his quality when he
puts on the new man, to wit, that he will be called by the name of
Jacob, Jacob, in the supreme sense, being the Messiah, see above;
and he will be written in the book of life, this being what is meant
by he shall write with hi.~ hand unto J ehovah, by the name of Israel,
• J esurun is a Hebrew word meaning straight, not bent, upright, with the
added ending un. The ending indicates affection and reverence. Thus Jesurun
means an upright man who is loved.
IV Ad. p. 111 llOl

because by the divine mercy of God Messiah he has sustained


6 Thus said Jehovah, the King of Israel, and his redeemer, Je­
hovah Sabaoth; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me
there is no God.
7 For who is as I? who shall call, and shall tell this, and set it
in order for me, from the time when I did set the people of eter­
nity? or let them tell unto him the signs and the things that are
to come?
8 Fear ye not, neither be afraid: have not I caused thee to
hear from that time, and have proclaimed it? ye therefore are my
witnesses. Is there a God beside me? neither is there a rock; I
know not any.
9 The formers of a graven image are all vanity; and their most
delectable things are of no profit; and they are witnesses to them­
selves; they see not, nor know, that they may be ashamed.

7896. That He is the only One who can give and ordinate all
things. That it is God Messiah who can give and ordinate all
things is plainly stated in verse 6. The reason is, because in the
time of the representative church they were utterly prone to ex­
ternal idolatry; for they were men who were wholly external. But
after the world had been taught concerning the internal man, then
came internal idolatry, though the external also remains. But,
God Messiah granting, this matter will be spoken of more fully
elsewhere. Hence it is now first said that God is from eternity
and his kingdom to eternity, this being the meaning of the First
and the Last (vs. 6), etc. That he is the only One who can give
and ordinate all things is set forth in yerse 7. Otherwise every
one in the universe would be ignorant of what redemption and re­
generation are, this being shown by God Messiah alone by his
Word. The people of eternity is the regenerated man. They
could be witnesses (vs. 8) because revelation was made to them.
Revelation was also made of old, and similar things instituted in
the Ancient Church, the sacrifices and rites whereof looked to God
Messiah alone, and to redemption by him. But those who acknowl­
edge other gods (vs. 9) can testify that they understand nothing,
IV Ad. p. 111
ISAIAH XLIV: 6-20 [7897

10 Who hath formed a god, and founded a molten image that

is profitable for nothing?
11 Lo, all his fellows shall be ashamed: and the workmen, they
are of men: . . . they shall be ashamed together.
7897. That the rest can do nothing. The last preceding verse
(vs. 9) also has this in view. By formers of molten images are
meant all who worship aught save God Messiah, whatsoever it be
that comes from those formers, who are also called fellows and
workmen, etc.
12 He shapeth iron with the tongs and worketh with coal, and
fashioneth it with sharp hammers. So he worketh it by the arm
of his strength: he also hungers, till there is no strength: he drink­
eth no water, even when wearied.
13 The worker in wood stretcheth out his line; he marketh it
truly; he maketh it into its angles, and marketh it out with the
compass, and maketh it in the form of a man, according to the
beauty of a man; that it may abide in the house.
14 To hew him down cedars, or he taketh the box tree or the
oak, or chooseth him a hard tree among the trees of the forest: he
planteth an ash, and the rain maketh it grow.
15 And though it be for a man to burn, and he take thereof,
to warm himself; and also kindleth it, to bake bread; yet, he mak­
eth a god, and boweth down to it; he maketh of it a graven image,
and adoreth it.
16 Part thereof he hath burned in the fire; upon a part
thereof he hath eaten flesh; he hath roasted roast, that he might
be satisfied: he hath also become warm, and said, Heach/ I am
warm, I have seen the fire:
17 Yet he hath made the residue thereof into a god, into his
graven image: he adoreth it and boweth down himself, and prayeth
unto it, and saith, Deliver me; for thou art my god.
18 They know not neither do they understand: for their eyes
are smeared, that they see not; [and] Z their hearts, that they do
not understand.
19 And none bringeth it to his heart, neither is there knowledge
nor understanding to say, I have burned part of it in the fire, and
upon its coals I have baked bread; I have roasted flesh and eaten:
1 A transliteration of the Hebrew.

• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 111 ~03

shall I then make the residue thereof into an abomination? shall I

adore the branch of a wood?
~o That which feedeth on dust? A deceived heart hath made
him turn aside, that he delivereth not his soul, nor sayeth, Is there
not a lie in my right hand?

7898. Su,ch are those who wish to form themselves and to make
an idol of themselves, reJhen yet they are possessed of no intelligence
and power.
7899. [He shapeth iron with the tongs a'nd worketh with coal,
and fashioneth it with sharp hammers. So he worketh it by the
arm of his strength: he also hungers, till there is no strength: he
drinketh no water, even when wearied], vs. 1~. In the proximate
sense, it is here set forth how an idol is made; but there are here
so many particulars that anyone can perceive that these words
involve things more interior; otherwise, they would treat merely
of the idols when made. Therefore, the making of an idol is here
set forth as a comparison, when treating of the formation of one­
self by one's own powers, and consequently, the worship of oneself;
for if one wishes to make himself righteousness, he worships himself
as an idol. Wherefore it is here said that he worketh it by the
ann of his strength, and this until he is weary; for he who wishes
to reform himself by his own powers, and to make himself good,
sometimes labors until he has no strength left. Trust in one's own
powers carries this with it. All that is evil comes from a proprial
root. Man can never draw good from what is his own. He bur­
dens himself and becomes ever worse; but when he has faith in God'
Messiah, his labor is lightened and good things spring forth from
the fount of goodness. By the divine mercy of God Messiah, these
points can be set forth more clearly. As to what is meant by the
tongs, by coal, and by the sharp hammer, this might be learned
from other and parallel passages.
7900. [The worker in wood stretcheth out his line; he 1narketh
it truly; . . . he makethit in the form of a man, according to the
beauty of a man; that it may abide in the house], vs. 13. Here it
can be still more evident that these words are said merely by way
of comparison, to wit, that he ponders on all things from himself
as to what is just, and consults his own science and his own geom­
etry, as it were, and so the philosophy of his own mind, that he
fl04 IV Ad. p. 112
ISAIAH XLIV: U-15 [7901-790!t
may arrange all things within himself according to its rules; for
he consults naught but reason alone. lIere the comparison is
taken from the carpenter, while the former comparison [vs. 1~]
was from the artificer. s Thus he ac~s from his own study accord­
ing to his own rational cognitions. That such is the signification
can be evident from the closing words of this verse, he maketh it in
the form of a man, according to the beauty of a man, that is, that
it may appear like the regenerate man, or one created anew, who is
called a male and a man of beauty; that it may abide in the house,
that is, in the intellectual mind.
7901. [To hew him down cedm's, 01" he taketh the box tree or
the oak, or chooseth him a hard tree among the trees of the forest:
he planteth an ash, and the rain maketh it grow], vs. 14. These
particulars would not be necessary were it merely idols that were
meant. Thus, in order to reform himself, man then chooses such
things as he thinks to be beautiful; for from the tree thus chosen,
he wishes to make for himself a god. He wishes, by his own exer­
tion, to plant in his mind a garden or tree, that he may then wor­
ship it as a god, not knowing that he is thus worshipping himself
inasmuch as he himself is its former; for all that comes from a
man as from his proprium is his own. Thus, he who adores it,
adores himself. Therefore many species of trees are now enumer­
ated, inasmuch as there are many species of such operations, etc.,
and each man takes his own. Therefore the text treats also of the
planting of an ash which the rains would make grow!
7902. [And though it be for a man to burn, and he take thereof,
to warm himself; and also lcindleth it, to bake bread; yet, he malceth
a god, and boweth down to it], vs. 15. These words would not
have been fitting save for the purpose of describing arcana con­
cerning the formation of man himself. Here, by a comparison, it
is set forth how man enkindles himself by love, when yet it is not
love, save the love of such things as are cupidities; for he then looks
to his own glory or some other such thing, and then thinks himself
to grow warm from love; but it is a spurious love wherein the love
of self dominates. Thus bread is baked; that is, thus he nourishes
himself, etc. This he now adores, thus adoring himself because
his own work, etc.
• In the autograph, the words carpenter and artificer are reversed.

, No. 7901 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

IV Ad. p. 113 205


7903. [Part thereof he hath burned in the fire; upon a part

thereof he hath eaten flesh; he hath roasted roast . . . he hath also
become warm, and said, Heach,~ I am warm], vs. 16. Here the
comparison is further continued, [showing] that it is not fire 6
[that is meant] but heats or loves, as they are called, which are
natural and corporeal. He then burns part in the fire, for he
consumes himself; and a part he eats, but roasted. Thus he is
gladdened as though warmed by spiritual love, for so he calls it.
7904. [Yet he hath made the residue thereof into a god, . . .
and prayeth unto it, and saith, Deliver me; for thou art my god],
vs. 17. As to these words, see above. The meaning is that thus
he adores it and his own works as meritorious works which shall
lift him up into heaven. For when he places merit in his own
works, he then adores those works as a god, thinking that they
will carry him over into heaven, when yet they were not works of
charity but works from another fount, being a fount which, for
the most part, the man knows not of. Yet it is such a fount that
it does not save man but damns him, and this the more grievously
as it takes deeper root. T
7905. [They know not neither do they understand], vs. 18.
These words also are said of the maker of an idol, not of the idol
itself, as is evident enough from the words that next follow. [They
show] that those who wish to reform themselves by their own pow­
ers understand nothing; nay, that they are forgetful of what is
written in the Word of God Messiah; for they consult their own
reason, and so do not look to those heavenly arcana which are con­
tained in the 'Vord of God Messiah, where it is so often said that
one's faith has saved him; forgetful also that so many things are
said of faith and trust, and that the works which they call good
works are of no profit; for evils are present in the least of them,
as in the greatest, and so they continually defile the man.
7906. [And none bringeth it to his heart, . . . to say, I have
burned part of it in the fire, . . . I have roasted flesh and eaten:
shall I then make the residue thereof into an abomination? shall I
adore the branch of a wood? . . . A deceived heart hath made him
turn aside, that he delivereth not his soul, nor sayeth, Is there not
, A transliteration of the Hebrew.
• The autograph has love.

r No. 7904 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

~06 IV Ad. p. 113

ISAIAH XLIV: 16-28 [7907~7908

a lie in my right hand?], vs. 19-20. Here are set forth the things
which he has forgotten, namely, that [by the wood of which he had
made the idol] he had made nourishment 8 for himself and con­
sumed it, and then had made the residue into an abomination.
This then is what adoring the branch of a wood is. This is still
further confirmed in verse 20-and also that he had adored that
which feedeth on dust-by the statement that a deceived heart had
made him turn aside; for he deceives himself, inasmuch as it is
cupidities that carry him to this insanity, even until he becomes ut­
terly foolish and knows no other than what he has made up by his
own powers is so, when yet it is a lie. This is here expressed by
the words, Nor sayeth, Is there not a lie in my right hand?

21 Remember these, 0 Jacob and Israel; for thou art my

servant: I have formed thee; thou art my servant: Israel, thou
shalt not forget me.
2~ I will blot out, as a cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a
cloud, thy sins: return unto me; for I have redeemed thee.

7907. The1'efore they turn to God Messiah, the one only Former
of man. Here again the speech is directed to the elect, with an ex­
hortation that they have trust and faith in the one only Former.
Therefore it is said, I have formed thee; thou art my servant; Is­
rael, thou shalt not forget God Messiah. Formation and redemp­
tion are one thing, for whom God Messiah reforms, him he re­
deems and his sins he forgives. This is evident from the words
of God Messiah himself.

23 Sing, 0 ye heavens; for Jehovah hath wrought;

24, ~6 Thus said J ehovah, . . . I am J ehovah that maketh
all things; . . . that saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhab­
ited ; and to the cities of J udah, Ye shall be built, . . .
28 That saith of Koresh,9 He is my shepherd, . . .

7908. Who is to be celebrated to eternity (vs. 23) ; for he alone

creates man anew (vs. 24-28). Jerusalem (vs. ~6) is the true
church. The cities of Judah are those who have faith. Koresh
• The autograph has he had nourished him861f.
• ~"::l the Hebrew name for Cyru.s.

IV Ad. p. 114


(vs. ~8) was a city in the wilderness of Ziph. 1 That Ziph was an
inheritance of J udah, see Joshua 15 24 ,55. It was to Koresh in the
wilderness of Ziph that David fled (1 Sam. ~314,la). As to what
further is meant by Koresh, it will perhaps be seen from other pas­
sages whether it is a city of Judah, or a man, etc. It should be
observed, however, that here Koresh is written with :J [caph],
while in the other passage it is written with n [cheth]. 2 Thus, it
is a very different word. But Koresh is Cyrus, who is spoken of
in the next chapter.


1 Thus hath J ehovah said to his anointed, to Koresh, whose

right hand I have taken, to subdue nations before him, that I may
loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates,
that the gates be not shut.
~ I will go before thee, and make the crooked things straight:
I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars
of iron:
3 And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden
riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, J ehovah,
which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.
4< For the sake of J acob my servant, and of Israel mine elect,
I have even called thee by thy name: I have known thee, when thou
knewest not me.
5 I am J ehovah, and there is none else, there is no God beside
me: I girded thee, when as yet thou knewest me not:
6 That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from
the setting, that there is none beside me. I am J ehovah, and there
is none else;
7 Which formeth light, and createth darkness: which maketh
peace, and createth evil; I J ehovah do all these things.
t This statement is based on Schmidius' translation of 1 Samuel 23H,16:
And Dav'id was in the wilderness of Ziph in Ohoresh. And Jonathan ... went
to David in Oh01·6Sh. (See Appendix, s.v., Ohor6sh.) The A.V., Tremelliils
and others translate T'l~n (choresheth) as a wood, but Schmidius' assumption
is shared by Eusebius and Relandus, p. 279.
• This is Swedenborg's first use of Hebrew letters in this work. Confer 11.
4136 note.

~08 IV Ad. p. 114

ISAIAH XLV: 1-7 [7909-7910

7909. Concerning those whom God Messiah uses as instruments

for the restoration of his church, and who are sent beforehand prior
to his coming,. but that they are only instruments and it is God
Messiah who effects this.
7910. [Thus hath J ehovah said to his anointed, to J( oresh,
whose right hand I have taken, to subdue nations before him, that
I may loose the loin.~ of kings, to open before him the two leaved
gates, that the gates be not shut], vs. 1. Koresh is the Cyrus
spoken of in Ezra I[ chap. 1], as commanding that Jerusalem with
the temple should be built. This was predicted long before Cyrus
was born, as is evident enough from the present words. 3 The text
therefore is a prophecy concerning the things mentioned in this
chapter; for the prophetic spirit seizes on those things which are
present, and foretells concerning God Messiah, his kingdom, the
church, etc. This may be seen everywhere, as when Babel, Asshur
and other countries are treated of, when, in the prophetic sense, by
them are meant, for the most part, the enemies of the church. But
this is confirmed of itself from all that is extant in the writings of
the prophets; and, what is more, it is rarely if ever that the person
mentioned is meant, or the region, or the city. In this the pro­
phetic style differs from the historical. By Koresh and Cyrus are
meant those who serve as instruments for the restoration of the
church and, consequently, those who are sent before. That they
are merely instruments is clearly stated in the present text. Pre~
viously Cyrus is called a shepherd who shall bring to fulfilment
His will [chap. 44 28 ]. Thus the instrument is designated by the
same llame as the principal cause. The same is done in other
cases, when the angel of God Messiah is called J ehovah, because
Jehovah God speaks through him. Nay, the practice has still
further extension when it is said that Jehovah slays, does evil (as
in verse 7), and the like. This is said because they are nothing
but instruments which have within them such things as enable this
to come to pass, etc. Here Cyrus is called the anointed of Je­
ho"ah,4 and this from a like cause. To take the right hand means
• Isaiah's prophecy was made about 710 B.C., while it was in 459 D.C. that
Ezra, at the command of CyI'US, led the Jews from Babylon to rebuild the tem­
ple of Jerusalem.
• [Crossed off: I although he was [(doubly crossed) an idolater I a king of
the gentiles.

IV Ad. p. 115 ~09


to bring into effect the subduing of the nations before him, that
is, subduing them to obedience that they may be prepared for the
advent, and so for the opening of the gates.
7911. [I will go before thee, and make the crooked things
stmight: I will break· in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sun­
der the bars of iron], vs. 9l. To" go before thee" involves the
like, namely, that God Messiah alone brings this into effect. To
make crooked things straigllt means to straighten perverse doc­
trine, being the perversions that existed around the time of the
advent of God Messiah; for the world then is likened to a wilder­
ness and a desolate place. The gates of brass are those things
which are natural and which have perverted men. The bars of
iron are things corporeal, see above [n. 7891]. These are the
things which have made the way of truths crooked.
7912. [And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hid­
den riches of secret places], vs. 3. The treasures of darkness are
things which are hidden in dark places and which are of no use,
such as the sciences and many other things which yet, when God
Messiah makes crooked things straight, are turned to use, and the
uses come to light. They are then called treasures, etc. And like­
wise the riches of secret places; for there will be the light of intelli­
gence and, by this, man is made straight, etc. In this way does
God Messiah speak to those who are sent before; for they who are
to be sent before have been foreseen from eternity.
7913. [For the sake of Jacob my servant, and of Israel mine
elect, I have even called thee by thy name: . . . I am J ehovah,
and there is none else, there is no God beside me], vs. 4, 5. For
the sake of my servant Jacob, that is, for the sake of those who in
the Old Testament are called sons of the church, being those who
were of the representative and ritualistic church which is called
the servant of God Messiah. All others in the entire globe, espe­
cially those who lived after the first advent of God Messiah, are
called Israel the elect. As to Israel, that by him are meant all in
the entire globe, this will be seen later at verses 911 to 9l5. The
words in verse 5 involve the same things, and, moreover, that no
other is to be expected.
7914. [That they may know from the rising of the sun, and
from the setting, that there is none beside me], vs. 6-that this
may be known in the entire globe; thus from the first time, which
~10 IV Ad. p. 116
ISAIAH XLV: ~-15 [7915-7916
is the rising of the sun, even to the last when it sets; for in spir­
itual things the great day is circumstanced as the rising and set­
ting of the sun, etc., as is confirmed in many passages.
7915. [Which formeth light, and createth darkness: which
maketh peace, and createth evil], vs. 7. This means that God
Messiah alone is the Former of the new man. The comparison is
taken from the sun~that God Messiah, the Sun of Wisdom,
forms light, that is, intelligence, and creates darkness, in order,
namely, that it may serve the light for every utility, since with­
out darkness there can never be any reformation. It is conform­
ity, however, which makes that which is called beautiful. This can
be understood from the comparison that without a mingling of
shade, nothing is visible, yea, no color, no distinction, and, conse­
quently, no beauty. So likewise does He make peace, by which
is meant good; for good is not possible except in peace, this being
what rules, etc., etc. So also is it with evil in relation to good;
but God Messiah does not form evil but so creates that good may
be formed therefrom, etc.

8 Distil, 0 ye heavens, from above, and let the clouds flow down
with righteousness: let the earth open, and let them be fruitful
with salvation, and let righteousness spring up together; I J e­
hovah will create this.

7916. 1'hat the entire world should suffer itself to be prepared

for the advent of God Messiah. In general this is addressed to the
inhabitants of both heaven and earth. In man, or in men, their
minds are their heavens. But these words are explained from
parallel passages in the Prophets.

9 Woe unto him that disputeth with his Former, . . . Shall

the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou?
10 -VVoe unto him that saith unto his father, Wherefore beget­
test thou? or to the woman, What hast thou brought forth?
11 . . . They have asked of me signs; over my sons, and over
the work of my hands they command me.
1~ I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my
hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I
IV Ad. p. 116 !!11

13 I have raised him up in righteousness, and will make

straight all his ways: he shall build my city, and shall let go my
captivity, not for price nor reward, said 3ehovah Sabaoth.
14 Thus hath 3 ehovah said, The labour of Egypt, and the
merchandise of Kush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall
come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after
thee; in bonds they shall come over, and they shall bow themselves
down unto thee, they shall pray unto thee, Only in thee is God;
and there is none else, no God.
15 Verily, thou art a hidden God, 0 God of Israel, the Saviour.

7917. That they should not seek miracles when they know that
God Messiah is the Former of all things, and that he has power
over all.
7918. In that last time they will dispute (vs. 9), and will say,
Why does this happen? for there win be a wilderness and an ab­
sence of faith; hence such murmurings. So likewise in verse 10;
for they know not what regeneration is and so they will say,
Wherefore begettest thou? and, What hast thou brought forth?
Thus they think of nothing but miracles. They ask for signs, etc.
(vs. 11) and wish to teach how it shall be, etc. Verse 1~ shows
that this is known to them, namely, that the Holy One of Israel,
" his Former" (vs. 11), has all power in the heavens and on earth.
7919. [I have raised him up in righteousness, and will make
straight all his ways: he shall build my city], vs. 13. These words
are predicated of Koresh, who is merely an instrument, as the
reader may see above at verse 1 seq. It is God Messiah who does
all. Therefore the present words, though they seem to be applied
to Cyrus, yet are to be understood of God Messiah. Such is the
prophetic style, and this for the reason that the angel speaking by
the prophet, speaks not of Koresh but of God Messiah. (By the
divine mercy of God Messiah, these points may be better illus­
trated.) The same thing is clearly stated in the present text, that
he will make straight all his ways, etc. The city which will be
built is the church of God Messiah. Captivity means all those who
are spiritual captives and are held by evils, in bonds, as it were,
from which they are to be liberated, etc. As to the Israelites, it
is evident that they were never liberated.
IV Ad. p. 117
ISAIAH XLV: 9-19 [79~o-79~1

7920. [The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Kush 5 and

of the Sabeans, . . . in bonds they shall come over, and they shall
bow themselves down unto thee, . . . Verily, thou art a hidden
God, 0 God of Israel], vs. 14, 15. Here, by Egypt, Ethiopia and
Arabia are meant those who hold them in captivity. Respecting
these countries, see above [n. 7887]. Being outside the land of
Canaan, they are thus enemies, and troublesome. They were all
under Cyrus (as I think), and never came under the power of the
Jewish people. :Moreover, from the time following the Babylonish
captivity, the latter were in servitude, being finally in servitude to
the Romans. It cannot therefore be the above peoples who are
meant; but by them are meant those who by their labors, their mer­
chandise and their abundance, will be of service. Thus, what is
meant is that evil spirits will be in bonds, and so the things which
are aroused by them, such as cupidities, hatreds and the like.
These will be those who, being in bonds, will bow themselves down;
for God Messiah will have the dominion, etc. God Messiah is said
to be hidden (vs. 15), because man does not know the ways of God
and his secrets. These words refer to the preceding, as a response
to verses 9 to 11.

16 They shall blush, and all shall be smitten with shame: to­
gether they shall depart to infamy, the makers of deceits.
17 Israel is saved by J ehovah with the salvation of eternities:
ye shall not blush nor be smitten with shame to eternities of eter­
18 For thus said J ehovah that created the heavens; God that
formed the earth and made it; he hath prepared it, he hath not
created it a void, he formed it to be inhabited: I am .Tehovah, and
there is none else.
19 I have not spoken in secret, in a place of a land of dark­
ness: I said not unto the seed of J acob, Seek ye me in vain: I
Jehovah speak righteousness, I declare rectitudes.

7921. This is said to the descendants of J acob, that they have

revolted, when yet revelation was made to them, and they ought to
have known what the internal law is, and that God Messiah alone is
man's Former. That the words in verse 16 have J3A:ob's descend­
, Here Schmidius adds in parentheses (Ethiopia).
IV Ad. p. 117 fl13

ants specifically in view, is evident from the series, and openly so

from verse 19. That by Israel are meant the gentiles and all the
faithful in the entire globe is evident from verses ~O to ~5. It is
these of whom is predicated salvation, and that they will not be
ashamed to eternity. In verse 18 it is said that God Messiah has
formed man and will create and has created him anew. By the
heavens are meant angels and spirits. By the earth, men. Here
earth is compared with the land of Canaan into which J acob's
descendants were sent and where they then represented the king­
dom of God Messiah. This land or the things signified by the
land, He did not form that it might be empty, that is, without
faith in God Messiah, but that it might be inhabited, that is, that
they might have faith, etc. That this was revealed to Jacob's de­
scendants, and consequently what the internal Law is, and that God
Messiah alone is the Former of man, as said just above, is openly
stat.ed in verse 19, to wit, I have not spoken in secret. The same is
said by God Messiah himself [John 1820]. He says that He had
not spoken unto the seed of J acob, in a place of a land of darkness,
but from heaven. He never said Seek ye me in vain, for all men
are called, as is confirmed elsewhere. It is God who spoke these
words, and, indeed, said what good is and what truth, etc.

~o Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye that

are escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that . . . pray
unto a god that cannot save.
n . . . Who hath made this to be heard from ancient time?
from then hath told it? have not I J ehovah? and there is no God
else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me.
~~ Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the~arth:

~3 . . . Out of my mouth hath gone forth righteousness, a

word which shall not be called back, That unto me ev ry. knee shall
bow, e~J': ton ue shall swear. ­
~4 One shall say to me, In Jehovah alone is righteousness and
strength: they shall come to him, and all that are incensed against
him shall be ashamed.
~5 In Jehovah shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall
~14 IV Ad. p. 118
ISAIAH XLV: ~O-~5-XLVI: 1-~ [79~~-79~3

7922. That therefore the Word of God Messiah is to all nations

in the entire globe, and they are invited. Verse ~O is a d sed to
all nations in th~ entire ~be who are called, that is, who live and
believe differently than Jacob's descendants; consequently, who are
not idolaters; and who do not say, as do Jacob's descendants, that
God Messiah does not save, that is, that he is not the Savior.
Verse ~1 shows that they had heard of God Messiah from ancient
time, from the first time, nay, immediately after the fall of Adarn,
when a rophecy ~as ma.Q.~ concerning~~essiah, that he
would trample on the head of the serpent, etc. [Gen. f ] ; and also
from the time of N oah, when sacrifices were made; and later from
the time of Abraham, etc. ; that is to say, it had been foretold and
shQJ!D.Jhat theJ\~ssiah aJ9nds the ~l.i.vior. Ve~ ~~ is addressed
[ to all nations in the entire globe, and so is a call. This also was
told from ancient time, etc. Ver~ ~3 j.§ the strongest-pos ible
confirmation that the ch~rch will be gathered fro~the entire globe.
Only those who are called, of whatsoever tongue they be, acknowl­
edge that the Messiah alone is Righteousness and Salvation, who
can do all things. So now, those spoken of in verses 16 to 19 will
recede, being those that.. ar incens.e.tLagg.instlim (vs. ~4) ; for it is
said of them in verse 16, that they" shall depart to infamy the
Cmakers of deceits," etc. As to those who believe, to them shall be
imputed righteousness, as above; therefore they will have life eter­
nal (vs. ~5). That by Israel and the seed of Israel are meant all
natiofl.s in the entire globe, is clearly confirmed in this verse at the
end of the chapter.

7923. This chapter is addressed to the people of J acob, that
they likewise should suffer themselves to be turned to God Messiah.

1 Bel is bowed down, Nebo is bent down; their idols were to

the wild beast, and to the beast that carry your loads, a burden to
a weary one.
~ They are bent back, together they are bowed down; they
could not take off the burden, and their soul hath gone into cap­
IV Ad. p. 119 ~15

7924. That the works of the law and all else that is laid on them
are burdens under which they st~ccumb. In verse 1, the works of
the law are compared to idols. Bel was an idol which is said to
be bowed down. So likewise Nebo; but look up the text as to
whether it is not idol, as another interpreter has it. 6 Here, and
likewise in verse !i!, they are compared to wild beasts or beasts which
succumb under their burdens. Therefore they are called bent back
and bowed down, and it is said that their soul goes into captivity
(vs. !i!), that is, into servitude, they being beasts of service. Here,
and also elsewhere, according to the letter, it appears no otherwise
than that it is idols or their idolatry that is treated of. But by the
descriptions of the idols those things are set forth which they
worship as idols. Idols are all the things, whether outside the man
or within him, which men worship and love, and which turn them
away from the love of God. These are innumerable, there being
genera and species of them. Here are set fodh the works of the
law which they worship and in which they place salvation, etc. The
prophetic style is such that similar things are set forth by many
comparisons which are representations; for ilatural things and such
as come before the senses, thus the ultimate things of nature, are
understood by the angels of God Messiah spiritually. Therefore
the prophetic speech is a kind of heavenly language
but a language which is not understood by others than those
who are truly spiritual and celestial, that is, who suffer them­
selves to be led by God Messiah. As set forth by angels among
themselves this language is inexpressible; but because men are
to be taught from heaven, the speech flows into expressions like
[the prophetic] which are not intelligible save to heavenly genii
taught by God Messiah. What otherwise does it mean, that
Bel is bowed down, N ebo bent down? etc., etc. Other spirits,
however, do not understand this language, being aware only of
those things which are represented in a natural way and, as is
sometimes the case, in insane ways. Respecting this heavenly
• The reference is to Tremellius whose translation is: Bel ]wth lain down, Cl
p1'ophesying God is bent back. In a footnote explaining his translation of Nebo
as a prophesying God, he says: "We take the word [Nebo] which the prophet
uses appellatively to stand for all the idols which the superstitious consulted.
It comes from a word [~~J neba'], used equally by the Babylonians and the
Hebrews, which means to prophesy." Nebo was a Chaldean idol worshipped
also by the Assyrians and Babylonians. Bel was an idol of the Babylonians.
9116 IV Ad. p. 119
ISAIAH XLVI: 1-5 [79!'l5

speech which lies concealed in the prophetic discourse, I spoke

this day with certain spirits endowed with a natural disposi~
tion, and it was compared with the angelic language which
they hardly understood. In itself it is a language which must
be learned, like any other language; for by their effigies wholly
different things must be understood, and, indeed, things too in­
terior and superior to be comprehended by natural minds, etc.,

3 Attend unto me, 0 house of J acob, and all the remnant of

the house of Israel, which are carried from the womb, borne from
the secret part.
4 And even to old age I am the same; and even to hoary hairs
will I carry you: I have made, and I will carry; and I will bear,
and will snatch away.
5 To whom will ye liken me, and compare me? will ye make me
like, that it may be made like?

7925. That the Messiah wills to carry these burdens for them.
Verse 3 is addressed to the people of .Tacob and to the Israelites
who are carried fr01n the womb. That J acob's descendants, even
from Jacob's own time, were carried as burdens more than others,
can be evident and, moreover, is confirmed elsewhere. It is God
Messiah who is the same even to eternity (vs. 4), it being he who
fulfilled all the law and so made [himself] the law, that is, infilled
it; sustained, that is, carried its burden and bore [that is], sus­
tained (as I think) the law, and so snatched them a way; for he
became righteousness. No one in the entire globe has done this
save the Messiah alone (vs. 5). Thus none is righteous save the
Messiah alone. What is said in verse 4-that he will carry, bear,
snatch away~can be applied to the remnant of the house of Is­
rael; but because he sustained the burdens of all men, therefore
it is also said here that he will carry; that is, that he willed to
carry, if only they would suffer themselves to be turned to him.
This is confirmed in verses 1!'l and 13, and also by what follows in
a long series. By the house of Jacob and the remnant of Israel,
which latter were among J acob, for there were remnants there,
7 This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Nemo­

rabilia, s.v., Propheta, Repmesentatio. See Table of Contents.

IV Ad. p. }!'la ~17

are meant specifically the Jews, it being they whom he especially

carried as a burden; but in general, all are meant who trust in the
works of the law, etc.

6 They lavish gold out of little places, and weigh silver with a
reed; they bring a metal caster and he formeth it a god: they
adore, and bow themselves down.
7 They carry it upon the shoulder, they bear it; then they lay
it down under them, and it standeth in its place, and departeth
not; though one cry unto it, it shall not answer, nor save him
out of his distress.
8 Remember this, and shew yourselves men: recall it, 0 ye
transgressors upon the heart.

7926. Here the righteousness of works a.~ it is called is de­

scribed; that no one can be saved thereby. The gold out of their
little places (vs. 6) from which they fashion an idol is their spuri­
ous righteousness. The silver is their falsity. The predication
of gold and silver is according to their application to a use, such
as riches, etc. They bring a metal caster, this being themselves,
and then their leaders and learned men; and these form therefrom
the idol which they will adore, etc. They carry it upon the shoul­
der (vs. 7), because it is a burden. Then they lift it on high be­
cause they make boast of it. They bear it, then they lay it down
under them. All these particulars signify that they are burdens.
Its standing in its place, or not departing, means that it is dead,
and cannot save anyone, howsoever he may adore it, that is, cry
unto it. Verse 8 is an exhortation to them that they weigh this
well, etc.

9 Remember the former things from eternity: for I am God,

and there is no other; I am God, and none like me,
10 Telling the end from the beginning, and from antiquity
things that are not yet come to pass; saying, My counsel shall
stand, and I will do all my will:
11 Calling from the east a bird from a land of remoteness, the
man of my counsel; and I have spoken, I will also bring it in; I
have formed, I will also do it.
1~ Attend unto me, ye that are firm in heart; far from right­
~18 IV Ad. p. UO
ISAIAH XLVI: 6-13 [7927-7928

7927. That God Messiah who is all powerful and has promised
this, is alone Righteousness and alone the Savior. As to remem­
bering the former things from eternity (vs. 9; see the text). 8 It
is here said that he is the only One. This has reference to the
end of the series in verse 13. He has told the end from the begin­
ning (vs. 10) by prophecies, as above [no 7922]; even in para­
dise; also from antiquity things that are not yet come to pass, and
this by many revelations, and so also by sacrifices and by the rites
in the primitive church, a church which was taught concerning
their signification. All these things comprised the truth that the
Messiah alone is Righteousness, he alone the Redeemer. That he
is to come into the world is the counsel which shall stand and the
will which he would bring to fulfillment. To call a bird from the
east (vs. 11) is to think this from the very beginning of the world
(the style is wholly prophetic) ; the man of counsel from a land of
remoteness is the time of the advent (look up as to whether it will be
him that bringeth my. counsel into effect, as another interpreter has
it). 9 This is explained when it is said that he has spoken and will
bring it in-he has formed man or created him anew, and will form
him, etc. Verse 12 is a speech to those who place righteousness in
works, and so do not believe. The former are called firm in heart,
and the latter/ far from righteousness.

13 I have made my righteousness draw nigh, it is not far off;

and my salvation shall not tarry: and I will put salvation in Zion;
to Israel is my adornment.

7928. An exhortation that they should come with the rest to

the church of God Messiah. The gentiles were spoken of above
[n. 7631], to the effect that they would be gathered together.
The speech is now to the Jews; for it is said that righteousness is
not far off, and salvation shall not tarry, if only they suffer them­
selves to be converted; for he will put salvation in Zion where is
the true church of God Messiah, thus, where are the churches of
• Tremellius has Remember the former things fl·om an age back; the Vul­
gate, the things of the former age; Castellio, the past things of long ago.
Schmidius' translation is exactly literal.
• Namely, Tremellius; but in a footnote, he gives the literal translation a
man of my cO'Unsel.
• In the autograph, the words former and latter are transposed.

IV Ad. p. 121

the gentiles, whom he wishes to be among the Jews. Moreover,

here also is a prophecy concerning the advent of God Messiah,
that he would be born a Man, and would become Righteousness,
and thus Salvation for the human race, etc., and that he will call
his church and Israel together, etc.

1 Come down, and sit upon dust, 0 virgin daughter of Babel;
sit on the earth,. there is no throne, 0 daughter of the Chaldeans:
for thou shalt not add that they shall say to thee, 0 soft one, 0
delicate one!
~ Take the millstone, and grind flour: uncover thy hair, be
bared on the highway, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.
3 Thy nakedness shall be revealed, yea, thy shame shall be seen:
I will take vengeance, and I will not suffer a man to intercede.
4 As for our redeemer, Jehovah Sabaoth is his name, the Holy
One of Israel.
5 Sit thou in silence, and enter into darkness, 0 daughter of
the Chaldeans: for thou shalt not add, that they shall call thee
the mistress of kingdoms.

7929. These words are addressed to the people of J acob, that

because the Word of God Messiah was revealed to them, they have
become proud and are xoholly criminal; hence the punishment.
That by the daughter of Babe[ and the daughter of the Chaldeans
is meant the perverted Jewish doctrine, is clear enough from the
series, and manifestly so from verses 1, ~, 20, 22 of chapter 48
next following. The d[lughter of Babel (vs. 1) is the insolence
and haughtiness of the Jewish church so called; so likewise the
daughter of the Chaldeans; and this because of the revelation of
the 'V ord of God Messiah in that church, of which they boast
above all others in the entire globe, as can be evident both from
the haughtiness of Babel and from the boasting of the wisdom of
the Chaldeans, and especially from the series and from the passages
in the following chapter just cited; consequently, because they are
called Israel, etc. Soft and delicate means pride from a fal­
lacious beauty. Moreover, that pride is signified, is also evident
from the, words that she should come down and sit upon the dust,
IV Ad. p. 122
ISAIAH XLVII: 1-7 [7980

and on the earth, there being no throne. The flour mentioned in

verse ~ is a doctrine which is wholly incoherent. That she should
grind it, means that from it she should make bread for her who
was delicate. She is also said to be delicate because solicitous in
vain trifles. To uncover the head was indecent for daughters, but
with these delicate ones it would seem to be beautiful. It is said
uncover the thigh and pass over the rivers, because of her soft-
ness, that her shoes and garments be not wetted by the water.
But thus her nakedness is revealed (vs. 3), so that she is then
without shame. Such pride is followed by vengeance, which will
not be held back. In verse 4, see whether it is redeemer or Q,venger,
as another interpreter has it. 2 In the latter case it will be God
Messiah, in the sense frequently spoken of above [see n. 7910].3
This then is the punishment: that she will no longer be mistress,
but is in darkness (vs. 5), which also came to pass.

6 I was incensed with my people, I have polluted mine in-

heritance, and given them into thine hand: thou didst shew them
no mercy; upon the old man hast thou made thy yoke .exceeding
7 For thou saidst, I shall be mistress to eternity: so that thou
didst not lay these things upon thy heart, neither wast mindful of
the end thereof.

7930. That they profaned the doctrine of faith. 4 The in-

heritance which was polluted (vs. 6) is the doctrine of true faith
which was given into the hands of that people, for with them was
revelation. But they treated it in miserable fashion, this being
what is meant by their not showing mercy. Upon the old man
• The reference is to Tremellius, who translates the end of verse 3 and the
beginning of verse 4: neither will I bea,' that any shall oppose me (saith) our
avenger. The Hebrew is ~t(J (go-el, a participial form of the verb meaning to
redeem) ; see n. 6077 and note. The word is of frequent occurrence in the He-
brew Bible, and in most cases it means redeemer. In cases of murder, however,
where the kinsman is the go-el or redeemer on whom devolves the duty of re-
deeming or paying baek the debt incurred by the murderer, it is translated in
the A.V. avenger, or revenger, usually in the phrase avenge,' of blood. When
spoken of the Lord, the A.V. always translates it Redeemer.
• [The following is here crossed off by the Author:] Vs. 5 to B. Tha.t he
w·ishes to have dominion over the church of God Mes8iah and to destroy it.
• This heading is substituted for the following which is crossed off: " That
he wished to dominion over the church of God Messiah, and to dest,·oy it."
IV Ad. p. 1~~

(look up the text 5) means upon that which was of old. He made
heavy the yoke, that is, laid many burdens upon them which were
not commanded; concerning the burden, see above [n. 79~5]. She
boasts that .she would still be mistress (vs. 7), by reason of the
revelations, and does not think that she has profaned the doctrine
and treated it ill, and that, consequently, her end must needs be
unhappy, of which end she is not mindful.

8 Therefore hear now this, 0 delicate one, that sitteth securely,

that saith in her heart, I am, and none else as I; I shall not sit as
a widow, neither shall I know loss of children:
9 And these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one
day, . . . because of the multitude of thy sorceries, and because
of the great magnitude of thine enchantments.
10 . . . Thy wisdom and thy knowledge hath seduced thee;

7931. He1' boasting and pride.

7932. She is again called delicate (vs. 8), because to them she
appears more beautiful than any other doctrine. She boasts that
there is no other that is so beautiful save herself. Thus she boasts
that she is above all in the universe, so that she excludes all others
from the kingdom of heaven.
That:.-s~h_is the arrogance of the Jew ~have heard !luite (re­
. Ij quently from those who spoke with me and who had been of the
ews. They boast that they alone are to occupy heaven. All
others they exclude, nay, they hold them in murderous hatred,
and had they the power, they would wish to admit no one.
They look upoILall others as damned. But they can hardly
~ffer a~y of their own, except in a certain c;se, wlien the sub­
( ject in hand is the J)i=incipality, and they then are adored, etc. 6

Not to be a widow and bereaved of children means that she would

endure to eternity.
7933. As to loss of children and widowhood [they boasted]
that they were ever to be the heirs of the land, and would never be
, All the translators consulted are in agreement as to this translation.
• The indented part of n. 7939 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
MemorabiUa, s.v., J1tdaei. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. US
ISAIAH XLVII: 8-15 [7934-7935
cast down from the dominion of heaven. But in verse 9 it is said
that this, the loss of children and widowhood, shall come in one
day, etc. Sorceries and enchantments are the falsities of doctrine.
7934 That they wrongly explain the Word of God Messiah,
and d w to themselves aILthat is writt~n of Zion and Jer~m- \
this she calls supreme wisdom and knowledge (vs. 10). Moreover, \
wherever Israel is mentioned in a good sense, they wish themselves
to be understood; all other assages which are a ainst them they
ex lain erversely. How­

soever they have lived, when they were in the utmost idolatry,
from first to last, the~tin 7 will that the promise ~ ~ o
them, not remembering the covenant which they had so often
ro en; and that they were to be wholly wiped out if they
made vain the covenant, as :Moses declared to them, and also
the prophets, on so many occasions. They say these things in
their heart, namely, as the words read: There is none else such
as I; see immediately above. Moreover, amon themselves the T

a~. ~~.~iJhey adore J ehovah the Creator of t~e unive.rse,

nor do they wish to know that approach to Him is never pos­
sible save by the only Begotten, his S.s.>n who is eifi..zied in every
rite and sacrifice of their church. - And because they do not
( h;;e faith in the only Begotten of Jehovah, therefore they can
never be admitted to J ehovah. This also is the reason why
they fell into idolatry almost continually, and adored idols, to
whom they attributed all power, nay, and even the creation of
(( the. Moreover, they ~a~led th~i.r idol J ehovah, as is
plamly eVIdent from Exodus 32;). 'if

11 Therefore shall evil come upon thee; . . . and devastation

shall come upon thee suddenly, which thou shalt not know.

7935. Therefore there is desolation, which is the subject of this

12, 13 Persist now in thine enchantments, and in the multi­
tude of thy sorceries. . . . Let now the observers of the heavens,
the gazers at stars, . . . stand up and preserve thee. . . .
, [Crossed off: 1 say.
•. The indented part of n. 1934 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
lvlemorabilia, s.v., Jl~ei, Ecclesia, Repraesentatio. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 123

14, 15 Behold, they are become as stubble which the fire burn­
eth; . . . they have wandered away, a man from his region; none
shall save thee.

7936. And if she persist.Y, there is no salvation. As to what is

meant by enchantments and sorceries (vs. 1~), see above [no 7933],
namely, the falsifications of the doctrine which they had with them,
being the things which are here named; for these were effects from
causes. So likewise the words in verse 13. That among them were
enchanters and magicians and things of like sort, is evident enough.
But when they falsify the 'Vard of God Messiah, and thus shut off
every way of truth and every way to faith in God Messiah, etc.,
such things follow as effects. A man wandering away from his
region (vs. 15) is one who wanders from doctrine. That falsifica­
tion of the W orc! of God Messiah, and the resultant doctrine, is
the cause of all their crimes, is evident from verses 14 and 15.
Consequently, so long as they persist in this, they can never be

1 Hear ye this, 0 house of J acob, called by the name of Israel,
which went forth out of the waters of Judah; which sware by the
name of Jehovah, and remembered the God of Israel, not in truth,
nor in righteousness.
~ For they are called out of the city of holiness, and lean upon
the God of Israel; .Jehovah Sabaoth is his name.

7937. That it is the people of J acob who have thus perverted

the doctrine of true faith. s It is called the house of Jacob (vs. 1),
but not Israel, except that it .is called by the name of Israel. He
went forth out of the waters of Judah. By J udah is meant either
J acob or Israel, according to the application of the name to the
one or the other. J udah means con fession of faith. He went
forth from this because the primitive church had been restored in
him. 'Vhen the application is to Jacob, it means that he went
forth from the doctrine of a perverted faith; for his confession of
• In the autograph, this is given as the spiritual sense of verse 1 to the mid­
dle of verse 4.

~~4 IV Ad. p. U4
ISAIAH XLVII: U-15-XLVIII: 1-8 [7938

faith was not faith in God Messiah but in strange gods, etc. They
sware by the name of J ehovah means the professing of J ehovah and
of God Messiah; for they know of him from the Word, but do not
acknowledge him, this being done in truth; nor do they worship him
from the heart, this being done from righteousness. The same
thing occurs in verse ~, being the explanation of the preceding
verse. Here also is told who it is that is to be worshipped; for He
is signified by all their rites and by every law of their church.

3 I have declared the former things from then, and they went
forth out of my mouth, and I caused them to be heard; . . .
4 It is of my knowledge that thou art obstinate, for thy neck
is a sinew of iron, and thy forehead brass;
5 Therefore from then have I deelared it to thee; before it
came I caused thee to hear it; lest thou shouldest say, Mine idol
hath done these things, and my graven image, and my molten
image, hath commanded them.
6 Thou hast heard, see, it is all; and will ye not declare it?
from now I have caused thee to hear new things, even hidden
things, which thou didst not know.
7 They are created now, and not from then; even before the
day, things which thou hast not heard; lest thou say, Behold, I
knew them.
8 Yea, thou heardest not; yea, thou knewest not; yea, from
then thine ear opened not: for I knew that dealing treacherously,
thou shalt deal treacherously; and 9 of a transgressor from the
womb, is called to thee.
7938. That nevertheless they had been instructed in the true
doctrine concerning the advent of God Messiah and the reforma­
tion of man. 1
• Schmidius here adds the name.
1 [Immediately preceding this exposition of verses g to 8, the MS contains

the following which is crossed off by the Author:] Verse 3. Because they were
instructed from the 'Vord of God Messiah. But look up the text; likewise as
to how these words fit in with what follows concerning my knowledge [vs. 4]­
which words seem to fit in with the preceding words. They seem to involve that
this had been made known from ancient time; and afterwards it had been made
known to them from the Word, that Jehovah Sabaoth is his name [vs.~]; for the
lIame involves all that which is told concerning him in the Word of God Messiah.
Verses 4 to 8: That they were instructed in the doctrine of true faith, and
concerning the advent of God Me8siah and the reformation Of man.
IV Ad. p. 1M ~~5

7939. The words in verse 3 involve that this was foretold and
declared, and at this time it is proved. This was done from provi­
dence (vs. 4). It is J acob who perverted the doctrine. His neck
was iron, because it was from the cupidities of the body that he
put on that perverted disposition, the neck being that which joins
the body to the head; and his forehead brass, being natural affec­
tions. Hence the perversion of doctrine.
7940. Verse 5 tre!lts of the doctrine of faith, that it was revealed
to them both formerly and now. The doctrine of faith contains
many things, all of which are precepts, etc. These are things new
and hidden, and they are now created [vs. 6, 7] ; for it is said else­
where that the Messiah will create all things new [Apoc. ~15].
Wherefore let them not attribute these things to their own intelli­
gence, meant by an idol and a graven image. This is also ex­
plained in verse 7, Lest thou say, Behold, I knew them. The sub­
ject is continued in verses 6 and 7. By new things is meant the
doctrine of the interior man, which likewise was manifested to them.
The hidden things are concerning the advent of God Messiah.
They are now created; look up the text as to whether they were
created; 2 if not, then they are arcana which are as yet unknown;
otherwise the subject treated of is the new creation of which he
has heard.
7941. But he did not wish to hear (vs. 8). From the conclud­
ing words of this verse, it can be evident to some extent that the
words involve that Jacob, named Israel, being driven from the
waters of Judah and from Jerusalem [vs. 1, ~], betrayed the
Messiah, and wholly perverted his doctrine. Lest, therefore, it
should be revealed that they would betray the Messiah, and would
be his most relentless enemies, the style of speech is such as it is,
to the end that it may not be known what the words deeply involve.
The prophets say something, but because it was direful, and be­
cause now, as before and later, they were recalled to repentance
by the Messiah himself, these things are not said more openly.
7942. That this is the meaning, is as yet opposed by two con­
siderations, to wit: The words in verse 5 concerning the idol and
the graven image; and those in verse 7 at the ,end, lest thou say,
Behold, I knew them. It would thus seem that the subject treated
• The Hebrew word is the same as that used in Genesis 11, and is correctly
translated created.
IV Ad. p. 1~5
ISAIAH XLVIII: 3-16 [7943

of is the advent of God Messiah and the reformation of man.

They were instructed in these subjects, and cannot say that they
had not heard them and did not know; and previously they had
closed their ear, as not wishing to hear.
Consequently that they did not wish to understand, because
they were evil from the beginning.

9 For my name's sake will I prolong mine anger, and mY.praise

will I spread for thee, that I cut thee not off.
10 Behold, I will prove thee, but not for silver; I have chosen
thee in the furnace of misery.
11 For mine own sake, even for mine own sake, will I do it: for
how should it be polluted? and my glory, will I not give to another.

7943. That still the punishment would be deferred, in that they

would not yet be cut off (vs. 9), but would be further proved (vs.
10), this being done by various temptations; for miseries reduced
them to confessing ,the true doctrine, and that they had sinned.
This was the proving, which is here meant. It was not for their
sake, because it was foreseen that they were evil (vs. 11). That
God Messiah will not give his glory to another refers to the words
that next follow, namely, to Jacob and Israel, called by him [vs.
1~J. By Jacob and Israel, called by God Messiah, are meant the
sons of his true church.

1~ Give heed unto me, J acob and Israel, called by me; I am

he ; I am the first, I also am the last.
13 Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and
my right hand hath enclosed the heavens: I call them, they stand
14 All ye, assemble yourselves, and hear; who among you hath
declared these things? J ehovah loveth him: he will: do his will in
Babel, and his arm among the Chaldeans.
15 I, even I, have spoken; yea, I have called him: I will bring
him, and he shall make his way prosperous.
16 Draw near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in
secret from the beginning; from the time when it was done, there
am I: and now Adonai J ehovih, and his Spirit, hath sent me.
IV Ad. p. H!5

7944. That still they can be saved if they have faith in God M es­
siah. In verses Ifl and 13, as elsewhere, commencement is made
from God Messiah's absolute power to create man anew. It is this
creation that is meant in these verses. The speech in verse 14 is
addressed to all Jews. The persuasion is from love, that God
Messiah loves them even though they are enemies. Therefore also
he willed to gather them as a hen gathers her young under her
wings. And he will do his will in Babel, and his arm among the
Chaldeans. Here the Jews are plainly called Babel and Chaldeans,
as the reader may see stated in the preceding chapter [no 79fl9].
This is what will follow, provided only they desire to have faith.
So likewise in verse 15, that he would then bring him, and he shall
make his way prosperous, because he is called. Verse 16 is an
exhortation that they should draw near, that is, draw near to the
church of the true faith. Of this he has ever given testimony
openly, and with so many proofs. At the end of the verse, the
spirit who spoke through the prophet says these words, that Ado­
nai J ehovih, that is, God Messiah and his Spirit, that is, the Holy
Spirit, has sent him to say these things.

17 . . . I am J ehovah thy God which teacheth thee

18 0 that thou hadst hearkened to my precepts! then had thy
peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the
19 Thy seed also had been as the sand, . . .
flO Go ye out from Babel, flee ye from the Chaldeans
fll Then shall they not thirst; in waste places he shall lead
them; he shall make waters to flow out of the rock for them, . . .

7945. That if they have faith and desist from their false doc­
tl'ine, they will be happy. God Messiah taught them (vs. 17); for
the word of the prophets and of Moses is the Word of God Mes­
siah, who promises that he would lead them into the light of true
doctrine. If they would hearken, they would be happy (vs. 18),
to wit, would have peace, that is, all the felicity which is compre­
hended in peace, and would have righteousness, that is, the holi­
ness of God Messiah would be imputed to them, and this in great
abundance. Faith would be multiplied (vs. 19), provided only
they depart from Babel and the Chaldeans (vs. flO), that is, desist
flfl8 IV Ad. p. U6
ISAIAH XLVIII: 12-~~-XLIX: 1-8 [7946-7947

from the false doctrine previously spoken of [no 79~9], if only

they would profess in their heart the things here meant, namely,
would acknowledge the Messiah as the one only Redeemer. The
abundance of all things, spiritual and celestial, which is promised
them is described in verse ~l.
~~ There is no peace, saith Jehovah, unto the wicked.
7946. But that this will be in vain. This is a harsh answer;
they are called wicked, and it is said that they have no peace.
1 Give heed, 0 isles, unto me; and hearken, 0 ye peoples, from
afar off: J ehovah hath called me from the womb; . . .
~ And he hath set my mouth as a sharp sword; in the shadow
of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a purged arrow; in his
quiver hath he hid me;
3 And said unto me, Thou art my servant, 0 Israel, in whom
I will be made glorious.
7947. Hence, the Word or God Messiah who is proclaimed to
them is for all nations in the universe. The isles (vs. 1) mean all
nations. Hearken, 0 ye peoples. They are called peoples that
they may be distinguished from nations, they.among the nations
who have faith being called peoples, and the others nations. In
the inmost sense, the subject here treated of is the calling of the
nations, but in the supreme sense it is the Messiah, and, indeed, the
Messiah as the Son of man, as he calls himself; for by the human
nature he became Righteousness because by that nature he under­
went temptations and thus subjugated the devil. By a sharp
sword (vs. ~) is meant truth. The similitude taken from weapons
of war is continued, in the shadow of his hand meaning in the hand
wherein is held the sword. So likewise [it is truth that is meant
by], the purged arrow, and thus by the quiver wherein the arrow
is; for it is truth that slays the wicked. In verse 3 as elsewhere,
the human nature of God Messiah is called a servant, and this by
reason of many causes spoken of above, to wit, in that he served in
all things, that is, served Jehovah his Father, etc. Thus he is
called Israel by reason of the wrestling treated of above En. 145f!
seq.], and consequently because he is Righteousness. Both these
IV Ad. p. 1~7 !i!~9

are signified by being made glorious, namely, that the infernal ene­
mies were subjugated, and that the elect will be the glory of God
Messiah, as is said of them in Paul, that is, of the church as a bride
[1 Cor. 11 7 ].
4 Then I said, I have laboured in vain; I have spent my powers
for emptiness and vanity: yet my judgment is with Jehovah, and
my reward with my, God.
7948. He had labored with the Jewish people -in vain.
Here the words are clear. That the answer is such, and that the
judgment concerning the labor is that it had been in vain, has ref­
erence to J ehovah God.
5 And now, said Jehovah that formed me from the womb to be
his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, and let Israel be gath­
ered to him; 3 then shall I be precious in the eyes of J ehovah, and
my God shall be my strength.
6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my
servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to bring back the pre­
served of Israel: but I have given thee for a light to the Gentiles,
that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
7949. And because the labor to bring back the people of .Judah
was in vain, the Messiah will be a light and salvation to the gentiles.
Such is the response made by Jehovah God; but look up as to
whether the reading in verse 5 should be, because he, namely, the
Son of Man, is glorious in the eyes of J ehovah, as another inter­
preter has it. 4 That this was not that he might bring Judah back
again, can be evident from the preceding chapter 48 22 , and from
verse 4 of the present chapter. But this is explained in verse 6,
and afterwards in the series of the words, and also at the end of
• The Hebrew text has ~~ (not), but a footnote gives the correct reading as
,~ (to him). The A.V., the Vulgate, Pagnini and the Swedish Bible retain the
reading ~~, though the A.V. and Pagllini have to him in the margin. Schrnidius
and Castellio take ,~ •.
• Namely, Tremellius, aod also Pagnini, the A.V. and the Swedish Bible.
The Hebrew word, which Schmidios renders precious, is 'J:J~ from the root
'J:J meaning to be heavy, thus, as being heavy in cattle, to be rich, great, glori­
ous. The word used in the text is the Niphal or passive form of the verb, and
should be translated I will .be made rich or glorious. Castellio has that I may
be beautiful (or adorned with honor); the Vulgate, and I am glorified.
~30 IV Ad. p. U7
ISAIAH XLIX: 4-13 [7950

the chapter, from verse ~4 to the end. Look up as to what a light

thing 5 [vs. 6] signifies. Furthermore, in the inmost sense, by the
tribes of J acob 6 is meant the same as by their names in the inmost
sense. The same also is meant by the preserved of Israel, for they
also can be among those who are to be brought back and who else­
where are caned the remnant. That he will be a Light and Salva­
tion to the gentiles, is here said in the clearest words; and it is also
clear that the gentiles are set over against the Jews.

7 Thus said Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One,

to him that despiseth a soul, that abhorreth the nation, to a servant
of rulers, kings shall see and shall stay, princes also shall bow them­
selves down, because of J ehovah that is faithful, the Holy One of
Israel, which hath chosen thee.
8 . . . In a time of good pleasure have I answered thee, . . .
I have also preserved thee, and given thee for a covenant of the
people, to restore the land, to divide the waste heritages ;
9 To say to the bound, Go forth; to them that are in darkness,
Be revealed; they shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be
in all high places.
10 They shall not hunger nor thirst; . . . for he that hath
mercy on them shall lead them, even upon springs of waters shall
he guide them.
11 And I will set all my mountains for a highway, and my
paths shall be exalted.
12 Behold, these shall come from afar: and, behold, those
from the north and from the sea; and those from the land of Sinim.
13 Sing, 0 heavens, and exult, 0 earth, and break forth into
song, 0 mountains: for Jehovah hath comforted his people, and
will have mercy upon his afflicted.

7950. Concerning God Messiah, that he is the Savior of all

among the gentiles who have faith in Him. In verse 7, and very
often elsewhere, come the words Jehovah and the Holy One of Is­
rael. Thus they are two, and this clearly indicates that the one
• The word thus translated is the passive form of ~~p to be light (whether
in weight or honor); hence, to be low, insignificant. A literal translation of
verse 6 would be It is made light (insignificant) from the being of thee to me
a servant.
• The autograph has Judah.
IV Ad. p. U8 ~31

refers to the Divine Essence of God Messiah, and the other to his
Human Essence. He is called the Holy One of Israel and likewise
Jehovah Redeemer, his Holy One, from the righteousness and
holiness acquired by victory, etc. The gentiles are here called
kings and princes because kings and princes are so named in place
of the people, and also because these are said to be kings and
princes. As to the other points, these may be seen in the text.
In verse 8 it is the Divine Essence that speaks, and, in the inmost
sense, faith; for here and frequently elsewhere, when the subject
treated of is God Messiah, then in the inmost sense it is also faith.
For the rest, see the text [namely], that God Messiah is the cove­
nant of the people, to restore the land, that is, heaven, it being Ca­
naan that is meant by the land; and also to divide the [waste]
heritages, the heritage of heaven being given according to faith
and the fruits of faith, etc. So likewise in verse 9; the bound are
they who are spiritually bound, miserable and in anguish, as above
[n. '7875]; this has reference to salvation, The words to them
that are in darlcness have reference to light. Hence is felicity
which is then described, etc. The words in verse 10 are words
which occur frequently. He that hath mercy is God Messiah, and
this from mercy which alone acts. In verse 11 are prophetical
expressions which also occur frequently. [These shall come from
afm'] (vs. U), that is, from the end of the earth, as in verse 6;
also, in the spiritual sense, from the north, that is, from shades.
From the sea, that is, from damnation; therefore in verse 1 they
are called islands. The land of Sinim (look this up elsewhere 1),
is taken for the gentiles. 'Vere they from the wilderness of Sin
by the sea Suph, as said by others? 8 See my Collecta.o Hence
there is now joy in the heavens and on earth (vs. 13), because of
the advent of God Messiah into the world. Here the gentiles are
called his people. They are also called afflicted, for they were as
though forsaken, while to the Jewish people He showed such great
T The present text is the only place in the Bible where the word Sinim oc­

• Tremellius has the translation "thou from the land of the Sinaites," and
he adds the marginal note: "That is, toward the south, on which side the Si­
naites constituted the border of Judea (Gen. 1011 ) and looked toward the
wilderness of Sin and Mount Sinai (Exod. 161 )."
• See Appendix, s.v., Sin, Sinim, Suph.

IV Ad. p. U8
ISAIAH XLIX: 7-18 [7951

mercy that in their sight the gentiles were reckoned by them as

damned, as also they think at this day.

14 But Zion said, J ehovah hath forsaken me, and Adonai hath
forgotten me.
15 Does a woman forget her infant child, that she should not
have compassion on the son of her belly? yea, they shall forget,
yet will I not forget thee.
16 Behold, I have graven thee upon the hands; thy walls are
continually before me.
17 Thy sons shall make haste; thy destroyers and they that
lay thee waste shall go forth from thee.
18 Lift up thine eyes round about, and see; they are all gath-
ered together; they come to thee; . . . for thou shalt put them all
on, as an ornament, and as a bride, shalt girdle them.

7951. He comforts the church of the gentiles adopted as a

daughter, and her enemies will be scattered. Zion (vs. 14) is the
Church of the gentiles, as it is called, for in verse 6 they are called
gentiles, while those who are in the church are called peoples, see
above [n. 1367-68, ~9~O, 7371]. That they were in bonds, see
verse 9 and elsewhere. The answer in verse 15 is that they had
been His sons, the church of the gentiles having existed from primi-
tive time. This was evident in the time of Abraham, who was called
to the land of Canaan that he might be in the true church of God
Messiah, as is evident from Melchisedek, etc. It is also evident
from J acob, who was near Shechem where was the church of God
Messiah; but he with his sons slew them [Gen. 3426 ], and thus be-
gan then to overturn the church, etc. Thus the gentiles had been
sons. 1 That they were continually engraved upon the hand (vs.
16) means in the memory of God Messiah, etc. Walls means that
they were in safety. Thy sons shall make haste (vs. 17), look up
the text. 2 But what is to be read is that the destroyers will go
forth, that is, will be cast out. They are to be ornamented as a
1 In the autograph, this exposition of verse 15 is marked" Obs., Obs.," writ-

ten in the margin.

• The translation as given in the text is literally correct, but Schmidius has
festinabunt filios tuos as though he meant to say thcy shall makc thy BOns hasten.
Since Fcstino, however, never has this meaning, filwB tuOB is probably a misprint
for filii tui.
IV Ad. p. l!!9

bride (vs. 18). As to what the bride of the Messiah IS, see else­

19 For as to thy wastes and thy desolate places, and the land
of thy destruction; . . .
~O The sons of thy bereavements shall say again in thine ears,
The place is narrow for me: give place to me that I may dwell.
~1 Then shalt thou say in thine heart, . . . Behold, I was left
alone; these, where have they been?
~~ Thus saith Adonai Jehovih, Behold, I will lift up mine hand
toward the Gentiles, and set up my sign toward the people: and
they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and shall carry thy daugh­
ters upon their shoulder.
~3 And kings shall be thy nourishers, and their princes thy
nurses: they shall bow down to thee with their faces toward the
earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; . . .

7952. That they who humble themselves will grow in multitude

and in heavenly riches. The land of destruction (vs. 19) is the
land which the wicked have destroyed. By the land is meant both
habitation in heaven and also faith and peace, etc. Verse ~o means
that in his misery and poverty he will wonder at seeing so great a
multitude and such great spiritual riches when yet the place was so
narrow. This is then confirmed in verse ~l. They are to be gath­
ered from every nation and tongue (vs. ~~), thus, she who was be­
reaved shall be fruitful and shall have many sons, as told elsewhere
and as may be seen in respect to Rachel. They shall be kings and
princes (vs. ~3) ; here honor is described.
It must be observed, however, that in the supreme sense, from
verse ~o it is God Messiah who is meant, and that it is kings and
princes who are then called sons, as frequently elsewhere, being
those who humble themselves, even to nothingness. But in the in­
most sense when it is the church that is meant, these same words
refer to those that follow, to wit, that those who boast themselves
to be kings and princes will serve in this way.3
> In the autograph, this paragraph is marked " Obs., Obs.," written in the

~34 IV Ad. p. 129

ISAIAH XLIX: 19-Q6-L: 1-3 [7953-7954

Q4 Shall the prey be taken from the strong one,· or the cap­
tivity of the righteous be snatched away?
Q5 But thus said J ehovah, Even the captivity of the strong
one shall be taken away, and the prey shall be snatched away from
the violent: for I will contend with him that contendeth with thee,
and I will save thy sons.
Q6 And I will feed thine oppressors with their own flesh; and
they shall be drunken with their own blood, as with new wine: that
ull flesh may know that I J ehovah am thy Saviour and thy Re­
deemer, the mighty One of J acob.

7953. The protest of the Jews to whom answer is given, that

they will be laid waste. That verse Q4 is a protest by the Jews,
can be evident from the series, and from what has preceded. They
call themselves strong and righteous, but in the next following
verse, the righteous are explained as being the violent. That it is
a protest is clear from verse Q5. To feed the oppressors with their
own flesh (vs. Q6) means that they will mutually tear each other,
and so will be drunken with their own blood; that so they may know
that the Messiah alone is the Savior and Redeemer. The mighty
One of J acob is the Church of the gentiles, etc.


1 Thus saith J ehovah, Where is the bill of your mother's di­

vorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors is it
to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your sins are ye sold, and
for your transgressions is your mother put away.
Q Wherefore was it, I came and there was no man, I called, and
there was none that answered? Being shortened, is my hand short­
ened, that there is no redemption? or is there in me no power to
snatch away? Lo, at my rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the
rivers a wilderness: because there is no water, their fish stinketh
and dieth for thirst.
S I clothe the heavens with blackness, and I make sackcloth
their covering.

7954. But although they are divorced, as it were, and sold, and
so are smitten with contumely, yet, because they can be saved, they
IV Ad. p. ISO QS5

ought not to despair. The bill of divorcement (vs. 1) means that

they are rejected from the church of God Messiah, the mother be­
ing the church. To whom are they sold? that is, whose servants
have they become? This is the question that is asked, and the
answer is that it is not God Messiah who has divorced them or
sold them, but their own sins. Thus they have sold themselves.
Wherefore they could be redeemed; for these words look to the
redemption treated of in the verse next following! He speaks to
them in verse 9l, that they should come; but because they have di­
vorced and sold themselves, they do not come, nor do they answer.
Therefore, what now follows in this verse concerns redemption and
the deliverance and rescue. Thus, now that they were called, God
Messiah said that there is rebuke, that is, punishment, and they
then become a wilderness, as above [n. 7789. That which is in
the sea], is called a fish, and that which is in the air a bird, being
thought, etc. Because there is nothing spiritual, that is, no wa­
ter, therefore tlus dies, there being then a drying up; for if the
thought is not led by God Messiah, they can think of nothing
justly. Thus all understanding of truth and good perishes, and
consequently faith also. Hence is mere darkness (vs. 3), being
darkness in things spiritual and celestial. Even natural lumen is
then darkness, for nothing but falsities enter in. Therefore it is
also a covering, etc. These words now involve that they ought
not to despair. They must not think that the power of God Mes­
siah is lessened, for all that he wills, he can do.

4 Adonai Jehovih hath given me the tongue of the learned,

that I should know how to speak a word in season to him that is
weary: he shall arouse mine ear to hear as from the learned.
5 Adonai Jehovih hath opened mine ear, and I rebelled not;
I turned not away back.
6 I gave my back to the smiters, and my jawbones to them that
plucked: I hid not my faces from calumnies and spittle.
7 Adonai Jehovih will help me, that I be not ashamed; there­
fore have I set my faces as a rock, for I know that I shall not be
8 He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? let
• In the autograph this exposition of verse 1 is marked" Obs., Ohs.," writ­
ten in the margin.
9186 IV Ad. p. 130
ISAIAH L: 1-9 [7955

us stand together: who is the composer of my judgment? let him

come near to me.
9 Behold, Adonai Jehovih is a help to me; who is he that shall
condemn me? Lo, they all shall wax old as a garment; the moth
shall devour them.

7955. That 6 the Messiah possesses all wisdom, so that he can

instruct them; and he has transferred all their contumely to him­
self. Adonai J ehovih (vs. 4) is J ehovah God, and specifically the
Divine Essence of God Messiah, which speaks thus to his Human
Essence, saying, namely, that he knows all things and that he can
comfort them and lead them back to the way; and he will also give
intelligence. That God Messiah gives intelligence, see at various
passages elsewhere, and the experience, of which latter many things
can be told. 6 He, that is, his Human Essence, acquired to himself
all intelligence; for he was as another man, and what is of his hu­
man nature grew in wisdom. ~or did he rebel and turn back (vs.
5), that is to say, he was not as the Jews who draw near to insanity,
this being the turning back. The words in verse 6 are wholly con­
firmed in the Word of the New Testament, being in accordance with
the whole description there; the passages may be cited and intro­
duced. Thus he transferred to himself the reproach of their di­
vorce and captivity. Furthermore, his trust in Jehovah his
Father is described in verse 7, but since what is specifically meant
there is his Divine Essence without which he never could have sus­
tained all the temptations, it is said that he was a help to him; not
that he needed this, as in the case of man. r As to what is said in
verse 8, we read of this also in the Word of the New Testament, in
that he said, 'Who can convict him of sin [John 8 46 ], and that Je­
hovah will bring judgment; consequently that he fulfilled all the
law, etc. Being a matter of the highest moment, this is still fur­
ther confirmed in verse 9. He challenges all men; and those who
have condemned him without a cause are as garments that wax old
and the moth shall devour them, that is to say, they will perish and
this slowly, for they will torture themselves.
5 [Crossed off:] God.

• This last sentence is marked" Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

1 This exposition of verse 7 is marked by " Obs., Obs.," written in the mar­


IV Ad. p. 181 ~87


10 Who is among you that feareth Jehovah? that heareth the

voice of his servant? that walketh in darkness, and hath no splen­
dor? let him trust in the name of Jehovah, and lean upon his God.
11 Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that gird yourselves with
sparks: go into the hearth of your fire, and into the sparks that ye
have kindled; by mine hand is this done unto you: ye shall lie down
III sorrow.

7956. Wherefore let those come who trust in God Messiah, and
let all otheTs depart to damnation. They are persuaded who have
faith, that is, who fear Jehovah and hear his voice, being, as before,
those who hearken and who show themselves to be faithful in deeds.
As to what a servant is, see above [n. 7913, 7947]. It is the Son
of Man or his Human Essence that is described as walking in dark­
ness, which is explained as meaning that he had no splendor or maj­
esty, for he was despised of all. These are they who trust and
come. The contrary is the case with those who do not have faith,
that is, who kindle a [fire and gird] themselves with sparks. This
signifies the same as fire, namely, those who condemned him, and do
now condemn him in their heart. Thus they are angered without
cause, and so continually kindle a fire. They go into [the hearth
of your] fire, that is, into damnation, this being the effect. And
shall lie down in sorrow. This is said to be done by the hand of
God Messiah-and it can be further confirmed from the Word of
the New Testament-to the end that all the Scriptures might be
The comforting of the faithful who are in rnisery, by mutual

1 Give heed unto me, ye that follow after righteousness, ye that

seek Jehovah: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the
hole of the pit whence ye are digged.

7957. That they should hold firm to God Messiah. Those who
follow after righteousness and seek Jehovah are the faithful. To
look to the rock whence they were hewn is to look to God Messiah,
that they may hold firm to him. They are hewn from him, as be­
9188 IV Ad. p. 13~
ISAIAH L: 10-11-LI: 1-8 ['1958-'1959

ing born from him, that they may be his images. The pit is the
pit of the rock from which they are hewn.

9l Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare
you: for him only did I call; but I will bless him, and will multiply
7958. And should have faith, this being described. By Abra­
ham, who 8 is the parent of all the faithful, is meant faith. By
Sarah who bore them, being the things joined to faith, is meant
the church. Thus by Him are represented the faithful. Of faith,
and consequently of those who have faith, it is predicated that they
alone are called, and that they are to be blessed and multiplied, etc.

3 For J ehovah shall comfort Zion: he will comfort all her waste
places; and will make her wilderness like Eden, and her solitude
like the garden of J ehovah; gladness and joy shall be found
therein, thanksgiving, and the voice of a song.
7959. Because they will have deliverance from their misery.
Their miseries are described by waste places and by wilderness, as
above [n. 7950]. This will be turned into a paradise, conse­
quently, into heavenly joys.
4 Give heed unto me, my people; and turn your ears unto me,
o my nation: for the law shall go out from-with me, and I will
rouse up my judgment for a light of the peoples.
5 My righteousness is near; my salvation is gone forth, . . .
in me shall the isles have their hope, and on mine arm shall they
6 . . . the heavens shall vanish away-like smoke, and the earth
shall wax old like a garment, . . . but my salvation shall be for
ever, . . .
'1 Give heed unto me, ye that know righteousness, ye people
in whose heart is my law. :Fear not the reproach of man, and be
not dismayed at their revilings.
8 For the moth shall devour them as a garment, and the worm
shall devour them as wool: but my righteousness shall be for ever,
and my salvation to generation of generations.
B Reading qui for quae. Otherwise the translation would read: By Abra­
ham is meant faith which is, etc.
IV Ad. p. 132 239

7960. That God Messiah is Salvation, and this will endure for­
ever and is for all who trust in him. The faithful are called the
people and nation of God Messiah (vs. 4). That he is the Law is
confirmed by a multitude of passages, for he who is Righteousness
is the Law. Judgment-judgment likewise is the Law, etc. In
verse 5 it is said that he is Righteousness, that he is Salvation, and
that the nations will have faith; and in verse 6, that his salvation
will endure forever. The law is inscribed on the hearts of the
faithful (vs. 7), when they are led by God Messiah. The subject
treated of is those who suffer themselves to be led by God Messiah.
As to their not fearing reproaches, see the words of God Messiah
in the New Testament [Matt. 5 11 ,12]. The words in verse 8 are
also the words of God Messiah [ibid. 619 ; Luke U 33 ], and they
further confirm that eternal salvation wiU await them.

9 Awake, awake, put on strength, 0 arm of Jehovah; awake,

as in days of old, the generations of eternities. Art thou not it
that hath cut Rahab, that hath made the whale to bring forth?
10 Art thou not it which dried up the sea, the waters of the
great deep; that hath made the depths of the sea a path for the
redeemed to pass over?
11 So may the redeemed of Jehovah return, and come unto
Zion with a song; that the joy of eternity may be upon their head,
gladness and joy follow them, sorrow and groaning flee away.

7961. The answer of the church, that the faithful come to God
Messiah who is powerful over all things. God Messiah and also
the Messiah is called Strength and the Arm of Jehovah (vs. 9).
By the days of old is meant the Ancient church. It is called a
generation of eternities" because it will be forever. As to what
is meant by Rahab, whether it is the dragon, look up the text; also
as to what is meant by making the whale to bring forth. 9 In verse
* The autograph has generations.
• This reference to the Hebrew text was perhaps inspired by the variety of
the different translations. Pagnini, the Vulgate and the Swedish Bible have
smote the pr01td and wounded the dragon; the A.V., cut Rahab and wounded
the dragon; Castellio, Cut Egypt and alain the whale; Tremellius, cut Egypt
and smote with pain the 10hale. The word :::Iil' (Rahab) is used as a poetical
name for Egypt, and also means insolent, proud. I'Jn means a great sea mon­
ster, but what monster, is unknown. The A.V. translates it whale, sM'pent,
dragon, sea mOll$te1', and sea calf. In his Theological Works, Swedenborg
!l40 IV Ad. p. 133
ISAIAH LI: 4-23 [7961

10, what is meant is the sea Suph, a sea which was dried up. By
those who passed over it, were represented the redeemed; as also
by those who passed through the flood; for they who are snatched
out from damnation are said to pass through the sea. Verse 11 is
their supplication and vow, that God Messiah may come and lead
them into heaven.

12 I, even I, am he that comforteth you: who art thou, that

thou fearest thee of a man that is mortal? and of the son of man,
grass is given? 1
13 And forgettest Jehovah thy maker,
14 He that leadeth out shall hasten that he die not in
the pit, nor his bread fail.
15 For I am J ehovan thy God, . . . J ehovah Sabaoth is his
16 And I will put my words in thy mouth, . . . that I may
plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, . . .
17 Awake, awake, rise up, 0 Jerusalem, which hast drunk at
the hand of Jehovah the cup of his anger;
18 There is none that leadeth her . . . neither is there any
that taketh her by the hand . . .
19 These two things are come unto thee, the famine, and
the sword: who is there that shall comfort thee?
20 Thy sons have been wanting, . . . they are full of the
burning anger of Jehovah, . . .
21 Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, and drunken, but
not from wine:
22 Thus saith thy Lord Jehovah, . . . Behold, I have taken
out of thine hand the cup of trembling, . . . thou shalt add to
drink it no more.
23 But I will put it into the hand of them that bring thee sor­
row; which said to thy soul, Lay thyself low, that we may pass
over: and set thy back as the ground, and as a street, for them
thRt pass over.
translates it whale, water serpent, dragon. His translation of the present text
is the same as Schmidius'. The word translated wounded is n~~,nn. Schmid­
ius takes this as the Pole! participle of "n (to b"ing fm·th), but the other
translators take it as the Polel participle of ~~n (to pierce, wound). In either
case the consonants would be the same.
1 Schmidins interprets this as meaning 10ho is made as g'l'ass.

IV Ad. p. 133 241


7962. God Messiah will answer them that he will come and will
deliver them from all their misery. In verse 192 he comforts them
and says that they shall not be afraid of any man. As to the
words grass or hay,2 is given consult the text. So likewise in
verse 13. Since God Messiah is omnipotent, he will come and will
snatch the miserable from the pit (vs. 14)-from shade, from cap­
tivity, etc. Verse 15 tells who it is that speaks; and verse 16, that
he will protect them and lead them into the heavens. Verse 17 is
the comforting of those who have been in temptation. She has no
help from any other (vs. 18), as is evident from verse 920. In
verse 19, her misery is described, there being no consolation.
Specifically, the sons of Jerusalem (vs. 20) are the Jews; in
general, they are the wicked to whom the Word of God Messiah
has been revealed. To be drunken, not from wine (vs. 21), means
that, being in misery, she is to receive faith, and will be delivered
from her misery (vs. 22). The wicked who have oppressed them
will be punished (vs. 23). The oppressions are described by be­
ing laid low that they may pass over, and by setting the back to
the ground, that they may trample it. These words correspond
to those in verse 920.
1 Awake, awake; put on thy strength, 0 Zion; put on the gar­
ments of thy beauty, 0 Jerusalem, city of holiness: for it shall not
add that the uncircu'mcised and the unclean come into thee any
2 Shake thyself from the dust, arise, sit down, 0 Jerusalem:
loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, 0 captive daughter of

7963. The introduction of the Church as a bride into the king­

dom of God Messiah. To put on strength (vs. 1) is to put on
faith, this being the principal thing. By Zion are meant those
who are the inmost. Garments of beauty are the garments of the
bride, being the righteousness and holiness which are imputed; for,
like garments, the righteousness is on the outside, inasmuch as it
must ever be holy. To shake off the dust and what follows in
verse 2, looks also to the words that follow, that is, to deliverance.
2 Tremellius' translation is and of the son of man who shall be made as hay.
IV Ad. p. 134
ISAIAH LI: 1~-~3-LII: 1-13 [7964-7966
3 For thus saith J ehovah, Ye have been sold for nought; there­
fore not by silver shall ye be redeemed.
4 For thus saith Adonai Jehovih, My peopIe went down afore­
time into Egypt to sojourn there; but Asshur oppressed them
without cause.
5 . . . my people is snatched away for nought? they that have
dominion over them howl, . . .

7964. Because they are redeemed and so are delivered. 1'here

is redemption because they have been sold into captivity (vs. 3), as
above [chap. 45 13 J ; but they are not redeemed by silver, for the
redemption is a spiritual redemption. They have been captives
(vs. 4), the captivity and servitude being expressed by Egypt and
Asshur. 'l'heir captivity is likewise treated of in verse 5.

6, 7 Therefore my people shall know my name: . . . How

joyful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good
tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good,
that pUblisheth salvation; . . .

7965. The sensation of felicity by the faithful. Here is set

forth the joy which comes and is felt when captives are brought
out of captivity and introduced into the kingdom of God Messiah.

8 The voice of thy watchmen, they shall lift up the voice; . . .

when they see eye to eye, that Jehovah shall bring again Zion.
9 Make a loud noise, sing together, ye waste places of Jeru­
salem: . . .
10 Jehovah hath made bare the arm of his holiness . . . and
all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.
11 . . . Be ye purified, that bear the vessels of Jehovah.
1~ But ye shall not go out with haste, . . . for Jehovah will
go before you, . . .
13 Behold, my servant shall deal prudently; he shall be ex­
tolled and exalted, and be lifted very high.

7966. The jubilation of the angels at the coming of the king­

dom of God Messiah. The watchmen (vs. 8) are angels, and thus
all who see, it being they who are treated of in what follows. Their
IV Ad. p. 134 !t43

jubilation is described in verse 9. To make bare the arm (vs. 10)

is to open and make known. The kingdom of God Messiah is called
the Salvation of the God of Israel. Then, as said above [n. 7963],
they are sanctified by imputation. They that bear the vessels of
J ehovah (vs. 11) are those who are sanctified; as to what vessels
mean, see elsewhere. This is addressed to the kingdom of priests.
That they were not to go out with haste (vs. 1~) was said before
[chap. ~816] ; for the subject treated of is the church, and both
singularly and universally, this has reformation in view. More­
over, an arcanum is contained in these words, because it had also
been said previously that they shall not hasten. This is further
explained in verse 13, in that, because they deal prudently, there
must be no haste.

14 Like as many were astonished over thee, so his visage was

marred more than that of a man, and his form more than that of
the sons of men:
15 So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their
mouth upon him: for they have seen that which had not been told
them; and have understood that which they had not heard.

7967. And all will be astonished. It is said marred (vs. 14),

but he will be greatly changed; this also is contained in the text.
All who have doubted, etc., will then be silent (vs. 15).

1 Who hath believ~d in our word when heard? and on whom is
the arm of J ehovah revealed?
~ For he shall rise up before him as a tender shoot, and as a
root out of a land of dryness: ~ h no form I.!QL..QQJ!9r; [and] 8 I
we see him, but he hath no visage; should we then desire him? )1
-:3 He"is ~ed and forbearin of men; a m~;;-o~orrows,
and ac uainted wTIid'isease: whence,.J!.sjt were the hiding of faces
fr~m; . . .
~yet he hath borne our diseases, and carried our sorrows: but
we did esteem him afflicted, smitten of God, and enfeebled.
5 And he was pierced for our transgressions; bruised for our
• Omitted by Schmidius.
~44 IV Ad. p. 134
ISAIAH LII: 14-15-LIII: 1-1~ [7968

iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; an~~h

his e are~ed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have looked back, a
man to his own way; therefore Jehovah hath made the iniquity of
LIS all to come upon him.
7 H bor~p- ression, and was afflicted, yet he opened not his
mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter; and~s a sheep
before her shearer.&,.he was dumb; and he opened nQt his mouth.
8 . . . who shall declare h~ gene~tiQn? for he was cut off out
of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people, for
~ipe ~hich ';;'s theirs.
9 That he might set the wicked in his own grave, and the rich
in his deaths; because he had done no violence, neither was any
deceit in his mouth.
10 But Jehovah willed_to bruise him; he made him infirm: if
thou shalt make his soul a Sin, he shaH see his seed, he shall pro-J
long his days, and the will of Jehovah shall prosper by his hand.
11 From the labor of his soul, he shall see, he shall be satis­
fied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many;
for he ha ro:ne...ilicirJni uities.
(1~) Therefore will I divide for him among many, that he may
divide the s oil with the stroEg fo~im; that he hat~ pou~d~t
hi~ ~LeVell-!lnto _death, and he was numbered with the trans­
gressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for'
the transgressors. I

?!!6J> A.-J.!Lost clear r01Jhecy concerning the Messiah, that he

r/ is to come in the a earaJZce.!2f-.!!:....§ervant, being: condemned and
afflicted; and is to die for the sins of the human race. This proph­
ecy is so clear that while

it was being read, the spirits around me, who were from J ewr ,
~vere wholl silent, nor could they make any objection; l~, )1]
the were afraid it would be read before them a second time. ~
Thus they were convinced; and, what is remarkable, from
shame and innate hostility, tbey ..!lid pot wis}1 to b~. .eonv~d, ))
as I could plainIY.I~el:ce· e. 4
• The indented part of n. 7968, together with n. 8203, is cited by the Author
in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v., JueJ!!!i. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 135 ~45

7969. The words in verse 1 follow immediately after the words

of the preceding verse and of the verse immediately before it,
which verses the reader may consult. Therefore it is now said,
Who of them has believed in the Word? The arm of J ehovah is
the Messiah, etc. The subject in verse ~ is that he was so seen
by the people treated of in the two preceding verses. Because he
has no visage, he is compared to a root out or a land of dryness.
Therefore the unbelieving say, just as did the Jews at that time,
and also as they do now, Should we then desire him? As to the
words he is despised, a man of sorrows and acquainted with disease
(vs. 8), see the words of the New Testament which confirm them.
The hiding of faces means the same thing, for then he is hidden
from those who have not believed. The words in verse 4 may like­
wise be confirmed from similar words in the New Testament. So
also with verse 5. The words the chastisement of our peace was
upon him, and with his wound we are healed are words of the ut­
most beauty and merit much amplification. He took upon him all
iniquities (vs. 6), because all in heaven and on earth, without a
single exception, are iniquitous and are sinners. The words in
verse 7 are wholly confirmed by the words of the New Testament,
to wit, that he became a sacrifice for our sins; hence he is called the
Lamb of God [John FO,36].
7970. Who shall declare his generation? (vs. 8), that is, shall
declare those who have faith, faith being his generation, and con­
sequently, all the faithful. Cut off out of the land of the living,
means that he died; for immediately afterwards come the words,
for the transgression of my people, etc. [That he might set the
wicked in his own grave (vs. 9) ]-that by his dying he might take
away death because he took away wickedness; for he then became
Righteousness. This is involved in the words: he had done no
violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth, that is, because he
was wholly without sin. Therefore he was afflicted and bore
damnation, that he might give faith, this being the seed (vs. 10).
He shall prolong his days refers to the multiplication of the seed,
etc. That he thus satisfied the will of Jehovah his Father, this
also may be seen from the Word of the New Testament. The la­
bor of his soul (vs. 11) is temptation. By his knowledge he shall
justify many; as to this, see above, chapter 5~13_but look up the
~46 IV Ad. p. 136
ISAIAH LIII: l-l~-LIV: 1-8 [7971

text. 5 The many are the elect, it being predicated of them that
they are many. Otherwise it means also all men; the word occurs
in this sense in the verse that next follows; see the passages. That
he bore iniquities is well known from the Word of the Old and New
Testaments-from the Old Testament in the Prophets, and from
every word in Moses concerning sacrifices.
7971. That he is divided among many (vs. 1~) means that they
were justified by him, for being divided is predicated of righteous­
ness, He being righteousness, etc. That 6 he may divide the spoil
with the strong, means that he will obtain the victory. They are
called strong who have faith in him; thus they are taken as a single
person. That it is he who will divide the spoil and will give it to
those who have faith, can be illustrated elsewhere. T.2. divide Q1.e
s~ is to snatch men a'Y~y from the jaws....QUhe devil; see the text
and parallel passages concerning the spoil. The reason is ad­
duced, to wit, because he hath poured out his soul even unto death,
and was numbered with the transgressors, these words being in
every respect the same as the things which came to pass; and also
because he died for the sins of all at the same time that he made
intercession for transgressors, etc., etc.

1 Sing, 0 barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into
singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child: for
more are the sons of her that is desolate than the sons of her that
is married, said J ehovah.
~ Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the
curtains of thy habitacles: forbid not, lengthen thy cords, and
strengthen thy stakes;
3 For thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the
left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate
cities to be inhabited.
4 Fear not; for thou shalt not be ashamed: neither be thou
smitten with shame; for thou shalt not blush: for thou shalt forget
• Literally translated, the text would read, F"om labor shall see Ms soul, he
(or she, the Hebrew word for soul being feminine) shall be satisfied; in (or
with) hi" knowled~'e my JIl.St servant, etc.; but Tremellius' translation is: Seeing
himself (Heb. his soul) exempt from trouble, he shall be satisfied; with the
knowledge of himself my Just se'rvant, etc.
• Reading 1Lt for et.
IV Ad. p. 186 ~47

the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of
thy widowhood any more.
5 For thy husbands are thy Makers; J ehovah Sabaoth is his
name; . . .
6 For J ehovah hath caned thee as a woman forsaken and af­
flicted in spirit, and a married woman of youth, when she is put
away . . .
7 For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great
mercies will I gather thee again.
8 In a flood of anger I hid my face from thee for a moment;
but with everlasting mercy will I have mercy on thee, . . .

7972. That the Ancient church, or church of the gentiles, was

long barren and a widow, but shall afterwards be very fruitful.
So likewise all who are oppressed in temptation.
7973. Barren (vs. 1) refers to the church of the gentiles. Of
this church it is to be said that the Ancient church or 7 church of
the gentiles was not so much in the family of Seth,8 but rather in
that of Ham; for in the last chapter of Joshua [verse ~], we read
of the parents of Abraham,9 that they were idolaters, as also later
became [their descendants] ; for after Shem, this was inherent in
that generation, that is, in that line of descendants. ' But that the
Ancient Church was from other families, as, for instance, from the
Hivites and Hittites and others who were inhabitants of the land
of Canaan, is clear from their names. They seem to have been of
the descendants of Ham [Gen. 10,5 ,,7]. There were many nations
among whom was the true church of God Messiah. This is openly
stated of Melchisedek; and since he was in that region where was
the city of Shechem, the inhabitants of Shechem were also of that
church. Now because the true church of God Messiah flourished
principally in the land of Canaan, eVen though among idolaters,
therefore Abraham was called from Ur of the Chaldees that he
might go into the land of Canaan [Gen. 1~1]; and he dwelt not
, Reading seu for fuit (was).
I Historically, it is Shem that is meant; see n. 1563 note.
I The autograph reads of Eber and the pal'ents, etc., but since Eber is not

mentioned in Joshua, it may be presumed that the words of Eber were to be

crossed off.
1 Reading ea pl'opagationi for eam p,·opagal'ionom.. Otherwise the transla­
tion would read after them, that is, after that line of descendants, this was in­
herent, etc.
~48 IV Ad. p. 137
ISAIAH LIV; 1~4 [7974-7976
far from the Hittites, and this that he might be turned away from
the idolatry of his parents, and also that he might thus come among
those with whom was the true church. The church of the gentiles
was afterwards made desolate because, in course of time, it degen­
erated into idolatry. Then, with its rites and the signification of
those rites, it was instituted with the Jews. lVIeanwhile the gentiles
were left forsaken, as it were, although [the Ancient church] still
flourished in their midst, but only among a few. With the Jews, if
you except the infants, there was almost no church. "Vherefore
gentiles were introduced elsewhere also (as I think), in that they
complained of the injury.2 Afterwards, however, as is known, the
gentiles were chosen and were multiplied; for the church of God
Messiah is in the entire globe, and although its individuals are
scattered, still they are many and, according to the prophecies,
they are to be multiplied.
7974. Moreover, the same thing [namely, barrenness] is said
of individuals in the church, to wit, of those who are in spiritual
misery or poverty, and who acknowledge that they have no powers
of their own; likewise of those who are in captivity, and in tempta­
tion. These are spoken of in like manner; for when they are vis­
ited, then they shall have more sons than the sons of her that is
married, the births that are then meant being faith and the things
which are of faith. This will be given to them and taken away
from others, as was done in the case of Leah and Rachel ; for Leah,
as representing the Jewish church,3 was deprived of all her sons,
and they were given to Rachel, etc.
7975. The place of the tent (vs. fl) is the place where the wor­
ship of God Messiah was held; so likewise the habitacles, and the
curtains, cords and stakes which belonged to the tent. These will
be enlarged because the births, etc., will be multiplied. On the
right hand and on the left (vs. 3) was a formula of speech mean­
ing that they would possess many things. The seed or children
would inherit the gentUes, the gentiles being here taken for those
who are cursed, of whom, as we also read, is predicated desolation.
7976. 'The shame (vs. 4) was barrenness, as is sufficiently evi­
dent. In a natural society, the shame comes from that cause in
, Confer n. 1603 seq.
• The autograph has CkllTCh of the gentiles, but that this is a slip is evident
from nos. 74~, 807, 8~8.
IV Ad. p. 137 Y249

heaven which is now treated of. Hence also came the law of the
levirate and the shame attached of old to every barren woman.
[The shame] of thy youth means that when she did not have chil­
dren, a wife was disgraced. "Tidowhood was then a reproach, as
is evident from the case of Tamar [Gen. 38 12 se q .] and others.
Widowhood is predicated because the Jews then observed the
levirate and raised up the children of the church, but in vain.
Hence the punishment of ~im who refused the levirate, that he
was loosed of his shoe, etc. (Deut. ~59),. for he should raise up
the church and there would be a church, etc. 4 The husband of
the church (vs. 5) is the Messiah. Verses 6 to 8 are clear from
what has preceded.

9 For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: as I have sworn

that the waters of N oah should no more go over the earth; so have
I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.
10 For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed;
but my mercy shall not depart from thee, neither shall the cove­
nant of my peace be removed, . . .

7977. That afterwards there will be with the'rn a pe1'petual cove­

nant of peace. The waters of Noah (vs. 9) were damnations.
From damnation follows desolation, as it followed after the flood.
As at that time, so now, the promise is given that afterwards there
will be no damnation, consequently, no wrath. The anger, how­
ever, was not against them but against the enemies, as 1S evident
elsewhere. That the mountains will recede, and the hills [be re­
moved] (vs. 10) was a customary formula of speech originating
from the fact that the proud will be wiped out, etc. The covenant
of peace is the new covenant, being the covenant with the gentiles.
Peace is predicated of the internal man, not so much of the external
man; for peace is never possible save in the regenerated man and
in the kingdom of God Messiah.

11 0 thou afflicted, tossed with tempests, not comforted! Be­

hold, I lay thy stones with stibium, and set thy foundations in
* The reference is put in place of dots in the autograph, denoting a place
to be filled in.
·1 Up to this point, n. 7976 is marked hy " Ohs., Obs.," written in the margin.

~50 IV Ad. p. 138

ISAIAH LIV: 5-17 [7978-7979

12 And I will set thy suns 5 a carbuncle, and thy gates for
stones of garnet, and every border of thine for stones of desire.
13 And all thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah; and great
shall be the peace of thy sons.
14 In righteousness shalt thou be made firm: thou shalt be far
from oppression, for thou shalt not fear: and from terror, for it
shall not come near unto thee.

7978. They will rejoice with all heavenly felicity. Stones (vs.
11) are those things which come from love. Therefore in verse 1~
they are called stones of desire. Consequently they are the felici­
ties which are contained in peace, etc. They are compared with a
palace, as elsewhere they are compared with a city. Therefore in
these verses it is precious stones that are taken, being stones which
sparkle. By such radiance glory also is expressed. Moreover,
all stones and also gates, windows, signify some specific thing. So
likewise in verse 12. Verses 13 and 14 are clear from the series.

15 Lo, dreading, he shall dread, but not from-with me: . . .

16 Lo, I will create the workman that shan blow into the fire
of coal, and shall bring forth a vessel of his work; but I will cre­
ate the corrupter to destroy.
17 No vessel that is formed against thee shall prosper; and
every tongue that shall rise with thee in judgment thou shalt con­
demn . . . .

7979. All misery will cease. Because the next following verse
treats of an instrument,6 therefore verse 16 treats of the workman
and of fire. Here we meet with the same things as previously, that
God created evil, thus that temptation comes from him, but for a
good end. This, however, must be understood as above [n. 7915].
By instruments and vessels (vs. 17) are meant, not only those who
do evil, whether they be men or spirits, but all their plots and

17 . . . This is the heritage of the servants of J ehovah, and

their righteousness from-with me, the saying of Jehovah.
• Schmidius interprets this word as meaning windows.
• The word translated ve.~.~el, by Schmidius, is rendered by Tremellius, in­
IV Ad. p. 138 251

7980. That this is the heritage of the faithful, whose is the kVng­
dom of God Messiah.

The sum of this chapter is that with him who seeks the kingdom
of God, all things will succeed.
1 Ho, everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he
that hath not silver, come ye, buy, and eat; come [I say],7 buy wine
and milk without silver and without price.
~ vVherefore do ye spend silver for that which is not bread?
and your labour for that which satisfieth not? heeding, give heed
unto me, and eat ye good, that your soul may have delight in fat­
3 Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, that your soul
may live; so will I make with you a covenant of eternity, the sure
mercies of David.
4 Lo, I have given him for a witness to the peoples, a prince
and lawgiver to the nations. 8

7981. Concerning the celestial and spiritual nourishment which

is given by God Messiah alone to those who desire it. The words
in verse 1 are clear, and the reader can see almost the same words
in the New Testament [Apoc. ~16, ~~17]. Wine comprises all
celestial nourishment, and milk all spiritual. In verse ~ bread is
taken for all corporeal and natural food, and this never satisfies.
It is also explained as meaning celestial and spiritual nourishment,
for the verse adds, Eat ye good, that your soul may have delight
in fatness. In the proximate sense, heavenly nourishment is the
Word of God Messiah. This is evident in verse 11, but under­
stood in a truly spiritual way. Otherwise bread is that bread
which never satisfies. In the more interior sense, it is love and
intelligence. In the inmost sense, it is the kingdom of God which
is given to those who desire it, that is, who love and who are truly
intelligent. In the supreme sense, it is God Messiah himself. He
therefore is the heavenly bread and the heavenly wine. Moreover,
these words are of the utmost beauty.9 The explanation of the
7 Schmidius' substitute for and.

• The Hebrew is peoples.

• This exposition of verse !iI is marked" Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 139
ISAIAH LV: 1-10 [798~-7983

words in verse 3 foHows from what has now been said. There, by
David is meant every faithful man, and in the supreme sense, God
Messiah; for by Zion is meant the church. It is the Messiah who
is meant in verse 4, being he who is celest.ial and truly spiritual

5 Lo, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and na­
tions 1 that knew not thee shall run unto thee; . . .
6 Seek ye J ehovah while he may be found, call ye upon him
while he is near:
7 Let the wicked forsake his way, and the man of iniquity his
thoughts: and let him return unto J ehovah, and he will have mercy
upon him; . . .

7982. To whom all are called. Verse 5 again treats of the

nations which the Messiah gathered together, and this very clearly.
Here, by thee, in the supreme sense, is meant the Messiah; in a
lower 2 sense, his kingdom and also the church, or Zion, under­
stood in place of David; also the Word of God Messiah. When
by the Holy One of Israel is meant the Messiah, what is then meant
is 3 his righteousness or holiness. 4 By the words in verses 6 and 7
is meant that the calling is addressed to all men.

8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your

ways my ways, . . .
9 But as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways
higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.
10 For as the rains come down, and the snow from heaven, and
returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring
forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the

7983. The subject here treated of is the regeneration of man.

It is regeneration, when heavenly nourishment is given them, which
1 Schmidius has a nut-ion, but with a plural verb. The Hebrew is nationa.
, -inj'6riO'l'i, perhaps a slip for int61'iori.
3 [Crossed off: ) his Divine Essence.

• This sentence is marked " Obs" Obs.," written in the margin.

IV Ad. p. 139 9!53


is signified in verses 8 and 9. Men do not know how it is effected

because this is among the arcana of God Messiah, as he himself
says [John 3 8 ]. That it is an arcanum is here confirmed. In
verse 10 this nourishment is compared to rain which waters the
earth and makes it fruitful. So likewise does regeneration follow
as an effect, etc.

11 So shall my word be, that shall go forth out of my mouth:

it shall not return unto me in vain, but it shall do that which I
will, and it shall prosper that whereto I sent it.

7984. That it is by means of the Word, and this in each of the

senses spoken of above at verse fl.

Ifl For ye shall go out with joy, and be led with peace:
13 Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of
the brier shall come up the myrtle tree: And Jehovah shall be for
a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off.

7985. Thus they will inherit the kingdom of God. In verse Ifl,
as elsewhere, is described their joy. In verses Ifl and 13 together,
they are compared to a garden; and it will be God Messiah who is
the Kingdom of God which shall be everlasting.

1 Thus said Jehovah, Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for
my salvation is near to come, and my righteousness to be revealed.
fl Blessed is the man that hath done this, and the son of man
that layeth hold on it; that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it,
and keepeth his hand from doing any evil.

7986. That they should prepare themselves for the advent of

God Messiah. To keep judgment and do justice (vs. 1) means
to live as though expecting the advent of God Messiah at any
moment, and this, as in respect to the first advent so to th seC:9!!..d;
because it is near, and soon the Messiah will come who is Salvation
and also Justice. Blessed is he (vs. fl) who so prepares himself
that he has the advent of God Messiah continually in his heart.
fl54 IV Ad. p. 140
ISAIAH LV: IO-IS-LVI: 1-9 [7987-7988

Keeping the sabbath corresponds to keeping judgment in the pre­

ceding verse; for the seventh day should be a holy day, as bein a
r~ resentation of the kin dom oLGod which is to come on the sev­
enth day of the new creation, respecting which see above [no 5648J.
For the rest, the judgment which is to be kept, is..!!:...-uth, and the jus­
tice which is to be done i~d. Therefore it is here said that they
shall not do evil. The kingdom of God Messiah is kept when it is
continually had in view, etc., etc.

S Neither let the son of the stranger that hath joined himself
to Jehovah, say, saying, Separating, Jehovah hath separated me
from-with his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I am a
dry stick.
4' For thus said Jehovah unto the eunuchs that keep my sab­
baths, and choose that wherein I delight, and take hold of my cove­
5 [And] 5 unto them will I give in mine house and within my
walls a place and a name better than sons and daughters: I will
give them a name of eternity that shall not be cut off.
6 And as to the sons of the stranger, that cleave to J ehovah,
to minister to him and to love the name of Jehovah, that they may
be to him for servants, everyone that keepeth the sabbath, that he
pollute it not, and taketh hold of my covenant;
7 I will bring them in upon the mountain of my holiness, and
make them joyful in the house of my prayer: . . . for mine house
shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.
8 . . . Yet will I gather them unto him, even unto his congre­
9 As every wild beast of my fields, . . . yea, every wild beast
in the forest.

7987. And, indeed, all in the entire globe should do this.

7988. The sons of the stranger (vs. S) are all gentiles who
thought that they could not become heirs because they were not
in the Jewish church, as also was falsely believed by many about
the time of the first advent of God Messiah. A eunuch is one who
has no offspring and thinks himself unable to have any because of
impotence. Eunuch is here put in place of the barren woman
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 140 ~55

previously treated of (chap. 54 1 ). From this it can be evident

enough that the subject inmostly treated of in the spiritual sense
is not a barren woman and her children, but the things treated of
in the truly spiritual sense, consequently, those who think that,
having no faith, they have from themselves no fruit of faith. So
in respect to the eunuch, being he who acknowledges his own im­
potence, who acknowledges that of himself he can have no faith
whatsoever; thus, who deems himself unworthy. This then is the
dry stick or the barrenness. 6 It is such eunuchs who are treated
of in verse 4, being those who continually hold the kingdom of
God represented in themselves, that is, who keep the sabbaths and
choose the things wherein God Messiah delights, and who take
hold of the covenant, etc., etc. 7
7989. By the house within walls (vs. 5) is described the king­
dom of God; and since it cannot be predicated of eunuchs that
they will have children, it is said, better than sons and daughters.
A name of eternity means all that has with it the kingdom of God
Messiah, and this to eternity.
7990. Verse 6 explains who they are who are meant by the sons
of the stranger, to wit, those who are in heaven but in a lower
heaven; consequently, those who had not been in the light of the
Gospel but were among the gentiles, and who yet were chosen.
For, though one is outside the church, and even among the gen­
tiles, he is never to be condemned on that account; for he seizes
upon that which is of God Messiah more easily than does one who
was born within the church and nevertheless falls from light into
shade, since with such a man the very light becomes like shade.
This can never be the case with one who is born in the shade.
The relation is the same as it was of old in the Jewish church.
Then, the gentiles were loved above the Jews; so likewise, after
the advent of God Messiah, are those who are numbered among
the gentiles. Moreover, as to how they can have the kingdom
of God Messiah within them, when they are ignorant of the
Messiah, this also can be demonstrated so as to be somewhat
comprehended; but of this, by the divine mercy of God Messiah,
elsewhere. s
• This first part of n. 7988 is marked " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
7 No. 7988 is referred to by the Author in his Schmidius' Bible, at chapter

3 No. 7990 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.
~56 IV Ad. p. 141
ISAIAH LVI: 5-1~-LVII: 1-~ [7991-799~

7991. The kingdom of God Messiah is described in verse 7,

where it is confirmed in plain words that the election extends to all
in the entire globe, etc. That it extends to all is confirmed in
verses 8 and 9.

10, 11 His watchmen are blind: . . . they are shepherds

which know not to understand: they all look backward on their
own path, a man to his own gain.
1~ Come ye,9 I will fetch wine, and we will be drunken with
strong drink; . . . there is exceeding great abundance.

7992. B~d those to whom the Word has been revealed and who
thus were invited, do not wish to come. The watchmen (vs. 10)
are those to whom the Word of God Messiah has been revealed.
In general, shepherds (vs. 11) are taken for the flock, and it is
said that all of them will look backward. Their words are given
in verse 1~.
1 The righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart: and
men of holiness are gathered and there is none that understandeth;
for the righteous is gathered because of evil.
~ He entereth into peace: they are at rest upon their beds,
each walking in his uprightness.
• Schmidius here supplies the word saying.
* [Preceding this heading are the following paragraphs crossed off by the


Vel's: 1 and Q. But between the unfaithful and the faithful thel'e is a divi­
sion and separation.
1. The non-righteous is the unfaithful. He who does not lay it to heart­
the effect of unfaithfulness. Men of holiness are gathered together, because
·the righteous man perishes. Not understanding is the effect of unfaithfulness;
before this it was of the will. But according to another interpreter [Tremel­
Iius], the meaning is different, to wit, that none understandeth that the righteous
withdraweth [befm'e the c01ning of evil], and therefore because of evil; which
signifies that the faithful are separated from the unfaithful, etc.
Vel's. Q. A description of the life of the faithful.
Vel's. Q-13 middle. The unfaithful are lovel's of self. ([Doubly crossed]
They are described.)
Vel's. 13 middle, to 19. The faithful are not lovers of self; for they whosl!
will be the kingdom of God Messiah are humbled.
Verso 20 to fin. The opposite is the case with the unfaithful.
IV Ad. p. 141 257

7993. The faithful are separated from evil and so have peace
within themselves. That they are separated from evil is said in
verse 1; and that they have peace within themselves, in verse !!l.

3 But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, seed of the

adulterer and the whore.
4 Against whom do ye divert yourselves? against whom make
ye wide the mouth, make long the tongue? . . .
5 Ye who are inflamed with gods under every green tree; who
slay the children in the rivers . . .
6 In the smoothnesses of the river is thy portion; . . . to them
hast thou poured out a drink offering, hast thou made an offering
rIse up. . . .
10 In the multitude of thy way hast thou labored ;.' .. thou
hast found the life of thine hand; . . .
11, 1~ And whom hast thou so anxiously feared and dreaded,
that thou hast lied? . . . I will declare thy righteousness, and thy
works, which shall not profit thee.
13 When thou criest, let thy congregations snatch thee out;
but the wind shall bear them all away, . . .

7994. In these verses are described the unfaithful who put their
hope in themselves, and trust in their own works. In verse 3 as
above they are compared to idolaters and adulterers. Their diver­
sion is set forth in verse 4, for at the end, [the chapter] treats of
the unrest which they will have. The gods that they worship (vs.
5) are themselves and also their own works. So likewise the
slaughter of children, for thereby they wish to have merit from
their own works as offspring. The things mentioned in verse 6
are their sacrifices. These are more plainly set forth in verse 10,
to wit, that they labored in the multitude of their way, and also
that they found the life 1 of the hand. Thus they do not look to
God Messiah because he will declare their righteousness and their
works that they are evil (vs. 11, 1~), and this they are afraid to
hear. That these works are of no avail is stated in verse 13.

13, 14 . . . but he that confideth in me shall possess the land

. And he shall say, Remove the stumblingblock out of the way
of my people.
1 The autograph has viam (way).
~58 IV Ad. p. 14~
ISAIAH LVII: 3-lH-LVIII: 1-5 [7995-7997

15-17 For thus saith the high and lofty One I will not
contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth: For the
iniquity of his covetousness was I wroth, and smote him; . . .
18, 19 I will . . . restore comforts unto him and to his
mourners.. Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him
that is near, . . .

7995. The faithful who set their hope in God Messiah and who
thus have the kingdom of God within them, will enjoy all tranquil-
lity. Then everything which causes unrest, thus the things men-
tioned in the first verses, will be removed (vs. 13, 14). In verses
15 to 17 is told the reason why they had had unrest, as is the case
in spiritual captivity and afflictions. But they will have consola-
tion (vs. 18), that is to say, peace (vs. 19), and consequently the
kingdom of God, etc.

l'lO, l'l1 But the wicked are like the driven sea, when it cannot
rest, . . . There is no peace to the wicked . . .

7996. But the unfaithful, previously treated of, will have un-
rest within themselves. In verse l'lO they are compared to a driven
and thus a stormy sea, so that the waters cast up mire and mud.
That they will have no tranquillity is said in verse ~l.

1 Cry out . . . and shew to my people their transgression,

l'l . . . They ask of me the judgments of justice; they desire

the approach of God.
3, 4 . . . Behold, in the day of your fast ye find desire, and
exact all your dues. . . . Fast not as at this day, to make your
voice to be heard on high.
5 . . . Wilt thou call this a fast, and a day of good pleasure
to Jehovah?

7997. That worship in externals is a yoke and is not pleasing.

[The prophet is to cry out] to the end that they may be instructed
who place worship in externals (vs. 1) ; as though they desired to
know what true worship is (vs. ~). The judgments of justice are
IV Ad. p. 14l'l l'l59

the doctrine concerning the internal man; so likewise the approach

of God. In the supreme sense, the judgments of justice signify
that no one can approach 3ehovah the Father save God Messiah
alone; and that nothing can approach God Messiah save faith in
him; and faith is given to none but the internal man. z A fast is
presented in verse 3, because they were then in humiliation and
prayers. Hence their desire at that time. But the fast must not
be an external fast (vs. 4). By a fast is here meant every external
fast, etc., etc. That worship in externals is not pleasing, is said
in verse 5. In the next verse it is called a yoke, etc.

6 Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to open the bonds of
malice, to undo the knots of the yoke; to send the oppressed away
free, . . .
7 Is it not to break thy bread with the hungry, and that thou
bring to thy house the afflicted outcast? when thou seest the naked,
and thou coverest him? . . .

7998. But that it consists in things internal. In verse 6 they

are called the knots of the yoke; for there is no liberty unless the
man becomes internal; such men are free under a yoke. Being
under the yoke, they, that is, all their deeds, are called the op­
pressed. The works spoken of in verse 7 are works of charity
which are of the interior man, and which are altogether [the same
as those] declared by God Messiah [Matt. fl5 35 - 40 ]. With respect
to fasts, see also the words of God Messiah, etc. [Matt. 6 16- 18 ].

8 Then shall thy light break forth as the dawn, and thine health
shall blossom forth speedily: for thy righteousness shall go before
thee; the glory of 3ehovah, and he shall gather thee.
9 Then shalt thou call, and 3ehovah shall answer; . . . Be­
hold me; if thou remove the yoke from the midst of thee, . . .
10 . . . For thy light shall arise in darkness, and thy thick
darkness be as the noon day:
11 And 3ehovah shall lead thee continually, . . . and ~hou
shalt be as a watered garden, . . .
2 The exposition of verse 9 is emphasized hy "Ohs., Ohs.," written in the


~60 IV Ad. p. 143

ISAIAH LVIII: 4-14-LIX: 1-7 [7999-8000
7999. Thus the man will become spiritual and celestial. The
words in verse 8 are words of the utmost clearness, which signify
things inmost, namely, that then there will be intelligence, that is,
Ught, and also charity, this being the health blossoming forth; in
the more interior sense, wisdom. Thus the righteousness of God
Messiah will precede. The glory of J ehovah is faith, etc. The
man will then be led by God Messiah, who will remove the yoke and
give him liberty (vs. 9). Thus he will receive from God Messiah
things spiritual and celestial (vs. 10), and will become created
anew. Here and also elsewhere this is compared to a garden, etc.

Ul . . . And it shall be said to thee, '.rhe repairer of the

breach, The restorer of highways for dwelling.
13 If thou . . . call the sabbath delights to the holy Jehovah,
and honour it, that thou do not thine own ways, . . .
14 Then . . . I will lift thee to the high places of the earth,
and' feed thee with the heritage of J acob thy father: . . .

8000. And will inherit the kingdom of God Messiah. In verse

12, the man created anew is described, as to how he is delivered from
the yoke. Verse 13 describes the kingdom of God, that it is to be
sanctified throughout the seventh day. To the high places of the
earth (vs. 14) means to heaven, as likewise does the heritage of
J acob thy father; for heaven is represented by the land of Canaan,
and consequently by the heritage of Jacob their father; the land
being the subject treated of.

1 Behold, the hand of J ehovah is not shortened, that it cannot
save; . . .
fl But your iniquities have separated between you and your
God; and your sins have hid his faces from you, . . .
g For your hands are defiled with blood, . . . your lips have
spoken a lie, your tongue hath meditated perversity.
4 None crieth out in justice, nor is there any that judgeth in
truth: trusting in emptiness, and speaking vanity; they conceive
labor, and bring forth iniquity.
5 They lay asp's eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eat-
IV Ad. p. 143 !61

eth of their eggs dieth, and when he squeezeth, poison is pressed

6 Their weavings are not for a garment, neither are they cov­
ered with their works: their works are works of iniquity, and a
deed of violence is in their hands.
7 Their feet run to evil, . . . their thoughts are thoughts of
iniquity; a waste and a breach are in their paths.

8001. When they place righteousness in externals, their inter­

nals are filthy and separate God Messiah from the man. The words
in verse 1 look to the words in the conclusion, namely, in verses 19
to the end. In verse fl it is clearly said that God Messiah does not
remove himself from the man, but that what hides him are the inte­
rior filths of the man. 3 Thus it is the man, because his sins, who
turns himself away. These internal filths are described in verse 3.
The hands, lips and tongue, are external, but their works flow from
the interiors, as is plainly evident, in that the tongue meditated per­
versity.4 Verse 4 describes the nature of their interior man. In
verse 5 they are likened to eggs wherein, that is, inwardly, is poison,
while outwardly they appear as eggs. The comparison should be
well observed. It is similar to the words of God Messiah, that they
are vessels filthy within, but wishing to appear clean without; for
they washed themselves, etc. [Matt. fl3 25 , Luke 11 39 ]. What then
is the nature of their external works, and, consequently, what then
the nature of the righteousness of their works, is described in verse
6. Consequently, what is the nature of their interiors, namely, a
waste, these being more expressly set forth in verse 7.­

8, 9 The way of peace they know not; . . . Therefore is

judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait
for light, but behold darkness; and for brightness, we walk in
thick darkness.
10 We grope for the wall like the blind, . . . we stumble at
noon day as in the twilight; we are as the dead among the living.
I [Crossed off:l so that he cannot observe his face.

• This exposition of verse 3 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the

* The notes on verses 5 and 8 are referred to by the Author in the margin
of his Schmidills' Bible, at Isaiah 595-8.

IV Ad. p. 144
ISAIAH LIX: 1-18 [800fl

11 . . . we wait for judgment, there is none; for salvation, it

is far off from us.
1fl For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our
sins give answer against us: . . .
13 . . . we have departed from after our God, speaking op­
pression and rebellion, conceiving and meditating from the heart
words of a lie.
14 for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot
15 Yea, truth is carried off; and he that departeth from evil
IS Insane: . . .

8002. Thus all heavenly thmgs are removed from the man, that
is, there is no peace (vs. 8), by peace being meant God Messiah, and
thus the kingdom of God. Nor is there any judgment (vs. 9),
that is, wisdom; nor any justice, that is, intelligence of truth a'-;d
good. Consequently there is no light, that is, nothing celestial
and spiritual. Hence darkness, etc. The subject of darkness and
also of death is continued in verse 10, and in verse 11 it is said
that there is no salvation in judgment. That sins are what make
darkness and cold, because they hide the faces of God Messiah, is
the meaning of verse 1~. Thus they depart (vs. 13), whence
come many direful effects. There is then nothing true, etc. (vs.
14) ; hence insanity [vs. 15].

15 . . . Therefore Jehovah saw, and it was evil in his eyes

that there was no judgment.
16 He saw, I say,5 that there was no man, and wondered as it
were that there was no intercessor: therefore his arm wrought sal­
vation unto him; and his righteousness sustained him.
17 Therefore he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and
an helmet of salvation upon his head; and he put on the garments
of vengeance for a garment, and covered himself with zeal as a
18 As upon retributions, as upon this, that he may repay anger
to his enemies, retribution to his adversaries; that he may repay
retribution to the islands.
, Schmidius' substitute for and.

IV Ad. p. 144 fl68


8003. So long as they are such, no intercession avails; but, be­

cause of their enmity, the1'e is punishment. [It is evil in his eyes]
because there is desolation. In the supreme sense, the words in
verses 15 and 16 involve that they are to be judged from justice,
because no intercession can avail since they have thus become ene­
mies. But the words also involve that the Messiah is to come, who
will save the faithful. And because the Jews also can return to
the way, together with others from the gentiles, as is evident from
verse ~O, therefore these words are spoken with such great in­
dulgence, the words, namely, that God Messiah put on righteous­
ness as a breastplate, and at the same time put an helmet of salva­
tion upon his head, and clothed himself with zeal; also As upon
retributions, as upon this, that he m.ay 1'epay (vs. 17, 18). By
these words, moreover, it is confirmed that God Messiah has no
anger but mercy, even toward his adversaries.

19 So from the west shall they fear the name of Jehovah, and
from the rising of the sun his glory; though he shall come in like
a narrow river, the Spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a sign against
~o Then the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that
turn away from transgression in Jacob, saith Jehovah.
!ill As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith Jehovah;
My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy
mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth nor out of the mouth of
thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith Jeh~>vah,
from now and even to eternity. '

8004. Therefore God Messiah is to come, a redemption to all e

rvho have faith, and with them [he will make] a new covenant.
Verse 19 refers to all in the entire globe, being those from the west
and from the rising of the sun. As regards the nan'ow river, look
up the text, for the interpreters vary. 7 There will then be redemp­
• [Crossed off':] the Jews.
T The word here translated narrow is ,~ from the root ,,~ meaning to pre••

together, to bind, to enclose, to besiege. From this root, ,~ is used in the Bible
in many senses. In the A.V. it is rendered according to the context as narrow,
distres8, tribulation, etc., foe, enemy, etc., and flint. In the present passage the
translation in the A.V., Tremellius and Castellio is enemy,' in the Vulgate, a fJ;O­
lent river; in the Swedish Bible. a river held back which the Lord'8 wind shall
~64 IV Ad. p. 145
ISAIAH LIX: 15-21=LX: 1-3 [8005

tion for all the elect, these being meant by Zion (vs. 20) ; also for
the Jews who turn away from their transgressions. See also Ro-
mans 11[161,* which shows that by "Israel" there, are meant the
faithful in the entire globe, and thus also the Jews who will have
faith. That all the elect from the entire globe will come, is amply
confirmed in the chapter which next follows. It is thus that these
words are explained. The new covenant (vs. 21) is called else-
where a covenant of peace. It is a covenant of the internal man.
It is said with them, meaning the covenant is with all the faithful
in the entire globe, a covenant which shall never depart. Thus it
is the same as the covenant entered into with Abraham, etc. By
my spirit which shall not depart is signified, in the inmost sense, the
Word of God Messiah; in the supreme sense, here as e]sewhere, God
Messiah himself who is the \Vord and who is the Covenant. His
seed are all who have faith in him, etc.

In this chapter the covenant entered into with Abraham is ex-
plained and confirmed.

1 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah
is risen upon thee.
2 For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and gross dark-
ness the people: but J ehovah shall arise upon thee, and his glory
shall be seen upon thee.
3 And the Gentiles shall walk to thy light, and kings to the
brightness of thy rising.

8005. That in the last time God Messiah is to come, a Light to

the whole world. Verse 1 treats of light, and by this is meant, in
the inmost sense, heavenly light which is faith and comes from faith
in God Messiah; consequently, in the supreme sense, it is God Mes-
siah who is the Light. This light is to arise in the last time when
there is darkness and gross darkness (vs. 2), that is, when there is
no faith. In verse 3 and also later the gentiles are treated of.
drit>6. Schmidius' translation is narrow, hut in the immediately preceding verse
(18), he renders the same word in the plural as adv6'Taariea.
.. This reference is given by Schmidius in the margin of his Bible.

IV Ad. p. 145 265


4 Lift up thine eyes round about, and see: all they are gathered
together, they come to thee: thy sons shall come from afar, and
thy daughters shall be carried at thy side by nurses.
5 Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall
be astonished, and shall enlarge; because the multitude of the sea
is converted unto thee, the hosts of the Gentiles come unto thee.
6 The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of
Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall
bring gold and frankincense; and they shall proclaim the praises
of Jehovah.
7 All the cattle of Arabia shall be gathered together unto thee,
the rams of N ebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall mount
mine altar, for good pleasure, and I will adorn the house of my
8 Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as doves to their
9 For the isles shall trust in me, and the ships of Tarshish in
the beginning; to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their
gold with them; to the name of Jehovah thy God, and to the Holy
One of Israel, because he hath made thee glorious.

8006. Who shall gather the gentiles from every quarter of the
world, and they shall have an abundance of heavenly riches.
8007. In verse 4 seq" is described their immense multitude. By
sons from afar are meant not only those who will be living at the
time, but also those who lived from the first time of the reforma­
tion; for all will be gathered. s Sons are the faithful. So likewise
daughters; but these are also churches, with their nurses, that is,
with all those who have nourished them with the milk spoken of
above [chap. 55 1 ]. The multitude of the sea (vs. 5) is the host of
gentiles; here their multitude is again described. As concerns the
conversion of many, this may be seen elsewhere.
8008. Camels (vs. 6) were animals which carried treasures; so
likewise the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah ; for the Midianites
and Ishmaelites were merchants who carried aromatics, as is evi­
dent from Genesis 87 25 • Ephah was the son of Midian, the son of
Abraham by Keturah [Gen. ~52. 4] ; and since Abraham represents
saving faith, therefore his son and grandson are introduced here,
8 [Crossed off:] When by Light [vs. 3] is meant, in the inmost sense, faith,

and in the universal sense, the faithful, then by 6onB­

~66 IV Ad. p. 146

---------------- - - - - - - -
ISAIAH LX; 4-U [8009

being those who will bring heavenly treasures, namely, treasures

which are treasures of faith in God Messiah. So likewise Sheba,
for Arabia abounded in aromatics, gold, etc., as is evident from
the queen of Sheba. Wherefore it is here said gold and frankin­
cense, these being the most acceptable heavenly riches, etc. More­
over, Sheba is mentioned in this verse, for he also was a grandson
of Abraham by Keturah, see Genesis 25 3 • By the cattle of Kedar 0
and the rams of Nebaioth (vs. 7) are likewise meant all heavenly
riches which come from faith in God Messiah; for Kedar and Ne­
baioth were also grandsons of Abraham, being sons of Ishmael
[Gen. 25 13 ]. By cattle and rams is meant all worship that comes
from faith in God Messiah, for the text treats of the altar on which
they shall mount. 1
8009. By those who have now been mentioned are meant those
to whom the Word of God Messiah has been revealed, being those
who came from Abraham. What now follows in verse 8 concerns
those to whom it has not been revealed. Therefore they are called
clouds which fly to the windows, like doves, and thus from shade to
light. This is still further confirmed in the next following verse,
to wit, by the isles in verse 9. By these are meant all who are scat­
tered throughout the entire globe and have lived as though sepa­
rated from those in the land where light appeared. So likewise
by the ships of Tarshish etc.; see the Collecta. 2 The ships of
Tarshish are mentioned because they carried gold and silver to
Solomon for the building of the temple. Therefore the kingdom
of God Messiah is called a house of beauty (vs. 7), the place of the
sanctuary (vs. 13).

10 And the sons of the stranger shall build up thy walls, and
their kings shall minister unto thee; for in my anger I smote thee,
but in my good pleasure have I had pity on thee.
11 Therefore thy gates shall be open continually; they shall
not be shut day nor night; to bring unto thee the host of the Gen­
tiles, and that their kings may be fetched.
12 For the nation or kingdom that will not serve thee shall
perish; and being laid waste, the nations shall be laid waste.
• The Hebrew is Kedar which is transliterated by Tremellius, but translated
A rabia by Schmidius.
t No. 8008 is emphasized by " Obs.," written four times in the margin.

• See Appendix, s."., Tarahilh.

IV Ad. p. 146

13 The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the
pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanc­
tuary, and that I may make the place of my feet glorious.
14 And the sons of them that afflict thee shall come unto thee
to bow themselves down; and all that despise thee shall bow them­
selves down at the soles of thy feet; and they shall call thee, The
city of J ehovah, The Zion of thE: Holy One of Israel.

8010. And He will introduce them into His kingdom.

8011. The kingdom of God Messiah is likened to a temple, a
sanctuary, and likewise to the city of J ehovah, the Zion of the
Holy One of Israel, as in verse 14. Therefore verse 10 treats of
the walls which the sons of the stranger will build up, for they are
things of ministry and service. Therefore it is added the'ir kings
shall minister. In the inmost sense all men are sons of the stranger,
and all are servants, for one alone is Lord, namely, God Messiah.
Because the text treats of the building of walls, it treats also of the
laying waste thereof, the two being very often treated of together
in preceding chapters. The city is ruined and laid waste, because,
as said in the text, he smote it in anger; but in good pleasure he had
pity on it. The word good pleasure should be well observed.
8012. A multitude is again signified in verse 11 and, at the same
time, the abundance of heavenly riches. These things are circum­
stanced as they are with the individual regenerated man. When
regenerated and in heavenly light, he is affluent in all heavenly
riches.' (But there seems no need of mentioning this inasmuch as
the series is disturbed.) Adjoined in the customary way are the
words in verse 1~, that all will perish who do not wish to come to
the kingdom of God Messiah, that is, who do not have faith in God
8013. Because the kingdom of God Messiah is likened to a city
and a temple, it is furthermore said in verse 13 that the glory of
Lebanon [shall come to it], that is, the most excellent trees with
which the temple was built, as is evident from Solomon. This,
moreover, is confirmed and explained in the text. Therefore, by
the trees here mentioned are meant the faithful, though something
is meant by each tree; and also three degrees, the first degree, by
the cedar, the second by the pine, and the third by the box tree,
etc. The place of the feet of God Messiah is the whole of heaven,
268 IV Ad. p. 147
ISAIAH LX: 13~18 [8014

etc. That the lowest sort of men and thus things of service are
meant by the soles S of the feet, and elsewhere by the footstool
which is set under the feet, is also confirmed in verse 14; for those
who have atHicted and despised will come to bow themselves down,
inasmuch as they will be humbled. Thus they also will call the
kingdom of God The City of J ehovah, and The Zion of the Holy
One of Israel; for, in the supreme sense, it is the Messiah who is
the city of J ehovah, and Zion, since God Messiah is himself the
kingdom of God.

15 Whereas thou hast been forsaken and hated, there was none
that passed through thee; I will make thee for a magnificence of
eternity, the joy of generation and generation.
16 And thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, yea, thou shalt
suck the teats of kings: that thou mayest know that I Jehovah am
thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the powerful One of Jacob.
17 For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver;
and for sticks brass, and for stones iron: and I will make thy cap­
taincy peace, and thine exactors righteousness.
18 Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor
destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salva­
tion, and thy gates Praise.

8014. Then all misery will cease. What is meant in verse 15,
in the inmost and supreme senses, is the state of exinanition, as it
is called; for when the city of J ehovah [vs. 14] is mentioned, it is
the kingdom of God that is meant, and the kingdom of God is
God Messiah. Therefore, when the sfJeech is concerning the city,
it is concerning God Messiah-but in the supreme sense. Thus
the Messiah is the glory of Jehovah the Father, and so is the mag­
nificence of eternity, the joy of generation and generation. So
likewise is the church respectively to God Messiah, and so on in
order. To suck the milk· of the gentiles and the teats of kings
(vs. 16) is to suck all that which previously [no 8008] was signi­
fied by the gold, aromatics, etc., which those who are mentioned
above will bring; for all were then called gentiles. Consequently,
what is signified is all heavenly nourishment. These words are
predicated of the faithful, and consequently, of those who will
• The autograph has place.
IV Ad. p. 148 !69

constitute the kingdom of God Messiah. Thus, that is signified

which elsewhere is signified by peace; for they win then know that
God Messiah is their Redeemer, their Savior, and the powerful One
of Jacob, that is, the mighty Jacob. This is fully explained in
verse 17, namely, that it is peace and that it is righteousness which
is imputed to them, etc. Then will cease all misery arising from
the violence of passions and from the absence of faith (vs. 18).
Thus in this verse it is also made plain that by walls is meant
salvation, and by gates praise, etc.

19 The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for

brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but J ehovah shall
be unto thee a light of eternity, and thy God thine adornment.
910 Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon be
gathered: for Jehovah shall be to thee for a light of eternity, and
the days of thy mourning shall be fulfilled.
911 With thee 4 thy people also shall be all righteous: they
shall possess the land to eternity, the offshoot of my plants, the
work of my hands, that I may render myself glorious.

8015. And there shall be eternal joy. The words in verse 19

are most beautiful. By the sun is meant every natural affection
which has given life to the natural man, and by the moon every
reason and thought arising therefrom; for natural things or the
natural mun will cease, and that which is spiritual and celestial,
etc., will succeed. In verse 910 it is said, for the second time, for
a light of eternity, respecting which, see the beginning of the
chapter [n. 8005]. Eternity is again mentioned in the following
verse. Light signifies the heavenly life and, consequently, all that
which is of the heavenly life, and so joy, this being opposed to
mourning. All to whom the righteousness of the Messiah is im­
puted will be in heaven. These are called the work of the hands
of the Messiah (vs. ~1) ; for no one in the heavens and on earth
can ever come into the kingdom of God Messiah save he who is the
work of his hands, that is to say, who is reformed by him, etc.
• '!lOll means thy people, and ':JO~ with thee. Only the first word occurs in
the text, but Schmidius seems first to have taken it for ':JO~ and then, seeing his
mistake, wrote thy people, without crossing off with thee.

9170 IV Ad. p. 148

ISAIAH LX: 17-~~-LXI: 1-3 [8016-8117

~~ A little one shall be for a thousand, and a slnall one for a

numerous nation. I Jehovah will hasten it in his time.

8016. And this will be multiplied indefinitely. Here the same

thing is signified as by Abraham, by whom is signified the father
of a multitude, and thus that he, that is to say, both the number of
the faithful and all heavenly riches, these also being signified, will
increase and be multiplied even to an indefinite extent. That it
will be hastened in time, signifies that when the last time comes,
then shall these things quickly come to pass, etc.

1 The Spirit of Adonai Jehovih is upon me; therefore Jehovah
hath anointed me, he hath sent me to preach good tidings 5 unto
the poor, to bind up the broken in heart, to proclaim liberty to the
captives, and to them that are bound, to him that is captive in eyes.
~ To proclaim the year of the good pleasure of J ehovah, and
the day of vengeance to our God; to comfort aU that mourn;
3 To set upon the mourners of Zion, to give unto them a mitre
for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the robe of praise for the
spirit of him that is beset, and it shall be said to them, the oak of
righteousness, the plant of Jehovah, that he might render himself

8017. That God Messiah is to come into the world to preach the
Gospel to them that are in misery. In verse 1 the Messiah speaks
of himself, and by the Spirit of Adonai J ehovih is meant his Divine
Essence. Since anointment has regard to his Human Essence, and
indeed, to his priestly office, therefore he is called Messiah or
Christ. 6 To preach the Gospel-this is set forth in words like
those which God Messiah uses [Luke 4 18 ]. Here, as frequently
elsewhere, the poor, the broken in heart, the captives, the bound,
the captive in eyes, are those who are in misery spiritually. All
others are those who think themselves rich or wise, free, intelligent,
and this from themselves. Because they do not acknowledge the
righteousness of the Messiah, it was not for them that he came into
• Evangelizare, to evangelize, to preach the Gospel.
• Messiah is from a Hebrew root, and Christ from a Greek, meaning to
IV Ad. p. 149 !nl

the world, save that they might be called. T The Gospel is set
forth in verse 2, to wit, that He preached the kingdom of God,
this being done in almost all His similitudes; and consequently,
the last day; and this for the terrifying of the unfaithful and the
comforting of the faithful. The Gospel preached to those in mis­
ery, being those who are called Zion or the mourners of Zion, is
described in verse 3. Their mourning shall be turned into joy,
which joy is here described. In mourning, ashes were upon their
head, but then a mitre. Oil was also a sign of gladness, and there­
fore it is called the oil of joy. Thus what is here assumed is that
which pertains to the priesthood, such as a mitre, oil, a robe; and
this that holiness might be described at the same time. Wherefore
he is called the tree 8 of righteou.~nes." the plant of J ehovah, and
so, the glory of God Messiah.
4 Then they shall build the wastes of eternity, they shall raise
up the ancient desolations, and they shall make new the cities of
wasteness, of the desolation of generation and generation.
5 And strangers shall stand and feed your flock, and the sons
of aliens shall be your husbandmen and your vinedressers.
6 But ye shall be called Priests of J ehovah: it shall be said to
)TOU Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the wealth of the Gentiles,

and in their glory shall ye glory.

7 For your shame, double; and for reproach they shall sing
in their portion: therefore in their land they shall possess the dou­
ble: the joy of eternity shall be unto them.
8 :For I Jehovah love judgment, I hate robbery by iniquity;
therefore I will give the reward of their work in truth, and will
strike a covenant of eternity with them.
9 And their seed shall be made known among the Gentiles, and
their offspring in the midst of the peoples: all that see them shall
acknowledge them, that they are the seed which J ehovah hath
8018. And to liberate them from their miseries, and call them
to his kingdom. The words in verse 4 are borrowed from a city
laid waste, as from Zion and consequently from the church which,
'This exposition of verse 1 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the
S The translation in the Swedish Bible.

IV Ad. p. 149
ISAIAH LXI: ~-11 [8019

at the time of the advent of God Messiah, was wholly desolated.

They are called the wastes of eternity, because without the advent
of God Messiah the desolation would have been to eternity. In
primitive time it was the church of God Messiah, but in process of
time, that is to say, gradually, it degenerated. Wherefore it is
here said, he shall raise up the ancient desolations and shall make
new the cities of wastene.~s, of the desolation of generation and
generation. Because the priestly mitre, oil and robe are treated
of (vs. 3), it now follows, for the first time, that the sons of the
stranger shall feed the flock, and shall be husbandmen and vine­
dressers (vs. 5), by whom are signified things of service, such as
are in man, in whom the man's natural serves the spiritual, and
the spiritual the celestial. And now in verse 6 the priesthood is
treated of. Here is continued the same subject as before, namely,
things of service; and it is explained that they shall eat the wealth
of the gentiles and shall glory in their glory; for things natural
shall serve them; see above. By double (vs. 7) is meant multi­
plied; in this way is preached the kingdom of God Messiah, to
which they are called. Judgment (vs. 8) is truth. To hate rob­
bery by iniquity-[ it is robbery by iniquity] that one wishes to
justify himself by his own works. The reward of the work is in
truth, when the work comes from faith and so from God Messiah,
such faith being truth or the way of truth. As to the covenant of
eternity, see above [n. 7757]. From verse 9 it is seen that it is
those who are the descendants meant by the seed of Abraham which
Jehovah God blessed; it is they and no others who will be acknowl­
edged as the true seed.

10 Being glad, I will be glad in Jehovah, . . . for he hath

clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with
the mantle of righteousness; as a bridegroom putteth on the mitre,
and a bride adorneth herself with her vessels.
11 For as the earth bringeth forth her bud; . . . so Adonai
J ehovih will cause righteousness and praise to sprout before all
the nations.

8019. The song of the church to the glory of God Messiah.

The response to the preceding words is, that, as a bridegroom,
they are to be adorned with a priestly garment (vs. 10). The
IV Ad. p. 150 ~73

things wherewith he is gladdened with a holy joy, and celebrates

the Messiah, are called the garments of salvation and the mantle
of righteousness, because the church, adorned with the priestly
garment, is called a bride. In verse 11 response is made to the
words in verse 3, that she will become a tree of righteousness and
a plant of J ehovah, etc.

1 For Zion's sake will I not be silent, and for Jerusalem's sake
I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as bright­
ness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.
~ And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings
thy glory: and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the
mouth of J ehovah shall announce.
3 Thou shalt also be a crown of beauty in the hand of J e­
hovah, and a king's diadem in the hand of thy God.
4 It shall no more be said to thee, Forsaken; and to thy land
shall it no more be said, A waste; but to thee it shall be called, My
good pleasure is in her, and to thy land, Married: for J ehovah shall
have good pleasure in thee, and thy land shall be married.
5 For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons
marry thee: and as the joy of the bridegroom is over the bride, 80
shall thy God rejoice over thee.

8020. That God Messiah, the One only Intercessor, will not rest
until he has introduced the faithful into his kingdom. First it is
set forth that he will not rest (vs. 1) ; for when he was in the world
he ever prayed for the church and that the heavenly kingdom might
come, as is evident enough from his Prayer [Matt. 610 , Luke 11 2 ]­
He is the only Intercessor, and therefore continually intercedes.
By righteousness and salvation is meant his kingdom, etc. That
the entire world and thus heaven also will see his glory is evident
from his own words (vs. ~). The new name is explained in the
series, for there is a difference between the church when fighting
and the church when the victor. Hence she will also be called a
queen and will be a bride adorned in a priestly garment. There­
fore, in verse 3 this is now confirmed. A crown of beauty is that
which a queen has. A diadem is the adornment of a priest, etc.
~7 4 IV Ad. p. 151
ISAIAH LXII: 1-9 [809l1-809l9l

Her name also is changed, in that she is no longer forsaken or a

waste (vs. 4). Therefore she shall be called by another name.
This name is not mentioned here because previously (vs. 9l) it
was said that the mouth of J ehovah shall announce it. That the
land will be married signifies that heaven, meant here and else­
where by the land, will be a bride. TIns is confirmed in verse 5.

6 Upon thy waUs, 0 Jerusalem, I have set watchmen; making

mention of J ehovah, they shall never keep silent all the day and
all the night; let not silence be yours.
7 And they shall not give him silence, till he hath repaired, and
till he hath set Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

8021. 1'0 which he will continually call them by means of his

Word. By watchmen (vs. 6) are meant preachers of the Word;
consequently also the church itself. That he will not rest 9 inas­
much as his kingdom is preached continually, is here confirmed.
It is likewise confirmed in verse 7.

8 J ehovah hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of

his strength, If I shall any more give thy corn, food to thine
enemies; and if the sons of the stranger shall drink thy new wine,
for which thou hast laboured:
9 But they that gather it shall eat it, and praise J ehovah ; and
they that bring it together shall drink it in the courts of my holi­

8022. That the heavenly kingdom is God Messiah's alone.

Verse 8 is a confirmation by his Divine Essence. In another way,
God Messiah is the right hand of Jehovah his Father, and also
the Arm of his strength. But when the Divine Essence of God
Messiah is meant, it comes to the same thing; for there is one God,
and God Messiah is the only Mediator. Therefore it is never
lawful for man to come to Jehovah his Father immediately, but
only by him who is the Door, etc. [John 107 ]; for all the faith­
ful are his labor and therefore the comparison is taken from corn
and wine. 1 He who gathers the corn and wine, and he who brings
• quiescot perhaps a slip for tacebit (keep silent).
J This first part of n. 8022 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 151 9175

them together (vs. 9), is God Messiah. It is here said they, in the
plural, because his heavenly kingdom is given by him to the faith­
ful. The bringing together refers to the corn, and the drinking
to the wine. The courts of his holiness are heaven.

10 Go through, go through into the gates; prepare ye the

way of the people; lay down, lay down the highway; clear it of
stones; lift up a sign for the peoples.
11 Behold, J ehovah hath made it heard unto the end of the
earth; say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation com­
cth; behold, his reward is with him, and the price of his work
before him.
1~ And they shall call them, A people of holiness, the re­
deemed of Jehovah: and they shall call thee, Sought out, A city
not forsaken.

8023. And that in none other is salvation. In verse 10 that

which precedes is continued, namely, that they will preach the
Word of the Gospel and so will prepare the way, and lay down
the highway, and lift up a sign. They will announce that God
Messiah is coming (vs. 11), in whom alone is salvation-the re­
ward, the price of the work. Being redeemed by him, they will
be his. Therefore the church will then be called by another name,
namely, A city, Sought out (vs. U; look this up in the text, for
the word has another meaning), 2 that is, she has acquired liberty,
1 Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments
from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, walking in the
multitude of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty
to save.
~ Wherefore art thou red in thy garment, and thy garments
like those of him that treadeth in the winepress?
3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the peoples there
• Schmidius' translation is literally correct, and the other translators re­
ferred to substantially agree with him. The Hebrew ~" means to seek after,
but it involves the idea of solicitude and diligence. Hence in some contexts it
means to question and to require, as in the phrase who hath -required this of
thee. Tremellius has requiaata which means both required and Bought out.
~76 IV Ad. p. 152
ISAIAH LXII: lO-l~-LXIII: 1-6 [80M

was no man with me: therefore I have trodden them in mine anger,
and trampled them in my wrath; and their victory is sprinkled
upon my garments, and I have defiled all my raiment.
4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of
my redeemed is come.
5 [And] 3 I looked, but there was no helper; and I wondered
but there was no upholder: therefore mine own arm wrought sal­
vation unto me; and my wrath, it sustained me.
6 And I have trodden down the people in mine anger, and have
made them drunk in my wrath, and I have brought down their vic­
tory to the earth.

8024. A clear prophecy concerning the passion of the Messiah,

the la,st of his temptations, f1'om which victory and righteousness
is his alone. It is said from Edom (vs. 1), because his garment
was dyed red, this being what is signified by Edom; for the subject
treated of is blood. All these words signify the passion of the
Messiah. Bozrah was in Edom. By Bozrah is also meant the
damnation which he sustained (Isa. 34 6 ), etc. Glorious in his ap­
parel because thence is the victory; in the multitude of strength
because thence is righteousness which is the strength whereby they
are saved. Therefore righteousness and salvation follow in the
text. This is further explained in verse~. Of him that treadeth
in the winepress. The wine is red, and this also was and became
a symbol of the Messiah's passion. That he alone is victory and
righteousness is said in verse 3. He is in anger and wrath because
in damnation, etc. That thence is the victory is stated in plain
words, because he underwent temptations even to the last of them
which was the crucifixion, being the punishment of the damned.
Verse 4 gives the two things on account of which was the passion,
namely, that there may be victory over the enemies, and redemp­
tion. In verse 5 it is said that for help there was no one among
men, that is, that he alone, and never any other is righteousness.
His arm is his own power, that by righteousness therefrom he
might save the faithful and snatch them away from damnation,
and might scatter the unfaithful, this being signified by wrath,
respecting which the reader may see elsewhere. Thus the enemies
are scattered (vs. 6).
, Omitted by Schmidills.
. IV Ad. p. 15~ ~77

7 I will mention the mercy of Jehovah, the praises of Jehovah,

according to all that Jehovah hath requited to us, and the great
goodness to the house of Israel, which he hath requited to them
according to his compassions, and according to the multitude of
his mercies.
8 For he said, Surely they are my people, sons that will not
deceive: therefore he became a Saviour unto them.
9 In all their straitness he was straitened, and the angel of his
faces delivered them: in his love and in his forbearance he re­
deemed them, and he took them up, and carried them all the days
of eternity.

8025. Thus from pure mercy He delivered and will save all who
are meant by Israel. This is a thanksgiving by the church. It
commences from mercies (vs. 7), for all was done from pure love
because of the miseries of the human race. This also follows in
that he had compassion on them. The words in this verse are
exceeding meek. As concerns salvation (vs. 8), it is the salva­
tion of the faithful. Of them is predicated rectitude, truth, and
consequently, that they do not deceive. It is said straitness (vs.
9), because they are opposed by the spiritual enemy. Therefore
he had anguish; for love most pure carries this with it, etc. The
angel of his faces is love. This is explained by the words, in his
love and forbearance, he redeemed them from mercy. Then fol­
lows, in the text, that they are under his protection.

10 But they rebelled, and vexed the spirit of his holiness:

therefore he was turned to be their enemy; he fought against
11 But he remembered the days of old, Moses, his people,
Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd
of his flock? where is he that put in his midst the spirit of holiness?
12 That led to the right hand of Moses with the arm of his
beauty? that divided the waters before them, to make himself a
name of eternity?
13 That led them through the depths, as a horse in the wilder­
ness? they did not stumble.
14 As a beast goeth down into the valley; the Spirit of Je­

~78 IV Ad. p. 153

ISAIAH LXIII: 7-19 [80~6

hovah led him: so hast thou led thy people, to make for thyself a
name of beauty.

8026. And all being sinners, He snatches them away from dam­
nation, and leads them safe through the dangers of temptations.
All men are rebels and sinners (vs. 10), for the figment of their
heart is evil from infancy, and they are born in sins. Therefore,
because they have turned away from God Messiah, there is a
predication of hostility. It is said that he remembered the days of
old, Moses, because the text how continues on the subject of damna­
tion and snatching away from damnation through the sea Suph
[Exod. 1422 ]. That these were representations of the temptations
of the Messiah himself, and so of the faithful, this the reader may
see at that passage [no 4006 seq.]. The Messiah remembered
them, but not the things which are recorded in the literal sense, etc.,
etc. Out of the sea means out of the sea Suph, that is, from dam­
nation. The shepherd of his flock is the Messiah. By the spirit
of holiness is meant his [work of] justification which proceeds from
him alone by the Holy Spirit. Verse 1~ continues concerning the
snatching away of the faithful from damnation. The depths (vs.
18) are the dangers of temptations, etc. That they did not stum­
ble in the wilderness means that they were safe. Concerning the
wilderness of the faithful, see here and there elsewhere. Man in
the wilderness is called a beast (vs. 14) ; for when he is called His
people, it is the faithful who are meant.

15 . . . The moving of thy bowels and of thy compassions to­

ward me have continued.
16 For thou art our father, for Abraham hath not known
us, and Israel doth not acknowledge us: thou, Jehovah, art our
father, our redeemer; thy name is from an age.
17 Wherefore, J ehovah, dost thou make us to wander from thy
ways? .. Return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine in­
18 our enemies have trodden down thy sanctuary.
19 Their becoming,4 from eternity thou hast not ruled;
• Schmidius here adds the interpretation like thole whom.

IV Ad. p. 158 ~79



1 • 0 that thou wouldest rend the heavens, that thou would­

est come down, that the mountains might flow down before thee.

8027. The supplication of the church, that they be delivered

from these dangers, and so from captivity. Verse 15, like the
preceding verses, treats of His mercies. It is a supplication of
the church, meant by Israel, that is, of those who are in the church.
The meaning of verse 16 is that the Messiah alone is the Redeemer
and Father of Israel, and by no means Abraham and Jacob; in the
inmost sense, that they have no faith, the latter being meant by
Abraham; and thus also that there is no salvation for them from
themselves, etc., but that it is God Messiah-he who is treated of
from the very first word of the chapter-who became the victory
and righteousness. Verse 17 describes the wilderness wherein are
the faithful, etc. The tribes of thine inheritance are those things
which are inmostly concealed in the names of the tribes. The
wilderness of the faithful is further described in verse 18. Their
becoming, from eternity thou not ruled means that they were
not free but were slaves of their own sins; see the words said to
Cain in Genesis 4 7 • Man cannot have dominion over sin but only
God Messiah when he has dominion in the man. The first verse of
chapter 64 is a supplication that he come into the world. To rend
the heavens means to descend with power and force. Then the
mountains would flow down, that is, as in verse 6, those would be
scattered who think they have the victory.

A continuation of the supplication to God Messiah concerning
the renovation of man.

~ As when the fire burneth the st.ubbles, the fire causeth the
waters to boil, so shalt thou make thy name known to thine enemies;
in thy presence the nations are greatly moved.
3 When thou shalt do terrible things which we looked not for;
thou wilt come down, the mountains shall flow down at thy presence.
* In the Hebrew text and, consequently, in Schmidius, this verse is ac­
counted as part of verse 19 of chapter 63, and chapter 64 consists of only
eleven verses and not of twelve as in the A.V.
~80 IV Ad. p. 154
ISAIAH LXIV: 1-7 [8028

4 And from eternity they have not heard, they have not per­
ceived by the ears; the eye seeth not, 0 God, save thee; he shall
do to him that hopeth in him.
5 Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and worketh righteousness;
in thy ways they remember thee: behold, thou hast waxed wrathful,
and we have sinned: in those he was clean, but yet we are saved.
6 Surely we have been as one unclean, all of us, and all our
deeds of righteousness are as the garment of the menstruous; and
we have all fallen as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have
taken us away.
7 For there was none that called upon thy name, that stirred
up himself to take hold of thee, when thou didst hide thy faces
from us, [and] G didst caUse us to waste away, because of our
8028. A supplication that the evil may be dissipated and man
justified, although there is nought in him but what is unclean.
The subject treated of in series is the regeneration or renovation
of man. Therefore what is said in verse 2 concerning enemies and
nations signifies the evils which are man's enemies. The predica­
tion applies itself to the object, so applying itself when the man
notes what righteousness is, and what truth and good, etc., these
being thy name. 6 When this name becomes known, the nations
will be greatly moved, that is to say, those evils commence to tor­
ment man, and supplication is made that they be dissipated, as
stubbles are by fire, and that they boil as waters, that is, vanish
into vapors. The terrible things (vs. 3) are the things previously
mentioned and those which follow, and this when they do not ex­
pect them, as does happen. Thus when He comes the mountains
wilt then flow down, mountains being all those high things in which
the man has previously put his trust. "That is most marvelous
and a miracle of miracles which no one can ever comprehend or
understand is the regeneration or new creation of man; for he be­
comes an entirely different and new being, and knows not how nor
whence, etc. This is the case with the faithful, that is, with those
who hope in God Messiah (vs. 4). He meets those who are faith­
ful (vs. 5 ),.--this verse involves more than could be explained in a
few words. The words in verse 6 together with those in the pre­
• Omitted by Schmidius.
• The first part of n. 80f.l8 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 154 281

ceding verse give confirmation that in man there is nothing but

what is unclean and unrighteous, so that all man's deeds of right­
eousnesses are as the garment of the menstruous. These words
clearly show the nature of those who wish to justify themselves.
It is because of this that sins carry man entirely away. Therefore
man is now hidden, as it were, from the faces of God Messiah (vs.
7), it being sins that hide him; for these carry man backward to­
ward the earth and thus downward away from heaven. Hence men
are hidden from the faces of God Messiah. Before man, it ap­
pears that it is God Messiah who hides his faces, and that he
causes us to waste away because of our iniquities, but, like other
things that are in the literal sense, this is an appearance, etc.
8 But now, 0 Jehovah, thou art our father; we are the clay,
and thou our potter; and we all are the work of thy hand.
9 Be not wroth very sore, 0 J ehovah, neither remember iniq­
uity for ever: 10, see, J pray, we are all thy people.

8029. A supplication that sins may be re7nitted. It is the neW

creation which is set forth in verse 8. This is the reason for the
words there, and the comparison [of the Messiah] with a potter,
man being the clay from which comes a work of honor, etc. Verse
9 is a supplication that sins be remitted.
10 . . . Zion hath become a wilderness, Jerusalem a waste.
11 The house of our holiness, . . . has become a conflagra­
tion of fire: . . .
1~ Wilt thou refrain thyself over these things, 0 J ehovah?
wilt thou be silent, and afflict us thus sorely?

8030. And that things made desolate may be reformed. The

desolations of the faithful are compared in verse 10 to the desola­
tion of Zion and Jerusalem. Verse 11 is a continuation concerning
this desolation, etc. Verse 15'l is a supplication that they be deliv­
ered from evil, etc.
1 I am sought of them that asked not; I am found of them that
sought me not: I said, Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that
was not called by my name.
IV Ad. p. 155
ISAIAH LXIV: 8-1fl-LXV: 1-7 [80tH

fl I have spread out my hands all the day unto a rebellious

people, . . .
3 A people . . . which sacrifice in gardens, and burn incense
upon bricks:
4 Which abide in graves, and pass the night in waste places;
which eat swine's flesh, and a piece of abominations is in their
5 Which say, Remain by thyself, come not near to me; for I
am holier than thou. These things are a smoke in my nose, [and] 7
a fire that burneth all the day.
6 Behold, . . . I will not keep silence, but will recompense,
will recompense [I say] 8 upon their bosom.
7 Your iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together,
saith J ehovah, which have burned incense upon the mountains, and
shamed me upon the hills: therefore will I measure the first price
of their work upon their bosom.

8031. The answer of God Messiah concerning the uncleanness

of those who wish to justify themselves. The words in verse 1
follow immediately after the church's supplication, and are God
Messiah's answer. God Messiah is sought and found in his Word,
for the Word has gone forth throughout the whole globe; see
chapter 6fl 6 . But though it is found by those who yet do not seek
it, he still speaks as the words [of the text sound]. That is said
to be a nation which does not receive faith, and consequently which
is not called by the name of God :Messiah, it being only those who
have faith who are called by him. The subject is continued in
verse~. In general it concerns all the unfaithful. And so now,
in verse 3, the nation, being those who wish to justify themselves,
is described, and this by sacrifices in groves. They think the
works of those in whom they trust are gardens. What they really
are is also explained, namely, that they abide in graves (vs. 4).
Graves are unclean places, for there are the bones of the dead.
They are waste places, because there is no righteousness in them.
Here, as likewise in the preceding chapter 64 5 , by the eating of
swine and by a piece of abominations is signified uncleanness.
The words in verse 5 ate the words of those who justify themselves,
T Added by Schmidius.
8 Schmidius' substitute for and.
IV Ad. p. 155 ~83

for they think themselves more holy than those who have faith in
God Messiah. That it is this that turns their faces away from
God Messiah is here expressed by smoke and [i"e, etc. It is said
recompense upon their bosom (vs. 6), because the falling of this
uncleanness upon those who justify themselves is the punishment
of retaliation. This is then confirmed in verse 7. It is said, to
burn incense upon the mountains and to smite with shame upon
the hills, because they are haughty from the righteousness of their
works. The price of their work upon their bosom means the same
as above, still further explained.

8 Thus said Jehovah, As the new wine is found in the cluster,

[and] 9 he saith, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it: so will I
do for the sake of my servants, that I may not destroy them all.
9 But I will bring forth a seed out of J acob, [and] 9 out of
Judah an inheritor of my mountains, that mine elect may possess
it, and my servants dwell there.
10 And Sharon shall be for a habitacle of the flock, and the
valley of Achor for a couch of the herd; for my people that have
sought me.
n But ye are they that forsake Jehovah, that forget the
mountain of my holiness, that prepare a table for Gad, and that
fill a drink offering for Meni.
1!'l Therefore will I number you for the sword, and ye shall
all bend down to the slaughter: because . . . ye did evil in mine
eyes, and did choose what I have not willed.
IS Therefore thus said Adonai J ehovih, Behold, my servants
shall eat, but ye shall be hungry: behold, my servants shall drink,
but ye shall be thirsty: behold, my servants shall be gladdened,
but ye shall be shamed.
14 Behold, my servants shall sing from goodness of heart, but
ye shall cry out from sorrow of heart, and shall howl from break­
ing of spirit.
15 And ye shall so leave your name for an oath unto my
chosen: let Adonai Jehovih slay thee; but he shall call his servants
by another name:
• Omitted by Schmidius.

!'l84 IV Ad. p. 156

ISAIAH LXV: 8-15 [80S~-SOS4

8032. Therefore it is from the whole globe that they are to be

chosen to whom heaven will be given as an inheritance; but for
others will be damnation.
8033. As to the new wine in the cluster (vs. 8) consult the text,
for in the other translator it is different,I namely, which hath new
wine in the cluster. He speaks in this way, thus as if there were
no new wine left in the cluster or bunch, because there is still seed.
So is it in the entire globe. Although the grapes are rank and
foul smelling, there may yet be something of good in them.
Wherefore it is few who are chosen, and because of the few, the
rest will not perish. In the supreme sense, the seed out of J acob
(vs. 9) is the Messiah who, because he was born in Jacob, is called
the Mighty Jacob and the Powerful One of Jacob. Therefore, in
the inmost sense here, as above (see chap. 59 21 ), by seed is meant
faith. In this verse, as frequently above, out of Judah signifies
those who have faith. The mountains are the heavens; for the
subject treated of is the promised land which is heaven. In the
supreme sense, the Messiah is likewise meant by the inheritor of
the mountains from Judah, etc. That Sharon signifies heaven
(vs. 10), see the Collecta. 2 The valley of Achor in the inheritance
of Judah stands also for the herds, and so likewise signifies heaven,
but a lower heaven, because it is said valley where they will be
greatly disturbed, the place being so called from disturbance
[Josh. 7 24- 26 ] ; see the Collecta. 2
8034. To prepare a table for Gad (vs. 11) means to place
righteousness in works; for Gad signifies a crowd or heap as seen
in his name; for M eni is explained by number. S Meni was also an
idol, which signifies the same thing; heap according with table, and
number with drink otferitng, etc. " To number" (vs. 1~) answers
1 A literal translation of the Hebrew would be As which shall be found the

new wine in the cluster, and he said, Destroy ·it '/lot, which agrees with Schmidius.
Tremellius' translation is somewhat dift'erent, namely, to him which hath at hand
new wine in the cluster, he says, Destl'oyit not. But in a note, Tremellius ex­
plains that the Hebrew word which he translates at hand means lS found.
J See Appendix, s.v., Sharon, Achor.

J Tremellius' translation is that fill the drink offering for those numbers;

but he explains in a footnote that the Hebrew is for that number as in the A.V.,
which, however, gives 31eni as an alternative for numbe'" The Hebrew word,
which occurs only in the present passage, is from ')0 to determine, measure,
number. According to Buxtorf, Meni was the God Mercury, the Divinity of
Commerce and Gain, to whom merchants poured out drink offerings for the suc­
cess of their commercial undertakings.
IV Ad. p. 156

to M eni, and " to bend down to the slaughter" answers to the ta­
ble of Gad, .as a law of retaliation, because they did not acknowl­
edge the righteousness of the :Messiah. The words confirm this.
In verse 13, heaven and heavenly gifts are described, together with
what is in opposition thereto. The comparison with a table and
a drink offering is continued, and is explained as being heavenly
joy. In verse 14 the explanation is continued. This table and
drink offering shall be for the servants of God Messiah who are
justified by his righteousness. The opposition is further contin­
ued in verse 15; but look up the text, for the interpreters vary,
and see whether it involves that the unfaithful shall no longer be
so called; 4 for the subject in the next verse is the land, and, con­
sequently, that other inhabitants are to be chosen. These also will
not be called by the same name, the descendants of Jacob having
profaned the name, etc., etc.

16 . . . He that sweareth in the earth shall swear in the God

of truth; because the former straitnesses are given to oblivion, and
because they are hid from mine eyes.
17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the
former things shall not be remembered, nor rise up upon the heart.
18, 19 . . . Behold, I create Jerusalem an exultation, and
her people gladness. . . . The voice of weeping shall be no more
heard in her, nor the voice of a cry.
flO There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an
old man that hath not filled his days: the boy, a son, shall measure
out an hundred years, and the sinner, the son of an hundred years,
shall be accursed.
fll And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and shall
plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof.
flfl, flS They shall not build, that another may inhabit; . . .
They shall not labour in vain, . . .
• A literal translation of the Hebrew (with which the Vulgate, Pagnini,
the Swedish Bible, ·and the A.V. are in substantial agreement) is " And ye shall
leave your name to (or ·for) a curse to my chosen ones; and shall slay thee [the
Septuagint and the Chaldee read you], Adonai," etc. Tremellius has: " And ye
shall dismiss your name that it may be a curse· to my chosen when the Lord Je­
hovah hath smitten thee with death." Schmidius:" Ye shall so leave your name
for an oath unto my chosen that they say, Let Adonai Jehovih slay thee." Cas­
tellio: " And ye shall leave your name detestable to my chosen; and the Lord
J ehovah shall slay you."
fl86 IV Ad. p. 157
ISAIAH LXV: 16-~5 [8035-8037

~4 And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will

answer; while they are yet speaking, I will hear.
~5 The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion
shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's
bread. They shall not do evil nor destroy in all the mountain of
my holiness, saith Jehovah.
8035. In these verses, the heaven or the elect is described and,
at the same time, the state of the man who is ju,stified-that sins
will no longer condemn him.
8036. The God of truth or the Truth (vs. 16) is that the Mes­
siah alone is Righteousness. Therefore to those who have faith,
the righteousness of the Messiah is applied. Thus their iniquities
are hidden from his eyes. Respecting this hiding, see the verses
that follow. By new heavens and a new earth (vs. 17), in the uni~
versal sense, is meant heaven, thus the kingdom of God Messiah in
those who are in heaven and in those who are on earth; in the in­
most sense, the man who is justified or regenerated, for in him
the former straightnesses are given to oblivion, that is, are not
remembered, and, consequently, are not felt, that is, do not rise up
upon the heart. In verse 18, heaven is compared to Jerusalem,
and, in the different senses now treated of, this signifies the same
thing. Heavenly joy is described by Jerusalem, etc. The words
in verse 19 are clear from the preceding verses. By the first words
in verse ~o is described the perfection of their state, and by the
latter, the state of the condemned. But look up the text. 5 Verse
~1 is a description of heaven by way of comparison, as frequently
above. So likewise verse ~~, as above, etc,; also verse ~3, and
likewise verse ~4.
8037. What is described in verse ~5 is, that sins will no longer
condemn them, there being no damnation to those who are in God
Messiah since the righteousness of the Messiah is imputed to them.
Original guilt and the many sins arising from actuality cannot
then rise up and so defile the man; for when they do rise up, they
are at once bent into good, and so are taken away. Those sins
and evil affections which remain enrooted are signified by the
• A literal translation of the Hebrew is Not shall thoro be from thel'e an.y
moro an. infant of days and an old man which shall not fill his days; for tho boy,
a son of a hundred years, shall die, and tho sinner, the son of a hundred years,
shall bo cursed. 'Vith this, all the translators are in substantial agreement.
IV Ad. p. 157 ~87

wolf, the lion, and the serpent which shall lie hidden in the dust.
Thus they will do no evil because 6 they cannot do evil; for God
Messiah leads them, etc., etc. This might be confirmed by so
many experiences that 1
they would fill a great number of pages; for, by the Divine
mercy of God Messiah, experiences during a time now of so
many months have made it utterly clear to me that evil affec­
tions originating and raised up from [an hereditary] root and
from an actual new root, are at once turned into good. 8

Concerning the regeneration of man and the gathering of the
faithful to the kingdom of God.

1 Thus said Jehovah, The heavens are my throne, and the

earth is my footstool: what is the house that ye build unto me?
and what the place of my rest?
fl And all those things hath mine hand made, so that all these
are made, saith Jehovah: but to this man will I look, to him that is
miserable and afflicted in spirit, and that feareth for himself over
my word.

8038. The heaven of God Messiah is described generally, spe­

cifically and particularly.
8039. The heavens are my throne (vs. 1). The heavens are
distinguished into an interior, a more interior, and an inmost;
(see above [no 44fl3, 7453]), just as is the case in the individual
man, and so also in human societies, and thus in that universal
society where is the church of God Messiah. Properly speaking,
heavens are things which are more interior and inmost, and earth
that which win be the footstool, being that lower thing in man, to
wit, the natural, which has been subjugated; for this was his hell,
and, when subjugated, it lies subjacent like a footstool and can no
longer move. Hence come the offences which are aroused con­
tinually, but which are at once subjugated, nor do they any longer
• Reading quia for qt~i (who).
, The indented passage that follows is cited by the Author in the Index to
his Memorabilia, s.v., Damnare, Malum. See Table of Contents.
• [Crossed 011':] so that no evil can take any new root.
fl88 IV Ad. p. 158
ISAIAH LXVI: 1-4 [8040

murmur; for when God Messiah leads man the natural man is ruled
and no longer rules as before. So likewise is it now in the church
consisting of many men, and likewise in heaven; for man is an ef­
figy [of heaven], and heaven is constituted from man, it being
man who carries in himself the kingdom of God, that is, God Mes­
siah, etc. This heaven is distinguished into three classes. It is
called a house, and that lower heaven is the court of the house, etc.
Then, when there is a harmony of all, and no longer a tumult from
the lower heaven, this house is a place of rest. 9
8040. All those things (vs. 9l), namely, the heavens, are the
work of the hand of God Messiah, it being he who is the new Cre­
ator. The text treats also of creation; and, furthermore, it de­
scribes who they will be who are admitted into the heavens, namely,
they that are miserable and afflicted in spirit, for without misery
and afflictiQn of spirit, man is not regenerated. This everyone
can know clearly enough from his own self; for when living in all
almndance, the outer man dominates and the inner does nothing
whatsoe';;r; but as soon as the man is affiicted with some misery,
whatsoever it be, he commences to think concerning the vanity of
all things and is so led as to think concerning heaven; and then he
seeks comfort from the Word of God Messiah, and receives it.
Therefore the text adds afflicted in spirit, that feareth for himself
ove1' the 'Word of God Messiah. For first comes terror, and then
fear, and these are the signs of celestial operations upon the spir­
itual things of the man, and of spiritual operations upon the
natural man.

3 He that killeth an ox is smiting a man; he that sacrificeth a

cattle, is beheading a dog; he that maketh a mincha to go up/ the
blood of a swine; he that offereth incense, is blessing iniquity; even
these things have they chosen in their own ways, and their soul
delighteth in their abominations.
4 I also will choose their mockeries, and will bring their ter­
rors upon them; because I cried, but none did answer; I spake,
but they did not hear: but they did evil in mine eyes, and chose
what I did not will.
• No. 8039 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

1 Schmidius here adds the words is offering aB it were.

IV Ad. p. 159 9189


8041. That not the external man will be in heaven, but the in­
ternal. The preceding verse treated of him who is afflicted in
spirit, and consequently of the internal man; for man does not
\ become internal save when the external has been subjugated. The
.rews placed all their worship in externals, thus as that time in
sacrifices; and they thought that from this all their iniquities were
, forgiven them, whatsoever 2 might be the nature of their internal
man, even if it were shameful and were the hiding place of mere
hatreds. Therefore, after showing whence he is who is an in­
ternal man, the text then proceeds to the external without the
internal. Then he that lcilleth an ox is smiting a man, and he
I that sacrificeth a cattle, is beheading a dog, which was an unclean

\ animal, as also was the making a mincha go up, the blood of a

swine. The sacrifices themselves are then unclean; for everything
i whatsoever that is then done, even though it has been commanded
, that it be so done, is unclean in its least particulars as in its
greatest. So likewise is it with those who think that they make
atonement by the works of the law while the interior of the man
is unclean. All cleanness in externals comes from cleanness in in­
ternals. When the internal is clean, the external also beco;;es
clean. So likewise in the present case, when the internal man is
unclean, then everything that the man does-is unclean.--S<>likewise
among Christians who cry up faith as saving, and do not have
faith, etc., etc. That such sacrifices and such works are contrary
to the Word of God Messiah is stated in verse 4; for in Moses and
the Prophets this is taught many times, and God Messiah himself
taught the same thing. Their terrors are the things which they
abhor, thus the law of retaliation. What is said to be evil is that
they chose those things which are external in place of things in­
ternal, and remained in things corporeal, but neglected the things
which are signified thereby, etc.
8042.* The subject treated of from verse 5 to the end is the
2 Reading qualiscunq'ue for ut c'unque (howsoever).
* (Preceding this paragraph, the following is crossed off by the Author:]
Verses 5-6. That the external man will be cast out.
Verse 5. Look up the text here. [Tremellius' translation is: . . . ye that trem­
ble at his word. . . . Your hate'I's that hold you at a distance, etc. (Heb., that
separate you)]. That those who are treated of will be ashamed, is a conse­
Verse 6. That there will then be a tumult, and that retribution will be
rendered to the enemies. But here also look up the text. (Tremellius connects
~90 IV Ad. p. 159
ISAIAH LXVI: ~ [8048-8044

two advents of God Messiah, this being the end of the whole

5 Hear the word of J ehovah, 0 ye that fear at his word : Your

brethren, your haters that cast you out, have said: For my name's
sake let J ehovah be glorified, and we shall see your joy; but they
shall be ashamed.
6 A voice of a tumult from the city, a voice from the temple,
a voice of Jehovah that rendereth retribution to his enemies.

8043. [That the external man will be cast out.] 3 Here two
kinds of men are treated of, being those who await God Messiah
and those who deny him and so hold him in hatred. First, atten­
tion is aroused inasmuch as the matter is one of supreme moment.
Hear the word will be said both to those who love the Word con­
cerning the advent of God Messiah, and to those who do not love
it and who therefore cast out those who do. The glorification of
Jehovah is God Messiah. He also is the joy of those who love
the Word concerning Him.
8044. This word will cause a tumult frorn the city, that is, a
cry from the church, and a voice from the temple, that is, from
heaven (vs. 6). Here the two kinds are again presented, for the
tumult [from the city] has reference also to those enemies who
are in the city, that is, in the world; and [the voice] in the temple,
to those who are in heaven; for many are now admitted there who
verse 5 with verse 6, thus: they shall be ashamed at the voice of a tumult, etc.
The Hebrew does not justify this.]
Verses 7-9. Concerning the "egeneration of man; in the s1'preme sell,se,
concerning the advent of the Mess·iah.
That the subject here treated of ill the inmost sense is the regeneration of
man, and, in the supreme sense, the birth of the Messiah, is evident both from
the last preceding verse, and also from the verses that follow, especially in the
present series. In the inmost sense, the man child (vs. 7) and the sons (vs. 8)
which the church brings forth are faith; but as to what else is the meaning of the
words, this I cannot yet understand. That this will be a miracle, and something
unheard of, as is the case elsewhere where the Messiah is treated of, is evident
from the words. As to what otherwise is the meaning, I most humbly pray that,
by the Divine mercy of God Messiah, this may be made known at another time.
Verses ID-14. Concerning the felicity of the internal man.
Verse 10. The subject now treated of is the regenerated man, thus the
church, namely, Jerusalem. By Jerusalem is meant the doctrine of faith.
3 These words al'e taken from the crossed off lines; see preceding note.

IV Ad. p. 160 ~91


are then to be driven out, as is evident also from the Apocalypse,

chapter 1~[9].

7 Before she travaileth, she bringeth forth; before her pain

cometh, she is delivered of a man child.
8 Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things?
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? shall a nation
be born at once? for Zion conceived, she also brought forth her
9 Shall I break,' and not beget? saith Jehovah: shall I cause
to beget, and I have shut? saith thy God.

8045. [Concerning the regeneration of ma,n; zn the supreme

sense, concerning the advent of the Messiah.] ~ What is said in
verse 7 signifies that he is to come quickly, that is, when no one
expects it, like a woman who is carrying in the womb and gives
birth before she has been in labor and before the pains come. The
man child is faith, the first born of the church. As to the other
sons of the church or Zion, these are treated of in the verse that
next follows. That he is to come in a moment, when no one ex­
pects him, this, God Messiah himself teaches [Matt. ~442; Luke
1~4o]. Moreover, a woman with child is frequently compared to
the church; but while in the world, pain precedes, etc. That such
a thing had never been heard, thus that it is a miracle of~iracles,
is indicated in verse 8. The subject here treated of is the church
and her sons, and consequently the time before the advent of God
Messiah into glory; consequently, all men, from the first time of
the new creation even to this last time. It is also a time of con­
ception and travail, to distinguish it from the time when the birth
takes place without pain. This is confirmed in verse 9, where the
comparison with a woman with child and the bringing forth,S is
continued; for pain preceded, this being signified by " breaking."
Therefore, since all these things precede, is not the consequence
indicated as being generation or the new creation?
• Schmidius here adds the womb.
• See note 3.
• Reading enixu for enuru which is not a Latin word. The Latin Editor
suggests that what was meant is enixura (a woman about to bring forth).

IV Ad. p. 160
ISAIAH LXVI; 7-14 [8046-8047

10 Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all that love

her: gladden yourselves with gladness with her, all that mourn
over her:
11 That ye may suck, and be satisfied from the teat of her con­
solations; that ye may press out, and be delighted from the splen­
dor of her glory.
1~ For thus said Jehovah, Behold, I spread peace over her as
a river, and the glory of the Gentiles as a flooding torrent, that
ye may suck; ye shall be lifted to her side, and upon her knees
shall ye be delighted.
13 As a man whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort
you; and ye shall have comfort in Jerusalem.
14 And ye shall see, and your heart shall be glad, and your
bones shall bud forth as an herb: that the hand of Jehovah with
his servants may be known; and he shall be angry with his enemies.

8046. [Concerning the felicity of the internal man.] 7 J eru­

.~alem (vs. 10) is the kingdom of God Messiah over which all the
faithful will have exceeding gladness. The mourners are those
who mourned, because they were expecting [the kingdom] ; that
is to say, are those who sigh. See the words of God Messiah, that
creatures groan from expectation, etc. [Luke ~126]. Look up
the text, for another interpreter has thou that didst mourn [over
her]. g Sucking (vs. 11) is a customary word in passages where
perfect joy, etc., is expressed; for joy follows from the teat of
her consolations. The consolation has regard to the past misery.
Delights and everything which exists in the kingdom of God are
called glory and the splendor of glory, being from love and wis­
dom, etc.
,-~ 8047. The kingdom of God Messiah is expressed almost every­
where by peace (vs. 1~ ;-concerning peace, see above [no 551,
686~-63, 78~7]) ; and also by glory. Peace and glory are uni­
versal words whereby is expressed the kingdom of God Messiah,
all peace and all glory being from him, etc. Ye shall be lifted to
her side and upon her knees, etc. Here the comparison with a
woman who has now brought forth a male child and sons, is con­
tinued. In verse 13, God Messiah is compared to a man, and his
, See note 3 above.
• Schmidius' translation is very exact.

IV Ad. p. 161

love to [the love of] a mother toward her children, and this be­
cause of the continuation of the comparison. The meaning of
verse 14 is that the gladness will be the jOY.2f 1l2.!e, and that things
which are dead will then become green like the herb; for in man
, is nothing save what is dead, but with the approach of the life of
J God Messiah's 10'ye, he becomes green, as it were, etc.

15 :For, behold, Jehovah will come in fire, and his chariots as

a whirlwind, to recompense in fury and with his anger, and his
rebuke as flames of fire.
16 For in fire and in his sword will Jehovah make judgment
with all flesh: and the slain of J ehovah shall be multiplied.
17 They that sanctify and purify themselves upon gardens
behind one in the midst, eating swine's flesh, and the abominable
thing, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith Jehovah.
'~As for me, their works and their thoughts: it shall come,
for the gathering of ~ll naJion~~ues;that they may come,
and see my glory.
1 For I will set a si n amon them, and I will send those that
escape of them unto u;- nations, Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, drawers
of the bow, Tubal, and J avan; the isles afar off, that have not
heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; a ~ r e
my 101' amon the Gentiles.
~O Then shall they bring all your brethren out of all nations,
an offering to Jehovah, upon horses, and upon the chariot, and
upon covered carriages, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts,
to the mountain of my holiness, Jerusalem, saith J ehovah; as sons
of Israel they shall bring an offering in a clean vessel into the
house of Jehovah.
~1 And I will also take of them for priests, for Levites, saith
~~ For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will
make, shall stand before me, saith J ehovah, so shall your seed and
your name stand.
~3 Then shall it come to pass, from a month to its month, and
from a sabbath to its sabbath; all flesh shall come to bow them­
selves down before me, saith Jehovah.
~4 Then shall they go forth, and see the carcases of the men,
that are transgressors against me: for their worm shall not die,
~94 IV Ad. p. 161
ISAIAH LXVI: 15-fl4 [8048-8049

and their fire shaH not be quenched; and they shall be an abhor­

ring unto all flesh.

8048. Since, for the most part, opposites are presented, so also
in verse 15, Moreover, this opposite is represented in the church
instituted in the Jewish people; for the enemies were the Canaanites
who were given to the curse. By them were signified spiritual ene­
mies, being the enemies of the church. And because this was en­
graved in their minds, therefore it is so often taken up here, and
described according to their conception, they being in externals. 9
But this opposite must be understood in a wholly different way,
namely, as meaning that God Messiah is angry with no one, but
all that he does he does from love. This was revealed to them many
times, etc., etc. Verse 16 is a continuation of the same subject,
namely, the enemies of th~ church Qf j:.tod 1Vles::;ia1L; also verse 17,
treat' g . .of~thing'L_unclean, being those who plllc~all rig~ess
( ill externals, as may be seen above [n. 8041].
-S049. Verse 18 treats of the two advents of God Messiah, who
will gather his church from every nation and tongue; but more
especially of the second advent. That the wicked also will see
the advent of G~d Messiah into glory, see the words of God Mes­
siah himself [Matt. ~437-S9; Luke 17 26 - 3 °]. God Messiah grant­
r ing, these words will then be explained. The si which he will
set (vs. 19) will be thl!...t whergb the gJo~'y of God Messiah will
. be kno ,!11 , As et 't is unknQFIl, but still, so~ething ,can be sJ}id
concerning it, etc. Those that escape are those who WIll announce
it'The regions here mentioned are named from the sons 0 the
sons of Noah who had been scattered, and especially from .Japheth;
for Tarshish was the son of Javan, the grandson of .Japheth (Gen.
10 4 ). Pul is not found [in the Scriptures], but that he was never­
theless from that primitive time can be evident from the other
names. Lud was a son of Shem (ibid. 10 22 ). Tubal was a son
of Japheth (ibid. 10 2 ), and from him were the isles of the nations
[ibid. 10 5 ] ; Javan likewise was a son of Japheth (ibid. 10 2 ), and
from him also were the isles of the nations (ibid. vs. 5), ThUS))
what are meant are a.!!...the gentiles ill the entire globe, and, in gen­
eral, all men from the first day 0 e new creation to the last.
• This first part of n. 8048 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the


IV Ad. p. 161 !95


8050. By brethren (vs. ~O) are signified all who are of the true
church, that is, of the faith in God Messiah, and this from every
nation and tongue; for the subject treated of is tl~dren _C!-f
Zion, whose brethren they are. By horses, chariots, mules and
c;';ered carriages are signified all those spiritual things which
cause them to be among brethren and to come to the mountain of
holiness. The similitude is explained by that which was also rep­
resented in the primitive church, namely, the bringing of an of­
fering in a clean vessel. The clean vessel is the internal man who
has faith and to whom is imputed the holiness of the Messiah.
Moreover, the nations which are born in shade shall also be in the
priestly kingdom (vs. ~1), that is, in the inmost, etc. By seed in
verse ~~, as very frequently in previous passages, are meant all
the faithful of the entire globe. These are called the seed of
Abraham, as above [chap. 41 8 ]. Your name is from Israel and
also from the inmost meaning [of the names] of the tribes of
8051. Verse ~3 indicates, as previously [n. 7966], that it will
come to pass, that heaven will increase, not hastily but succes­
sively. But these are arcane matters. All will be gathered to­
gether in a moment. As regards the multitude which is to come
from month to month, this is an arcanum not yet revealed, but
other passages confirming the same thing may be added. In
verse ~4 the opposite is presented, that is to say, hell.

~96 IV Ad. p. 16!!


4 Then the words of Jehovah came unto me, saying,
5 Before I formed thee in the womb I knew thee; and before
thou earnest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I gave thee
to be a prophet unto the nations.
6 Then said I, Ah, Lord Jehovah! 10, I know not how to speak:
for I am a youth.
7 But J ehovah said unto me, Say not, I am a youth: but to
whomsoever I shall send thee, go; and whatsoever I command thee,
S Be not afraid of them: for I am with thee to snatch thee
away, the saying of Jehovah.
9 Then J ehovah put forth his hand, and covered my mouth.
And J ehovah said unto me, Behold, I put my words in thy mouth.
10 See, I have this day set thee in authority among nations
and kingdoms, to uproot, and destroy, and to put an end to, and
to lay waste; to build, and to plant.

8052. Concerning the TVord of God il1 essiah and the efficacy
8053. The word came to the prophet (vs. 4), the prophet be-
ing he who here signifies the Word, because it came through him.
Here, as elsewhere in every prophecy, the person is taken by whom
that is represented which is contained in the prophecy. That by
a prophet, in the supreme sense, is meant the Word of God, and
thus the Messiah, is clear from the whole series; for such words
can never be applicable to a prophet. The prophet is like the
angel who, being an instrument, when he speaks, represents God
Messiah and calls himself Jehovah,l as seen in many passages.
8054. Because, in the supreme sense, the subject treated of is
the Messiah, and, indeed, his Mission to preach the Word to the
1 [Crossed off:) God.

IV Ad. p. 163 297


whole world, therefore verse 5 treats of his Human Person; for

he was sent to preach the Word as a Man or the Son of man, and
thus also he became the Word. Here the Divine Essence now
speaks to the Human Essence; and since, by the latter he is One
with Jehovah his Father, for the Divine is One, when it is said
that he was sent by Jehovah his Father, etc., it signifies the same
thing. The words in verse 5 are now applied to his Human Es­
sence, to wit, that he was known before he was formed, for he
was known from eternity; and was sanctified before he was born;
for he was conceived of the Holy Spirit, and afterwards was sancti­
fied by his own powers. Thus he became the Prophet, that is,
the High Priest, and this to the nations of the entire globe.
8055. Verses 6 and 7 concern the mission, for it is well known
that his Human Essence grew from infancy through 2 [successive]
ages, like any other man. Thus he also was a youth, and because
he had infirmities like any other man, even when a youth, these
words also were fitting. Had he not been as any other man, he
could not have undergone temptations. Thus he must needs have
had natural inclinations, but not sin. He took the infirmities, etc.,
from the mother. Such likewise is the meaning of the words in
verse 8. That he spoke words which Jehovah his Father put in
his mouth (vs. 9) is evident from his own words [John 8 28 , 12 49 ,
1410] which may here be adduced and which are wholly like those
of the text.
8056. It does not appear that the Prophet Jeremiah was set in
authority to uproot and to build (vs. 10) ; but the Word was given
him that he should uproot and build, and this because the \Vord
was God Messiah who is the Word. 3

11 Then the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Jeremiah,

what seest thou? And I said, I see a rod of an almond tree.
12 And J ehovah said unto me, Thou hast done wen seeing: for
I will be watchful over my word to perform it.

8057. Concerning the efficacy of the Word for the planting of

the Church. What is signified in verse 11 by a rod of an almond
tree is indeed told in the next verse, but not plainly because what
2 Reading per for ad (to).

• No. 8056 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the margin.

298 IV Ad. p. 164
JEREMIAH I: 4-19 [8057

is treated of in this chapter, from verse i3 to the end, is the up­

rooting of enemies; but it is evident from the preceding verse, for
at the end of that verse we read, " to build and to plant." More­
over, from these words it can be seen what is signified by Aaron's
almond rod in the midst of the rods of the elders of the tribes, for
this rod alone blossomed; it was in the middle; and afterwards it
was laid up in the ark [Num. 17 8,1°]. There, by a rod of an
almond tree, the same thing is signified as by a garden, a paradise,
a vineyard, consequently the church of God Messiah, and, in the
supreme sense, the Messiah himself. The explanation in verse 1~,
which is short, involves the same thing. The meaning of being
watchful over the word is made clear from the preceding words.
Thus the rod is the Word which builds up the Church, and so is
the Church, etc.
13 And the word of J ehovah came unto me the second time,
saying, What seest thou? And I said, I see a blown pot; and the
face thereof is toward the north.
14 Then J ehovah said unto me, From the north an evil shall be
opened upon all the inhabitants of the land.
15 For, 10, I call all the families of the kingdoms toward the
north, the saying of Jehovah, that they come, and set every man
his throne at the entering of the gates of Jerusalem, and at [all] 4
the walls thereof round about, and at all the cities of J udah.
16 And I will utter my judgments with them touching all their
wickedness, in that they have forsaken me, and have burned incense
unto other gods, and have bowed themselves down to the work of
their own hands.
17 Thou shalt therefore gird up thy loins, and stand up, and
speak unto them all that I command thee: be not dismayed before
them, lest I lay thee low before them.
18 For, behold, I have made thee this day as a city of defence,
and as a pillar of iron, and as walls of brass against the whole land,
against the kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, against
the priests thereof, and against the people of the land.
19 And they shall fight against thee; but they shan not pre­
vail over thee; for I am with thee, the saying of Jehovah, to snatch
thee away.
• Omitted by Scbmidius.
IV Ad. p. 164 ~99

8058. Concerning the efficacy of the Word for fighting with

8059. A. blown pot (vs. 18) means boiling water. This is ex­
plained later, the combat with the enemies of the church being cir­
cumstanced like boiling water. Toward the north means toward
darkness, for by the north is meant night, etc. From the north an
evil shall be opened (vs. 14), that is, from those things which are
of the shade, and thus from lies and from the malice which produces
lies. Since the north signifies night, it is clear that from the north
means from the devil who is night and a lie, etc.
8060. All the families being called to the north (vs. 15) signi­
fies that successive devastation of which the prophets speak so
often. Here it signifies that they may come into spiritual shade
and so may lift themselves up as upon a throne, against the
church of God Messiah. So likewise with the words at the walls.
By the cities of Judah are meaut truths which are of faith; hence
cities, walls, combats, arc l>0 frequently mentioned. What further
is here signified is that all the wicked are called together, being
those who have been sent to the north, that is, who are in malice,
8061. To these he would tell all his judgments (vs. 16), that is
to say, those which concern the interior man and his renovation,
and the reason why they do not acknowledge God Messiah. That
it is the Jews who are specifically meant here is clearly evident from
the end of the chapter, it being they who fell away and journeyed
from the south to the north, that is, from light to the shade of
night. Inasmuch as they forsook God Messiah, the necessary con­
sequence is that they worship as gods all those things which are
the works of their hands and which are their own, thus worshipping
themselves. This is here described by burning incense to other
gods, and bowing themselves down to the work of their hands.
Similar words concerning the sending occur in verse 17.
8062. The words in verse 18 can never be fitting to any other
than the Messiah alone. It is he who is a city of defence for all
in the universe, a· pillar of iron, as to constancy, a wall of brass,
and this against the whole land. By land here is meant the land
wherein is no longer any faith, and by the kings of Judah and by
the people are meant the enemies of God Messiah. Thus by Judah
here is meant the opposite of what is meant by Judah in verse 15;
300 IV Ad. p. 165
JEREMIAH I: 13-19-II: 1-8 [8063

for here he is spoken of in his proper sense, meaning one who has
fallen away from the faith, and, in general, all the unfaithful. All
these fought against God Messiah alone (vs. 19), for it is he alone
who fights, angels and men who appear to fight being merely in-
struments which he uses and which in themselves are dead, etc.
8063. It must here be observed that by the families of the king-
doms toward the north, and consequently by the inhabitants 5 (vs.
14, 15) are meant the Jews, for, as stated in verses 18 and 19, it
is they who fought; but look up the text. 6

1 Moreover the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,
2 Go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying, Thus said Je-
hovah; I remember thee, the compassion of thy youth, the love of
thy betrothals, when thou wentest after me in the wilderness, in a
land not sown.
3 Israel was holines$ unto J ehovah, the firstfruits of his in-
crease: all that devoured him became guilty, evil came upon them;
the saying of J ehovah.
4 Hear ye the word of Jehovah, 0 house of Jacob, and all the
families of the house of Israel:
5 Thus said Jehovah, What of iniquity have your fathers
found in me, that they have departed far from me, and have walked
after vanity, and are become vain?
6 Neither said they, Where is Jehovah that brought us up out
of the land of Egypt, that led us in the wilderness, in a land of
solitude and of the pit, in a land of drought, and of the shadow
of death, in a land that no man passed through, and where no man
7 And I led you to u. land of produce, to eat the fruit thereof
and the goodness thereof; but ye came and defiled my land, and
made mine heritage an abomination.
8 The priests said not, 'Where is J ehovah? and they that held
, The autograph has nations; if this is correct, then the reference should be
to vs. 10, 15.
• Tremellius' translation of verses 14 and 15 is F'rom the north that evil shall
break forth For, behold, when I shall call out all families, the kingdoms of
the north that, cl>ming, they may set each man his throne . . . against the
walls of that city and against all the cities of Judah. Schmidius' translation is
more literal.
IV Ad. p. 165 801

the law acknowledged me not: the pastors also transgressed against

me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after them
that do not profit.

8064.* Concerning the primitive church, that it was beloved,

and that this church, when continued in J acob, departed from the
faith. By Jerusalem (vs. ~) is meant the primitive church which
was after the time of N oah. 1 It is this church which was the
youth, on whom God Messiah had compassion, and which was the
love of her betrothals, that is, the bride. It was this church that
walked in a desert land, a land not sown; for the Word was not yet
well revealed, as neither were set rites. He taught the ancients by
word of mouth, for he then spoke with them and so led them. The
words of the text do not fit in with the people of J acob who, when
in the wilderness, continually rebelled, and this from the first day
of their calling. From this church were the first fruits of his in­
crea~e (vs. 3). As to what the other words mean, see the text.
And now in verse 4, the text turns to Jacob in whom this same
church was continued, being set into a form. In general, the text
also extends to the church after the advent of God Messiah, etc.
Because God Messiah then revealed himself by miracles and by
the Word, etc., and continually showed them benefits, and never­
theless they departed from him, the question is asked, What of
iniquity is found in him? (vs. 5). By a land of drought, and of
the shadow [of death] (vs. 6) is meant that there may be tempta­
tions there, it being through the wilderness and through tempta­
tions that man is led to faith. First is described man's state be­
fore regeneration, and so the things that happened to the people
of Jacob. This is the state when He brings man up out of Egypt.
[To] a land of produce (vs. 7) being Canaan, means to the true
faith and so to the kingdom of God Messiah. Here it is set forth
that they had now 8 departed from the faith, and so had defiled it.
Verse 8 means that all their doctrine was perverted, and so they
pursued things which were wholly contrary, etc.
* [Crossed off:] Concerning those on whom God Messiah had compa88ion,
and to whom he revealed him8elf, but atUl they departed from faith in him.
7 [Crossed off:] and also immediately after His advent.

• Reading 1/IUnc for non.

IV Ad. p. 166
JEREMIAH II: ~-a [8065

9 Wherefore I will contend with you yet more, the saying of

Jehovah; yea, with the sons of your sons will I contend.
10 For pass over the isles of the Kittites, and see; and send
unto Arabia, and consider diligently; see [I say] 9 if aught is done
such as this.
11 Hath a nation changed gods, when yet they are not gods?
but my people have exchanged their glory for that which doth not
1~ Be astonished, 0 ye heavens, at this, and be greatly horri­
fied, tremble greatly, the saying of Jehovah.

8065. That the gentiles who have no revelation are better than
they. In verse 9 they are now rebuked. 1 The isles of the Kittites
and Ambia (vs. 10) are taken for every idolatrous nation, Kittim
being the grandson of J apheth [Gen. 10 4 ]. Of these nations we
do not read that they changed gods (vs. 11). [The heavens are
horrified (vs. 1~) because they choose shade in place of light, and
death in place of life, at which one must needs be greatly horrified.
The truth is that man is born in those loves which are called loves
of the world and self; and that the nations then followed after
gods which permitted them such things, and so seem to have been
able to remain. But it must arouse the utmost horror, that the
people of Jacob [turned to such gods], a people to whom worship
in exteI="nals was gi"ven merely that they might remember the things
which the externals signified, that is to say, that in their worship
they might remember God Messiah. Yet at the first §.ight of the
wo!:-~hip of a strange god, the. betook themselves theret_ with a
reci itous haste which gave a manifest sign that they wished to
1 I
know nothing from the internal man and, consequently, nothing
from God Messiah, as to his redeeming them from their sins.
Hence arose that hatred which resulted in their casting themselves
so readily into idolatries. Yet each one of them can know that
they were led as gently as could possibly be done, and this without
any yoke. Moreover, not wishing to know anything concerning
~ internal man: because they did not wish to know anything con­
cerning God Messiah, they were left to their own cupidities, the
result being that they fell into idolatries of every kind, nay, into
• Schmidius' substitution for and.

1 [Crossed off:] or called to judgm-

IV Ad. p. 167 30S


multiple and changing idolatries; for, unlike the gentiles, each

city, nay, and even each family, had its own gods, etc. That men
are led through deserts and through temptations is a necessity;

yet, in the midst of deserts and temptations, God Messiah with_his
mercy is more present than at other times, etc., etc.

13 For my people have committed two evils; they have for­

saken me the fountain of living waters, to raise up for themselves
pits, broken pits, that hold no water.
14 Is Israel a servant? is he a child of the house? why has he
become a spoil?
15 The young lions roar against him; they put forth their
voice [and] 2 turn his land into a waste: his cities are burned, and
there is no inhabitant.
16 Also the sons of Noph and Tahapanes teed on the crown of
thy head.
17 Hast thou not done this to thyself, in that thou hast for­
saken Jehovah thy God, what time he led thee into the way?
18 And now what hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, to
drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do with the way
of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river? S
19 Thine own wickedness shall chastise thee, and thy back­
slidings shall reprove thee: that thou mayest know and see that it
is an evil thing and bitter, that thou hast forsaken Jehovah thy
God, and that my fear is not upon thee, the saying of the Lord
Jehovah Sabaoth.

8066. Therefore they a.lso are forsaken, and so fall from light
into shade and become a spoil to their enemies. The evils are, that
they forsook God Messiah and thus the fountain of living waters
(vs. 13), that is, life itself. The pits are the shades into which
they fall, and also hell, this being expressed by pits where are no
waters, that is to say, nothing of celestial and spiritual life. [The
question is asked in verse 14] because to Israel had been revealed
the \V ord concerning God Messiah. Thus he was chosen above
all others, that is, he was born in the house. Thus he was aban­
doned because he had forsaken God Messiah; for to fall from light
• Omitted by Schmidius.

3 Schmidius here adds the word Euphmt6s.

304 IV Ad. p. 167

JEREMIAH II: 13-~~ [8067

into shade is much more horrible than to remain in shade when

one has never seen light, etc. Lions in verse 15 are the enemies
who prey upon man. The land which they turn into a waste is
his intellectual mind,. etc. The cities there, are on fire with cu­
pidities; hence the waste. N oph (vs. 16) is the land of Egypt,
and, consequently, the cupidities of the animus and body. These
feed on the crown of the head, that is, destroy and lay waste the
intellectual mind or the interior man. This is done by man in
that he has forsaken God Messiah, when yet the Word was revealed
to him, this revelation being the leading in the way (vs. 17), that
is, in the way of truth. The way of Egypt (vs. 18) is false doc­
trine arising from natural science and also from the perverted doc­
trine into which the natural man or nature and her cupidities have
led him. To drink the waters of Sihor-these are the natural cog­
nitions which follow; so likewise Assyria and the waters of the
Euphrates, the Euphrates being the border and thus corporeal life.
Hence comes not only intellectual shade but also wickedness (vs.
19), this being the consequence. Hence the punishments which
follow the backslidings; and because the man has forsaken God
Messiah, he himself is abandoned, etc.

~o When, from of old I broke thy yoke; I tore away thy

bonds; thou saidst indeed, I will not pass over; but upon every
high hill and under every green wood thou turnest aside, as a
!tl And I had planted thee a whole noble vine, a seed of truth:
how then art thou turned to me as the degenerate branch of a
strange vine?
~~ Therefore, if thou shalt wash thee with nitre, and multiplJ
for thyself ointment, thine iniquity shall Jet hold its blemishes be­
fore me, the saJing of the Lord Jehovah.

8067. And because they have been in the light of truth, iniquity
remaims. To break the Joke and tear awaJ the bonds (vs. ~O)
means to thrust down the natural man under whose Joke he was,
and thus to deliver him from the yoke of his spiritual enemies.
This was done to the people by means of many temptations. To
pass over has regard to the passing over from the external man to
• [Crossed off: I where will be the kingdom of God, thus the chu-
IV Ad. p. 168 805

the .internal, and also to not passing over the law and the covenant.
Still he turns away and, indeed, to the opposite. That the people
of J acob was chosen because to it was revealed the Word, and that
this people, having the light, thus became a priestly kingdom, is
confirmed in verse ~1; for it was from this people that all light
poured forth in every direction. But because its life was not such,
therefore it was rejected, and the 'Vord given it passed over to the
gentiles. This people is here called a noble vine and a seed of
tTuth; and elsewhere it is said that it became a kingdom of priests
[Exod. 19°] ; but by reason of the causes previously spoken of,
the state was entirely changed, as is indeed the case, etc. Hence
it became the [degenerate] branch of a strange vine. 5 Hence, as
the shade is denser, the greater the light, so the iniquity is now
more deeply inherent. This can be illustrated by many circum­
stances. It is expressed by the statement that the blemishes of
iniquity cannot be washed away (vs. ~~).

~3 How sayest thou, I am not defiled, I have not gone after

Baalim? see thy way in the valley, acknowledge what thou hast
done: thou art a fleet dromedary straightening her ways;
~4 A wild ass used to the wilderness, she draweth in the wind
for the desire of her soul; who shall hold back her occasion? all
they that seek her are not wearied; in her months they find her.
~5 ·Withhold thy foot from being un shod, and thy throat from
thirst: but thou sayest, It is hopeless: no; but I will love strangers,
and after them will I go.
~6 As the shame of a thief when he is caught, so are ashamed
the house of Israel, they, their kings, their princes, and their
priests, and their prophets,
~7 Saying to a stick, Thou art my father; and to a stone, Thou
hast begotten me: for they have turned unto me the neck, and not
the faces, but in the time of their evil they will say, Arise, and
save us.
~8 But where are thy gods which thou hast made thee? let them
arise, if they can save thee in the time of thine evil: for the number
of thy cities were thy gods, 0 Judah.
• The comment on verse 21 is marked " Ohs., Ohs.," in the margin.

306 IV Ad. p. 168

JEREMIAH II: ~3-34 [8068

8068. Such men pe1'suade themselves that they are righteous,

but in the time of affliction, they cry out. They who fall from
light into shade think natural lumen to be light itself, and the
works of night to be works of light. Thus they persuade them­
selves that they are righteous. Therefore they say that they do
not worship Baalim (vs. ~3), when yet this is what they are doing.
The words of the text may be looked up; nevertheless, this is what
they involve. Such a man is called a wild ass used to the wilderness
(vs. ~4) ; for he thinks the wilderness to be no wilderness. There
he does what he desires. Thus from desire he draweth in the wind,
nor does he suffer any occasion to pass by, and this continually,
that is, without weariness. In verse ~5 is introduced one who dis­
suades; but the man does not suffer himself to be persuaded. But
look up expressions from other like passages, as, for instance, what
is meant by the unshod. They are ashamed like a thief (vs. ~6).
The house of Israel stands for the evil. Thus it is all the evil who
are here signified. By a stick (vs. ~7) is signified every dead thing
which is of no avail; everything whatsoever which they acknowl­
edge as their gods. Their god,~ (vs. ~8) are all things whatsoever
which they esteem, in themselves and outside themselves, and in
which they put their trust. These gods are as many as are the
cities, that is, as are the men (vs. ~8).

~9 Wherefore will ye contend with me? ye all have trans­

gressed against me, the saying of J ehovah.
30 In vain have I smitten your sons; they received no correc­
tion: your own sword hath devoured your prophets, like a destroy­
ing lion.
31 0 generation, see ye the word of Jehovah. Have I been a
wilderness unto Israel? a land of darknesses? wherefore have my
people said, We have the dominion; we will come no more unto
3~ Doth a maid forget her ornaments? a bride her chains?
and my people have forgotten me days without number.
33 \Vhy makest thou thy way smooth to seek love? therefore
hast thou also taught the wicked thy ways.
34 Also in thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the
poor innocents: I have not found them in those that are pierced,
but upon all these.
IV Ad. p. 169 307

35 Yet thou sayest, Because I am pure, therefore his anger

shall turn from me. Behold, I will go with thee to judgment,
because thou sayest, I have not sinned.
36 Why gaddest thou about so much to vary thy way? Thou
also shalt be shamed of Egypt, as thou wast shamed of Assyria.
37 Yea, thou shalt go forth from her, and thine hands upon
thine head: for Jehovah hath abominated thy defence~, thou shalt
not prosper in them.

8069. But because the Word was revealed to them, and yet
they have receded and think themselves righteous, therefore they
are rejected. They contend, etc. (vs. ~9), beca!!se the attribute
righteousness to themselves. Verse 30 shows that, because they
despise the Word, they caQI.!g.tJ)_~_taught,not even by chastisement.
Yet, it is not found in the \V ord that they were forsaken when they
had faith (vs. 31). They were always instructed, yet they re-­
ceded; and they rejected being the elect had they received the
Word (vs. 3~) ; and devoted all their care to the search for things
which they love where ~!lS evil (vs. 33), see above [no 8064,8065] ;
thus, to the search for that meretricious love previously spoken of.
Yea, they persecute the church of God Messiah with the utmost
hatred, this bein the blood of the souls 0 the oor innocents (vs.
W. Yet, despite this, the call themselves ri hteous; and inas­
much as the-);a1"tribute righteousness to themselves, they are sum­
moned to judgment (vs. 35). The judgment is that they are af­
fected witb~hame on account of their sciences and doetrines,"'1i;re
meant by Egypt and AssY7'ia (vs. 36). As to wh~meant by
the hands upon the head (vs. 37), this may be seen from other
passages; for going with the head bared was a sign of shame or
abomination. These words have regard to what is said in verse
16, namely, that N oph, etc., will feed on the crown of the head,
etc.; Noph was in Egypt. The fjefences are those doctrines wl]ich
God IVlessia_h_ aboIl)inates as de:itI:!uing all intelligence; for, by
perverse interpretation, what are rays of light become shades, etc.,
1 Saying, Lo, if a man put away his wife, and she go from
him, and become another man's, shall he return unto her again?
308 IV Ad. p. 170
JEREMIAH 11: 35-37-111: 1-7 [8070-8071

being defiled, shall not that land be defiled? but thou hast played
the harlot with many neighbors; yet return again to me, the say­
ing of Jehovah.
2 Lift up thine eyes unto the hills, and see where thou hast not
been lien with. Upon the ways hast thou sat for them, as an Arab
in the wilderness; and thou hast defiled the land with thy whore­
doms and with thy wickedness.
3 Therefore the showers have been withholden, and there hath
been no latter rain; but to thee hath remained the forehead of an
harlot woman, thou refusedst to be ashamed.
4 Rast thou not still cried unto me, My father, thou art the
guide of my youth?
5 Will he reserve e for ever? will he hold it back perpetually?
Behold, thou hast spoken and done evil things and hast prevailed.

8070. Concerning their rejection 01' 1·epudiation. The com­

parison in verse 1 is taken from the repudiation of a wife after
she has committed whoredom. This she has done not once only
but many times (vs. 2). When some other thing is loved, every­ I
thing is whoredom. Rence the land, that is, man, society, etc.,
is defiled. The Arab in the wilderness is the robber and thief.
Showers and latter rains withheld (vs. 3) means that every bless­
ing is withheld and thereby she is chastised, etc. What she had
previously been is taken up in verse 4, namely, that of old she had
been a bride, a daughter, a maid., etc. (see above [n. 7954]), as is ,
usually the case with harlots..iJ:mi.b.e.clll.l.£.e_._e.riL~hl!Ye_Jl..r.evailed, she
cannot be taken back (vs. 5).

6 And Jehovah spake unto me in the days of Josiah the king,

Rast thou seen the things which backsliding Israel hath done? she
is gone away upon every high mountain and under every green
stick, and there hath played the harlot.
7 And I said after she had done all these things, Return thou
unto me. But she returned not. And her treacherous sister J u­
dah saw it.

8071. An exhortation to the gentiles whose primitive church

had been turned into idolatry, that they .~hould return. In verse 6
• Schmidius adds his anger.

IV Ad. p. 170

I sra.el signifies the gentiles and, indeed, those who had degenerated
from the primitive church. That the true worship of God Messiah
was turned into idolatry can be amply evident both from N oah
and after him from many in the land of Canaan, and from others,
such as Tyre, Egypt, etc., to whom the speech of the prophets was
also addressed. 1 From the worship of the primitive church, when
that worship degenerated, came idolatrous worship, as can be evi­
dent from the greatest part of their rituals. If these were re­
counted, it could be clearly seen that the idolatry of the gentiles
was the degenerated worship of the first representative church.
That by Israel in this text are meant the gentiles, is evident enough
from the series. Here idolatry is described in a general way, and
this, as elsewhere, by whoredom and by their having gone upon
every kigh mountain and under every green stick. Verse 7 is an
exhortation that she should return; but she did not return. On
the other hand, she justified her soul and made supplication, as
seen from the series. The Jewish church is called her sister, from
a twofold cause: it was a sister to the primitive church because it
was so instituted, etc., but it became a sister because both churches
became idolatrous.

8 And I saw, when, because of all the ways in which backslid­

ing Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her
a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister J udah feared not for
herself, but went and played the harlot, even she also.
9 And by the voice of her whoredom, the land was profaned,
for she committed adultery with stone and with stick.
10 And yet in all these, her treacherous sister Judah hath not
returned unto me in her whole heart, but with a lie; the saying of

8072. Likewise to the Jewish church, that it should return; but

it would not. That the church of the gentiles was repudiated, can
also be amply evident. God Messiah willed to restore it with the
Jews whom he loved on account of the primitive church; for, in
their rites and representations, he saw that church resuscitated, as
it were. Therefore it is said in verse 8, \'Vould she not fear when
, This first part of n. 8071 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
810 IV Ad. p. 171
JEREMIAH Ill: 8-18 [807~

she sees the bill of divorcement of the church of the gentiles? But
she did not fear but she also went away and became idolatrous.
Thus she became wholly profane (vs. 9). What is here described
is something worse than the whoredom of Israel, in that it was
with stone a.nd with stick. The gentiles are spoken of differently
in verse 6. That she did not wish to return but practiced decep­
tion is told in verse 10. A lie is opposed to the truth, for to think
and utter falses is worse than to confess oneself a harlot. There­
fore later on [vs. ~5] it is said of [the church of] the gentiles that
she confessed her crime. Thus she spoke the truth; not so those
who were in the Jewish church, etc.

11 And J ehovah said unto me, Backsliding Israel hath j usti­

fled her soul more than treacherous J udah.
1!2 Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say,
Return, thou backsliding Israel, the saying of J ehovah; I will not
cause my faces to fall upon you: 8 for I am merciful, . . .
13 Only acknowledge thine iniquity, that thou hast trans­
gressed against Jehovah thy God, and hast scattered thy ways to
the strangers under every green stick, . . .
14 Return, 0 backsliding sons, the saying of Jehovah; for I
will betroth you unto me? . . . and I will !JriI1K..Y.0u back to Zion:
15 And I will give you pastors after mine heart, which shall
feed you with knowledge and understanding.
16 Then it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and have
made fruit in the land, in those days, the saying of Jehovah, ye 9
shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of Jehovah: nor shall
it ascend upon the heart: neither shall they make mention of it,
nor desire it; neither shall it be any more repaired.
17 At that time they shall call Jerusalem 'the throne of J e­
hovah; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, because of
the name of Jehovah, unto Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any
more after the hardness of their evil heart.
18 In those days the house of J.,llilah shall go unto the__hou~e
of ~el, and they shall come together out of the land of the
north upon the land that I have caused their 1 fathers to inherit.
S Here Schmidius adds the word angry.

• The Hebrew is they.

, The Hebrew is yom·.

IV Ad. p. 171 311


8073. Therefore he turns again to the gentiles, of whom would

be formed a new church without rites which would be one with the
kingdom of God Messiah. What wo,s promised is described. That
the idolatry of the gentiles was better than the idolatry of the Jews
is the teaching of verse 11. Here the words of God Messiah him~
self may also be adduced. 2 Toward the north (vs. 12) means to
those who are in shade. That he does not will to be angry with
them is because they have not fallen from light into shade, his not
willing to be angry being here expressed by his not willing [to
cause my] faces to fall upon you. Hence mercy also is expressed.
The teaching of verse 13 is merely that they should confess their
wicked deeds. This, moreover, is done from verse 21 to the end.
That, in the proximate sense, it is not Israel that is here meant is
evident enough, for Israel never returned, nor is anything heard
of their supplication, nor of their return to Jerusalem, inasmuch
as they were scattered abroad. That the gentiles are to be chosen
-but only a few of them, etc.~is stated in plain words in verse 14.
Zio is the new_ church. That pastors were given them (vs. 15),
an that the Gospel was preached to them, is sufficiently evident.
By the ark of the covenant (vs. 16) are meant all the rites; for the
ark was in the midst and aH things were round about the ark.
[ Ye shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of J ehovah], be­
cause there will be a new covenant, etc. In verse 17 the kingdom
of God Messiah is described. The meaning of ve~8 is that
J~h is not e..'l:cluded but can enter the ~~rch of ffiegentiles, ~s
IIso was done by a few durin er the time immediatel after th~ ad­
ent of God Messiah; but that they 'rill not be in the first ace but
w.!..-_go to th~ church of the gentiles, and, indeed, from the north,
that is, from shade. The land which their fathers inherited is
heaven; as to what is meant by the fathers, etc., see elsewhere.

19 Then will I say, How shall I put thee among the sons, and
give thee a land of desire, a heritage of beauty, the hosts of the
gentiles? and I will say, Thou shalt 3 call me, My father; and shalt
not turn away from behind me.
20 Surely a woman dealeth treacherously against her husband:
• See John 941, 1522, 24.

, Schmldius has Y 6 8hall.

312 IV Ad. p. 172

JEREMIAH Ill: 19-~5-IV: 1-5 [8074

so have ye dealt treacherously against me, 0 house of Israel, the

saying of Jehovah.
~1 A voice was heard upon the hills, the wailing of the prayers
of the sons of Israel: for they have perverted their way, they have
forgotten J ehovah their God.
~~ Return, ye perverse sons, I will heal your backslidings.
Behold us, we come unto thee; for thou art Jehovah our God.
~3 Surely into a lie from the hills; the mountains are a dis­
turbance. Surely in .T ehovah our God is the salvation of Israel.
~4 Therefore shame hath devoured the labour of our fathers
from our childhood; their cattle and their herds, their sons and
their daughters.
~5 V\T e lie down in our shame, and our ill fame doth cover us:
for we have sinned before Jehovah our God, we and our fathers,
from our childhood even unto this day, and have not obeyed the
voice of J ehovah our God.

8074. This church, after being chided, confesses its wicked

deeds and makes supplication. The chiding is in verse 19, but
still there is mercy ill the chiding. See also the words of God
Messiah to the gentiles. The words in verse ~O are said that
they may confess their wicked deeds. There, by Israel are also
meant thos of JudalL Who_.coIIle t~2'rE-el (vs. 18). Verse ~1 is
the w.Jilling of the gentiles because of their wicked deeds. Verse ~~
is a 1}"kE; chiding and the supplication that follows. Verse 913 is a
confused speech. They acknowledge God Messiah. In verse ~4
. they acknowledge that the primitive church was turned to idolatry.
Verse ~5 is a confession of wicked deeds.

1 If thou wilt return, 0 Israel, the saying of J ehovah, return
unto me: and if thou wilt put away thine abominations from my
faces, waver not.
~ [And] 4 swear by the living Jehovah, in truth, in judgment,
and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in
him, and in him shall they glory.
3 For thus hath J ehovah said to the man of J udah and J eru­
salem, Break up for you the fallow ground, and sow not among
• Omitted by Schmidius.
IV Ad. p. 17~ 313

4 Circumcise yourselves to Jehovah, and take away the fore­

skins of your heart, 0 man of J udah and inhabitants of Jerusalem:
lest mine anger go forth like fire, and burn and there be none to
quench it, because of the wickedness of your works.
5 Declare ye in Judah, and publish in Jerusalem; and speak,
and blow the trumpet in the land: Cry out, infill,5 and say, Assem­
ble yourselves, that we may enter into the cities of defence.

8075. A call to all gentiles in the entire globe, and...likewise to

the J e'!!!.R; but they must be made new as t~ the interior man. T"h;t
the gentiles were received, follows from the confession of their
wicked deeds; but in verse 1 it is foreseen that this church also
would fall into devastation, and therefore these words now follow.
That nevertheless the church of God Messiah remained in the
midst of the devastation, being that church which confessed its
wicked deeds, can be evident from many statements in this and
the preceding chapter. Therefore the Word is now addressed to
all gentiles in the entire lobe. [They are to swear by the living
J ehovah (vs. !e)], to the end that there may be a new covenant,
this being first made by an oath; but as to what an oath signifies,
see also elsewhere. Here the new or interior man is set forth, be­
ing described by the words in truth, in judgment, and in righteous­
ness-words which involve the whole interior man. Thus all na­
tions .in the entire globe will be blessed in God Messiah, as was
promised to the seed of Abraham [Gen. 1818 , !e!e 18 , !e6 4 ], that is,
to those who shall have faith; that so they may put on the new
man, this being the breaking up of the fallow ground and the not
sowing among thorns (vs. 3). Thorns are the works whereby
they wish to be justified. So likewise in verse 4 where is described
the new man with whom the covenant is made, that there may be
a circumcision of the heart. This is a call to Juda,h and to the
nations who are meant by Jerusalem, as is evident from verse 17
of the preceding chapter. It is here confirmed that the righteous­
ness of works is called the wickedness of works, etc. The calling
is manifestly set forth in verse 5, being done in the customary way
by trumpets. It is said that they may enter into the cities of de­
fence, because the subject treated of is vastation.
• Schmidius here adds the tr·umpet.

314 IV Ad. p. 173


6, 7 . . . I will bring evil from the north, and a great break­

ing. The lion cometh up from his thicket, and the destroyer of
the Gentiles is on his way; he hath gone forth from his place to
make thy 0 land a waste; . . .
8 Because of this, gird you with sackcloth, lament and howl:
for the fury of the anger of J ehovah is not turned back from us.
9 . . . the heart of the king shall perish, and the heart of the
princes; and the priests shall be astonished, and the prophets shall
10 Then I said, Ah, Lord Jehovah! surely deceiving, thou
hast deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, Ye shall have
peace; and the sword reacheth even unto the soul.
11 At that time shall it be said to this people and to J eru­
salem, A wind clearing the hills in the wilderness, the way of the
daughter of my people, not to fan, nor to purify.­
19l A wind fuller than these shall come unto me: now also
will I speak judgments with them.
13 Behold, he shall come up as clouds, and his chariots as a
tempest: his horses are swifter than eagles. . . .
14 vVash thine heart from wickedness, 0 Jerusalem, that thou
mayest be saved. . . .
15 For the voice of one is declaring from Dan, and of one is
publishing iniquity from the mountain of Ephraim.
16 Make ye mention to the nations; behold, publish against
Jerusalem; watchers coming from a land afar off, and they will
give out their voice against the cities of Judah.
17-19 As keepers of my fields, they were round about her; 1
because she hath rebelled against me, Thy way and thy
works have done these things unto tllee; My bowels, my
bowels! I grieve: the walls of my heart! my heart is confused.
9l0, 911 . . . for the whole land is laid waste: . . . How long
shall I see the standard? shall I hear the voice of the trumpet?
9l9l For my people . . . are wise to do evil, but have not
known to do good.
9l3-9l6 I saw the earth, and, behold, it is void and empty; . . .
the mountains, and, behold, they were greatly moved; . . . be­
hold, there was no man, . . . Carmel was a wilderness, . . .
• Omitted by Schmidius.

T The Hebrew is '/1.pon her round about.

IV Ad. p. 173 315


fl7 The whole land shall be a waste; yet will I not make
a full end.
28, fl9 For this shall the earth wail, and the heavens from
above be black: . . . the whole city is forsaken;
80 And, being laid waste, thou, what wilt thou do? . . . lov­
ers will shrink from thee, they will seek thy soul.
81 For I have heard, . . . the anguish as of her that bring­
eth forth her first born; the voice of the daughter of Zion, she
sigheth, . . . Woe is me now! for my soul is wearied because of

8076. But to this church [ the Jewish] the caU concerns it.~
vastation. In verses 6 and 7 the vastation is at once foretold in
general. See the words in the Apocalypse as to what will come
to pass in the last time, for in substance the two passages coincide
in every way. As regards the desolation, see the words which
God Messiah himself said [Matt. fl4 15 ]. Evil is brought in from
the north, as above [no 8059-60,8078], because from shade, con­
sequently, from the devil. The north is the place of shade and
tthus is hell. Therefore tb cl viI is described as a lion which comes
L up from the thicket and i~lled the ~Y~0 th:.e gentiles. In
verse 8 is set forth a lament in that the church will be vastated by
tEe destroyer; see the Apocalypse. In their heart they will say
the words in verse 10, namely, How would he ermit the destroyer
to deal so with the church? Therefore, all, both of the gentiles,
and of their teachers, will wonder (vs. 9). As to the cause of the
wonder, the present is not the place to treat of this. The answer
is given in verses 11 and 1fl, to wit, that this will come to pass for
the smoothing of the way for the church of God Messiah, which is
in the wilderness; for without such devastation, the way for the
daughter of the people of God Messiah cannot be cleared. But
look up the text. 8 How the vastator will come, is described in
verse 18. This also is foretold in the Apocalypse, chapter U.
Verse 14 is an exhortation to them, that they should take care for
themselves, to the end that they may be saved and may not perish
• Schmidius' translation is very literal. The only essential difference be­
tween him and Tremellius is in the words a wind clearing the hills. Tremellius
has a glittering wind of the high places. The Hebrew nl' n,., means a clear,
bright, serene wind or b,·eathing.

816 IV Ad. p. 173

JEREMIAH IV: 6-31-V: 1-5 [8077

together. From Dan (vs. 15) means from the judgment which
Dan signifies. As to the 'Tnountain of Ephrairn,it signifies the
same thing as Dan. See whether it is Gerizim and EbaV J eru­
salem (vs. 16) is the church of God Messiah. By the cities of
Judah are also meant the doctrines of faith, and, specifically/ the
.Jews. Because of the devastation, God Messiah is moved with
grief; for he calls all t.o the church, and loves all, etc., etc. (vs.
17-19; likewise verses ~o and ~1, and the continuation in verses
~~ to ~6). There wiU still be a remnant; for it is said that he will
not make a full end (vs. ~7). The desolation will be complete
(vs. ~8, ~9; likewise vs. 30, etc.). Verse 31 is the mourning of
the church when bringing forth her first born, etc. This also is
explained in the Apocalypse, chapter 1~.

1 Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see
now, and know, and seek in the lanes thereof, if ye can find a man,
if there be any that doeth judgment, that seeketh the truth; and I
will pardon him.

8077. That in the last times there will be no faith. The streets
of Jerusalem, that is, everywhere throughout the churches which
profess God Messiah. Streets and lanes are all the truths which
are derivations from the truth in the midst. Faith is one only, be­
ing faith in God Messiah, but its ways are many, etc. He is a doer
of judgment and a seekel; of truth who acts according to the doc­
trine of faith, and who seeks the way.

~ And if they say, By the living Jehovah; surely t.hey swear

by a lie.
3 0 J ehovah, are not thine eyes toward the truth? thou hast
smitten them, but they have not grieved; . . . they have made
their faces harder than a rock; they have refused to be turned.
4 Therefore I said, Surely these are become poor; they are
become foolish: . . .
• According to modern maps, Gerizim was ill Ephraim, and Ebal in Manas­
sah. The Bible gives no information as to their exact position.
1 [Crossed off:] the idolatrous church of the Jews.

IV Ad. p. 174 317


5 I will get me unto the great men, and will speak with them;
. but these have broken the yoke together, they have torn off
the bonds.

8078. And inquiry is made whether there is faith with anyone.

In verses ~ and 3 answer is made that, although they had been
chastised, yet there was no one who does judgment and seeks the
truth; for when chastisement no longer avails, that is, when they
harden themselves, it is a sign of the utmost desolation. This is
the case even with those who should lead the people (vs. 4, 5).
Thus, from heel to head there is nothing whole.

6 Wherefore a lion out of the forest smote them, a wolf of

the plains hath laid them waste, a leopard watcheth against their
cities: everyone that goeth out thence shall be torn in pieces: be­
cause their transgressions are multiplied, their backslidings have
become mighty.
7 Shall I pardon thee for this? thy sons have forsaken me, and
sworn by him that is no god: and when I had fed them to the full,
they committed adultery, and came in crowds to the house of a
8 They were fatted horses rising in the morning: they neighed
a man to the wife of his companion.
9 Should I not have visited for these things? the saying of
Jehovah: or should not my soul have taken vengeance on such a
nation as this?
10 Go ye up upon her walls, and cast down; but make not a
full end: take away her wings; for they are not J ehovah's.
11 For, dealing treacherously, the house of Israel and the
house of J udah have dealt treacherously against me, the saying
of Jehovah.
U They denied Jehovah when they said, It is not he; neither
shall evil come upon us; and the sword and famine we shall not see.
13 But the prophets shall be for wind, and the word is not in
them: thus shall it be unto them.

8079. But because there is no faith, vastation occupies the

church itself.
318 IV Ad. p. 174
JEREMIAH V: 6-13 [8080

It is the evil spipts signified by the wild animals men­

tione m verse 6 who are around man
and :»:hen the man is such that h~ no longer.bas faiih, th~er­
vert and rend asunder, as it wer.~L.~yerything whatsoever that
can again infuse faith and thus all the articles of faith, being
tne-£l1ings which are to be believed; for not even a sil3Ele
thought can then come in which is not thus ren"Casunder. To
this I can sacredly testify in many ways; for, a~rding as tl~e~ I
man is, such is the way in which he is treated b spirits, until)
they have so perverted all things tha~re to be belIeved that)
noffiin sound is left remaining. Thus they extinguish all
I light and turn it into horrid darkness, and in this the man lives I
together with his evil s irits. This darkness is successively in­
c"i=eased in the man, the more he thinks that he understands,
and the more he abounds in natural science. This is the case
with the erudite of the world above others, according to their
science; for evil s irits stir u more thin s and pervert more!
in a man who is called learned than in an other man, a~so j
more reat! confirm things which are perverted. In this way
they make the shades so-much dens~r that-;ith such a man the
case is des erate, as it were; for all the deeply inherent knots
must be loosened, and all parts of the shade be dissipated, and
unless d"' the remain ever shut in, as it were, and so
remain in the disposition formed and thus persuaded by the
things of his intellect. To this I can solemnly testify from
much experience. Such thing.. ~ntinually: attem ted b )
the spirits; and in their endeavor to ervert the~all forthjJ1e
mmu est doubts, even those insinuated from infancy. With
the elect, however, this IS aone tot}leend t at they may be in
temptations in order that the several doubts ma be shattered.
Wherefore, if the learned and those who are philoso ers~)lIJ
to e e back to tl1eWay, t is must be done by~ tation
more bitter an dee er than wit t <>SeW 0 are not learned,
etc., etc. T ere ore I am persua e t at man must make most
humble supplication to God Messiah that he come not into
tern tations, that is to sav, into such temptations that he doubts
concernin the Word of God Messiah, et 2
GThe indented part of n. 8080 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabili4, s.v., PSTVertere, Doct'U8, Fides. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 175 319

8081. Hence it now follows that they are perverted by reason

of the very cognitions with which they have been fed to the full
(vs. 7), it being their cognitions that they mingle with things which
are to be believed. Th!-!~.Jhejr.cogJlitio~~2i~~rowds to the house
I of a harlot. In verse 8 they are compared to f~ horses which
"~;I~ious, etc. Then, in verse 9, it is asked whether punish­
ment does not follow, seeing that the man is of such a nature.
Hence the devastation now follows of itself, though here as else­
where it is said that it is from the anger of God Messiah. Yet the
devastation is such that some hope of salvation is always left ifor
~~js never SQ far vasiJ!!ed but that there is left some hope ~.hat
he can be led back. This is what is meant in verse 10 '" and also
in verse 18. Dy the house of Israel (vs. 11 and 12) is meant the
gentiles, and by the house of Judah, the people J acob. Both these
houses have light, that is, the Word of God Messiah was revealed
to both. That this is what is meant is confirmed more clearly in
verse 13, to the effect that cognitions, having come into shade, have
vanished, as it were. Thus the prophets, that is, the Word by the
prophets, etc., are for wind, that is, the 'Vord is dissipated.

14 Wherefore thus said Jehovah God Sabaoth, Because ye

speak this word, behold, I will put my words into thy mouth as
fire; but this people shall be sticks, and it shall devour them.
15 Behold, I bring a nation upon you from afar, 0 house of
Israel, the saying of J ehovah: it is a mighty nation, a nation from
that age; a nation whose tongue thou knowest not, neither under­
standest what they speak.
16 Their quiver is as an open sepulchre; all are mighty.
17 And they shall eat up thine harvest, and thy bread; they
shall devour thy sons and thy daughters: they shall eat up thy
flock and thine herd: they shall eat up thy vine and thy fig tree:
they shall depopulate the cities of thy defences, wherein thou
trustedst, with the sword.
18 Nevertheless in those days also, the saying of Jehovah, I
will not make a full end with you.

8082. And this becOIuse there wi.ll be no faith; nevertheless it

will not be entirely cons~~med.
" This comment on verse 10 is emphasized by " Obs., Obs.," written in the
320 IV Ad. p. 176
JEREMIAH V: 7-18 [8083-8085

8083. Words as fire (vs. 14) means that truths, that is, the doc­
trines concerning true faith, will then consume man. This can be
confirmed by many passages. With those who apply the Word to
themselves, the fire is the remorse of conscience; but with those
who do not apply it, the Word so consumes them that afterwards
they believe less than before. This is the case when man is in
light and falls into shade, for then he confirms his insanity from
the Word itself which he perverts, etc., etc.
8084. What is meant in verses 15 and 16 is the crew of the
devil, being the evil spirits around man. And because the man is
ignorant of them and of their nature, he substitutes thoughts in
their place; for the man thinks that his thoughts are ruled by him­
self. Therefore, when a man does not wish to believe that evil
spirits arouse his thoughts and affections, then, if he has willed
them, he believes the thoughts. But then it is worse, for in this
way he puts himself at fault, etc., etc. These evil spirits are as '
an open sepulchre, that is, as hell, which rushes in around the man.
They are indeed mighty, for they do not permit the least thought
to slip in which they do not seize upon in a moment and pervert,
and, indeed, all those thoughts 8 which are from faith in God Mes­
siah. This they perceive in least things

as in greatest; for they are in hatred, and so are affe<j;ed by

tll~least ray of truth, and perv~~ it. Of this I have mani­
fold ~xperience, etc., etc. 4

8085. Verse 17 describes how they devastate man; for all the
things that have previously confirmed the man from his first youth
onward, these they pervert. All the words in this verse signify the
things which God Messiah sometimes compares to seeds and the
sower, etc. 5 Yet a remnant will be left (vs. 18) to the end that it
may be possible for the man to be led back; for God Messiah does
not permit man to be so far vastated but that some remnant is left
that he may be able to return to sanity.
: Reading istae for ·isti.
• The indented part of n. 8084 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorab·ilia, s.v., Lw1;, Veritas. See Table of Contents.
G This first part of n. 8085 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the


IV Ad. p. 176

19 And it shall come to pass, when ye shall say, Wherefore

hath J ehovah our God done all these things unto us? [and] 6 thou say unto them, Like as ye have forsaken me, and served the
gods of the strangers in your land, so shall ye serve strangers in
a land that is not yours.
flO Declare this in the house of J acob, and publish it in J udah,
fl1 Hear now this, 0 foolish people, that have no heart; which
have eyes, and see not; which have ears, and hear not:
flfl Fear ye not me? the saying of Jehovah: will ye not trem­
ble when before me, which have placed the sand for the bound of
the sea, the statute of an age which it shall not pass over; that
they may be greatly moved [and] 6 not prevail; though the waves
thereof are tumultuous, yet may they not pass over it?
fl3 But this people hath a revolting and rebellious heart; they
went back and continued their way.
fl4 Neither said they in their heart, Come, let us fear J ehovah
our God, that giveth the rain, and the timely and late shower, in
his time: he preserveth unto us weeks, set times, the harvest.
fl5 Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your
sins have withholden good from you.

8086. And then they become worse, so that they perceive noth­
ing whatever. 7
8087. Verse 19 states the punishment of retaliation which fol­
lows from justice; for when men serve themselves and their own
cupidities, it follows that they serve those who are these sa~e
( ~_~ities; and when these have the dominion, the man is lacerated
\ and miserably treated, as men are by the cupidities of their ani­
- mus, etc., etc. 8 In verse ~O the house of J acob is the people of
Jacob; and in JudaJ~ means those who elsewhere ate Israel.
8088. Those to whom the \Vord has been revealed have been
given eyes, and they do not see (vs. ~1). That there is greater
shade in them than in others, see above [n. 8066-67]. This can
• Omitted by Schmidius.
1 [This is substituted for the following which is crossed off:) And indeed

there will be no faith with those who abound -in cognitio1tS,' therefol'e retrib'ut-ion
will be made them according to their faith.
• This first part of n. 8087 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 177
JEREMIAH V: 19-Q8 [8089

be sufficiently evident from actual experience; for the latter are

much more easily persuaded to faith in God Messiah than are
those who are in the midst of Christendom and who have made
boast of their faith. There was also the like shade at the time of
the advent of God Messiah into the world. Then also was devasta­
tion. The words of the text are therefore applicable to both times.
But the subject specifically treated of here is the second devasta­
tion, being that of the last time.
8089. The words in verse QQ are taken from the sea and its
shore which the floods cannot pass. To these floods are compared
those things in man which are his cupidities, and the fantasies and
like things which are aroused therefrom. They cannot break
down the barrier. This is similar to what is said elsewhere re­
specting the wall which the enemies are unable to pass over [Gen.
49 22 ,23]. They are like enemies who, although repelled, still do
not fear. Therefore it is said in verse Q3 that they are revolting
rebels; they go back, they continue their way. They do not
think that they ought to desist and to remember that God Messiah
gives all things which are celestial and spiritual, these being signi­
fied in verse Q4 by the late shower, the rain, the harvest, and thus
the set times, to the end that all things may rightly follow one
after the other, and render the land ever fruitful, that the harvest
may be abundant. See whether it is 7veeks in the text. 9 In those
whom God Messiah leads, all things follow one after the other, as
do the times of the year which pass into the dawn or spring, and
so to the harvest which is the spring of the earth. In a way
wholly contrary is it with those who are led by evil spirits. With
them all things commence from heat or midsummer or the noon
day, and pass into night and winter. Hence a wilderness and
devastation. l

Q6 For a~ong my people are found wicked men: they watch

out, like one that stretcheth snares; they set the destroyer, they
catch men.
Q7 As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit:
therefore they are become great, and waxen rich.
• It is.
1 The comment on verse 24 is emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
IV Ad. p. 177

~8 They are waxen fat, tbey shine: yea, they overpass the
words of evil: they judge not judgment, the judgment of the
orphan; yet they prosper; nor do they judge the judgment of the

8090. Then there will be not only deserters but also deceivers
for the sake of self gain. By those who watch out (vs. ~6) are
meant those who weave plots for the deceiving of men. That in
the last time false prophets will come and false messiahs, see the
words of the New Testament [Matt. ~424J. Verse ~7 is a con­
tinuation concerning deceit. Their minds are compared to cages,
the birds being their deceitful thoughts, etc. That these thoughts
are for the sake of themselves and of gain, is manifestly stated in
the words they m'e waxen rich. This is continued in verse ~8.
Moreover, they are the wicked, this being signified by they ,jltdge
not ,judgment, etc.

~9 Shall I not visit for these things? the saying of Jehovah;

bath not my soul taken vengeance on such a nation as this?
30 A wonderful and horrible thing is committed in the land;
31 The prophets prophesy a lie, and the priests have dominion
by their own hands; and my people love to have it so: and what will
they do in the latter time thereof?

8091. Therefore there is now the desolation which precedes fur­

ther desolation. That there is therefore the punishment which is
desolation, is stated in verse ~9. Likewise, that all will be pun­
ished (vs. 30, 31). That the desolation increases is evident from
the Apocalypse. That the desolation is a desolation of faith and
not, as some think, a complete desolation of t!1e land, which also
should come to pass at the last time, can be abundantly evident; for
those treated of are they who wax fat and still are in desolation.
It is man's more interior things that are made desolate, and then
the human race appears before the heaven of God Messiah as deso­
lated, it appearing as though there were no longer a single man
who can inherit heaven. That to them such desolation appears
horrible, can be evident enough, especially when they know what is
in store for those who are in vastation; for then hell is before their
eyes. This is the desolation which is meant and which appears so
3~4 IV Ad. p. 178
JEREMIAH V: Q9-31-VI: 1-5 [8099l

direful and will so appear to everyone, if for a moment he wills to

be in heavenly thought and to reflect on the things to come, etc.,
etc. 2
A word to the true church of God 1I1essiah in the midst of the
chw'ches which have been perverted, that enemies will rise up
against her.

1 Ye sons of Benjamin, gather yourselves out of the midst of

,Jerusalem, and, blowing, blow the trumpet, and kindle a fire upon
the house of the vineyard: for evil looketh forth out of the north,
and a great breaking.
Q I will liken the daughter of Zion to a comely and delicate
3 The shepherds and their flocks shall come unto her; they
shall pitch their tents against her round about, they shall feed a
man upon his own place.
4 Sanctify ye battle against her; arise, that we may go up at
noon. Woe unto us! for the day passeth away, for the shades of
evening are fallen.
5 Arise, that we may go by night, and destroy her palaces.

8092. That perverted churches, heretics, and the unfaithful rise

~tP against the true church of God 111essiah. The sons of Benj amin
(vs. 1) were inhabitants of Jerusalem. By them are meant those
who rise up against the church of God Messiah; and that they are
perverted churches, heretics and the unfaithful, is evident from
the series. This then is Jerusalem. Out of the north means from
the place of shade; consequently, from the place of wickedness, for
where shade is, there is wickedness, just !J.S in the north there is
both shade and cold. The daughter of ~ (vs. Ql is the true
cJluI;ch of G...Q_9:j\1essiah ; see below at verse Q3 seq. That shepherds
and their flocks shall come against her (vs. 3) means, as is evident
enough, that they do not tolerate those who are of the true church
because their life is different, and also because of gain and for
many other reasons according to the perversity of each church so
• The last two-thirds of this paragraph are emphasized by "Obs., Obs....
written in the margin.
IV Ad. p. 119 3915

called, etc., etc. So likewise to pitch tents, this being done when
they rise up in attack. To sanctify the battle and to rise up at
noon (vs. 4, 5) means to dispute with them in various ways from
the doctrine of faith; but because they cannot do this, they go off
to the night, that is, to falsities, and so to deceits and wickedness.

6 For thus said Jehovah Sabaoth, Hew ye down counsel, and

cast a rampart against Jerusalem: this is the city to be visited; in
the midst of the whole of her is oppression.
7 As a fountain spurteth out her waters, so she spurteth out
her wickedness: violence and devastation is heard in her, before my
face continually, diseases and stripes.
8 Admit of chastisement, 0 Jerusalem, lest my soul be dis­
joined from thee; lest I reduce thee to a waste, a land not inhabited.

8093. But rather should the rising up be against those per­

verted churches; therefore they are admonished. In verse 6, Jeru­
salem signifies the perverted churches and, consequently, all the
unfaithful who after being instructed in the doctrine of faith, have
fallen away. They are called a city which is to be visited by ene­
mies because perversity is there, and because wickedness is there,
this wickedness being described in verse 7. In verse 8 she is ad­
monished to suffer herself to be chastened lest she be reduced to a

9 Thus hath Jehovah Sabaoth said, Gleaning, they shall glean

the remnants of Israel as a vine: bring thine hand as a grapegath­
erer to [his] 8 basket.
10 . . . Behold, their ear is foreskinned, and they cannot
hearken. Behold, the word of Jehovah is unto them a reproach;
they desire it not.
11 Therefore . . . I will pour it out upon the infant in the
street, and upon the assembly of young men together: for even a
man with his wife shall be taken, the aged with him that is full of
19l And their houses shall be turned over unto others, their
fields and wives together:
13 For from the least of them even unto the greatest of them
I Added by Schmidiu5.
3916 IV Ad. p. 179
JEREMIAH VI: 6-17 [8094-8095

everyone maketh usury; and from the prophet even unto the priest
everyone maketh a lie ;
8094. Their disobedience is described, a, disobedience which is
followed by vastation. The rernnants of [sra,el (vs. 9) are those
remaining in Jerusalem. The preceding vastation is continued.
In verse 10 is described their wickedness, being the wickedness of
the churches which have the Word of God Messiah. The ear is
foreskinned when there is no obedience to the Word of God Mes­
siah; this, moreover, is explained. Nay, they do not desire the
'Word, etc. The devastation which follows from disobedience is
described in verse 11. Verse 1~ is a continuation concerning the
vastation which follows from disobedience; so likewise verse 13, for
what is treated of is their rejection of the 'Word of God Messiah.

14 When they heal the breach of my people by a thing of no

weight, saying, Peace, peace; and there is no peace:
15 . . . in being ashamed, they are not ashamed; and they
know not the being moved with shame; therefore they shall fall
among them that fall: Jehovah hath said, At the time when I shall
visit them they shall stumble.
16 Thus hath Jehovah said, Stand ye by the paths, and see,
and ask concerning the paths of an age, which is the best path,
and walk therein, and find rest for your soul. But they said, We
will not walk therein.
17 Also I set watchmen over them, 4 Attend to the voice of the
trumpet. But they said, 'Ve will not attend.

8095. That they defend their perverse doctrine and reject the
true doctrines which they are unwilling to receive. Their defence
is described in verse 14 by a healing by means of a thing of no
weight; and they say, Peace, Peace, howsoever they live. Nor are
they ashamed, although they know otherwise (vs. 15). Their pun­
ishment is that they will stumble; this punishment is treated of in
the sequel. When it is told them that to find what is true they
should look into the V\Tord of God Messiah (vs. 16), they still con­
tradict. They do indeed acknowledge but still do not return.
The watchmen (vs. 17) are those who preach the truth, etc. But
they pay no attention.
• 608. Probably a misprint for V08 (you) which is the correct translation
of the Hebrew.
IV Ad. p. 180

18, 19 Therefore hear, ye nations, . . . Hear, ° earth: be­

hold, I bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of their thoughts,
because they give no attention to my words; . . .
~O To what purpose cometh incense unto me from Sheba, and
the most precious calamus from a far country? your whole burnt
offerings are not for pleasure, and your sacrifices are not sweet
unto me.

8096. Wherefore, all their worship is displeasing. In verse 18

these same men are caned nations. By nations in this sense are
signified the profane. Being the law of retaliation, it is called the
fruit of their thoughts (vs. 19) ; for the punishment is within the
transgression, as can be confirmed in many ways. The first fruit
of their thoughts is that their worship is displeasing. What is set
forth in verse ~O, is worship by sacrifices.

~1 Therefore thus hath Jehovah said, Behold, I will lay ob­

stacles before this people, and the fathers and the SOIlS together
shall fall upon them; and the neighbour and his companion shall

8097. That to them the true doctrine will be a stumbling block.

Here, as elsewhere, the obstacles are stumbling blocks. Thus they
will stumble, as said in verse 15, and this in all things. It is well
known that when they see the piety of others, they make it a stum­
bling block for themselves; nay, so much so that they curse those
others, revile them, and cast them out of their congregation, etc.

~~ Thus hath J ehovah said, Behold, a people cometh from a

land of the north, and a great nation shall be raised up from the
sides of the earth.
~3 They lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and have
no mercy; their voice resoundeth like the sea, and they ride upon
horses; he is prepared as a man for war against thee, a_daughter
8098. And so they will rise up against those who are of the
true church of God Messiah. In verse ~~, those are described who
are in shade and who rise up in attack. In verse ~3 is described

3~8 IV Ad. p. 180

JEREMIAH VI: 18-30 [8099-8100

their cruelty, in that they do not spare the faithful; and also their
revilings, which are further described by their riding upon horses,
that is to say, their engaging in disputes and strifes. The daugh­
t!!....£L@is the true church of God Messiah.

~4 We have heard the fame thereof, our hands wax feeble:

anguish hath taken hold of us, pain, as of a woman in travail.
~5 Go not forth into the tield, nor walk on the way; for the
sword of the enemy; terror is round about.
~6 0 daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, and roll
thyself in ashes: make for thee the mourning of an only begotten,
the wailing of bitternesses: for he that layeth waste shall suddenly
come upon us.
~7 I have set thee for a watchtower, a fortress among my peo­
pIe; thou shalt know and try their way.

8099. The church of God Messiah is admonished not to lower

herself but to make supplication that vastation may not come.
Verse ~4 expresses the anguish of the church because 'of the things
which have previously been said. Go not forth into the field, nor
walk on the way (vs. ~5) means that she shall not lower herself.
Similar words of God Messiah may be looked Up.5 That the sword
of the enemy is not for them. Thus terrof_ is rO~,Illj~bout them.
That she will wail because of him that lays waste, is indicated by
the words in verse ~6, and also that the wasting will come by means
of others. The church must examine their way (vs. ~7) and see
the 'nature thereof that 6 it is safe.

~8 They are all revolters of revolters; traducers: brass and

iron; they are all destroyers.
~9 The bellows have grown hot, the lead is consumed by tire;
founding he hath founded in vain: for the evil are not overturned.
30 Rej ected silver shall they call them, because J ehovah hath
rej ected them.

8100. But in vain by reason of the obstinate nature of their

perversity. This obstinacy is described in verse ~8, and the vain­
, Confer Luke 173t.
• Reading quod for q·u'ia (because).

IV Ad. p. 180


ness of the admonition, in verse ~9. The evil are those evils which
have not been overturned; therefore in verse 30 they are rejected,

1 The word that came to Jeremiah from with Jehovah, saying,
~ Stand in the gate of the house of J ehovah, and proclaim
there this word, and say, Hear the word of Jehovah, all Judah, ye
that enter in through these gates to bow down yourselves before
3 Thus saith J ehovah Sabaoth, the God of Israel, Make good
your ways and your works, and I will cause you to dwell in this
4 Trust ye not upon the words of a lie, saying, The temple of
J ehovah, The temple of J ehovah, The temple of J ehovah, are these.
5 For if making good, ye make good your way and your
works; if executing, ye execute judgment between a man and be­
tween his companion;
6 Oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and
shed not innocent blood in this place, and walk not after other gods
to your hurt:
7 Then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that
I gave to your fathers, from an age even to an age.
8 Behold, ye trust upon the words of a lie, that ye profit not.
9 Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear by a
lie, and burn incense unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye
have not known ;
10 And come and stand before me in this house, upon which is
named my name, and say, We are delivered to do all these abomina­
11 Is it a den of robbers, that this house upon which is named
my name is become in your eyes?

8101. These words are addressed specifically to thLsl.€Ius, in­

cluding those living at the present day, that they shourJ:nOt b~t
that the true church wasl,nstituted among them; but should do the
works of charity that they may inherit heaven.
330 IV Ad. p. 181
JEREMIAH VII: 1-11 [810~-8105

8102. 'rhilllis t~ws, including those now living, who are

specifically meant in verse ~, is eYrdellt from the series. To make
good their ways and their works (vs. 3) meansJ_~~-from love.
When from love, works are not works of the law but works of char-
ity ;~fie propnets every~lie~inculcate·TnatwJienthe-WOrks
are not good jnterrwllY_L.!'!1crifices and worshjp.~in externals are
spewed out. It is said to them to dwell in this place bec~use they
lo·;ed the pleasantness, etc., of the land, and this also was granted
them PXQ~<i~_QD.l~y----.:we!'~_!>.tuQiQ.Y§o.L~Mrity. It is called the
word of a lie (vs. 4) w~~_th~Tsay that the ~emple_i~wjtbih~m,
( that is,. that the true church has been in~tituted with _them, and
this in-form; for the temple, as signifying all worship, signifies the
8103. That the way becomes good, and the works good (vs. 5),
when they c0Il!e from charity, cannot be unknown or doubtful to
anyone; for they themselves confess and have confessed that the
sum of the law consists in a love toward the nei hbor which shall
( be as toward themselves, and in a love to God which shall b~ve
love toward themselves, etc. Th~ loye toward the neighbor or this
charitY.. can never come from man but must be infused, and this by
t~eryf~~t-~f··io~~ ;hi<;h is ~~·-~the;-than G"Od Messiah, being
he whom all the sacrifices, etc., etc., represented. To execute judg-
ment between a man and his companion, means to do what is right
and good, and this descends from the same fountain. Otherwise
man can never do good because there is nothing good in man inas-\ J
muc s the fi ment of his heart is evil from childhood, and ra lcal
evil is continually in erent an can never be wiped away, etc., etc.
8104. In verse 6, the works of charity are presented by the
statement that they shall not act as they have acted continually;
~ for before they do good, it behooves that they first cease to do evil.
Unless the old man with his cu idities, die, the new man does not
ri§LY.P. T~·-they will dwell i~ la~ (vs. 7).- y t eland
swor'n to their fathers is represented h~en, and this they might i
have inherited had their works been works of charity, that is, had
they come from faith in God Messiah, etc., etc.
8105. As to the words of a lie (vs. 8), see above at verse 4 and
the words that follow. Verse 9 recounts the works which neces-
sarily follow when men have no faith in God Messiah; for without
faith in God Messiah there is no charity, charity being the fruit of
IV Ad. p. 18~ 331

faith. In some persons who seem to act toward the neighbor from
mercy and yet do not have faith, it is not love toward him that
( arouses 7 that which bears a likeness to mercy, but something else.
Were it true merc it could nev cOIRurom an other than God
Messiah, etc., etc. Although now doing these works, they are still
~sented-~fore the house of God Messiah ("9's. 10) ; for they place
all righteousness in external worship alone, when yet this is the pro­
faning of worship, etc. Because worship is profaned, therefore
the words in verse 11 : Is it a den of robbers? etc.; for it was com­
manded that they should first be sanctified, to the end that they
might represent that internal sanctification which comes solely
from God Messiah by faith in him. Therefore, such being the
nature of their internal man, there is then profanation.

1~ But go ye now unto my place which was in 5hiloh, where I

caused my name to dwell of old; and see what I did to it for the
wickedness of my people Israel.
13 And now, because ye have done all these works, the saying
of Jehovah, and I spake unto you, rising up early and speaking,
but ye heard not; and I called you, but ye answered not;
14 [Therefore] S will I do unto this house, upon which is
named my name, wherein ye trust, and to this place which I gave
to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh.
15 And I will cast you out from my faces, as I have cast out
all your brethren, the whole seed of Ephraim.

8106. Let them see how those were dealt with who had lived pre­
viously and had been cast out of Canaan. As to what took place at
Shiloh, and that the ark of the covenant had formerly been there,
see the Collecta. 9 Here by Shiloh (vs. 1~) are represented the
things which were done to the land and to Jerusalem. This land
was wholly devastated, and it has now lain waste for seventeen hun­
dred years, and this for causes previously spoken of, to wit, in
that they had no faith in God Messiah, for otherwise 1 they could
never have perpetrated the crimes on account of which they were
, [Crossed off:] their mercy, for this can be aroused by various causes.
• Omitted by Schmidius.
• See Appendix, s.v., Sh-iloh.

t Reading aliter for tunc (then).

33~ IV Ad. p. 18~

JEREMIAH VII: 1~-9W [8107

laid waste. And because they did not wish to understand the
Word concerning God Messiah, the like will be the case with their
descendants (vs. 13, 14) ; that is to say, these descendants, being
given up to their own cupidities which rule over them, and conse­
quently, to the evil spirits which have the dominion, live without
faith in God Messiah. This is the supreme vastation, inasmuch as
they are then cast out from the face of Jehovah God, the place of
vastation, etc., being hell. In verse 15, this is now 2 clearly stated.
The former ones are then called brethren and the seed of Ephraim.
They are called seed of Ephrai'1n because they have almost all been
slain on account of their unspeakable deeds; see Judges 121 - 7 •

16 And thou, pray not for this people, neither lift up cry nor
prayer for them, neither make intercession with me: for I will not
hear thee.
17 Seest thou not what they do in the cities of J udah and in
the streets of Jerusalem?
18 The sons gather sticks, and the fathers kindle the fire; and
the women knead dough, to make cakes to Melecheth of the heavens,
and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may
provoke me to anger.
19 Do they stir me to anger? the saying of J ehovah: and not
themselves to the shame of their own faces?
9W Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah; Behold, mine anger
and my fury shall be poured out upon this place, upon man, and
upon beast, and upon the wood of the field, and upon the fruit of
the earth; and it shall burn, and shall not be quenched.

8107. But because they all still persist ,in pe1'versity of heart,
and su er thems.itveDQ. _e r!J:~Cd bY-fli:£.~uptdities, th~e
no sparingJ£iJ_~em. Verse 16 is addressed to the Prophet, as we
read e.lsewhere in respect to Daniel, concerning those ,of whom there
( can be no sparing [Dan. 9 3 se q., 10 10 se q .]. Moreover, the like is
said concerning intercession--Iook up the passages. s In the cities
of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem (vs. 17) means .irL!b~ir
( s~ag~ues and in_their interiors. That the athers kindle thcIJIeJ)
(vs. 18) involves more things than I dare say, nor do I know them;
2 Reading nunc for non (not).

3 Confer Genesis 1823 s.q.; Exod. 3i!11 seq.; J er. 3i!16.'q..

IV Ad. p. 183

the words seem to be explained later at verse 31, etc. Their EO-
fane Qiferings Bre Melechethof the heavens, the meaning being that
t hey adore b.e,ll and thin s infernal, etc. By the words in verse 19
are meant thatthus t ey cannot but be turned away from the face
of God Messiah. From the [punishments] which answer [to the
crimes], it can be known what the words in verse ~o signify, for
the punishment corresponds to the crime; to wit, that all things
whatsoever that are signified by these words are given up to in­
fernal fire.

21, ~~ . . . Add your whole burnt offerings upon your sacri­

fices. and eat flesh. For I spake not with your fathers, nor com­
manded them . . . over the words of a whole burnt offering and
a sacrifice:
~3 But this word commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice,
and I will be to you for God, and ye shall be to me for a people:

~4 But they heard not, nor inclined their ear; but went off in
counsels, in the hardness of their evil heart; and they became back­
ward, and not forward;
25, ~6 From the day that their • fathers came forth out of the
land of Egypt, even unto this day. And I have sent unto them 5 all
. my servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending; yet
they heard me not, nor inclined their ear, . . .

8108. For it was not external worship that was commanded

them, but obedienf/!_to_:tl1~ W Qr4JJ! God Messiah.
8109:-in v~~~es ~1 and 2~, it is clearly said that their external
rites are of no effect, and, indeed, had not been commanded; when
yet it is clear that afterwards they were commanded. Therefore
these words necessarily signify the law in externals and church rit­
uals separated from internal worship, and consequently, from faith
in God Messiah. What was commanded them is told in verse ~3,
namely, that they should walk in the way which had been com­
manded, that is, in the way 0 ru t; respeCting this, see above in
many places.
8110. But they did not wish to understand this, but hardened
• The Hebrew is your.

, The Hebrew is you.

334 IV Ad. p. 183

JEREMIAH VII: n-31 [8111

their heart (vs. ~4), and it is well known ~ harden it a~t I)

tIllS ill\.y. Thus they go .2JLlllg:..kwar<!t.Jhat::IS-, toward hell. re­
vIOuSTy also it has been shown that the way on which those walk
who are perverted is a way leading backward, for upward is to­
ward heaven.
Nor can anyone lift himself upward, it being God Messiah who
lifts him up, that is, lifu_J!JLpisJJwught!Lan~t.1.l.le~~~ of
hUho.ughts_1Q_H~lf. This can be confirmed by so much
living experience that it would fill many pages. But after­
wards, when He lets go the thoughts, they fall backward of
themselves, falling, indeed, into the world, etc. 6
The words in verses ~5 and ~6 are clear as treating of their dis­
obedience, and that evil is increased; for at this day ~y are living
in noonday light, and still h~.!~~~ their heart, etc.
~7 Therefore when thou hast spoken all these words unto them,
and they have not heard thee:
~8 Thou shalt say unto them, This is a nation that hath not
obeyed the voice of Jehovah . . . faith is perished, and is cut off
from their mouth.
~9 Cut off the hair of thy Nazariteship, and cast it away, . . .

8111. But because with them there is n!!.-_o.bedjpnce, there is also

no faith in God Messiah. Because there is no obedience (vs. ~7),
faith will then perish (vs. ~8), that is, faith in all that is contained
in the Word of the prophets wherein nothing is said that does not
involve things which concern God Messiah, etc. The Nazarite (vs.
~9) was one who vowed that he would serve God Messiah; but see
in that passage [no 68~8 seq.] as to what hairs signify. When
these became unclean, they were shaved off in that they signified

30 For_ the ....§QQ.LOU~_<l.~~ha~.~d_o_n~3il in Jl!ine ...£yes, the

saying of Jehovah: they have set their abominations in the house
upon which is named my name,
31 Yea, they have built the high places of Tophet in the val­
ley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters
• The Indented part of n. SUO is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, S.v., Cogitare, Fides. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 184 335

in the fire; which I commanded them not, neither came it upon my


8112. And they do abominationsjJf~ing themse1JM.s in a way

f u,,!:~eaka_ble. What is holy is profaned, and this in a way unspeak­
\ able (vs. 30). As to what Top het in the valley of is, see
the Collecta. 7 As to how that which is most holy was thus pro­
faned, this can be known to everyone; forQley _w.i!>h~in this way
to !!!~ri!: xiKhte.Qusness by means of their ~ons, etc., etZ-1Veither
came it upon my heart; this is also explained in the book of Moses,

3fl Therefore, behold, the days come, the saying of Jehovah,

that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of the son of
Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter: for they shall bury in Tophet,
because there is no place.
33 And the carc~ss of this people shall be food for the bird of
the heavens, and for the beast of the earth; and none shall drive
them away by terror.
34 Moreover, I will cause to cease . . . the voice of joy, and
the voice of gladness, . . . for the land shall become a waste.

8113. And this criminal way of justifying themselves casts

them into hell. This now follows from the words in verse 3fl,
which correspond to the preceding crimes as the punishment
thereof. That by the valley of slaughter is meant spiritual death,
and by the burial in Tophet, that death which is called infernal
fire, can be evident from the name valley of Hinnom, and also from
the fire, and, moreover, from the burial which looks to what is said
in verses 1 and fl of chapter 8 which next follows. The carcass
(vs. 33) is spiritual death. F or the bird of the heavens means for
their atrocious fantasies; likewise for the beast of the earth, and,
indeed, that beast which shall not perish by death. The like oc­
curs in Abraham's vision (Gen. 15[l1 J ), in that the birds of the
heavens came down and would eat the carcasses, and it was then
allowed Abraham to drive them away; but afterwards thick dark­
ness arose [vs. 1fl] and it was not seen what was done with the
carcasses. That this also happened
, See Appendix, S.v., Hinnom, Tophet.
336 IV Ad. p. 184
JEREMIAH VII: 3~-34-VIII: 1-3 [8114-8116

I can confirm from representations seen by me previously and

today, ~O, ~1 Nov. 1746, Old Style. In what way it still re­
mains in their minds 8 that they wish to merit righteousness by
the sacrifice of their sons, this also has been previously seen by
me. 9
He will then put on blackness and mourning. The wasteness of
the land (vs. 34) is what is expressed by " darkness" in the pas­
sage cited from Genesis.
1 At that time, the saying of Jehovah, they shall take out the
bones of the kings of J udah, and the bones of his princes, and the
bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of their graves:
~ And they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and
all the host of the heavens, whom they have loved, . . . they shall
not be gathered, nor be buried; they shall be for dung upon the
faces of the earth.
3 And death shall be chosen rather than life by all the remnant
of them that remain of this evil family, in all the remaining places,
whither I shall drive them, . . .
8114. And in that infernal death, they shall be a prey to all
those whom they have served.
8115. Their damnation is then represented by the taking out of
the bones from the graves (vs. 1), as was done at Shechem by J 0­
siah [~ Kings 23 16 ]. This signified that they did not remain in
heaven and thus in the land which represented heaven. This is the
reason why they so intensely wished to be buried in that land, as
we read of Jacob and Joseph [Gen. 49 29 , 50 25 ] ; anuh,y at the
pr~_ day also it. rests in their minds that ~_ blessing to be)
buried ip.:!;hel!Q!.y land, etc. --nence theIr being now taken out of
the graves of Jerusalem means that they were cast out from heaven.
8116. No burial follows (vs. ~), that is, no r~a}!.Ilf---.Q~~th;
for rest in the grave repJe~ed the res~_of soulsafter death. The
• The autograph has manib-us (hands) but this is clearly a slip for mentib'Us,
as in the translation.
• This indented part of n. 8113 is not cited by the Author in the Index to
his M emo-rabilia.
IV Ad. p. 18.5 ~37

body then represented what would happen to the soul. Hence also
for many there would be no burial but they were cast out like dung;
see certain passages, etc. By the sun and the moon are meant all
those things in nature and thus under heaven, which they wor­
shipped. This, moreover, is signified by thi!.lgs which actually oc­
cu~Jn that they~£!shiEEedth~!!r.LIl,!.lJi moon. Thus i~ man these
are all his heats or natural loves, being the sun, and all the _falsities
thence arising being the moon; and, moreover, all other falsities,
( for they are innumerable, being the host of the heavens. Where­
fore it follows that they shall be a prey to the things they have
loved and worshipped; and when these are dominant, then infernal
furies have the dominion, in whom are the hatreds from which they
rend themselves and their companions in wickedness.
8117. Verse 3 treats of the remnant in Jerusalem; for pre­
viously it was said that the whole of Jerusalem was to be laid
waste. By the remnants of Jerusalem are meant the better ones .
who will choose death rather than life. But in respect to Zinn it '\'
is different; there the remnant of the whole globe will be gathered f

together, ~!om whom will not be excluded those of th~ Jews~o )

had, and wilThave faith in God Messiah. ­

4 Moreover thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith J ehovah: Do

they fall, that they rise not? are they turned away, that they turn
not back?
5 Why doth this people turn away, doth Jerusalem continue to
be turned away? they hold fast deceit, they refuse to return.
6 I gave attention and heard; they spake not what is right:
there is no man that repenteth him of his wickedness, saying, What
have I done? everyone returned to his own course, as the horse
poureth forth into the battle.
7 Yea, the stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed time;
and the turtle and the crane and the swallow observe the time of
their coming; but my people know not the judgment of Jehovah.

8118. That there is no deliverance from hell because they re­

main in their wickedness.
8119. The words in verse 4 are words of grief and compassion;
for God Messiah has compassion on all men, both in this life and
in the other life, since he does not will the death of anyone, but
338 IV Ad. p. 186

wills that he live. 'Wherefore it is here asked, as it were, whether

they would never return. In verse 5 is the somewhat mild answer,
full of the grief of compassion, the answer, namely, that they do
not wish to return; for when an opportunity of returning is given
them, then, exactl)' as in verse 6, they persist in their former words,
pouring forth into the battle like a horse.
8120. This likewise I can bear witness to from much experience;
for while held

in bonds they are silent; but they continually injected into my

mind such things as exhale from themselves, like vapors. These
could be sensated by me so manifestly that nothing could be
more manifest. It has not only been granted me to learn that
it was they who poured them in, but it was also granted me to
know who they were; for as soon as I turned my mind thither,
they were represented to me and were chastised, and while the
chastising was going on, they ceased. Afterwards they still
persisted, nor did the injection cease until they had been eX A

pelled. That they were being expelled, this, by an exquisite

sense, as was the case throughout the time when they were be­
ing driven away, I sensated just as vividly as did others when
they were going away, [and] sometimes when they were com­
ing. 1 Moreover, they also made their presence evident to me
by other signs; for it was sometimes allowed them wholly to
attract, as it were, and thus to detain the sphere of m)'
thoughts, and this so steadily and harshly that the cerebrum
was drawn down, as it were; nor could I ever have been deliv­
ered from this state save by the Divine mercy of God Messiah.
Then the state was at once changed to a lively sensation. 'Vere
I to recount all these particulars, they would be more than
could be specifically set forth, etc., etc. 2

8121. Unlike the birds (vs. 7), it is in a wholly contrary order

of life that they, and thus their minds, live. These minds are
compared to birds because by birds, according to the individual
1 The Latin is not clear. It reads: Quod oxpollorontur, tam 'Vivo 8entiobam,
sicut por totum, hoc tompu8, per 80nsum oxquisitum, quando abigobant'ur ac alii,
quando abibant, quandoq~lo cum voniobant.
• This indented part of n. 81~O is cited by the Author in the Index to his
M817Iorabilia, s.v., BpiritWl. See Table of Contents.
IV Ad. p. 186 SS9

species, are signified thoughts. In this verse, each bird has its
own explanation. It is their affections that lead them, and these
affections are natural and come into act according to order; but
with these men the contrary is the case. On one occasion, more­
over, I told them that birds,

together with the animals and vegetations of the earth, repre­

sent the kingdom of God Messiah; and that in them the repre­
sentations of the kingdom of God are most plainly manifest;
for without a representation of the kingdom of God, nothing
can subsist. Moreover, this was shown them in many ways.
Because it was shown them in a very living way, inasmuch as
my thought which was in my speech was almost such that I
could represent these things to the life in a spiritual manner,
as is the wont with spirits, this also they wondered at; and
they wholly acknowledged that these things did represent the
kingdom of God Messiah, for they could not contradict the
truth. Wherefore it was then also shown them that such men
and spirits as do not suffer themselves to be led by God Messiah
are the only ones who do not represent the kingdom of God
Messiah, but, on the contrary, represent the kingdom of the
devil; and that they represent things inferior, not superior. 3

8 How do ye say, "Ve are wise, and the law of Jehovah is with
us? Behold, certainly he hath worked with a lie; the pen of the
scribes is a lie.
9 The wise are ashamed, they are dismayed and taken: behold,
they have rejected the word of Jehovah; therefore of what matter
is wisdom to them?
10 Therefore will I give their wives unto others; their fields to
their inheritors: for from the least even unto the greatest they are
all intent orfu ury} from the prophet even unto the priest every
one maketh a lie.

8122. And because they say the church of God Messiah is With))
themselves, when yet they are intent on naught but earthly thi;gs,
therefore the church will be given to others. They say they are
wise (vs. 8), that they alone understand the Word of God, when
, The indented part of n. 8121 is cited by the Author in the Index to his
Memorabilia, S.Y., A·"ia, Regnum, Repraeaentatio. See Table of Contents.
340 IV Ad. p. 187
,JEREMIAH VIII: 8-15 [819l~

yet they have not the least understanding of it. T~l'~O})

th~~~w~~le of the letter, wh.!shjs dead; y~1--_~~i~n
that letter which so utter! condemns them. VVhatsoever is said
co~erning the true church of God Messiah, t~~~ lain as

( pertainin£J;~_t~~~~~ves alone, when yet it is other things entirely

and other men that are meant. Therefore they call themselves
wise, and say that the law is with them, when yet the law was_~enJII
0!:-tl¥:infurmation of all men in the w~_ole globe. Their speaking j
a lie, being wo;kers of a lie, com~lLfromtheir ._wi.ckedness. That
they explain only the letter, etc., is alsoexpressed in verse 8. That
th~J£isdom is iisanity, is intimated in verse 9. Moreover, the
answer is given, 0 wit, 'Vhat use does the Word serve them when
they do nothi~ wha~~Lin <:onfor~ity wifh it?- The wives (vs.
10) are doctrines; fields are likewise doctrines, and so the Word of
God Messiah and con.sequently the church. These will be given to \\
others who will inherit them, inasmuch as they t emselves earn
o~ for earthly thi~g0ere ~~db--usury. Such were all
the prophetsTo whom the Word was revealed; such the priests who
taught, and so the heads of their church; and consequently, such
were they all in those things which concern the worship of the

11 Moreover they heal the breach of the daughter of my peo­

ple by a word of no weight._~~.ce.-peare.+-wbenthere is no
l~ They were ashamed that they had committed abomination.
Yea, in being ashamed, it shamed them not; and they know not to
be moved with shame; therefore shall they fall among them that
fall: in the time of their visitation they shall stumble, said 3ehovah.
13 Consuming, I will consume them, the saying of 3ehovah:
there are no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig tree, and the
leaf is falling; and I will give them those who shall pass over them.
14 \Vhy do we sit still? assemble yourselves, and let us enter
into the cities of defence, and let us cut off 4 there: for 3ehovah our
God hath cut us off, and given us water of gall to drink, because
we have sinned against 3ehovah.
15 He looketh for peace, but there is no good; for a time of
health, but behold terror.
• i1t)'~'. See n. 4058 note.
IV Ad. p. 188 341

8123. And that they persuade the people that nothing is to be

feared; therefore is nothing that will not consume them.
Their security is set forth in verse 11, namely, that they think
nothing is to be feared; for when fear departs, then all is at an
end with the man, especially in the case of chastisement. N or are
they then moved with shame (vs. 12), because they give approval
tQSTjWes. When there is no shame, such is their disposition that
they reject all truths; but ~l:!en moved with shame, then truths
touch them and affect the-;. Wh~~fore,h~hen a man is without
J{shE!JTIe he is a man so _h~holly inverted, that he discards doctrines
and puts them far from him; but when he feels shame, he applies
them to himself and so is touched by them. Different, however,
will be the state at the time of visitation; that is to say, it will be
the opposite, in that they will fear all things and so will fall down
and stumble in all. As to verse 13, whether it means that there
is nothing of health remaining, etc., see the text. The meaning of
verses 14 and 15 is not yet evident; see the text.

16 From Dan was heard the snorting of his horses: from the
voice of the neighing of his strong ones, the whole land trembled;
and they came, and consumed the land, and the fulness thereof, the
city, and those that dwell therein.
17 For, behold, I sent upon you serpents, basilisks, against
which is no incantation; and they shall bite you; the saying of

8124. The judgment upon them will be that they are tormented
by remorse of conscience. A sound from Dan (vs. 16) is the last
judgment, Dan being judgment. Moreover, Dan was the last
border of the land of Canaan. Concerning Dan and Canaan, see
the Collecta. 5 Thus they will come from places outside Canaan,
that is, from hell, being spirits who will consume them, etc. The
serpents, basilisks (vs. 17) are the bitings of conscience in a greater
degree than that their worm dieth not [Mark 944 ].

18 My refreshment upon sorrow; upon me is my heart faint.

19 Behold the voice of the crL of t~e daug~te:r: of my people
. is not _~eho~ah__~ Zion? is not her king in her? . . .
, See Appendix, s.v., Canaan, Dan.
342 IV Ad. p. 188
JEREMIAH VIII: ll-~~-IX: 1-6 [8U5

~o The harvest is past, the autumn is consumed; but we are

not saved.
~1, ~.~ Upon the breach of the daughter of my people am I
broken; . Is there no balm in Gilead? is there no physician
there? . . .

1 ... Who shall make . . . mine eye the fountain of a tear? that
I might bewail day and night those of the daughter of my people
that are pierced.

8125. The church makes suppl-ication for them, bu,t because

t~ere is no hope, therefore they are greatly mourned. Verse 18
is a supplication with mourning. _ In verse 19, the church of God
Messiah, which i~, ask~--2Yh-ether God ~~~siaE ~~~~!1J"§l!y_e is
n~ there. The answer, which j,s mild because addressed i&.Jhe
chJrrch, follows at once, namely, that so great time has elapsed
(vs. ~O). The remaining verses express t_he bitter grief of the
Messiah over the people.

~ Who will give me in the wilderness, for a lodging place of
wayfaring men? for I would leave my people, and go from them!
for they be all adulterers an asse!Jlbly ofJ;reac,he~()us -!!!,en,
3 Who stretch their tongue; their bow is a lie: and in the truth
they have not prevailed in the earth, . . .
4 Take ye heed, a man of his neighbour, and trust_'ye not in \
an brother: for every brother, supplanting, will supplant, and)
ever corn -.1!nion will be slandered.
5 . . . they have taught ih~ir tongue to speak a lie; they are
wearied in doing perversely.
6 rr:hine habitation is in the midst of deceit; bec~~f deceit
th~"y refuse to k~e, the saying of Jehovah.

* According to the Hebrew Bible followed by Schmidius, this verse consti­

tutes verse 23 of chapter 8; but in the A.V., which is followed in the present
translation, it is verse 1 of chapter 9. Thus in the A.V., chapter 9 contains
twenty-six verses, whereas in the Hebrew it contains only twenty-five.
t See preceding note.

IV Ad. p. 188

.~~ That tl':!!. c}-"ur..Eh of God Messiah should beware of them

because the slander Him and stud to 8U lant Him. What has
prece ed is continued in verse ~, and is addressed to the c~urc~ of
God Messiah, as is evident from the series in what precedes and fol­
lows. These words are the words of God Messiah, namely, Where
shall she turn in so great a waste? Should he therefore leave
his people, he says, that is, his church, because they are all tl'each­
erous? Therefore he consoles her. Thus, she is also treated
of in what follows. The church of God :Messiah is scattered
througho.ut the entire-glGbe,-heing._inyisible, etc.; nor does any
( one know that he is in his church, etc., save from faith in God
l\fessiah. 6 The wasteness is described in verse 3, namely, that no
one is willing to know God Messiah. The tongue is compared to
a bow, the tongue or thought being a lie; and they do not prevail
with the bow, that is, with a lie, which they wish to be the truth.
Look up the text, etc. In verse 4, the church of God Messiah is
admonished that she take heed lest she be sedu~d, ~;Y;be seduced
J by.themseIves;-there beingwit1iilllJiem nothing but evil. They
then do not confide in any brother. In general, the subject treated
of is those with whom she lives. The supplanting involves t~o­
(p.le Jacob b~<::.ause Jacob is called a~p':planter [Gen. ~736J. Thus
-.:::, \. the subject specifically treated of is the des~ nts....9L~cob.
This subject is continued in verse 5. From a lie follows an evil
action, etc. Verse 6 is addressed to the church, that it dwells in.)"
the midst of deceit. Here It is clearly said that they were not)J
willing to acknowledge.

7, 8 . . . Behold, I will melt them, and try them; for how

shall I do b~~'?Lthe daughter of my people? . . . with his
mouth he s~aketh peace with his companion, but in his midst he
layeth snares for him.

8127. They lay snares ~ in affliction and temptation. Be- I~

cau,se of the daughter of mypeople;1Tiat is, because of the church. 1JJ

9 . . . Hath not my soul been avenged concerning such a na­

tion as this?
• The last two sentences are emphasized by "Obs., Obs.," written in the
344 IV Ad. p. 189
JEREMIAH IX: 9l-~4 [8U8-81~9

10 Because of the mountains I will take up a weeping and wail­

ing, for they are laid waste, so that no man passeth through
them; .
11 For I will make Jerusalem heaps, . . . and I will reduce
the cities of J udah to a waste, . . .
15, 16 . . . Behold, I will feed them, with wormwood, . . . I
will scatter them also among nations, . . .

8128. Therefore they must needs be va.ytated and cast out. It

is called a nation (vs. 9), and in this sense such a calling is a curse.
The vastation is described in verse 10. In verse 11, Jerusalem is
the perverted church; the cities of Judah are then perverse doc­
trines. Verses 15 and 16, in the ultimate sense, describe the cast­
ing of them out fl'om heaven.

17, 18 . . . summon women lamenters, . . . And let them

make haste, and take up a lamentation over us. . . .
19 For a voice of lamentation is heard out of Z~n, How are
we laid waste! . . .
9l1, 9l~ For death . . . hath come into our palaces, . . . Yea,
a man's carcasses shall fall . . . as sheaves after the reaper, and
none shall gather them.

8129. The church laments by reason of this dire vQstation, tfw,t

is, b'!L!.easo,,!:-of their ..!!'nb.(JlieLJn.(}?~...ll1essiah. These words sig­
nify the Jews, especially those living after the advent of God Mes­
siah exentQ the present day. That the Messiah lamented over
Jerusalem in a like sense, namely, because of their unbelief, see
the Gospels [Matt. 9l3 37 ; Luke 1334 ]. ~vs. 19) si~nifies the) \}
chu!ch scattered throughout the whole g106~, and. also celestial J
angels, etc. .

~3 Thus hath J ehovah said, Let not the wise man glory in his
wisdom, nor the mighty man glory in his might, nor the rich man
glory in his riches:
914 But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understand­
eth and knoweth me, that I am .Tehovah which doeth mercy, judg­
ment, and righteousness in the earth: for in these do I delight; .

IV Ad. p. 190 345


8130. For to have faith in God Messiah must be man's all in all.
To glory (vs. fl3) is anything but being wise. 7 Wisdom is to at­
tribute glory to God Messiah together with the giving of thanks.
The knowledge of God Messiah consists in three things, namely
[the knowledge], [1] That God Messiah shows mercy, that is,
that he loves all and wills to save all. [fl] That he does judg­
ment-that he judges aU men from faith. [3] That he does
justice--that he alone is Just, that is, is Justice itself, etc., etc.

fl5 Behold, the days come, . . . that I will visit every man
that is circumcised in the foreskin;
fl6 Egypt, and J udah, and Edom, and the sons of Ammon and
Moab, and them that are cut off from the corner, the dweller in
the wilderness: for all nations are uncircumcised, and every house
of Israel is foreskinned in heart.

8131. All in the entire globe are to be judged according to their

faith. 8 Specifically the circumcised in theJor-.eskitL--<-y'§iL~1il-1!
the Jews, and thus external men who love external things and wish
to oesaved by virtue of the law in externals. In the next verse
they are ca} ed foreskinned in heart. Thus, it is all nations that
are meant (vs. fl6). BY' the nations w~ich ar~_~!ioned i~ant
t~entire globe. Judah holds the second place, but the Jews are
also meant by all the others, for these were nations outside the land
of Canaan. So all those things which are in the external man are
outside his more interior things.

fl Thus hath J ehovah said, Learn not the ways of the nations,
and be not dismayed by the signs of the heavens; for the nations
are dismayed by them.
3 But the statutes of the nations are vanity; wood from