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Banknote Production Process

RAW MATERIALS
Cotton
Most paper currencies
are made up of 75% to
80% cotton.

Abaca Pulp

The remaining 25% to 20% material


content of paper currencies is a toss
either between linen and abaca.
Other textile materials made be used
or incorporated, but linen and abaca
are the most commonly used fibers.
Paper Production
Process
1.Cutting
Pulp, the raw material for
paper, is shredded into fine
pieces using a paper
shredder. The paper material
for banknotes is made from
cotton, abaca pulp, and
other fibers.
2.Defibering
The paper material is
defibered appropriately for
different applications.

3.Cleaning

Dust and other foreign


matter is removed from the
paper material.
4.Mashing
Closely intertwined fibers
make paper strong. Thus,
fibers are ground so that they
will mesh well with each
another.

5.Mixing

Various materials for paper


are mixed with chemicals to
produce the final paper
material for banknotes.
6.Papermaking
Sheets of paper are made
from paper material using
paper machines. This process
is called paper making, in
which paper material is
poured over a net to create a
thin layer of paper, which is
then dried and rolled up.
Delicate watermarks are also
created during this process.

7.Cutting
Rolled paper is cut
precisely to
predetermined
dimensions.
In this process, the roll of
banknote paper is
changed into sheets
(large sheets of paper).
8.Counting

Paper sheets are counted


accurately using a counting
machine.
Sheets of banknote paper are
sent to the printing process.
Printing Production
Process
1.Original Drawing

The National Printing Bureau has


designers with advanced skills
and a wealth of experience who
specialize in designing and
plating banknotes.
Designers use brushes and
pigments to create original full-
scale drawings.
2.Original Plating Original plates are carefully
engraved by highly-skilled
and experienced designers.
The texture and the spatial
effect of the design are
created by making minute
changes to the thickness of
the lines and to how the
plates are engraved.

A printing plate is created


from each of the
3.Platemaking
completed original plates.
During the printing
process, a pressure of one
ton is applied per square
centimeter of the plate. In
order to prevent the plates
from wearing out during
the printing process, they
are coated and given a
smooth and hard finish.
4.Printing

Banknotes are printed


using a banknote printing
machine developed by
the National Printing
Bureau.

5.Hologram Application

Holograms, an anti-
counterfeit technology, are
applied onto each sheet.
6.Serial Number Printing

Serial numbers, needed for the


management of valuable
banknotes and other uses, are
printed on sheets.

7.Cutting

Printed large sheet of


papers are precisely cut
into predetermined
dimensions.
8.Inspection/Finishing

After cutting, pieces are


inspected, counted and
banded, and packaged in units
of 1,000 notes.

9.Wrapping

Bundles are individually


wrapped for delivery to the
Banks.
10.Completion
Banknotes as described
above are produced daily at
the National Printing
Bureau.