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Signal Flow Graphs

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IntroductiontoSignalFlowGraphs

Definitions

Terminologies

Examples

MasonsGainFormula

Examples

SignalFlowGraphfromBlockDiagrams

DesignExamples

Introduction

Alternative method to block diagram representation,

developed by Samuel Jefferson Mason.

also called Masons gain formula.

are connected by directed branches.

to another and gives the relationships among the signals.

3

FundamentalsofSignalFlowGraphs

Consider a simple equation below and draw its signal flow graph:

y = ax

The signal flow graph of the equation is shown below;

a y

x

Every transmission function in a signal flow graph is designed by a

Branch.

Branches are always unidirectional.

The arrow in the branch denotes the direction of the signal flow.

SignalFlowGraphModels

SignalFlowGraphModels

r1 andr2 areinputsandx1 andx2 areoutputs

SignalFlowGraphModels

xo isinputandx4 isoutput

c

x2 = dx1 + ex3 x0

a x1 d x2 g x3 h x4

x3 = fx 0 + gx 2

x4 = hx 3 b e

Constructthesignalflowgraphforthefollowingsetof

simultaneousequations.

There are four variables in the equations (i.e., x1,x2,x3,and x4) therefore four nodes are

required to construct the signal flow graph.

Arrange these four nodes from left to right and connect them with the associated

branches.

Anotherwaytoarrangethis

graphisshowninthefigure.

Terminologies

An input node or source contain only the outgoing branches. i.e., X1

An output node or sink contain only the incoming branches. i.e., X4

A path is a continuous, unidirectional succession of branches along which no

node is passed more than ones. i.e.,

X1 toX2 toX3 toX4 X1 toX2 toX4 X2 toX3 toX4

A forward path is a path from the input node to the output node. i.e.,

X1 to X2 to X3 to X4 , and X1 to X2 to X4 , are forward paths.

A feedback path or feedback loop is a path which originates and terminates on

the same node. i.e.; X2 to X3 and back to X2 is a feedback path.

Terminologies

A selfloop is a feedback loop consisting of a single branch. i.e.; A33 is a self

loop.

The gain of a branch is the transmission function of that branch.

The path gain is the product of branch gains encountered in traversing a path.

i.e. the gain of forwards path X1 to X2 to X3 to X4 is A21A32A43

The loop gain is the product of the branch gains of the loop. i.e., the loop gain

of the feedback loop from X2 to X3 and back to X2 is A32A23.

Two loops, paths, or loop and a path are said to be nontouching if they have

no nodes in common.

Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

a) Inputnode.

b) Outputnode.

c) Forwardpaths.

d) Feedbackpaths(loops).

e) Determinetheloopgainsofthefeedbackloops.

f) Determinethepathgainsoftheforwardpaths.

g) Nontouchingloops

Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Therearetwoforwardpathgains;

Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Therearefourloops

Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Nontouchingloopgains;

Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythe

following

a) Inputnode.

b) Outputnode.

c) Forwardpaths.

d) Feedbackpaths.

e) Selfloop.

f) Determinetheloopgainsofthefeedbackloops.

g) Determinethepathgainsoftheforwardpaths.

InputandoutputNodes

a) Inputnode

b) Outputnode

(c)ForwardPaths

(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops

(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops

(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops

(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops

(e)SelfLoop(s)

(f)LoopGainsoftheFeedbackLoops

(g)PathGainsoftheForwardPaths

MasonsRule(Mason,1953)

The block diagram reduction technique requires successive

application of fundamental relationships in order to arrive at the

system transfer function.

On the other hand, Masons rule for reducing a signalflow graph

to a single transfer function requires the application of one

formula.

The formula was derived by S. J. Mason when he related the

signalflow graph to the simultaneous equations that can be

written from the graph.

MasonsRule:

The transfer function, C(s)/R(s), of a system represented by a signalflow graph

is;

n

Pi i

C( s ) i =1

=

R( s )

Where

n =numberofforwardpaths.

Pi =thei th forwardpathgain.

=Determinantofthesystem

i =Determinantoftheith forwardpath

iscalledthesignalflowgraphdeterminantorcharacteristicfunction.Since

=0 isthesystemcharacteristicequation.

MasonsRule:

n

Pi i

C( s ) i =1

=

R( s )

= 1 (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the products of the gains

of all possible two loops that do not touch each other) (sum of the

products of the gains of all possible three loops that do not touch each

other) + and so forth with sums of higher number of nontouching loop

gains

i = value of for the part of the block diagram that does not touch the i

th forward path (i = 1 if there are no nontouching loops to the ith path.)

Systematicapproach

path i.

2. Calculate all loop transfer functions

3. Consider nontouching loops 2 at a time

4. Consider nontouching loops 3 at a time

5. etc

6. Calculate from steps 2,3,4 and 5

7. Calculate i as portion of not touching forward

path i

28

Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof

thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therefore, C P11 + P2 2

=

R

Therearethreefeedbackloops

Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof

thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therearenonontouchingloops,therefore

=1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)

= 1 (L1 + L2 + L3 )

Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof

thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Eliminateforwardpath1

1 =1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)+...

1 =1

Eliminateforwardpath2

2 =1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)+...

2 =1

Example#1:Continue

Example#2:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunction

ofthesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

P1

P2

1.Calculateforwardpathgainsforeachforwardpath.

P1 = G1G2 G3G4 (path 1) and P2 = G5G6 G7 G8 (path 2)

2.Calculateallloopgains.

L1 = G2 H 2 , L2 = H 3G3 , L3 = G6 H 6 , L4 = G7 H 7

3.Considertwonontouchingloops.

L1L3 L1L4

L2 L4 L2 L3 33

Example#2:continue

4. Considerthreenontouchingloops.

None.

5. Calculate fromsteps2,3,4.

= 1 (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 ) + (L1 L3 + L1 L4 + L2 L3 + L2 L4 )

= 1 (G2 H 2 + H 3G3 + G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 ) +

(G2 H 2G6 H 6 + G2 H 2G7 H 7 + H 3G3G6 H 6 + H 3G3G7 H 7 )

34

Example#2:continue

Eliminateforwardpath1

1 = 1 (L3 + L4 )

1 = 1 (G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 )

Eliminateforwardpath2

2 = 1 (L1 + L2 )

2 = 1 (G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 )

35

Example#2:continue

Y ( s ) P11 + P2 2

=

R( s )

=

R( s ) 1 (G2 H 2 + H 3G3 + G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 ) + (G2 H 2 G6 H 6 + G2 H 2 G7 H 7 + H 3G3G6 H 6 + H 3G3G7 H 7 )

36

Example#3

Find the transfer function, C(s)/R(s), for the signalflow

graph in figure below.

Example#3

There is only one forward Path.

Example#3

There are four feedback loops.

Example#3

Nontouching loops taken two at a time.

Example#3

Nontouching loops taken three at a time.

Example#3

Eliminateforwardpath1

Example#4:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunction

ofthesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therearethreeforwardpaths,thereforen=3.

3

Pi i

C( s ) i =1 P11 + P2 2 + P3 3

= =

R( s )

Example#4:ForwardPaths

Example#4:LoopGainsoftheFeedbackLoops

L2 = A43 A34 L9 = A72 A57 A45 A34 A23

L6 = A77

L3 = A54 A45 L10 = A72 A67 A56 A45 A34 A23

L7 = A42 A34 A23

L4 = A65 A56

L8 = A65 A76 A67

Example#4:twonontouchingloops

L1 L3 L2 L4 L3 L5 L4 L6 L5 L7 L7 L8

L2 L5 L3 L6 L4 L7

L1 L4

L1 L5 L2 L6

L1 L6 L2 L8

L1 L8

Example#4:Threenontouchingloops

L1 L3 L2 L4 L3 L5 L4 L6 L5 L7 L7 L8

L2 L5 L3 L6 L4 L7

L1 L4

L1 L5 L2 L6

L1 L6 L2 L8

L1 L8

FromBlockDiagramtoSignalFlowGraphModels

Example#5

H1

G1 G2 G3 G4

X2

H2

H3

H1

R(s) 1 E(s) G1 X1 G2 X2 G3 X3 G4 C(s)

H2

H3

FromBlockDiagramtoSignalFlowGraphModels

Example#5

H1

R(s) 1 E(s) G1 X1 G2 X2 G3 G4 X3 1 C(s)

H2

H3

P1 = G1G2G3G4 ; 1 = 1

C ( s) G1G2G3G4

G= =

R( s ) 1 + G1G2G3G4 H 3 + G2G3 H 2 + G3G4 H 1

Example#6

X1 Y1

G1

R(s) + + C(s)

E(s)

X +

2

G2

Y2

1

X1 G1 Y1

1

1 1

R(s) 1 E(s) C(s)

1 1 1

X2 G2 Y2

1

1

Example#6

1

X1 G1 Y1

1 1

R(s) 1 E(s) 1 C(s)

1 X2 1 Y2 1

G2

1 1

7loops:

32nontouchingloops:

Example#6

1

X1 G1 Y1

1 1

R(s) 1 E(s) 1 C(s)

1 X2 1 Y2 1

G2

1 1

4forwardpaths:

p1 = ( 1) G1 1 1 = 1 + G2

p2 = ( 1) G1 ( 1) G2 1 2 = 1

p3 = 1 G2 1 3 = 1 + G1

p4 = 1 G2 1 G1 1 4 = 1

Example#6

Wehave

C( s ) pk k

=

R( s )

G G1 + 2G1G2

= 2

1 + 2G2 + 4G1G2

Example7: DeterminethetransferfunctionC/Rfortheblockdiagrambelow

bysignalflowgraphtechniques.

Thesignalflowgraphoftheaboveblockdiagramisshownbelow.

Therearetwoforwardpaths.Thepathgainsare

Thethreefeedbackloopgainsare

Noloopsarenontouching,hence

BecausetheloopstouchthenodesofP1, HencethecontrolratioT=C/Ris

hence

SincenoloopstouchthenodesofP2,

therefore

Example6:FindthecontrolratioC/Rforthesystemgivenbelow.

Thesignalflowgraphisshowninthefigure.

Thetwoforwardpathgainsare

Thefivefeedbackloopgainsare

Therearenonontouchingloops,hence

Allfeedbackloopstouchesthetwoforward

paths,hence

HencethecontrolratioT=

DesignExample#1

1

V1 ( s ) = I1 ( s ) + I1 ( s ) R

Cs

CsV1 ( s ) CsV2 ( s ) = I1 ( s )

V2 ( s ) = I 1 ( s ) R

Cs

Cs R

V1 (s ) I1 (s ) V2 (s )

DesignExample#2

F = M 1s 2 X 1 + k1 ( X 1 X 2 ) 0 = M 2 s 2 X 2 + k1 ( X 2 X 1 ) + k 2 X 2

DesignExample#2

DesignExample#2

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