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Outline

IntroductiontoSignalFlowGraphs
Definitions
Terminologies
Examples
MasonsGainFormula
Examples
SignalFlowGraphfromBlockDiagrams
DesignExamples
Introduction
Alternative method to block diagram representation,
developed by Samuel Jefferson Mason.

Advantage: the availability of a flow graph gain formula,


also called Masons gain formula.

A signalflow graph consists of a network in which nodes


are connected by directed branches.

It depicts the flow of signals from one point of a system


to another and gives the relationships among the signals.

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FundamentalsofSignalFlowGraphs
Consider a simple equation below and draw its signal flow graph:
y = ax
The signal flow graph of the equation is shown below;

a y
x

Every variable in a signal flow graph is designed by a Node.


Every transmission function in a signal flow graph is designed by a
Branch.
Branches are always unidirectional.
The arrow in the branch denotes the direction of the signal flow.
SignalFlowGraphModels
SignalFlowGraphModels
r1 andr2 areinputsandx1 andx2 areoutputs
SignalFlowGraphModels

xo isinputandx4 isoutput

x1 = ax0 + bx1 + cx2 f


c
x2 = dx1 + ex3 x0
a x1 d x2 g x3 h x4

x3 = fx 0 + gx 2
x4 = hx 3 b e
Constructthesignalflowgraphforthefollowingsetof
simultaneousequations.

There are four variables in the equations (i.e., x1,x2,x3,and x4) therefore four nodes are
required to construct the signal flow graph.
Arrange these four nodes from left to right and connect them with the associated
branches.

Anotherwaytoarrangethis
graphisshowninthefigure.
Terminologies
An input node or source contain only the outgoing branches. i.e., X1
An output node or sink contain only the incoming branches. i.e., X4
A path is a continuous, unidirectional succession of branches along which no
node is passed more than ones. i.e.,
X1 toX2 toX3 toX4 X1 toX2 toX4 X2 toX3 toX4

A forward path is a path from the input node to the output node. i.e.,
X1 to X2 to X3 to X4 , and X1 to X2 to X4 , are forward paths.
A feedback path or feedback loop is a path which originates and terminates on
the same node. i.e.; X2 to X3 and back to X2 is a feedback path.
Terminologies
A selfloop is a feedback loop consisting of a single branch. i.e.; A33 is a self
loop.
The gain of a branch is the transmission function of that branch.
The path gain is the product of branch gains encountered in traversing a path.
i.e. the gain of forwards path X1 to X2 to X3 to X4 is A21A32A43
The loop gain is the product of the branch gains of the loop. i.e., the loop gain
of the feedback loop from X2 to X3 and back to X2 is A32A23.

Two loops, paths, or loop and a path are said to be nontouching if they have
no nodes in common.
Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

a) Inputnode.
b) Outputnode.
c) Forwardpaths.
d) Feedbackpaths(loops).
e) Determinetheloopgainsofthefeedbackloops.
f) Determinethepathgainsoftheforwardpaths.
g) Nontouchingloops
Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Therearetwoforwardpathgains;
Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Therearefourloops
Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythefollowing

Nontouchingloopgains;
Considerthesignalflowgraphbelowandidentifythe
following

a) Inputnode.
b) Outputnode.
c) Forwardpaths.
d) Feedbackpaths.
e) Selfloop.
f) Determinetheloopgainsofthefeedbackloops.
g) Determinethepathgainsoftheforwardpaths.
InputandoutputNodes

a) Inputnode

b) Outputnode
(c)ForwardPaths
(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops
(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops
(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops
(d)FeedbackPathsorLoops
(e)SelfLoop(s)
(f)LoopGainsoftheFeedbackLoops
(g)PathGainsoftheForwardPaths
MasonsRule(Mason,1953)
The block diagram reduction technique requires successive
application of fundamental relationships in order to arrive at the
system transfer function.
On the other hand, Masons rule for reducing a signalflow graph
to a single transfer function requires the application of one
formula.
The formula was derived by S. J. Mason when he related the
signalflow graph to the simultaneous equations that can be
written from the graph.
MasonsRule:
The transfer function, C(s)/R(s), of a system represented by a signalflow graph
is;
n
Pi i
C( s ) i =1
=
R( s )
Where

n =numberofforwardpaths.
Pi =thei th forwardpathgain.
=Determinantofthesystem
i =Determinantoftheith forwardpath

iscalledthesignalflowgraphdeterminantorcharacteristicfunction.Since
=0 isthesystemcharacteristicequation.
MasonsRule:
n
Pi i
C( s ) i =1
=
R( s )
= 1 (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the products of the gains
of all possible two loops that do not touch each other) (sum of the
products of the gains of all possible three loops that do not touch each
other) + and so forth with sums of higher number of nontouching loop
gains

i = value of for the part of the block diagram that does not touch the i
th forward path (i = 1 if there are no nontouching loops to the ith path.)
Systematicapproach

1. Calculate forward path gain Pi for each forward


path i.
2. Calculate all loop transfer functions
3. Consider nontouching loops 2 at a time
4. Consider nontouching loops 3 at a time
5. etc
6. Calculate from steps 2,3,4 and 5
7. Calculate i as portion of not touching forward
path i

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Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof
thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therefore, C P11 + P2 2
=
R
Therearethreefeedbackloops

L1 = G1G4 H 1 , L2 = G1G2 G4 H 2 , L3 = G1G3G4 H 2


Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof
thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therearenonontouchingloops,therefore

=1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)

= 1 (L1 + L2 + L3 )

= 1 (G1G4 H 1 G1G2 G4 H 2 G1G3G4 H 2 )


Example#1:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunctionof
thesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Eliminateforwardpath1

1 =1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)+...
1 =1

Eliminateforwardpath2

2 =1 (sumofallindividualloopgains)+...
2 =1
Example#1:Continue
Example#2:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunction
ofthesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

P1

P2

1.Calculateforwardpathgainsforeachforwardpath.
P1 = G1G2 G3G4 (path 1) and P2 = G5G6 G7 G8 (path 2)

2.Calculateallloopgains.
L1 = G2 H 2 , L2 = H 3G3 , L3 = G6 H 6 , L4 = G7 H 7

3.Considertwonontouchingloops.
L1L3 L1L4
L2 L4 L2 L3 33
Example#2:continue

4. Considerthreenontouchingloops.
None.

5. Calculate fromsteps2,3,4.

= 1 (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 ) + (L1 L3 + L1 L4 + L2 L3 + L2 L4 )

= 1 (G2 H 2 + H 3G3 + G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 ) +
(G2 H 2G6 H 6 + G2 H 2G7 H 7 + H 3G3G6 H 6 + H 3G3G7 H 7 )

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Example#2:continue
Eliminateforwardpath1

1 = 1 (L3 + L4 )
1 = 1 (G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 )

Eliminateforwardpath2

2 = 1 (L1 + L2 )

2 = 1 (G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 )

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Example#2:continue

Y ( s ) P11 + P2 2
=
R( s )

Y (s) G1G2 G3G4 [1 (G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 )] + G5G6 G7 G8 [1 (G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 )]


=
R( s ) 1 (G2 H 2 + H 3G3 + G6 H 6 + G7 H 7 ) + (G2 H 2 G6 H 6 + G2 H 2 G7 H 7 + H 3G3G6 H 6 + H 3G3G7 H 7 )

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Example#3
Find the transfer function, C(s)/R(s), for the signalflow
graph in figure below.
Example#3
There is only one forward Path.

P1 = G1 ( s )G2 ( s )G3 ( s )G4 ( s )G5 ( s )


Example#3
There are four feedback loops.
Example#3
Nontouching loops taken two at a time.
Example#3
Nontouching loops taken three at a time.
Example#3

Eliminateforwardpath1
Example#4:ApplyMasonsRuletocalculatethetransferfunction
ofthesystemrepresentedbyfollowingSignalFlowGraph

Therearethreeforwardpaths,thereforen=3.

3
Pi i
C( s ) i =1 P11 + P2 2 + P3 3
= =
R( s )
Example#4:ForwardPaths

P3 = A42 A54 A65 A76

P1 = A32 A43 A54 A65 A76 P2 = A72


Example#4:LoopGainsoftheFeedbackLoops

L1 = A32 A23 L5 = A76 A67


L2 = A43 A34 L9 = A72 A57 A45 A34 A23
L6 = A77
L3 = A54 A45 L10 = A72 A67 A56 A45 A34 A23
L7 = A42 A34 A23
L4 = A65 A56
L8 = A65 A76 A67
Example#4:twonontouchingloops

L1 L3 L2 L4 L3 L5 L4 L6 L5 L7 L7 L8
L2 L5 L3 L6 L4 L7
L1 L4
L1 L5 L2 L6

L1 L6 L2 L8

L1 L8
Example#4:Threenontouchingloops

L1 L3 L2 L4 L3 L5 L4 L6 L5 L7 L7 L8
L2 L5 L3 L6 L4 L7
L1 L4
L1 L5 L2 L6

L1 L6 L2 L8

L1 L8
FromBlockDiagramtoSignalFlowGraphModels
Example#5
H1

R(s) E(s) X1 X3 C(s)


G1 G2 G3 G4
X2

H2

H3

H1
R(s) 1 E(s) G1 X1 G2 X2 G3 X3 G4 C(s)

H2
H3
FromBlockDiagramtoSignalFlowGraphModels
Example#5
H1
R(s) 1 E(s) G1 X1 G2 X2 G3 G4 X3 1 C(s)

H2

H3

= 1 + (G1G2G3G4 H 3 + G2G3 H 2 + G3G4 H 1 )


P1 = G1G2G3G4 ; 1 = 1

C ( s) G1G2G3G4
G= =
R( s ) 1 + G1G2G3G4 H 3 + G2G3 H 2 + G3G4 H 1
Example#6

X1 Y1
G1
R(s) + + C(s)
E(s)
X +
2
G2
Y2

1
X1 G1 Y1
1
1 1
R(s) 1 E(s) C(s)
1 1 1
X2 G2 Y2

1
1
Example#6
1
X1 G1 Y1
1 1
R(s) 1 E(s) 1 C(s)
1 X2 1 Y2 1
G2

1 1

7loops:

32nontouchingloops:
Example#6
1
X1 G1 Y1
1 1
R(s) 1 E(s) 1 C(s)
1 X2 1 Y2 1
G2

1 1

Then: = 1 + 2G2 + 4G1G2


4forwardpaths:
p1 = ( 1) G1 1 1 = 1 + G2
p2 = ( 1) G1 ( 1) G2 1 2 = 1
p3 = 1 G2 1 3 = 1 + G1
p4 = 1 G2 1 G1 1 4 = 1
Example#6

Wehave
C( s ) pk k
=
R( s )
G G1 + 2G1G2
= 2
1 + 2G2 + 4G1G2
Example7: DeterminethetransferfunctionC/Rfortheblockdiagrambelow
bysignalflowgraphtechniques.

Thesignalflowgraphoftheaboveblockdiagramisshownbelow.

Therearetwoforwardpaths.Thepathgainsare

Thethreefeedbackloopgainsare

Noloopsarenontouching,hence

BecausetheloopstouchthenodesofP1, HencethecontrolratioT=C/Ris
hence

SincenoloopstouchthenodesofP2,
therefore
Example6:FindthecontrolratioC/Rforthesystemgivenbelow.

Thesignalflowgraphisshowninthefigure.

Thetwoforwardpathgainsare

Thefivefeedbackloopgainsare

Therearenonontouchingloops,hence

Allfeedbackloopstouchesthetwoforward
paths,hence

HencethecontrolratioT=
DesignExample#1

1
V1 ( s ) = I1 ( s ) + I1 ( s ) R
Cs
CsV1 ( s ) CsV2 ( s ) = I1 ( s )
V2 ( s ) = I 1 ( s ) R
Cs

Cs R

V1 (s ) I1 (s ) V2 (s )
DesignExample#2

F = M 1s 2 X 1 + k1 ( X 1 X 2 ) 0 = M 2 s 2 X 2 + k1 ( X 2 X 1 ) + k 2 X 2
DesignExample#2
DesignExample#2