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An Error Analysis of Word Order Used in Recount Text

Made by Students at The Tenth Grade of MAN 1


KotaMagelang Academic Year of 2013/2014

A Graduating Paper

Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillments of the


Requirements for the Degree of SarjanaPendidikan Islam (S. Pd. I)
in English Education Study Program

By:

ANISA FITRIYANI
113 09 122

State Institute for Islamic Studies


Salatiga
2013
DECLARATION

Bismillahirrohmanirrohim

Hereby the writer declares that this graduating paper is made by the writer herself,

and it is not containing materials written and has been published by other people

and others peoples idea except the information from the references.

The writer is capable to account to his graduating paper if in the future it can be

proved of containing others idea or in fact, the writer imitates the others

graduating paper.

Likewise, the declaration is made by the writer, and he hopes that this declaration

can be understood.

Salatiga, September 9 th 2013

The Writer

AnisaFitriyani

NIM : 11309122
MOTTO

Always do the best for our life

The great essentials to happiness in this life are

something to do, something to love and

something to hope for.(Joseph Addison)


Dedication

Thanks to my beloved mother and father for your endless struggle to give the best

things to me.

To my brother and sister, keep on spirit.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

AssalamualaikumWr.Wb.

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Alhamdulillah, thanks to

Allah for the blessing given to the writer, so the writer can finish this graduating

paper as requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) of

State Institute for Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga. Peace and Blessing be upon

the lovely prophet Muhammad SAW, the family and followers.

In this occasion, the writer would like to express great honor and deepest

gratitude for people who gave guidance, support, advice and motivation. These

extend gratitude is addressed to:

1. Dr. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic Studies of

Salatiga.

2. Mashlikhatul Umami,S.Pd.I, M.A as the Head of English Departmentof

STAIN Salatiga.

3. SetiaRini, M.Pd as the writers counselor who has educated, guided, directed,

and given recommendations to the writer from the beginning until the end.

4. All of the lecturers at English Department of STAIN Salatiga.

May Allah, The Almighty bless them all, Amien


Finally, the writer hopes that this graduating paper will be useful for her,

the readers and people who need the information related with the content of this

paper.

WassalamualaikumWr.Wb.

Salatiga, September 9 th2013

The Writer,

AnisaFitriyani

NIM: 113 09 122


ABSTRACT

Fitriyani, Anisa. 2013. An Error Analysis of Word Order Used in Recount

Text Made by Students at Tenth Grade of MAN 1kota Magelang Academic Year of

2013/2014. A Graduating Paper.English Department of State Institute of Islamic

Studies Salatiga. Consultant: SetiaRini, M.Pd

In creating sentence, word order held an important role to make the


sentence can be understood. If the words in a sentence are in the wrong order, the
sentence wont make sense. So, it is important for foreign language learners to put
the word in the right order. Therefore, this study that entitle An Error Analysis
of Word Order Used in Recount Text Made by Students at Tenth Grade of MAN
1 Kota Magelang Academic Year of 2013/2014 is purposed to analyze the kinds
of word order error in sentence and phrase made by students and the factors that
cause this error. To analyze the data the writer used descriptive qualitative
method and used error analysis procedure to make clear the explanation. The
participants of this study consist of 73 students who came from X3 and X4 classes
of tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang academic year of 2013/2014. The result
of the study indicated that 80% of respondent committed word order error either
in constructing the sentence or distributing the word in noun phrase. In
constructing sentence, word order errors are visible in the omission of subject,
predicate or object and the wrong composition of sentence constituent. Whereas in
word order distribution, the error occurred in the arrangement of modifier + head
noun.Beside that, according to the questionnaire, the dominant factor that caused
the error is carelessness in which the students still confuse and do not have
motivation to learn English.

Key Words: Error Analysis, Word Order, Recount Text, Noun Phrase,

descriptive qualitative.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE........................................................................................................ i
DECLARATION ....................................................................................... ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ....................................................... iii
CERTIFICATION PAGE .......................................................................... iv
MOTTO .................................................................................................... v
DEDICATION........................................................................................... vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................ vii
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................. ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... x
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................... xii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study ....................................................................... 1
B. Limitation of the Study.......................................................................... 4
C. Statement of the Problem ...................................................................... 4
D. The Objectives of the Study................................................................... 4
E. Significance of the Study ...................................................................... 5
F. Theoretical point of view ...................................................................... 6
G. Review of Previous Study .................................................................... 8
H. Outline of the Graduating Paper ............................................................ 9
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Basic Concept of Error Analysis .......................................................... 11
1. Definition of Error Analysis ........................................................... 12
2. Differences Between Error and Mistake ......................................... 14
3. Cause of Error ............................................................................... 15
B. Basic Concept of Word Order .............................................................. 17
1. Word Order in Declarative Sentence............................................... 17
2. Word Order in Noun Phrase 18
C. Recount Text ... ....... 24
CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY
A. Method of The Study ............................................................................ 26
1. Type of The Study ... ........ 26
2. Setting of The Study ............ 27
3. The Object of The Study .............. 27
4. The Method of Collecting Data ................... 28
5. Technique of Analysis Data ................ 29
B. The Profile of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang...................... 30
1. Geographical Location of MAN 1 Kota Magelang
... ....................... 30
2. History of MAN 1 Kota Magelang .................. 30
3. Visions, Missions and The Goals of MAN 1 Kota Magelang
... ....................... 31
4. Physical Condition of MAN 1 Kota Magelang ....................... 32
5. The Condition of Madrasah Committee and The Teachers
...................... 33
6. The Facility of MAN 1 Kota Magelang .................. 36
7. The Condition of Respondents ................ 37
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS DATA
A. The Kinds of Word Order Error in Recount Text Made by Students at
Tenth Grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang Academic Year of 2013/2014 . 40
B. The Factors that Caused Word Order Error in Recount Text Made by
Students at Tenth Grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang Academic Year of
2013/2014 ............................................................................................ 68
C. The Discussion of Findings ................................................................... 89
CHAPTER V CLOSURE
A. Conclusion ........................................................................................... 91
B. Suggestion............................................................................................. 92
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CURRICULUM VITAE
APPENDIX
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 : The Types of Determiner ....................................................... 21


Table 2.2 : The Function of Modifier ...................................................... 23
Table 3.1 : The List of Teachers of MAN 1 Kota Magelang..................... 35
Table 3.2 : The Facility of MAN 1 Kota Magelang .................................. 37
Table 3.3 : The Number of Students at Tenth Grade of MAN 1 Kota
Magelang Academic Year of 2013/2014 ................................ 38
Table 3.4 : The Respondents of The Study(Students of X3 and X4
Classes) ................................................................................. 38
Table 4.1 : Error Sentences and Type of Errors........................................ 40
Table 4.2 : Location of Errors .................................................................. 64
Table 4.3 : The Factors that Caused the Errors......................................... 66
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

In modern era, in which globalization was spread entire the world, a

medium language is needed to make the communication process easier. In this

case, English is admitted to be international language in the worldwide.It is

seen in the educational books, international meeting, international schools, etc.

that use English as a medium of language. This facts show that

Englishbecomes an important languagein face of globalization,so there are

many countries engaged this language in the curriculum. In Indonesia, English

is taught as a foreign language.

Both English and Bahasa have some different system of conventions in

arranging the elements of language. These differences are visible in syntax,

phonology and semantic. The convention of a language is created to

standardize the language usage and to connect between the content of

language and the form of language. In addition, the form of language consists

of word order, word formation, word choice, etc. Valyn and Lapolla (1997)

say that strongly professed that in English and many other languages, the

arrangement of word is a vital factor in determining the meaning of an

utterance.It means that word order becomes a factor that influential in creating

good sentences. A sentence has to have the word in order to make a sense and

help us to understand the grammatical function of each constituent. So,when

we create a sentence, especially in English, we should use standard language


of English, especially in word order. The word that out of order wont be

understood by reader because sometimes it is ambiguous and have not

meaning. People refer to the word order of a language as an order of subject,

object, and verb in sentences. Whereas word order refers more generally to the

order of any set of elements, either at the clause level, or within phrases, such

as the order of elements within a noun phrase.

In order to use a language well, learners should learn the conventions

of a language to understand how to apply the system in a sentence. Whereas

language learning is a process that involves trial and error, so learners cannot

avoid mistake in the study of language. By making errors, learners will build

their new knowledge to use the target language as Littlewood states that

making errors during studying the second language can be considered as a

means of building learners abilities because they can learn something from

making errors (Littlewood, 1992).

In addition, one of basic error that often committed by English foreign

language learners isin syntax, especially in word order. Customarily, certain

word order characteristics of first language influence learner to construct the

phrase, clause, and sentence in English. So it will cause error in learning and

understanding English. Beside that, learners usually use native languange to

comprehend English and they have lack ability to think in English so it makes

students incompetent to use English perfectly. This problem is also faced by

Indonesian students in learning English.


Indonesian students as foreign language learners have difficulties to

mastery English and they usually have problems to creategood sentence in

writing process. It caused by interference of first language that different with

English especially in word order, so it cause errors commited by learners. This

errorsare clearer when the learner make a written text.One kind of written text

that engenders an error is recount text. Writing recount text is one of the

productive skills that should be mastered by students especially in senior high

school. It requires some aspects such as widely perception, involving thinking

process and need good understanding on word order. In this case, the strong

foundation in word order becomes an aspect that should be comprehended in

order to make meaningful sentences in writing recount text.

Although senior high school students have been studying English

since elementary school, but there are some students who still make word

order error in writing, especially in recount text. The problem also faced by

students in tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang that located in Jln. Raya

Payaman No. 1 Magelang. This error caused by the way of students who still

use Bahasa form to construct English sentence. So they produce an utterance

that different with the basic standards of English form. Beside that, the

learning process that focused in student work sheet (LKS) make student

cannot analyze the component of sentence deeply. So, the understanding of

students about the word order is minus.

In this study, the writer chooses An Error Analysis of Word Order

Used in Recount Text Made by Students at The Tenth Grade of MAN 1 Kota
Magelang Academic Year of 2013/2014 to know the errors and problem

faced by learners in writing recount text.

B. Limitation of the Study

This study is concerned on analyzing of word order error used in

recount text made by students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang,

especially in word order construction and word order distribution. In word

order construction, the writer focused in the order of declarative sentences

specifically for arrangement of subject, predicate and the object of

sentence.Whereas, in word order distribution, the writer wants to analyze the

distribution of words in noun phrase.

C. Statement of the Problem

In this study, the writer wants to solve the following problems:

1. What kinds of errors in the usage of word order in recount text committed

by students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang?

2. What isthe dominant factorthat causedword order errors in recount text

committed by students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang?

D. The Objectives of the Study

Based on statement of the problem above, the aims of this research can be

formulated to:

1. To find the kinds of word order errors used in recount text committed by

students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang.

2. To find the dominant factor that caused word order errors in recount text

committed by students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang.


E. Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is can be classified into:

1. For the teacher

The result of the study can show the students progress in learning word

order, so it can be used as a reference for the teacher about what technique or

strategy that should be applied in teaching English to improve the students

ability.

2. For the students

The result of the study can show to the students about the errors they

made, so by read the analysis they can know their fault and know the right

pattern of word arrangement.

3. For the researcher

The result of the study provides evidence of how language is learned

or acquired and the strategies or procedures that used by students. By analyze

the study, the writer can improve the knowledge about the average of students

ability in mastering English, so the writer can find the best way to teach

English word order in the future.

F. Theoretical Point of View

1. Error analysis

a. Definition of error

According to Norrish (in Hasyim, 2002:45), error is a

systematic deviation, when a learner has not learnt something and

consistently gets it wrong.


b. Definition of error analysis

Richards (1985:96) says that error analysis is the study of

errors made by the second and foreign language learners. Error

analysis may be carried out in order to (a) find out how well someone

knows a language, (b) find out how a person learns a language, and (c)

obtain information on common difficulties in language learning, as an

aid in teaching or in the preparation of teaching materials. Beside that,

Crystal (in Hasyim, 2002:47) also states that error analysis is a

technique for identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting

the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning a foreign

language, using any of the principles and procedures provided by

linguistics.

c. Differences between error and mistake

In distinguishing between error and mistake, Ellis (1997:17)

claims that errors reflect gaps in the students knowledge, it occurred

because the students does not know what is the correct, whereas

mistake reflect occasional lapses in performance, they occur because,

in particular instance, the students untenable to perform what he or she

knows.

2. Word order

Word order could be defined as the syntactic arrangement of words

in a sentence, clause, or phrase. Inother words, it is the order in which

words occur in sentences. Furthermore, it refers to the differentways in


which languages arrange the constituents of their sentences relative to each

other.

a. Word order in declarative sentence

English sentences are constructed by two basic elements that

consist of subject and predicate. From this elements, there are some

pattern can be arrange, but the common order that usually used in

declarative sentence is SVO.

Example: My mother cooked the rice.

b. Noun phrase word order

A phrase is a group of words that have a function in a sentence,

but do not have a subject and verb. Whereas, noun phrase is a phrase

that consists of a pronoun or noun with any number of associated

modifiers, including adjectives, adjectives phrases, adjectives clause,

possessive adjectives, adverbs, determiners, preposition phrases and

other nouns in the possessive case. The simple structure of noun phrase

word order is determiner + modifier + head noun.

3. Recount text

Recount is unfolding of a sequence of events over time

(Derewianka 1990:14). It is about recreating past experience in using

language to keep the past alive and to interpret the experience. Based

on the definition of recount, this textis about retelling events for the

purpose of informing and entertaining.Recount text has text


organization that consists of three parts (Gerot and Wignell 1994:194),

they are:

a. orientation, that provides the setting and introduces participants

about the background of information answering who, when, where

and why,

b. events which are about what happened and sequences,

c. re-orientation which is optional-closure of events.

G. Review of Previous Study

In this study, the writer takes two previous studies as comparison for

the study. The first study is Error Analysis of Grammar Usage in English

Composition Made by the Second Year Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah

Negeri 1 Tanon, Sragen. Thefirst study had beendone by Alfim Mucholimi in

2011. In hisstudy, the writer found that there aresome errors in English

grammar compositionmade by students such as in the usage of possessive

pronoun, miss-formation, addition of space, omission of to be in past tense,

misspelled word, disagreement in past tense, word order etc. It is about 4,78%

of word order error made by students.

The second study is Grammatical Error Analysis in Recount Text

Written by the Eleventh Grade of Language Class Students of MAN 1 Salatiga

in Academic Year 2010/2011 by Siti Nur Rosidani. In this study, the writer

examined the common errors of English grammar in recount text made by

student at senior high school. The result of the study shows that the most
mistake made by student are the usage of verb group, such as verb agreement,

past tense, to be, past perfect tense, etc.

The present study deals with error analysis of word order used in

recount text committed by students at the tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota

Magelang academic year of 2013/2014. The difference between this study

with the previous studies is the present study analyzes word order error in

recount text.

H. Outline of the Graduating Paper

The graduating paper is divided into five chapters that consist of:

Chapter I contains the background of the study, the limitation of the problem,

the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the significance of

the study, definition of key terms, review of previous researches, and outline

of the graduating paper.

Chapter II presents the review of related literature of the study such as

theoretical foundation which includes the meaning and the rule of word order,

the notion of error analysis, the differences between error and mistake,

thecaused of errors and the definition of recount text.

Chapter III provides the methodology of the study and data about general

description of MAN 1 Kota Magelang deal with the history, school condition,

facilities, teachers and students condition.

Chapter IV explains the analysis data and description of study that includes

the number of errors and identification of errors, the kinds of errors, the
factors that caused the errors, the dominant factors that caused the errors, and

the discussion of finding.

Chapter V is closure as the end of the graduating paper that consists of

conclusions and suggestion.


CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter is shaped by three main theories that consist of error analysis, word

order, and recount text. The first theory explains about definition of error and

error analysis, differences between error and mistake,and the cause of error. The

second theory relates to definition of word order and the rule. The third theory

presents the definition of recount text, the kinds and the language features of

recount text.

A. Basic Concept of Error Analysis

Learning foreign language is different from learning first language.

Children who learn foreign languagealways commit with the mistake that it

caused by interference of native language and lack of knowledge about the

target language. Chomsky (1965) points that language that children hear is full

of confusing information, for instance false starts, incomplete sentences, slip

of tongue and it does not provide with the information they need. These

incorrect data cause the children can not understand the material and make

some errors. According to Crystal (1980: 134 135):

Error is a term used in psycholinguistics referring to mistakes in spontaneous


speaking or writing attributable to a malfunctioning of the neuromuscular
commands from the brain. It is thus distinct from the traditional notion of
error, which was based on the language users ability to conform a set of real
or imagined standards of expression.
In other literature, Norrish (in Hasyim, 2002: 45) states that error is a

systematic deviation, when a learner has not learnt something and consistently

gets it wrong. Based on the explanation, can be concluded that error is related

with the knowledge and understanding of students about the target language.
Errors show conclusively that learners do not simply memorize target

language rules and then reproduce them in their own utterances.

Richards (1971: 173-181) divides errors into three main categories

which comprise with: interlanguage errors, intralingual errors and

developmental errors. Interlanguage errorsrefer to errors which are caused by

the interference of the learners mother tongue. Intralingual errorsrefer to

errors which reflect the general characteristics of rule learning. In addition,

developmental errorsrefer to errors which appear because the learners try to

build up hypotheses about the English language from his or her limited

experiences of it in the classroom or textbook. It refers to false concepts

hypothesizedwhich means the learner misunderstands about certain rules of

structures in the target language. For example, was may be misunderstood

as a marker of past tense and is as a marker of present tense, e.g. one day it

was happened.

1. Definition of Error Analysis

To observe, analyze and classify the errors made by students,

error analysis is important to do. Richards (1985:96) says that error

analysis is the study of errors made by the second and foreign language

learners. Error analysis may be carried out in order to (a) find out how well

someone knows a language, (b) find out how a person learns a language,

and (c) obtain information on common difficulties in language learning, as

an aid in teaching or in the preparation of teaching materials. Beside that,

Crystal (in Hasyim, 2002:47) also states that error analysis is a technique
for identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting the

unacceptable forms produced by someone learning a foreign language,

using any of the principles and procedures provided by linguistics.

Corder(1981: 10) associates errors with the failures in

competence and mistake with failures in performance, making use

Chomskys distinction. He also says that mistake are of no significance to

the process of language learning since they do not reflect a defect in our

knowledge (are not caused by incompetence) but are traceable to

performance failure.

In foreign language teaching, error analysis becomes useful

device to know the ability of students in language mastery. Errors provide

feedback to teacher about the effectiveness of a teaching materials and

teaching techniques. According to Ellis (1997: 15-20) there are

proceduresto analyze datain error analysis that consist of:

a. Identification of errors

In identifying errors the sentences that produced by students

are compared with the normal and correct sentences in the target

language .

b. Describing error

In this step, the errors are classified into word order categories

relating to the distribution of noun phrase in sentence or construction

of sentence. Beside that, describing error is to identify the differences


of disordering of word between students utterances and the

reconstructed of target language utterances.

c. Explanation of errors

Explaining is a step to analyze the cause of errors.In other

words, in this step the writer tries to explain how and why a sentence

called to be erroneous.

d. Evaluation of errors

Evaluation is a process to collects, clarifies and verifies

relevant values and standard. It is designed to reduce, revised and

devise remedial lessons in teaching learningprocess. However, in this

study, the writer uses evaluating the errors as a step that involves

drawing conclusion.

2. Differences Between Error and Mistake

When we learn about error, it cannot be separated from learning

about mistake. Error and mistake are different, but some people still

misunderstanding about the both. To make clear the distinction of error

and mistake, Corder (1973: 280) refer to mistake as a performance error

that is a failure to utilize a known system correctly by the native speakers;

resulting from memory mistakes, physical condition, such as tiredness and

psychological condition, such as strong emotion. Mistake is also

characterized as unsystematic deviation or inconsistent deviation. In this

case the learner has been taught the right form of the language, sometimes
the students get it right but sometimes he makes a mistake and uses the

wrong form.

Hubbard (in SitiKhodijah Skripsi, 2006: 8) states errors

caused by lack of knowledge about the target language (English) or by

incorrect hypotheses about it; and mistakes caused by temporary lapses of

memory, confusion, slips of the tongue and so on. In other word, it means

that if the learner is inclined and able to correct a fault in his or her output,

it is assumed that the form he or she selected was not the one intended, it

called as mistake. In addition, if the learner is unable or in any way

disinclined to make the correction, we assumed that the form the learner

used was the one intended, it called an error.

3. Cause of Error

The errors made by students are caused by some factor either

from the students itself or from the other person. Norrish (in Hasyim,

2002:47) classifies the causes of error into three types that is carelessness,

first language interference, and translation. Those are discussed below.

a. Carelessness

Carelessness is often closely related to lack of motivation. Many

teachers will admit that it is not always the students fault if he loses

interests; perhaps the materials and/or style of presentation do not suit

them.
b. First language

Norrish (in Hasyim, 2002: 47) states that language learning is

matter of habit formation. When someone tries to learn new habits the

old ones will interfere the new ones. This cause of error is called the

first language interference.

c. Translation

Translation is one of the causes of errors. It happens because a

student translates his first language sentence or idiomatic expression

into the target language word by word. This probably the most common

cause of error.

Another expert who also discusses the cause of errors is Pit Corder

(in SitiKhodijahSkripsi, 2006:9) who claims that there are three major

the causes of error that consist of;

a. Mother tongue interference

Studentswho were not in golden age usually have difficulties in

learning foreign language, especially in learning English. This case

caused by interference of mother tongue that was used in long time.

Differences of the sound system (phonology) and the grammar of the

first language made learner do mistake in use of grammatical pattern

and occasionally to the wrong choice of vocabulary.

b. Over-generalization

Overgeneralization generally involves the creation of one

deviant structure in place of two regular structures, for examples when


teacher ordered to change the sentence he walks quickly to

continuous pattern, student change it in to he is walks quickly.

c. Errors encouraged by teaching material or method

Error can appear because of the teaching process itself and error

is an evidence of failure of ineffective teaching or lack control. If

material is well chosen, graded and presented with meticulous care, the

error can be prevented. So effective teaching and structured material are

needed in teaching-learning process.

B. Basic Concept of Word Order

When we create a sentence, it is important to put the word in correct

order. In Collins dictionary, word order is the arrangement of words in a

phrase, clause or sentence. In many languages, including English, word order

plays in important part in determining meaning expressed by user. So,

understanding of rules in English syntax becomes important thing to make a

meaningful sentence.

1. Word Order in Declarative Sentence

In English, sentence is constructed by some elements that consist

of subject, verb, object, adverb, and complement. But, in this study, the

writer delimitates the discussion in the arrangement of subject, predicate

and object because the lesson of English sentences in tenth grade just

focuses on it. To create good sentences, H. Martin and P.C. Wren MA

(1995:256) in their book explain about the basic conventions of sentence

that consist of:


a. The subject usually comes before the verb

Example: The people rang the bell for joy.

b. The object usually comes after the verb

Example: The king wears a crown.

c. When there is an indirect object and also direct object, the indirect

precedes the direct

Example: She gave me a book.

Although the general order of English is SVO or S-P, but

Zandvoortin A Handbook of English Grammar(2000:236) explains that

pattern P-S can be occurred in some sentences. It is also possible that P

maybe split up into two parts so S located between them or p-S-P. For

example in the sentence that beginning with unstressed there, itindicates the

word order P-S and sometimes the construction used passive

predicateeither P-S OR p-S-P order will occur.

Example: There is a man in the door.

There was very little work done that morning.

2. Word Order in Noun Phrase

a. Definition of noun phrase

Generally, a phrase is defined as "a sequence of words that can

function as a constituent in the structure of sentences (Burton-

Roberts in OtongSetiawan book, 2008: 101).But, according to

Heather MacFadyen, a phrase is a group of two or more

grammatically linked words without a subject or predicate. Whereas,


noun phrase is defined as a phrase that consists of a pronoun or noun

with any number of associated modifiers, including adjectives (small,

red, lovely), adjectives phrases, adjectives clause, possessive

adjectives (my, his, her, their)adverbs (very, extremely, usually),

articles (the, a, an), preposition phrases and other nouns in the

possessive case. Noun phrase never stand alone as sentences.

b. The formula of noun phrase

There are three parts of noun phrase function formula that

consist of pre modifier, head and post modifier. Burthon and Noel

Robert in OtongSetiawanbook (2008:102) state this formula as follow:

1) The Head

One of the most important components of a noun phrase

is the head noun. In English, the head noun becomes the center of

attraction of the noun phrase. This part cannot be omitted from the

phrase, whereas the pre modifier or post modifier can be omitted.

2) Pre-Modifier

The construction of anoun phrase is always recursive

since a number of dependents can be added to the head element.

Some dependents may precede the head and others may follow it.

Dependent that precede headword, especially modifier, called pre-

modifier or left-handed noun phrase. A modifier is an element that

depends on the head. In pre-modifier, the modifiers that precede

the headword are determiner, adjective, verb, and noun.


Determiners are used to identify a headword functioning

deictically or simply as quantifiers, and they serve as definite or

indefinite reference or to give information about quantity and

proportion. There are some kinds of determiners that consist of:

i. Article: the, a, an

Example: The wombats escaped.

ii. Demonstrative pronoun: this, that, these, those.

Example: That vase is valuable.

iii. Possessive pronoun: my, your, our, their, hi, her, and its.

Example: Her serve is powerful.

iv. Possessive noun: mother, name of person, etc.

Example: Aunt Audreys dog was die.

v. Indefinite pronoun: some, any, etc.

Example: Some survivors remained.

vi. Numeral: one, two, three, four, etc.

Example: Seven boxes fell.

vii. Ordinal: first, second, third, etc.

Example: Second thoughts entered our mind.

These kinds of determiners can be classified into three

types that consist of pre-determiner, central determiner and post-

determiner. The table below will mention every type of these

determiners.

Table 2.1 Types of Determiner


Pre-determiner Central determiner Post-determiner

all a/an, the one, two,...

both this, that,... first,second,...

double my, your, next

such his,... last

what every, each past

half some, any further

enough many

either, neither (a) few

what several

whose, more

which much

wh + ever little

Peters plenty of

loads of

Beside determiners, the others modifier that becomes

important dependent to describe the head noun are adjective, verb

and noun.In pre- modifier, there are three major structural that

comprise with:

Attributive adjective : a special project

an internal memo

Participial adjective : hidden variables


detecting devices

Noun as pre-modifier : the bus strike

the police report

In other fact, pre-modifier can be multiple as like as

(OtongSetiawan book (2008:104)):

i. Article + numeral: The two culprits

ii. Demonstrative + N: Those metal plates

iii. Two indefinites: Several other candidates

iv. Numeral + indefinite: One such oddity

v. Article + ordinal: A second chance

Sometimes, the modifiers in a noun phrase consist of more

than one adjective, so the fixed arrangement of this order is:

Quality character+ size+age+participle+shape+ color +origin

occasion+ noun

Example:beautiful big old neglected square red Jamaican stone

According to Teyssier in AnetteRosenbach journal

(Identifying Noun Modifiers in English) there are three function of

pre-modifier that consist of classifying, identifying and qualifying.

These functions will be explained in the table below.

Table 2.2 The Function of Modifier

Determiner Pre-modifier Head noun

this good cat food

This expensive theatre ticket


Identifying function Qualifying Classifying

function function

3) Post-Modifier

Post- modifier comprises words in the noun phrase that

follow thehead and it usually called as right-handed modifier.

These words usually consist of prepositional phrases, participle,

adjective, adverb, and noun.According to Nichols (1965:64) there

are some patterns of noun phrase modifier:

i. When infinitives modify noun, they regularly follow the

headword.

Example: the guest to invite the guest to be invited

ii. Adverbs always follow the nouns they modify.

Example: the party afterward, the table there

iii. Prepositional phrases regularly follow the nouns they modify.

Example: the class on lower campus

If the phrase use of preposition, the form noun + noun is used

in this phrase and the word before of becomes the head word.

Example: Application letter = letter of application

iv. Adjectives follow the nouns they modify.

Example: something wonderful, something interesting.

C. Recount Text
Recount is unfolding of a sequence of events over time (Derewianka

1990:14). It is about recreating past experience in using language to keep the

past alive and to interpret the experience. Since recount tells about the past

experiences, it uses past tenses. A recount describes events, so plenty of use is

made of verbs (action words) and of adverbs to describe or add more detail to

verbs. Based on the definition of recount about retelling events for the purpose

of informing and entertaining, a recount text has text organization that consists

of three parts, they are:

d. orientation, that provides the setting and introduces participants about the

background of information answering who, when, where and why,

e. events which are about what happened and sequences,

f. re-orientation which is optional-closure of events.

According to Derewinaka (1990:15) recount text usually have

some language features such as:

a. Specifics participants, such as my mother, my friends, etc.

b. Use of simple past tense, simple past tense indicates a completed action

about what happened in the past at the specific time (Pyle, 2001:110)

c. Use of material processes or action verb, such as went, saw, left, etc.

d. Use of first person pronoun, such as I, we.

e. Circumstances of place, where did the story take place?

f. Temporal sequences or linking items, such as the, next, later, etc.


g. Circumstances of time, in past tense, and adverb of time can be found in

the sentence such as ago, yesterday, last week, etc, may show a period of

times that can be meant by the context or situation(Hornby, 1975:85-86)

Beside that, they also say that recount text is classified into several types, such

as:

a. Personal recount text: retelling of an activity that the writer or speaker has

been personally involved in (e.g. oral anecdote, diary entry)

b. Factual recount: recording the particulars of an accident (e.g. report of

science experiment, police report, news report, etc)

c. Imaginative recount: taking on an imaginary role and giving details of

events (e.g. a day in the life of roman slave, how I invented)


CHAPTER III

In chapter III, the writer would like presents the method of the study and the data

dealing with the profile of MAN 1 Kota Magelang that consist of the history of

MAN 1 Kota Magelang, location, official and the facility.

I. Method of The Study

Method is the specific research technique. In this study, qualitative

descriptive methods are used to analyze the error made by students.

1. Type of the Study

The type of the study is qualitative and the strategy to analyze the

data is descriptive qualitative. Regarding Issac (1984: 46), descriptive

research is the kind of research to describe systematically the situations

and facts of a given population factually and accurately. Daniel (2004: 46)

also states that descriptive studies look at the relationship between variable

occurring in particular real lives. In this study, the writer describes the

error analysis of word order in recount text committed by students at tenth

grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang in the academic year of 2013/2014.

Beside that, the writer also uses qualitative method to analyze the study.

According to Robert (2011: 8-9) qualitative research is a research to

collect, integrate, and present data from a variety of sources of evidence in

study. Qualitative research uses non-numerical data and actually an

umbrella term encompassing a wide range of methods, such as interview,

case studies, ethnographic research and discourse analysis. Diamond


(1987) in Jenice M. Morse book states that the goal of qualitative research

are generally the development of theory, description, explanation and

understanding, rather than precise testing of hypothesis to the fourth

decimal place, social science, and, in particular, qualitative method- appear

to the quantitative researcher as so crude that they may not even be

classified as science.

2. Setting of the Study

The study was implemented in MAN 1 Kota Magelang that located

in Jalan Raya Payaman No. 1 Kota Magelang. In addition, the study has

been done since June 19th, 2013 until August 25th, 2013 at the tenth grade

of MAN 1 Kota Magelang in academic year of 2013/ 2014.

3. The Object of the Study

At first the writer wanted to do the study in SMAN 1 Bandongan,

but the writer changed the object of the study because there was no

permission from the head master of the school. Afterward the writer

decided to execute the study in MAN 1 Kota Magelang that also under

ministry of religion as same as STAIN Salatiga. In addition, the writer also

changed the grade of study from eleventh grade to tenth grade. This case

caused by the lesson of recount text that is conveyed in tenth grade.

Finally the object of the study is students at the tenth grade of MAN 1

Kota Magelang in the academic year of 2013/2014. The total of students

who was become respondent is 73 students from X3 and X4 classes. The

writer only took the two classes because the vice of headmaster in
curriculum of MAN 1 Kota Magelang making references to X3 and X4

classes as respondent.

4. The Method of Collecting Data

Data is the smallest or lowest entities or recorded elements

resulting from some experience, observation, experiment, or other similar

situation (Robert, 2011:130). In this study, the strategy used to gather the

data and the information are documentation, test and interview.

a. Documentation

According to Arikunto (1998: 231) documentation is a

number of data that presents the verbal data such as correspondence,

journal, memory, report and others which can be mutual responsible.

In this study, the data of documentation come from the document

review that consist of books, transcript, staff record, annual record

and the history book of MAN 1 Kota Magelang. This method is used

to know the profile and location of the school.

b. Test

Arikunto (1998:51) says test is a series of questions or other

instruments, which are used to measure the intervals or group is kill,

knowledge, intelligence, capability or talent or set of question that

must be answered by the students. Test are developed or used

specifically for the program evaluation to quantify characteristics of

the program, participants, or outcomes. The test is used to know the

students error in the usage of word order in recount text.


c. Questionnaire

Arikunto (2005:101) explains that questionnaire is a list of

written questions that are proposed to respondent and it must be

answered in writing. The question type of questionnaire that

appropriate in qualitative study is open-ended questions. In this

question, respondent can supplies their own answer without being

constrained by a fixed set of possible responses, so the result of data

can be used to analyze in qualitative study. Questionnaire is used to

know the factors that caused word order errors made by students at

tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang academic year of 2013/2014.

5. Technique of Analysis Data

In this study, the writer will focus on error analysis in the usage of

word order in recount text. Therefore, in analyzing the data, the writer uses

error analysis method that consists of some procedure includes the

following steps (Ellis, 1997, 15-20):

a. Identifying errors by compare the respondent sentences with the

correct sentences.

b. Describing errors to classified the errors made by students.

c. Explaining errors to explain the cause of errors.

d. Evaluating errors to reduce revised and devise remedial lessons in

teaching learning.
J. The Profile of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang

1. Geographical Location of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

MAN 1 Kota Magelang is an Islamic educational college that has

level as same as with senior high school. Both of them have close

resemblance curriculum, but Islamic character become landmark in MAN

because there are Islamic subject are added in Madrasah curriculum. The

exact address of MAN 1 Kota Magelang is at Jln Raya Payaman No 1 Po

Box 288 phone (0293) 369256 Secang, Magelang. The school occupies is

9878 m2 that have borders as follow:

At the southern side is Al Huda Islamic Boarding House

At the northern side is Payaman Village

At the western side is Ngletoh Village

At the eastern side is Jalan Raya Payaman-Secang

2. History of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

Equilibrium between religiousness value and science is

important in educational process. So, in 1982 the government established

Madrasah Aliyah Persiapan Kota Magelang to elevate religion knowledge

of the students, especially Islamic knowledge in Magelang. At the

beginning, Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang was Madrasah

Aliyah Persiapan Negeri Kota Magelang that changed into Madrasah

Aliyah Negeri Magelang Filial of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Parakan

Temanggung on March 3th, 1984. This alteration was be based on the

letter decree of general director of Islamic institutional department No:


KEP/ E/ PP.00.6/1984. This Madrasah located in Jalan Duku No. 1 Perum

KORPRI Kelurahan Ramat Kecamatan Magelang Utara.

According to a letter decree of ministry of religion No. 137 on

July 11th 1991, Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Filial in Kotamadya Parakan was

transformed into Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang and it has

been relocated permanently at Jalan Raya Payaman No. 1 Kota Magelang

since 1996.

3. Visions, Missions and the Goals of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

As a junior high school that have Islamic characteristic,

Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang have visions, missions and

goals as follow:

a. Visions

Excelled in achievement, skilled and applied akhlaqul karimah.

b. Missions

i. To implement the educational process with effective learning and

high quality to elevate the academic achievement.

ii. To organize Islamic education by creating religious condition in

Madrasah.

iii. To construct and train the students life skill to intrigue and grow

the instinct optimally.

iv. To develop the practice of akhlakul karimah attitude to all of

madrasah citizen.

c. The Goals
i. 100% of students can remove to the next grade normatively

ii. 100% of students can pass the national exam with increasing of

average value of 7,5 to 8,5

iii. Directing and educating the students to be generation having creed

and piety to Allah, healthy in physics and spiritual, and having

good manner in order to create the life of national intelligence.

iv. Supporting and motivating the students to develop potency for the

sake of capability, agility, and creativity, and having

responsibilities as citizen for democracy.

v. All of students can read the Holy Quran properly.

vi. All of students can apply akhlaqul karimah attitude.

4. Physical Condition of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

Physical condition of this Madrasah include the building, school

lay out, and the facility of MAN 1 Kota Magelang.

a. The Wide of Madrasah

Construction : Permanent

Status : State-Owned

Landmass : 9878 m2, that consists of:

Building : 5549 m2

Al Mahmud mosque : 500 m2

Field ceremony : 355 m2

The yard : 3166 m2

Plantation : 600 m2
b. Identity of Madrasah

i. Name of Madrasah : MAN 1 Kota Magelang

ii. Years of Exitance : 1991

iii. Madrasah Status : Negeri

iv. The Number of Madrasah Statistic : 311337102263

v. The Number of Madrasah Identity : 500

vi. The Number of Province Code : 33

vii. The Number of City Code : 71

viii. The Number of Sub District Code :2

ix. The Address of Madrasah : JL. Raya Payaman 01 Kota

Magelang

5. The Condition of Madrasah Committee and The Teachers

a. The Organization of Madrasah Committee of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

in academic year of 2013/2014:

Chairman : KH. Chamim Asari BA


Vice Chairman : Muh Yazid
Secretary : Fatoni Azis, S. Ag, M. Ag
Vice Secretary : Hasan
Treasurer : Nuryani Futaekhah, S. Ag
Vice Treasurer : Supriyati
Medium/ Statistic Staff : Zaki, Ahmad, Asmui
Public Relation Staff : Muhammad Alifudin, Novi Dyah
Documentation Staff : Mutia Solikhatun, Muhromin
Organizational Chart of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kota Magelang

Academic Year of 2013/2014

School Committee Head Master


H. Chamim Drs. H. Sediyoko, M. Pd
Asari, BA Official Chief

Sri Supriyadi

The vice The vice The vice headmaster The vice The vice

headmaster in headmaster in in students headmaster in headmaster in

religion curriculum Fatoni A, s. Ag. M, Ag mediums public relation

Counseling coordination

DRS. M. Madyan

Teachers
b. Condition of The Teacher

In academic year of 2013/2014 MAN 1 Kota Magelang has

75 staffs that consist of 59 teachers and 16 officers. The table bellow

shows the list of the teachers of MAN 1 Kota Magelang.

Table 3.1

List of Teachers of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

No Name Subject
1 Drs. H. Sediyoko, M.Pd Counseling
2 Dra. Hj. Mahmudah Fiqih
3 Drs. Martono Geography
4 Drs. Chuldlori Fiqih
5 Dra. Zuidah Latifah Chemistry
6 Dra. Hj. Suminah Sociology
7 Drs. Santosa Economy
8 Dra. Hj. Listiyani English
9 Dra. Enik Dwipuryanti PPKN/ Seni Budaya
10 Dra. Eko Yuli Haryani History
11 Drs. Prasetyo Lilik Economy
12 Dra. Hj. Murdiningsih Mathematic
13 Dra. Hj. Untari Ningsih Geography
14 Asfihani Computer
15 Khoir Pamungkas, SH, M. Hum PKn
16 Akhadi, S. Ag Mathematic
17 Ruswarsini, S. Pd Physic
18 Drs. H. M. Madyan Counseling
19 Abu Zazid, S. Pd Physic
20 Dra. Winarti Sociology
21 Farida Dwi Nugraheni, S. Pd Sociology
22 M. Sulkhan, S. Pd Javanese
23 Wiwik Endang SP, S. Pd Chemistry
24 Muh Yasid, BA Aqidah Akhlaq
25 Supriyadi, S.Pd Sport
26 Ellys Rachmawati, S.Ag Quran Hadits
27 Fatoni Azis, S. Ag, M. Ag Fiqih
28 Umi Ardziah, S. Pd Indonesian Language
29 Sri Rahayuningsih, S. Pd Mathematic
30 Drs. Supriyo Puji Harjo Economy
31 Dra. Hj. Siti Zinuraini English
32 Syarif Hidayatullah, S. Ag Quran Hadist
33 Ruqiyah, S. Ag, S. Pd Indonesian Language
34 Indah Budiningsih, S. Pd Biology
35 Khoirotun Nisak, S. S Arabic
36 Muhammad Kholil, S. Pd. I Mathemathic
37 Jamaliyah, S. Pd Physic
38 Sri Supriyati Ka. TU
39 Ponijo, S. Pd Art Education
40 Asrori, S. Pd Sociology
41 Siti Ngaisah, S. Pd Quran Hadist
42 Hanny Lutfiana, S. Pd English
43 Lilik Nur Arifah, S. Pd Indonesian Language
44 Khoironi Official
45 Taufiq Kurniawan, S. Si Biology
46 Nuryani Futaekhah, S. Pd Official
47 Siti Mukaromah, SE Economy/acutance
48 Hidayat Santosa, S. Pd Sport
49 Khusnudin, S. Sos Computer
50 Yuni Nur Hamidah, S. Pd English
51 Siti Zaenah, S. Ag Economy
52 Chasanah, S. Pd Economy
53 Hasan Scout
54 Bukhori Official
55 Rozikin Official
56 Septi Wulandari, S. Pd Counseling
57 Samsudin, S. Ag Arabic
58 Latif Ismail, S. Pd Counseling
59 Sirojul Fatah, S. Ag Arabic
60 Atiqoh Jauhariyah, S. Pd English
61 Abdul Jalal Javanese
62 Agung Dwi Lasmono Computer
63 Warifatul Azizah, S. Pd Tafsir
64 Muhamad Nashir, S. Ag Arabic

6. The Facility of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

MAN 1 Kota Magelang provided some facilities to encourage

teaching-learning process. The facilities are in a good state so it conducive

to create effective learning. The facilities are as follow:


Table 3.2

Facility of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

No Facility Quantity Wide/ m2


1 Office room
Head Master Room 1 72
Vice Head Master Room 1 72
Clerical Room 2 144
Teacher Room 2 144
Counseling Room 1 72

2 Learning room Total wide:


Tenth grade 10
Eleventh grade 11 1368
Twelfth grade 8
3 Laboratory Total wide:
Biological Laboratory 1
Physical Laboratory 1
Chemical Laboratory 1
Geographical Laboratory 1 562
Computer Room 2
Multimedia Room 1
4 A Cooperative 1 72
5 OSIS Room 1 72
6 Library 1 144
7 Lot Parking 2 155
8 UKS Room 1 36
9 Canteen 1 72
10 Toilet 21 407
11 Security Post 1 4
12 Mosque 1 405

7. The Condition of Respondents

MAN 1 Kota Magelang consist of 29 classroom that consist of


11 classroom for tenth grade, 10 classroom for eleventh grade and 8
classroom for twelfth grade. The average of students in every class of
tenth grade is 40 students. The details of tenth grade students are as
follow:
Table 3.3
The Number of Students at Tenth Grade of MAN I Kota
Magelang Academic Year of 2013/2014
No Class Male Female Total
1. X1 12 28 40
2. X2 16 24 40
3. X3 13 22 35
4. X4 17 21 38
5. X5 13 25 38
6. X6 17 23 40
7. X7 15 24 39
8. X8 11 28 39
9. X9 14 26 40
10. X 10 18 20 38
11. X 11 18 22 40

However, the writer takes two classes especially X 3 class and X 4

class in the academic year of 2013 / 2014. The total numbers of the

students are about 79 students. The English teacher of X3 and X 4

classes is Dra. Hj. Siti Zinuraini. The writer also provides the list of

students as the object of this research through the table below.

Table 3.4

The Respondents of the Study

Students of X 3 and X 4 Classes

X 3 Class X 4 Class

No Name Gender No Name Gender


1. Agung Dwi W. Male 1. Adi Prastyo Male
2. A. Taufiq Karim Male 2. Gusnu Dwi W. Male
3. Edi Supriyanto Male 3. Joko Wahyu N. Male
4. Fatra Ahmad A. Male 4. Miftakhul Ridwan Male
5. Jauharul Mujtaba Male 5. Misbachul Munir Male
6. Khasful Adzim Male 6. Muchtar Bagus Q. Male
7. K. Bagus A. S. Male 7. M. Iqbal Nur I. Male
8. L. Al Hakim Male 8. M. Abdul Aziz Male
9. Lutfi Rifan F. Male 9. M. Andika Putra Male
10. Muhammad Aufa Male 10. M. Fahmi Maulana Male
11. Muhammad S. Male 11. Pungguh Sagunata Male
12. Rachmad B.A Male 12. Rachmat Septian N. Male
13. Rifki Anisandi Male 13. Wisnu Setyawan Male
14. Saefudin Ulumi Male 14. Ananda Detisia Female
15. Suhartoyo Male 15. Bernadhita O. W. Female
16. Wahid Priyanto Male 16. Devi Riyanti Female
17. Afrida Firlya Female 17. Eka Marcella Female
18. Afwillah Female 18. Eka Oktaviani Female
19. A. Mafthuhatul K. Female 19. Eka Puspita Female
20. Astima Rahayu Female 20. Fatichatul M. Female
21. Dewi Yulia F. Female 21. Hana Faisa Female
22. Dewi Kurniasari Female 22. Hanifah Dwi P. Female
23. Dwi Latri A. Female 23. Iga Trisnawati Female
24. Fika Andriyani Female 24. Indah Mashitoh Female
25. Istiyana Oktaviani Female 25. Intan Cahyo T. Female
26. Lilin Harisa O. Female 26. Larah Febriani Female
27 Munawaroh Female 27. Lutfi Triningsih Female
28 Murni Setiawati Female 28. Nailil Muna Female
29. Nurul Syarifah Female 29. Neti Kurnia Female
30. Putrid Dina W. Female 30. Nur Azizatun N. Female
31. Rahmaika H. Female 31. Nur Itsnaini S. S. Female
32. Rizki M. N. Female 32. Sani Arifah Female
33. Siti Murlamiah Female 33. Tata Wulan W. Female
34. Ulfatun Hanifah Female 34. Weningsih Female
35. Yekti Desi I. Female 35. Zuli Astuti Female
36. Yesi Fitasari Female
37. Awaliyah Female
38. Ragil Sudirman Male
CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS DATA

Chapter IV explains the analysis data and discussion of the finding of study. This

chapter aimed to answer the question of problem statement in chapter I. In the

previous chapter, the writer state that the data of the study are about the erroneous

word order committed by students at tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang

academic year of 2013/2014.

A. The kinds of word order error made by students at tenth grade of MAN 1

Kota Magelang academic year of 2013/2014

After collecting the students task to make recount text, the writer

presents the result of analyzing data in this chapter. From this data the writer

identifies there were 113 sentences errors related with word order either in

constructing sentence or distributing words in noun phrase committed by

respondents and the data is explained in the table below.

Table 4.1 Error Sentences and Type of Errors

No Error Sentences Correct Sentences Type of Errors

1. Last week become Last week become my Misordering in noun

my day unlucky. unlucky day. phrase distribution,

determiner+

adjective+ head noun

2. Thing many bad Many bad things Misordering in noun


occurred to me. occurred to me. phrase distribution,

determiner+

adjective+ head noun

3. For that change my For that, I changed my Omission of subject

clothes and to clothes and went to and verb and

bathroom to wash bathroom to wash my misordering in noun

face sleepy. sleepy face. phrase distribution,

determiner+

adjective+ head noun

4. Afterward when Im Afterward, when I Misordering in noun

walk toward home walked toward my phrase distribution,

grandmother, Im as grandmothers home, I modifier+ head noun

see friend close that saw my close friend

long time Im not that long times no see.

meet.

5. After then I at toward After then, I went Omission of verb and

home my toward my misordering in noun

grandmother. grandmothers home. phrase distribution,

determiner + head

noun

6. I at wrong man. I hold a wrong man. Omission of verb

7. Seller that blocked That seller blocked our Misordering in noun

our way. way. phrase distribution,


determiner + head

noun

8. Seller that then go Then that seller went Misordering in noun

away because shock away because he shock phrase distribution,

with my attitude a with my rough attitude. determiner+

rough. adjective+ head noun

9. I very surprise when I I was very surprise Omission of predicate

looked in the mirror when I looked at the

and to see much acne mirror and saw much

in my face. acne in my face.

10. Finally I promise to Finally I promise not to Omission of object

dont more repeat. repeat it.

11. We go to outside of We went to outside of Misordering in noun

the area temple area of the beautiful phrase distribution,

beautiful. temple. determiner+

adjective+ head noun

12. There were seller There were sellers who Misordering in noun

who offer some offered some handicraft phrase distribution,

handicraft and things and other things, and modifier+ head noun

other, and one of one of seller offered

seller offer medicine acne medicine.

acne.

13. Im very tired after I was very tired after Misordering in noun
attend activity scout attended scout activity phrase distribution,

that was held in my that was held in my modifier + head noun

school. school.

14. Because very tired, Because I was very Omission of subject

finally I sat down in tired, finally I sat down and predicate, and

ceremony closing in closing ceremony misordering in noun

process although it process although it was phrase distribution,

was forbidden. forbidden. participial adjective +

head noun

15. Because emotion, Because of my Misordering in noun

finally I pull hand emotion, finally I pull phrase distribution,

person who squeezed the persons hand that determiner + head

my shoulder after squeezed my shoulder noun

going to three. for three times.

16. I very shock in time I was very shock when Omission of subject

know the owner hand I knew the owner of the and predicate

that I pull is boy hand that I pulled is

scout rank in my boy scout rank in my

school. school.

17. This morning go This morning the rains Misordering in

down rain heavy. came heavily. sentence,

S+V+O

18. I planned to go to I planned to go to Omission of object


together with my school together with

friend because I not my friend because I

have umbrella. have not an umbrella.

19. In this time I new In this time I only have Misordering in noun

have one uniform one new uniform phrase distribution,

because my other because my other determiner+

uniform didnt finish. uniform didnt finish. adjective+ head noun


th th
20. Every April 21 Every April 21 Misordering in noun

society Indonesian Indonesian society phrase distribution,

celebrate Kartini celebrates Kartini Day. modifier + head noun

Day.

21. She is heroin national She is a national heroin Misordering in noun

and a great woman and a great woman phrase distribution,

with bright idea. with bright idea. modifier + head noun

22. As a daughter from As a daughter from Omission of subject

honorable family, she honorable family, she and misordering in

felt lucky because got felt lucky because she noun phrase

something more than got something more, distribution,

got people common. than was gotten by modifier+ head noun

common people.

23. She got education She got better Omission object and

better more than. education more than misordering in noun


other people. phrase distribution,

modifier+ head noun

24. After finished her After finished her Misordering in noun

education from education from Dutch phrase distribution,

school Dutch, she school, she established modifier + head noun

establish school native school in Jepara.

native in Jepara.

25. She contribute much She contributed much Misordering in noun

merit for womans merit for women phrase distribution,

through letter through her collection modifier + head noun

collection Habis letter Habis Gelap

Gelap Terbitlah Terbitlah Terang.

Terang.

26. Whereas at this Whereas she must put misordering in noun

morning she must put on application letter at phrase distribution,

on letter application. this morning. Modifier + head noun

27. Last night Sunday, I Last Sunday night, I misordering in noun

invented my best invented by my best phrase distribution,

friend to go to cinema friend to go to cinema. modifier+ head noun

28. When I went near it, When I went near it, Omission of subject

suddenly heard a suddenly I heard and misordering in

sound strange. strange sound. noun phrase

distribution,
adjective + head noun

29. Finally I borrow a Finally I borrowed my Misordering in noun

bag my friend to friends bag to cover phrase distribution,

cover my trousers. my trousers. determiner + head

noun

30. He graduated from He graduated from Misordering in noun

University Zurich in Zurich University in phrase distribution,

Switzerland. Switzerland. modifier+ head noun

31. In there we stay in In there, we stayed in Misordering in noun

one of my relatives one of my relatives phrase distribution,

house in Probolinggo, house in Probolinggo, modifier+ head noun

Java East. East Java.

32. Home my relative has My relatives home has Misordering in noun

garden wide with wide garden with phrase distribution,

flower full color and colorful flower and big determiner+ adjective

big pool. pool. + head noun

33. In there we take some In there we take some Misordering in noun

picture scenery. scenery picture. phrase distribution,

modifier+ head noun

34. Last afternoon I go to Last afternoon I went Misordering in noun

Tegalrejo to buy to Tegalrejo to buy phrase distribution,

book Ushul Fiqh in Ushul Fiqh book in modifier + head noun

version Indonesia. Indonesian version.


35. After looked at the After looked at the Misordering in noun

book I went back to book I went back to phrase distribution,

place waiting. waiting place. participial adjective+

head noun

36. Stopped first in the First stopped was in the Omission of predicate

Batu Bulan, center Batu Bulan, industrial and misordering in

industry statue stone. centre of statue from noun phrase

stone. distribution,

modifier+ head noun

37. In there we see a In there we saw young Misordering in noun

young man carve men who carved big phrase distribution,

block stone big. block of stone. adjective + head noun

38. Next stopped a The next stopped was Omission of predicate

Celuk, center Celuk, the center of and misordering in

industry silver and silver and gold noun phrase

gold. industry. distribution,

modifier+ head noun

39. I was surprised when I was surprised when Omission of predicate

the door was opened the door was opened

and there new teacher and there was new

in my class. teacher in my class.

40. Morning this, the This morning, the Omission predicate


lesson mathematic lesson was mathematic and misordering in

and there was and there was noun phrase

agreement for agreement for students distribution,

students who late who are late, they determiner + head

should stand up in should stand up in front noun

front of class. of class.

41. The way very The way was very Omission of predicate

crowded, so we crowded, so we walked

walked separately. separately.

42. I and Dina very Dina and I were very Omission of predicate

surprised when saw surprised when we saw and subject

there is mad person there was mad person

brought stick behind who brought stick

us. behind us.

43. Last Thursday, Last Thursday, there Omission of predicate

practicum chemistry was Chemistry and misordering in

in my class. practicum in my class. noun phrase

distribution,

modifier+ head noun

44. After gave some After gave some Omission of verb

explanation, my explanation, my teacher and misordering in

teacher us to take ordered us to take noun phrase

essence from tube essence from big tube. distribution,


big. adjective+ head noun

45. Then we pour the Then we poured the Misordering in noun

essence to the tube essence to the small phrase distribution,

reaction small. reaction tube. modifier+ head noun

46. Then substance Then the substance Misordering in noun

explode, so tube exploded, so the phrase distribution,

reaction become reaction tube became modifier+ head noun

broken. broken.

47. Group we much lucky Our group was lucky Misordering in noun

because only explode because the tubes just phrase distribution,

and no one got explode and no one got determiner + head

injured. injured. noun

48. Blood driver Drivers blood Misordering in noun

bespattered in the bespattered in the phrase distribution,

street. street. determiner + head

noun

49. After walk more far After walked more far, Omission of subject

called us. the seller called us.

50. I purposely bargain I purposely bargain Misordering in noun

with price low with low price because phrase distribution,

because I didnt want I didnt want to buy. adjective+ head noun

to buy.
51. This day I have This day I have Misordering in noun

assignment that assignment that phrase distribution,

consist of 20 question consists of 20 Physical modifier+ head noun

physical, 100 questions, 100

question mathematic, Mathematic questions,

15 question chemistry 15 Chemistry questions

and history test. and History test.

52. In lesson chemistry, In Chemistry lesson, Misordering in noun

we discuss about the we discuss about the phrase distribution,

lesson in last day. lesson in previous day. modifier +head noun

53. Im very surprise I was very surprise Omission of predicate

when my teacher that when my teacher stood

stand up me beside. up beside me.

54. Then Im look at the Then I looked at the Misordering in noun

teacher and Im see teacher and I saw the phrase distribution,

the expression strange expression in adjective+ head noun

strange in his face. his face.

55. When walking to When walking to the Omission of subject

river, my friend say if river, my friend said and predicate

carefully because the that I should be careful

street very slippery. because the street was

very slippery.

56. Finally we cancelled Finally we cancelled Misordering in noun


our plan fishing in the our fishing plan in the phrase distribution,

river and we go to river and we went modifier+ head noun

home with clothes home with soak clothes

soak without brought without brought fish.

fish.

57. And when I look at And when I looked at Omission of subject

the shoes, suddenly the shoes, suddenly I

nudged one of shoes, nudged one of shoes, so

so all the shoes in all the shoes in display

display falls from the had fallen from the

place. place.

58. I so shy and I forced I was so shy and I Omission of predicate

to buy one of shoes forced to buy one of the and subject

although do not like shoes although I not

the model. like the model.

59. After arranged the After arranged the Omission of subject

shoes back, to shoes back, I apologize

apologize to the to the waitress.

waitress.

60. Last holiday semester Last semester holiday I Misordering in noun

Im urged by my urged by my father to phrase distribution,

father to go to shop to go to shop to buy modifier+ head noun

buy equipment school equipment.


school.

61. In this time, I went by In this time, I went to Misordering in

bus to go to school. school by bus. sentence,

S+V+O

62. There as something There was something Omission of predicate

that strange. that strange.

63. And I very surprise And I was very surprise Omission of predicate

when see the bus when suddenly I saw and misordering in

suddenly enter to area the bus enter to one of noun phrase

one of factory in factory area in distribution,

Tempuran. Tempuran. modifier+ head noun

64. Im last Monday and Last Monday my Misordering in

my friends went to friends and I went to sentence,

market to buy cake market to buy birthday S+V+O and

birthday. cake. misordering in noun

phrase distribution,

modifier+ head noun

65. We have plant to give We have plan to give Misordering in

to my friend best a surprise to my best sentence and

surprise. friend. misordering in noun

phrase distribution,

determiner+

adjective+ head noun


66. I seek cake which I seek a cake which is Misordering in noun

shape attractive for attractive shape for phrase distribution,

several minutes. several minutes. adjective+ head noun

67. Im and seller cake Cake seller and I turn Misordering in noun

quickly turn around around to the source of phrase distribution,

to the source of sound quickly. modifier+ head noun

sound.

68. After arrived in cake After arrived in cake Misordering in noun

store, I look for cake store, I looked for cake phrase distribution,

shape interesting. with interesting shape. adjective+ head noun

69. Saturday morning at Saturday morning at Misordering in noun

09.30 I walk in Street 09.30, I walked in phrase distribution,

Sunda to look for Sunda Street to look for modifier+ head noun

store record. record store.

70. When I walked When I walked, Misordering in noun

someone suddenly suddenly someone phrase distribution,

stopped and asked me stopped and asked me modifier+ head noun

about the to Hotel about the way to Hyatt

Hyatt. Hotel.

71. Song modern Noah Noah modern song Misordering in noun

occupied in chart 20. occupied in the chart phrase distribution,

20. modifier+ head noun


72. He person kindly, He was kindly high Omission of predicate

high and face looked person and his face and misordering in

very familiar. looked very familiar. noun phrase

distribution,

adjective+ head noun

73. The is a photograph It was a photograph Omission of predicate

and I very surprised and I was very and misordering in

he is guitarist Noah. surprised, he is Noahs noun phrase

guitarist. distribution,

determiner+ head

noun

74. In there we saw high In there we saw a Misordering in noun

Monas, beautiful and beautiful amazing high phrase distribution,

amazing. Monas. determiner+

adjective+ head noun

75. After from Monas, After from Monas, the Misordering in noun

the destination second destination was phrase distribution,

second was TMII. TMII. determiner + head

noun

76. Finally we can go out Finally we can go out Misordering in noun

from the mosque from the mosque after phrase distribution,

after followed the followed the guidance determiner + head

guidance of people of that people. noun


that.

77. In the next morning In the next morning we Omission of subject

visited Istiqlal visited Istiqlal Mosque

Mosque

78. When I was in first When I was in first Misordering in noun

grade of junior high grade of junior high phrase distribution,

school, my teacher school, my Biology modifier+ head noun

Biology held teacher held practicum

practicum that used that used crab and other

crab and other animals.

animals.

79. Then the class was Then the class was Misordering in noun

noisy because noisy because girl phrase distribution,

students girl run and students run and modifier+ head noun

shouted. shouted.

80. But I lucky because But I was lucky Omission of predicate

my book was because my book was

prepared from last prepared from last

evening, so I can go evening, so I can go to

to school in time. school in time.

81. I very surprised when I was very surprised Omission of predicate

see the content of my when I saw the content

bag that different of my bag that different


from usual. from usual.

82. Bag we is equal. Our bag is equal. Misordering in noun

phrase distribution,

determiner+ head

noun

83. I very nervous I was very nervous Missing predicate and

because assignment because all of subject, and

all in day must submit assignment in this day misordering in noun

and if I return to my must be submitted and phrase distribution,

home will very late. if I return to my home I determiner+ head

will very late. noun

84. Afterwards I only Afterwards I only stand Misordering in

stand up because up because I dont sentence,

dont know I did. know what should I do. S+V+O

85. Then in the afternoon Then, in the afternoon Misordering in noun

we went to visit a we went to visit a phrase distribution,

high waterfall, beautiful great high determiner+

beautiful and great waterfall named Sekar adjective+ head noun

named Sekar Langit. Langit.

86. Last Sunday I and my Last Sunday my Misordering in noun

brother went to mini brother and I went to phrase distribution,

market to go mini market to go modifier+ head noun

shopping of matter shopping of food


food. matter.

87. The place was very The place was very Misordering in noun

crowded because the crowded because of the phrase distribution,

location strategic of strategic location of adjective+ head noun

mini market. mini market.

88. After my brother After my brother Omission of object

finished choosing the finished choosing the

things, he leave still things, he leaved me

busy choose the food. who was still busy

choosing the food.

89. Afterward we Afterward, we surround Omission of object

surround to look for the shop to look for the and misordering in

the things unique and unique and good noun phrase

good. things. distribution,

adjective+ head noun

90. When I went into When I went into gift Misordering in noun

store gift, I see small, store, I see cute small phrase distribution,

headscarf cute that headscarf that suit for adjective+ head noun

suit for children. children.

91. I and Dina very Dina and I were very Omission of subject

surprised when saw surprised when we saw and predicate

there is a mad person there was a mad person

brought stick behind who brought stick


us. behind us.

92. After went down After we went down Omission of subject

from the temple and from the temple and and misordering in

visited museum, we visited the museum, we noun phrase

went outside from went outside from this distribution,

temple a beautiful beautiful temple. adjective+ head noun

the.

93. The house have a big The house has a big Misordering in noun

park with many park with many phrase distribution,

flower full color and colorful flowers and adjective + head noun

basket field. basket field.

94. In Saturday, whe In Saturday, we Misordering in noun

watched Solo palace watched Solo palace phrase distribution,

and went to watched and went to watch the modifier+ head noun

at view road train view of a beautiful

beautiful. train road.

95. In the night round In the night, around Misordering in noun

about clock eleven I eleven oclock I felt phrase distribution,

felt thirsty quite. quite thirsty. modifier + head noun

96. For some time the For some time the Misordering in noun

room hospital hospital room became phrase distribution,

become noisy noisy because the modifier+ head noun

because patient woke patients were waked


up. up.

97. My father then angry Then my father was Omission of predicate

to me because I not angry of me because I and misordering in

careful ride the did not ride the sentence,

motorcycle. motorcycle carefully. S+P+O

98. Later my father Im Then my father ordered Omission of object

order for slowed the me to reduce the speed.

motor down.

99. Last Thursday in Last Thursday in Misordering in noun

lesson biology, in my Biology lesson, in my phrase distribution,

class was held the test class was held test to modifier+ head noun

to know type of know the type of blood.

blood.

100. Because not want to Because no person Omission of subject

go forward at first, so want to go to forward at

the test was held be first, so the test was

based on the absent. held be based on the

absent.

101. When arrived turn When arriving my Omission of predicate

my friend, she scream friends turn, she was and misordering in

anxiety. scream anxiety. noun phrase

distribution,

modifier+ head noun


102. Friday morning, in Friday morning, in Omission of predicate

lesson biology, our Biology lesson, our and misordering in

teacher explains that teacher explained that noun phrase

yesterday she wrong. yesterday she was distribution,

wrong. modifier+ head noun

103. The class noisy The class was noisy Omission of predicate

because the students because of the students

anxiety. anxiety.

104. First, in the morning I First, in the morning I Misordering in noun

maked assignment made presentation phrase distribution,

presentation with my assignment with my modifier + head noun

partner, Nuraini. partner, Nuraini.

105. We very disappointed We were very Omission of predicate

when lecturer give disappointed when the

information that lecturer gave

presentation will information that the

begin tomorrow. presentation would

begin tomorrow.

106. After I must in the After that, I ought to go Omission of predicate

hospital because my to the hospital because

sister sick. my sister was sick.

107. I watched until I watched my sister Omission of object


evening. until evening.

108. After finish the After finishing the Misordering in noun

question, suddenly question, suddenly my phrase distribution,

my teacher clap the teacher clapped her modifier + head noun

hand and singing the hand and sang happy

song happy birthday. birthday song.

109. According to me the According to me the Omission of predicate

question so very question was very

difficult. difficult.

110. Last Saturday I went Last Saturday I went to Misordering in noun

to post office in post office in Magelang phrase distribution,

Magelang to send to send important adjective+ head noun

letters important to letters to my brother in

my brother in Jakarta. Jakarta.

111. In holiday my In my semester holiday Misordering in noun

semester at junior at junior high school, I phrase distribution,

high school, I went to went to Borobudur to modifier+ head noun

Borobudur to finish finish my English

my assignment assignment.

English.

112. My teacher ordered to My teacher ordered us Omission of object

interview with to interview with

foreigner who was in foreigner who was in


holiday. holiday.

113. We think it caused by We thought it caused Misordering in noun

we enter the temple by we entered the phrase distribution,

old, big and amazing amazing big old temple adjective+ head noun

without permission. without permission.

From the table above, the writer concluded that in constructing

sentences, students often make error to arrange the component of sentences

and sometimes they omit one component of sentence or may be more.

Whereas in noun phrase distribution, the students committed the errors to

arrange modifier that should precede head noun. To make the position of error

clearer, the table below is going to show the conclusion of the data analysis.

Table 4.2 Location of Errors

No Types of error Location of errors in sentence

1. In constructing sentence

a. Word order error 17, 61, 64, 65, 84, 97

b. Omission of subject 16, 22, 28, 42, 49, 55, 57, 58, 59, 77,

83, 91, 92, 100

c. Omission of predicate 5, 6, 9, 14, 16, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42,

43, 53, 55, 58, 62, 63, 72, 73, 80, 81,

83, 91, 97, 101, 103, 105, 106, 109

d. Omission of object 10, 18, 23, 44, 88, 89, 107, 102

2. In noun phrase distribution


a. Determiner (possessive/ 4, 5, 7, 8, 15, 29, 32, 36, 40, 47, 48,

demonstrative/ordinal/ 71, 73, 75, 76, 82, 83, 101, 111

indefinite pronoun) +

head noun

b. Adjective+ head noun 4, 28, 32, 37, 44, 45, 50, 54, 66, 68,

72, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 110, 113

c. Participial adjective + 14, 35

head noun

d. Noun as pre-modifier + 12, 13, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31,

head noun 33, 34, 36, 38, 43, 51, 52, 60, 64, 67,

69, 76, 78, 79, 86, 95, 96, 99, 102,

104, 108

e. Determiner + adjective+ 1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 19, 21, 46, 65, 74, 85

head noun

f. Determiner + noun as 27, 71

pre-modifier + head noun

g. Determiner + participial 56

adjective+ head noun

As mentioned in the table above, it was indicated that there were errors

committed by students. The more explanation of these errors is as follow:

a. Word order in constructing sentence


In previous explanation, it can be known that there were two kinds

of error that consist of omission one of sentence constituent and wrong

arrangement of the element of sentence. These errors are explained below.

1) Omission of Subject

After walked more far called us. This sentence demonstrates

that the student had committed the omission error since the student

omitted the subject. Because of this omission, the sentence was out of

order and it did not make sense. So, make reference to previous

sentence, the correct sentence is After walked more far, the seller

called us.

2) Omission of predicate

Omission of predicate appears in sentence According to me

the question so very difficult. The students often omit to be when they

arrange a sentence that followed by adjective, not verb. So, the correct

sentence is According to me the question was very difficult.

3) Omission of object

Afterward we surround to look for the things unique and good.

In this sentence, we can see that the student left out the object of the

transitive verb. Whereas in the sentence that contain transitive verb

should followed by object. So, the correct sentence is Afterward, we

surround the shop to look for the unique and good things.

4) Misordering in constructing sentence


This morning go down rain heavy. This sentence points out to

us the wrong order of sentence. It did not follow the English

constituent that says subject should come first, and then followed by

verb and predicate. The right sentence is This morning, the rain go

down heavily.

b. Misordering in noun phrase distribution

When we see the phrases Seller that, society Indonesian and

my day unlucky, it shows the misordering in noun phrase distribution,

especially in pre- modifier. The pattern of noun phrase in pre- modifier is

modifier + head noun and the modifier can be detailed by determiner +

(noun/ verb/ adjective). So, the modifier always precede the head noun

either it is determiner or noun/ verb/ adjective as modifier. From this

explanation, the right phrases are that seller, Indonesian society and

my unlucky day.

B. The Factors that caused word order Errors in recount text Made By

Students in tenth grade of MAN 1 Kota Magelang academic year of

2013/2014

To know the factor that caused word order error in recount text, the

writer used questionnairre method to collect the data. This method is chosen to

make the study effectively because of restrictiveness of the time that provided

by school. The questionnaires were distributed to the 73 students that include


35 students from X3 class and 38 students from X4 class. In addition, the

result of questionnaire will be presented by the following table.

Table 4.3 Factors that Caused the Errors

The Factor that caused The result of interview

number of the error Question: (Menurut pendapatmu factor apa

Participant yang menyebabkan kamu melakukan

kesalahan ini?)

In your opinion, what factor that caused you

commits the error?

1. Lack of knowledge Saya masih bingung karena kurang paham

dalam menerapkan aturan-aturan dalam

Bahasa Inggris.

Im still confused because my lack

understanding in applying the rule of English

grammar.

2. Over-generalization Karena saya masih ragu dalam menyusun

kalimat sehingga saya menyamakan pola

suatu kalimat dengan kalimat lain yang saya

ingat.

Because Im still hesitant to arrange the

sentence, so I compare the pattern of a

sentence to other sentence that I remember.

3. Over-generalization Saya masih kurang paham tentang konsep


kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya

memakai konsep yang saya tahu saja.

I do not understand the concept of English

sentence well, so I only use the concept that I

know.

4. Over-generalization Saya sering menyamakan pola suatu kalimat

dengan kalimat lain karena masih bingung

mana yang harus diletakkan di depan atau di

belakang,

I often compare one of sentence pattern to

other pattern because Im confused about the

word that should be arranged at first.

5. Errors encouraged Saya masih kurang paham saat guru

by teaching menerangkan karena penyampaian materi

material or method yang tidak runtut.

I have not understood yet when the teacher

explained the lesson because the material do

not structured well.

6. Carelessness Saya kurang teliti dalam membuat kalimat

sehingga banyak konsep Bahasa Inggris

yang terlupakan.

I dont make the sentences carefully, so there


are English concepts that forgotten.

7. Carelessness Kurangnya pemahaman dan materi yang

saya ingat sehingga membuat saya bingung

dan tidak tertarik dalam membuat kalimat.

The lack of comprehension and material that

I remember made me confused and did not

interest in making the sentence.

8. Over-generalization Penguasaan structure dalam Bahasa Inggris

saya yang masih kurang sehingga saya

sering menyamakan pola sebuah kalimat

dengan kalimat lain yang hampir sama.

My English structure mastering is low, so

that it influences me to treat one pattern of

sentence same with another sentence that

almost equal.

9. Errors encouraged Saya kurang paham saat diterangkan oleh

by teaching guru sehingga saya masih binggung dalam

material or method menyusun kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I have not understood yet when the teacher

explained the lesson, so I am still disoriented

to arrange English sentence.

10. Carelessness Saya hanya ingat sedikit tentang pola-pola

dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga hanya


aturan yang saya ingat saja yang saya

terapkan.

I only remember a little of English structure

so I just apply the structure that I remember.

11. Carelessness Saya masih bingung karena saya hanya

mengetahui sedikit tentang kaidah Bahasa

Inggris sehingga membuat saya tidak

semangat dalam mempelajarinya.

I just know a little convention of English so I

am still confused and do not enthusiasm to

learn.

12. First language or Ketika saya menyusun kalimat saya masih

mother tongue sering mengacu pada pola penyusunan

interfere dalam Bahasa Indonesia.

When I arrange the sentences, I often refer to

the arrangement of Indonesian pattern.

13. Carelessness Saya masih bingung karena pola Bahasa

Inggris yang rumit sehingga saya selalu

salah menganalisis konsep Bahasa Inggris.

I am confused about the complexity of

English pattern, so I am often wrong to

analyze English concept.

14. First language or Dalam menyusun kalimat Bahasa Inggris


mother tongue saya masih terpengaruh dengan pola Bahasa

interfere Indonesia.

To arrange English sentence, I am still

influenced by Indonesian pattern.

15. Error encouraged Kurangnya pengetahuan tentang Bahasa

by teaching Inggris dan kurang paham saat diterangkan

material or method oleh guru.

My knowledge of English is poor and I do

not understand when the teacher explains the

material.

16. Translation Ketika saya menyusun kalimat Bahasa

Inggris saya sering menyusunnya dalam

Bahasa Indonesia kemudian saya translate

ke Inggris.

When I arrange English sentence, I often

organize it in Indonesian at first and then I

translate it into English.

17. Carelessness Saya sering lupa tentang kaidah penyusunan

kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga

menjadi kurang teliti dalam membuat

kalimat.

I often forget about the convention of

English sentence so I become carelessness to


make the sentence.

18. Errors encouraged Kurangnya pengetahuan dan pemahaman

by teaching saat diterangkan oleh guru sehingga saya

material or method sering membuat kesalahan.

The lack of knowledge and understanding

when the material was explained by teacher

made me do the mistake.

19. Carelessness Saya masih bingung dalam memahami

konsep Bahasa Inggris sehingga sering salah

dalam menganalisis penyusunan kalimat.

I am bewildered to understand English

concept, so I am often wrong to analyze the

arrangement of sentence.

20. Errors encouraged Saya masih kurang paham saat diterangkan

by teaching oleh guru sehingga sering lupa saat

material or method membuat kalimat.

I do not understand well when the lesson was

explained by teacher, so I often forget when I

make sentence.

21. Carelessness Saya masih kurang paham tentang structure

Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya jadi malas

belajar.

I still do not understand about English


structure so it makes me lazy to learn.

22. Translation Ketika membuat kalimat Bahasa Inggris

saya menterjemahkan kata-kata yang akan

saya susun satu per satu.

When I made English sentence, I translate

the words that will be arranged one by one.

23. Over-generalization Saya sering menyamakan pola satu kalimat

dengan pola kalimat yang saya tahu.

I often compare the pattern of one sentence

to other pattern that I know.

24. First language or Karena saya terbiasa menyusun pola kalimat

mother tongue dalam Bahasa Indonesia sehingga saya

interfere memakainya juga dalam menyusun kalimat

dalam Bahasa Inggris.

Because I accustomed to arrange the

sentence in Indonesian pattern, so I also use

it to arrange English sentence.

25. Lack of knowledge Saya masih kurang paham sehingga sering

kurang lengkap dalam menerapkan sebuah

pola Bahasa Inggris.

I still have not understood yet, so I often

apply the English structure incompletely.

26. First language or Saya sering menyusun sebuah kalimat dalam


mother tongue Bahasa Indonesia dahulu lalu saya

interfere terjemahkan dalam Bahasa Inggris.

I often organize the sentence in Indonesian at

first, and then translate it into English.

27. First language or Karena terbiasa menggunakan pola Bahasa

mother tongue Indonesia sehingga terpengaruh saat

interfere membuat kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

Because of familiar using Indonesian pattern,

so I was influenced when create English

sentence.

28. Carelessness Saya masih binggung sehingga sering salah

dalam menganalisis konsep dalam kalimat.

I am still confused so I am often wrong when

analyzing the sentence.

29. Over-generalization Saya sering salah paham dan sering

menyamakan pola sebuah kalimat dengan

pola kalimat lain yang saya tahu.

I become misunderstanding to frequent and

compare one pattern to another pattern that I

know.

30. Carelessness Kurangnya kosa kata sehingga menjadi

kurang hati-hati saat menyusun kalimat


Bahasa Inggris.

The lack of vocabulary makes me become

carelessness when I arrange the sentence.

31. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun

kalimat Bahasa Inggris karena kurangnya

pemahaman.

I do not careful enough when I organize the

English sentences. It is because of my lack of

understanding.

32. Carelessness Saya masih bingung dalam menyusun

kalimat Bahasa Inggris sehingga sering

mengalami kesalahan konsep dalam

menganalisis kalimat.

I am confused to arrange English sentence so

I am often wrong to analyze the concept of

sentence.

33. Over-generalization Kurangnya pengetahuan sehingga saya

sering menyamakan pola kalimat dengan

kalimat yang sudah ada sebelumnya.

The lacks of knowledge make me often

compare one pattern of sentence to other

pattern that was used previously.

34. First language or Saya masih bingung dalam menyusun kata-


mother tongue katanya sehingga saya sering menyusun

interfere sesuai kaidah Bahasa Indonesia.

I am bewildered to arrange the words so I

rather frequently arrange the sentence

appropriate with Indonesian pattern.

35. Lack of knowledge Saya masih bingung dalam menganalisis dan

menyusun kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I am bewildered to analyze and arrange

English sentence.

36. Translation Karena saya sering membuat kalimat

Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Indonesia

dahulu lalu menerjemahkan dalam Bahasa

Inggris.

Because I often make English sentence in

Indonesian at first and then translate it into

English.

37. First language or Saya masih kesulitan dalam menyusun

mother tongue kalimat Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya

interfere samakan sesuai kaidah Bahasa Indonesia.

I have difficulties to arrange English

sentence so I make it same with Indonesian

convention.

38. Translation Saya masih bingung dalam menyusun kata-


kata dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya

terjemahkan dahulu satu per satu.

I am disoriented to organize the words in

English, so I translate it at first one by one.

39. Lack of knowledge Kosa kata saya masih kurang dan saya

belum paham dalam menyusun kata-katanya

apakah sama dalam penyusunan Bahasa

Indonesia atau tidak.

My vocabulary is limited and I do not

understand well how to arrange the words,

either it same with Indonesian arrangement

or no.

40. Translation Ketika saya membuat kalimat Bahasa

Inggris saya selalu mengartikannya satu

persatu dahulu.

When I make English sentence, I often

translate it at first one by one.

41. First language or Saya masih belum paham dengan kaidah

mother tongue dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga dalam

interfere menyusun kalimatnya saya samakan dengan

menyusun kalimat Bahasa Indonesia.

I do not understand well with English

convention, so in arranging the sentence, I


compare it with the convention of Indonesian

sentence.

42. Lack of knowledge Saya kurang sesuai dalam menerapkan

aturan kebahasaan Bahasa Inggris karena

saya kurang tau pasti kaidahnya.

I do not appropriate for appling the English

structure because my knowledge of

conventions is less.

43. Translation Saya masih bingung dalam menyusun

kalimat sehingga kata-kata yang akan saya

susun saya terjemahkan satu persatu dulu.

I am bewildered to arrange the sentence, so I

translate the words that will be arranged at

first.

44. Over-generalization Dalam membuat kalimat saya sering

menyamakan polanya dengan pola kalimat

yang saya tahu.

To create the sentence, I often compare a

pattern to other pattern that I know.

45. Lack of knowledge Saya masih bingung dalam menganalisis

konsep penyusunan kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I am confused to analyze the concept of

English sentence arrangement.


46. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam meletakkan

kata-katanya dan kurang lengkap dalam

memahami konsepnya sehingga bingung

dalam penyusunan kalimat.

I do not careful to put the word and do not

understand the concept completely, so I am

bewildered to arrange the sentence.

47. Carelessness Saya masih bingung tentang konsep

ketatabahasaan Bahasa Inggris sehingga

sering salah dalam menganalisis kalimat.

I am confused with English convention, so I

am often wrong to analyze the sentence.

48. Lack of knowledge Saya kurang tahu tentang konsep Bahasa

Inggris sehingga sering salah dalam

menyusun kata-katanya.

I do not know well about the concept of

English, so I am often fault to arrange the

words.

49. First language or Dalam menyusun kalimat Bahasa Inggris

mother tongue saya masih sering menggunakan pola dalam

interfere Bahasa Indonesia.

To arrange English sentence, I often use

Indonesian pattern.
50. Translation Saya menterjemahkan kata satu-persatu satu

menyusun kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I translate the word one by one and then

organize it to English sentence.

51. Carelessness Saya masih bingung menyusun kata-kata

dalam Bahasa Inggris karena masih kurang

paham.

I am bewildered to organize the word in

English because I do not understand well.

52. Translation Saya masih kesulitan dalam menyusun

kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya

menerjemahkan kata-katanya dahulu.

I have difficulties to arrange the sentence in

English, so I translate the words at first.

53. Carelessness Saya masih kurang memahami pola kalimat

dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga membuat

saya malas dalam mengerjakan latihan.

I still do not understand with the pattern in

English sentence so it makes me lazy to do

the exercise.

54. First language or Saya masih terpengaruh oleh struktur

mother tongue kalimat dalam Bahasa Indonesia sehingga

interfere saya menyamakan polanya.


I am influenced by Indonesian structure so I

make English pattern same with it.

55. Translation Saya masih bingung saat menyusun frase

Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya

menerjemahkannya satu persatu.

I am confused when arranging English

phrase so I translate it one by one.

56. First language or Saya masih kesulitan saat menyusun kalimat

mother tongue sehingga saya samakan dengan pola Bahasa

interfere Indonesia.

I have difficulties when arranging the

sentence, so I compare it to Indonesian

pattern.

57. Over-generalization Saya masih bingung karena kurangnya

pemahaman sehingga pola kalimatnya saya

samakan semua.

I am disoriented because of lack of

understanding, so I make the pattern be same

with other.

58. Lack of knowledge Pemahaman Bahasa Inggris saya masih

kurang karena kurangnya pengetahuan.

My understanding of English is low because

of the lack of knowledge.


59. Over-generalization Saya masih mengalami kesulitan dalam

menyusun kata-kata dalam Bahasa Inggris

sehingga saya menyamakan semua pola

yang saya tahu.

I have difficulties to arrange the words in

English so I make the entire pattern that I

knew be same.

60. Lack of knowledge Saya kurang paham sehingga kurang

lengkap dalam menerapkan aturan Bahasa

Inggris.

I do not understand well so I apply the

English structure incompletely.

61. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun

kalimat sehingga kadang sering salah.

I arrange the sentence inadvertently, so I

occasionally do mistake.

62. First language or Saya kurang paham polanya sehingga saya

mother tongue memakai pola Bahasa Indonesia.

interfere I have not understood yet with the structure,

so I use Indonesian structure.

63. Lack of knowledge Saya kurang memahami konsep penyusunan


kalimat Bahasa Inggris sehingga saya sering

salah.

I do not understand well with the concept of

English sentence arrangement, so I often do

mistake.

64. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun kata-

kata dalam Bahasa Inggris sehingga masih

sering salah.

I am not beware to arrange the words in

English so I often make fault.

65. Over-generalization Saya masih bingung konsep kebahasaannya

sehingga saya menyusun sesuai pola yang

saya tahu.

I am confused with the convention, so I

organize sentence based on the structure that

I know.

66. First language or Saya belum paham struktur Bahasa Inggris

mother tongue sehingga saya samakan dengan pola Bahasa

interfere Indonesia.

I do not understand well with English

structure so I make it same with Indonesian

structure.

67. Lack of knowledge Saya kurang paham dengan pola-pola dalam


Bahasa Inggris.

I do not understand yet with English

structure.

68. Translation Saya masih kurang hati-hati dalam

menyusun kalimat karena saya hanya

menerjemahkan kata-kata yang mau saya

susun.

I am not beware to arrange the sentence

because I only translate the words that I want

to arrange.

69. Lack of knowledge Saya belum paham aturan Bahasa Inggris

and understanding sehingga membuat saya kurang memahami

konsep kalimatnya.

I do not understand well the rule of English

so it makes me do not understand the concept

of sentence.

70. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun kata-

kata dalam kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I am not careful to manage the words in

English sentence.

71. Errors encouraged Saya kurang paham saat guru

by teaching menyampaikan materi sehingga sering salah

material or method dalam menerapkan konsep Bahasa Inggris.


I do not understand when the teacher

explains the material so I often do mistakes

in applying English grammar.

72. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun kata-

kata untuk membentuk kalimat yang benar.

I am not beware in arranging the words to

create good sentence.

73. Carelessness Saya kurang hati-hati dalam menyusun

kalimat Bahasa Inggris.

I am not careful to organize English

sentence.

Based on the data analysis above, it can be found various factors that

caused the respondents committed with error. The dominant factor that caused

word order error in recount text made by students at tenth grade of MAN 1

Kota Magelang academic year of 2013/2014 is carelessness and the minor

factor is errors which are encouraged by teaching material or method. This

result indicates that internal factor as like as ability, interest or motivation

become important factor that influence teaching learning process to get best

result. Beside internal factor, external factor also become important element to

make learning process to be successful.

C. The Discussion of Findings


The result of the study that was explained previously show

informations related to the recount text that was produced by respondent. It

reveals some word order errors committed by students either in constructing

the element of sentence, omission the component of sentence or distributing of

word in noun phrase. In addition, this study also indicates some factors that

cause the errors.

Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that there were 113 error

sentences was made by respondent. Every sentence consists of one error and

sometimes it was more. In addition, from 113 error sentences, there were 140

word order errors was found. The sum of word order errors in constructing

sentence are 56 or 40 % and in noun phrase distribution are 84 or 60% from

the total errors. All of errors were produced by 64 respondents or 84 % from

the total of respondent.

Beside the errors was produced, it is also important to know the causes

that made students commit with word order error in creating recount text. It

becomes the important thing to know in order to both the teacher and

respondents can evaluate their ability and they can look for the effective way

to elevate their knowledge. From the analyzing data, it can be known that 28,

77 % of respondents stated that their error caused by carelessness because of

low motivation and they did not careful when making the text. Beside that, 17,

80% respondents said that the first language became the cause of error, 16,

44% indicated the lack of knowledge became the reason, 15, 07% answered

the over-generalization, 13, 40% responded translation and 8, 22% stated


teaching material or method as the cause of error. This result shows that the

key factors that cause the error committed by respondent come from the

internal of individual him/ herself. So, it is important for the teachers to pay

more attention about the ability and interest of students when learning English

in order for the students can improve their knowledge and they can use

English better.
CHAPTER V

CLOSURE

After conducting the study, analyzing the data, and presenting the results, in this

chapter the writer is going to presents the conclusion and suggestion of the study.

A. Conclusion

In the previous chapter, the writer gave illustrations concerning with

the word order error in recount text committed by students at tenth grade of

MAN 1 Kota Magelang academic year of 2013/2014. Furthermore, based on

the problem statements the results of the study conclude that:

1. There were 113 error sentences was found either in word order error in

constructing declarative sentences especially in the arrangement of S, P

and O or in distributing the words in noun phrase. These errors consist of

40% errors in constructing sentence and 80% in noun phrase distribution.

In the construction of sentence, the dominant error occurred in the

omission predicate, then followed by omission subject, omission object

and misordering in arranging the component of sentence. Whereas in noun

phrase distribution, the error occurred in the arrangement of pre-modifier

that has pattern follow:

Determiner (article/demonstrative/possessive/indefinite/numeral/ordinal) +

adjective/noun/verb as pre modifier + head noun.

The dominant error in noun phrase is found in the pattern modifier (noun)

+ head noun that consist of 31 errors and the fewest errors occurred in
determiner + participial adjective + head noun pattern that only one

error.

2. The errors that made by students were caused by some factors that consist

of external and internal factor. The internal factor consists of carelessness,

first language, translation, over-generalization, lack of knowledge and the

external factor is error encouraged by teaching material or method. The

dominant factor that caused the error is carelessness and the minor factor

is error encourage by teaching material or method.

B. Suggestion

Regarding the problems of the study, some suggestions are counseled

for the students and the English teacher especially in tenth grade.

1. For the students

a. The students should improve their understanding on English word

order, so they can arrange meaningful sentence.

b. The students should pay more attention when the teacher explains the

material to improve their understanding of English.

c. The students need learn more in analyzing sentence either by reading

English book or by practicing.

d. The students need to improve their ability in writing skill by practicing

writing regularly.

2. For the teachers


a. The teacher should apply the effective technique to teach the material,

not only focuses on students work sheet (LKS) but also on students

interest. The material should be presented creatively, so the students

can understand easily and remember the lesson.

b. When explain about the material of sentence construction, teacher

should give exercise and discuss the students work directly so they

can know their fault and they understand more.

c. Teacher should ask about the previous material when the new material

will be conveyed, so that the students will remember about the lesson.

d. Although the students know the rule to arrange the word, but sometimes

they didnt know the part of speech of the word so they often commit

with errors. Based on this fact, it is important for the teachers to order

the students to bring the dictionary in English class.


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