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HW5

P6.20 Force on each of two blades = 1000 Newtons

Lift coefficient = 0.9

Blade center of gravity from hub = 20 meters

Rotation speed 30 rev/minutes

Conversion factor rev/min * 2pi radians/rev*1min/60sec

Rotation speed 3.14159 radians/second

a. Torque generated by the two blades

From p. 141, Torque = 2 x Fl*d Torque = 36000 Newton*meters

b. Blade power

Ptotal = Force x speed

Ptotal = Torque * omega Ptotal = 113097 Watts

Omega is n radians/second 113 KW

P6.21

Relative wind speed = 20 meters/second

Angle of wind = -80 degrees

Desired angle of attack = 10 degrees

P6.22 The coefficient of performance of wind turbines is often expressed by the empirical formula Cp = k1(A - k2B - k3B^3 -k4)e^-Ak5

where A = 1/(TSR + k6B) - k7/(1 + B^3) (Gamma = A)

a. Plot the coefficient of performance with respect to the TSR for angle of attack (alpha = a) equal to 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees.

Did the author mean pitch angle (beta = B) rather than angle of attack?

b. Find the maximum Cp and the TSR ideal for a pitch angle equal to 30.

k2 = 0.1 Angle of attack (alpha = a) Text, p. 141

k3 = 0.002

k4 = 0.003

k5 = 15

k6 = 1

k7 = 0.02

B= 0 10 20 30 degrees

B= 0.000 0.174 0.349 0.523 radians

TSR B=0 B = 10 B = 20 B = 30 A for 0 A for 10 A for 20 A for 30

1.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.980 0.832 0.722 0.639 HW5P6.2

1.5 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.647 0.577 0.522 0.477

2.0 0.007 0.011 0.017 0.022 0.480 0.440 0.407 0.379

with pi

2.5 0.025 0.033 0.041 0.047 0.380 0.354 0.332 0.313 0.500

3.0 0.056 0.066 0.073 0.078 0.313 0.295 0.279 0.266

3.5 0.098 0.105 0.110 0.110 0.266 0.252 0.241 0.231

4.0 0.144 0.148 0.146 0.140 0.230 0.220 0.211 0.204

4.5 0.192 0.189 0.180 0.165 0.202 0.194 0.187 0.182 0.400

5.0 0.238 0.227 0.210 0.186 0.180 0.173 0.168 0.164

5.5 0.280 0.260 0.234 0.200 0.162 0.156 0.152 0.149

6.0 0.318 0.289 0.252 0.209 0.147 0.142 0.138 0.136

0.300

Coefficient of performance Cp

6.5 0.351 0.312 0.265 0.213 0.134 0.130 0.127 0.125

7.0 0.380 0.330 0.273 0.212 0.123 0.119 0.117 0.115

7.5 0.403 0.343 0.277 0.207 0.113 0.110 0.108 0.107

8.0 0.422 0.353 0.277 0.198 0.105 0.102 0.101 0.100 0.200

8.5 0.438 0.358 0.273 0.186 0.098 0.095 0.094 0.093

9.0 0.449 0.361 0.267 0.172 0.091 0.089 0.088 0.088

9.5 0.458 0.360 0.258 0.155 0.085 0.083 0.082 0.082

0.100

10.0 0.464 0.358 0.247 0.137 0.080 0.078 0.077 0.078

0.000

Coefficient of

0.100

10.5 0.467 0.353 0.234 0.117 0.075 0.074 0.073 0.073

11.0 0.469 0.346 0.220 0.097 0.071 0.070 0.069 0.069

11.5 0.469 0.338 0.205 0.075 0.067 0.066 0.065 0.066 0.000

12.0 0.467 0.329 0.189 0.053 0.063 0.062 0.062 0.062

12.5 0.463 0.318 0.172 0.030 0.060 0.059 0.059 0.059

13.0 0.459 0.307 0.154 0.007 0.057 0.056 0.056 0.056

13.5 0.454 0.295 0.136 -0.016 0.054 0.053 0.053 0.054 -0.100

0

14.0 0.448 0.283 0.118 -0.039 0.051 0.051 0.051 0.051

14.5 0.441 0.270 0.099 -0.063 0.049 0.048 0.048 0.049

15.0 0.434 0.256 0.080 -0.086 0.047 0.046 0.046 0.047

P6.23

Average wind speed w = 15 meters/second

Average low temperature = -4 degrees C

Average high temperature = 18 degrees C

Summer Winter

Air density 1.089 1.168 kg/m^3

Power density 1838 1970 W/m2

P6.24

Calculate the blade length needed to capature 200 KW of wind energy during the summer?

Captured energy = 200000 watts

r= 5.89 meters

P6.25

Gearbox ratio = 200

Generator speed minimum = 910 rpm

Blade length = 5m

Wind speed = 10 m/s

TSR variable

Tip speed = 2pi*rev/min*blade length/60sec/min= 2.38 m/s

P6.27

Type 1: Gear box, induction generator, no control over generator output.

Type 2: Gear box, induction generator with control over the rotor currents.

Type 3: Gear box, induction generator with Link converter and rotor converter to control rotor currents.

Type 4: No gear box, induction generator AC/AC converter to shift output frequency to 60 Hz.

Type 5: Not in text book: Gear box and transmission, induction or synchronous generator with rotor current control.

Effective head = 10 m

Penstock flow rate = 1 m^3/s

Hydro eff = 0.85

Turbine eff = 0.8

Generator eff = 0.92

61.37 KW

P6.31 In the previous problem if the penstock eff. Is 95%, compute the gross head

Penstock flow rate = 5 m^3/s

Penstock eff = 0.9

hydro eff = 0.9

turbine eff = 0.9

generator eff = 0.96

Bll travel in seconds 4

Water speed = 2.5 m/s

As = 0.5024 m^2

Turbine coef. = 0.3

Turbine eff. = 0.9

Gen. eff. = 0.96

Find Pout

1.00E+06 m2

Head = 10 m

Total system eff. = 85 %

For two ebbs and two flows per day, PE/day = 1.96E+12 J

19.30 MW

P6.36 Compute wave power hitting 10 M of beach front if average height of the wave is 2 M and the wave period is 10 s.

havg = 2m

period = 10 sec

38.31 kW/m

At 12:00: water depth = 10 m

water head = 100 m

1 Wh = 3600 Watt*sec = 3600J 360000000000 J

Ignore penstock losses!

Potential energy of the reservoir at 5 AM (PEr2) = 1.592E+12 J

Then del vol = 325304 m^3

Then vol2 = 1.58E+06 m^3

Then h2 = 102.59 m

Then PEr2 = 1.591E+12

P6.69

Flywheel energy storage = 1 kJ

1000 J

Rotor diameter = 40 cm

0.4 m

Rotor radius= 0.2 m

Rotor height = 20 cm

Rotor density =

10 gm/cm^3

Compute the rotation speed? Energy = 0.25*m*r^2*w^2

Mass = density*height*pi*diameter^2/4

251.2 kg 553.7919 pounds

w^2 = E/.25*m*r^2

w^2 = 398.08917

w= 19.952172 radians/second

rotation speed = w*60 sec/min*/2pi radians/rev

190.6 revolutions/minute

E= 1000 Joules

HW5P6.22 Coefficient of performance Cp v TSR

with pitch angle B (degrees) as a parameter

0.500

0.400

0.300

B=0

B = 10

0.200 B = 20

B = 30

0.100

0.000

B = 30

0.100

0.000

-0.100

0 5 10 15

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