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EE-3352

HW5
P6.20 Force on each of two blades = 1000 Newtons
Lift coefficient = 0.9
Blade center of gravity from hub = 20 meters
Rotation speed 30 rev/minutes
Conversion factor rev/min * 2pi radians/rev*1min/60sec
Rotation speed 3.14159 radians/second
a. Torque generated by the two blades

From Eq. 6.29, lift force Fl = Cl x F Fl = 900 Newtons


From p. 141, Torque = 2 x Fl*d Torque = 36000 Newton*meters

b. Blade power
Ptotal = Force x speed
Ptotal = Torque * omega Ptotal = 113097 Watts
Omega is n radians/second 113 KW

P6.21
Relative wind speed = 20 meters/second
Angle of wind = -80 degrees
Desired angle of attack = 10 degrees

Find the pitch angle?

From example 6.19 on p. 142

90 + angle of wind = angle of attack + pitch angle

Pitch angle = 0 degrees

P6.22 The coefficient of performance of wind turbines is often expressed by the empirical formula Cp = k1(A - k2B - k3B^3 -k4)e^-Ak5
where A = 1/(TSR + k6B) - k7/(1 + B^3) (Gamma = A)
a. Plot the coefficient of performance with respect to the TSR for angle of attack (alpha = a) equal to 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees.
Did the author mean pitch angle (beta = B) rather than angle of attack?
b. Find the maximum Cp and the TSR ideal for a pitch angle equal to 30.

k1 = 20 Pitch angle (beta = B) Text p. 141


k2 = 0.1 Angle of attack (alpha = a) Text, p. 141
k3 = 0.002
k4 = 0.003
k5 = 15
k6 = 1
k7 = 0.02

B= 0 10 20 30 degrees
B= 0.000 0.174 0.349 0.523 radians
TSR B=0 B = 10 B = 20 B = 30 A for 0 A for 10 A for 20 A for 30
1.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.980 0.832 0.722 0.639 HW5P6.2
1.5 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.647 0.577 0.522 0.477
2.0 0.007 0.011 0.017 0.022 0.480 0.440 0.407 0.379
with pi
2.5 0.025 0.033 0.041 0.047 0.380 0.354 0.332 0.313 0.500
3.0 0.056 0.066 0.073 0.078 0.313 0.295 0.279 0.266
3.5 0.098 0.105 0.110 0.110 0.266 0.252 0.241 0.231
4.0 0.144 0.148 0.146 0.140 0.230 0.220 0.211 0.204
4.5 0.192 0.189 0.180 0.165 0.202 0.194 0.187 0.182 0.400
5.0 0.238 0.227 0.210 0.186 0.180 0.173 0.168 0.164
5.5 0.280 0.260 0.234 0.200 0.162 0.156 0.152 0.149
6.0 0.318 0.289 0.252 0.209 0.147 0.142 0.138 0.136
0.300

Coefficient of performance Cp
6.5 0.351 0.312 0.265 0.213 0.134 0.130 0.127 0.125
7.0 0.380 0.330 0.273 0.212 0.123 0.119 0.117 0.115
7.5 0.403 0.343 0.277 0.207 0.113 0.110 0.108 0.107
8.0 0.422 0.353 0.277 0.198 0.105 0.102 0.101 0.100 0.200
8.5 0.438 0.358 0.273 0.186 0.098 0.095 0.094 0.093
9.0 0.449 0.361 0.267 0.172 0.091 0.089 0.088 0.088
9.5 0.458 0.360 0.258 0.155 0.085 0.083 0.082 0.082
0.100
10.0 0.464 0.358 0.247 0.137 0.080 0.078 0.077 0.078

0.000
Coefficient of
0.100
10.5 0.467 0.353 0.234 0.117 0.075 0.074 0.073 0.073
11.0 0.469 0.346 0.220 0.097 0.071 0.070 0.069 0.069
11.5 0.469 0.338 0.205 0.075 0.067 0.066 0.065 0.066 0.000
12.0 0.467 0.329 0.189 0.053 0.063 0.062 0.062 0.062
12.5 0.463 0.318 0.172 0.030 0.060 0.059 0.059 0.059
13.0 0.459 0.307 0.154 0.007 0.057 0.056 0.056 0.056
13.5 0.454 0.295 0.136 -0.016 0.054 0.053 0.053 0.054 -0.100
0
14.0 0.448 0.283 0.118 -0.039 0.051 0.051 0.051 0.051
14.5 0.441 0.270 0.099 -0.063 0.049 0.048 0.048 0.049
15.0 0.434 0.256 0.080 -0.086 0.047 0.046 0.046 0.047

P6.23

Snoqualmie pass elevation h = 920 meters above sea level


Average wind speed w = 15 meters/second
Average low temperature = -4 degrees C
Average high temperature = 18 degrees C

Find the wind power density in summer and winter.

Wind power density (Eq. 6.24) = 0.5Dw^3

Air density D (from Eq. 6.26) = 353/(T+273)exp(-h/29.3(T+273))

Summer Winter
Air density 1.089 1.168 kg/m^3
Power density 1838 1970 W/m2

P6.24

Calculate the blade length needed to capature 200 KW of wind energy during the summer?

From example 6.17 on p. 137, Pwind = pi*r^2*power density


Captured energy = 200000 watts

r= 5.89 meters

P6.25
Gearbox ratio = 200
Generator speed minimum = 910 rpm
Blade length = 5m
Wind speed = 10 m/s
TSR variable

Compute the minimum TSR at w = 10 m/s?

Rotation speed = gen.speed/gearbox ratio 4.55 rev/min


Tip speed = 2pi*rev/min*blade length/60sec/min= 2.38 m/s

Tip speed ratio = tip speed/wind speed = 0.238

P6.27
Type 1: Gear box, induction generator, no control over generator output.

Type 2: Gear box, induction generator with control over the rotor currents.

Type 3: Gear box, induction generator with Link converter and rotor converter to control rotor currents.

Type 4: No gear box, induction generator AC/AC converter to shift output frequency to 60 Hz.

Type 5: Not in text book: Gear box and transmission, induction or synchronous generator with rotor current control.

P6.30 Reservoir-type small hydro


Effective head = 10 m
Penstock flow rate = 1 m^3/s
Hydro eff = 0.85
Turbine eff = 0.8
Generator eff = 0.92

Compute electric power output

Pout = nnn*f*delta*g*h = 61371.36 W


61.37 KW

P6.31 In the previous problem if the penstock eff. Is 95%, compute the gross head

Gross head = effective head/penstock eff. = 10.52632 m

P6.32 Reservoir-type small hydro.


Penstock flow rate = 5 m^3/s
Penstock eff = 0.9
hydro eff = 0.9
turbine eff = 0.9
generator eff = 0.96

Compute the height of the dam to generate 1 MW

The penstock power output is = 1.2860082305 MW

h eff= ppo/f*delth*g = 26.2 m

h = heff/penstock eff = 29.1 m

P6.33 Diversion-type water stream power system

Ball travel in meters 10


Bll travel in seconds 4
Water speed = 2.5 m/s

Turbine sweep diameter = 0.8 m


As = 0.5024 m^2
Turbine coef. = 0.3
Turbine eff. = 0.9
Gen. eff. = 0.96

Find Pout

Find Energy in one year

Find income at $ 0.06 per KWh

P stream (Eqn. 6.7) 3,925.00 watts

Power output = 1,017.36 watts

Energy in one year = 8.91E+03 KWh

Income in one year = $ 534.72

P6.35 Barrage tidal emergy system

Lagoon area = 1 km^2 1000m x 1000m


1.00E+06 m2
Head = 10 m
Total system eff. = 85 %

Compute average power generated

PE = .5*area*density*g*H^2 = (eq. 6.63) 4.91E+11 J


For two ebbs and two flows per day, PE/day = 1.96E+12 J

Generated energy = eff* PE/day = 1.67E+12 J

Average power = 1.93E+07


19.30 MW

P6.36 Compute wave power hitting 10 M of beach front if average height of the wave is 2 M and the wave period is 10 s.

havg = 2m
period = 10 sec

Pave = delta*g^2*h^2*t/32pi eq. 6.77

Pave = 38311 watts/m


38.31 kW/m

P6.64 PHS used to store electric energy from midnight to 5:00 AM

Resevoir radius = 200 m


At 12:00: water depth = 10 m
water head = 100 m

Energy storage = 100 MWh


1 Wh = 3600 Watt*sec = 3600J 360000000000 J

Determine flow rate of turbine?


Ignore penstock losses!

Volume of water at midnight = 1.26E+06 m^3

Potential energy of the reservoir at midnight (PEr1) = 1.232E+12 J


Potential energy of the reservoir at 5 AM (PEr2) = 1.592E+12 J

Assume del d = 2.59 m


Then del vol = 325304 m^3
Then vol2 = 1.58E+06 m^3
Then h2 = 102.59 m
Then PEr2 = 1.591E+12

Flow rate = del vol/del time = 18.0724444444 m^3/s

P6.69
Flywheel energy storage = 1 kJ
1000 J

Rotor diameter = 40 cm
0.4 m
Rotor radius= 0.2 m

Rotor height = 20 cm
Rotor density =
10 gm/cm^3
Compute the rotation speed? Energy = 0.25*m*r^2*w^2

Mass = density*height*pi*diameter^2/4

Mass = 251200 grams English Equivalent at 1.0 pound = 0.4536 kg


251.2 kg 553.7919 pounds

w^2 = E/.25*m*r^2
w^2 = 398.08917
w= 19.952172 radians/second
rotation speed = w*60 sec/min*/2pi radians/rev

190.6 revolutions/minute

Check: From formula 6.110

E= 1000 Joules
HW5P6.22 Coefficient of performance Cp v TSR
with pitch angle B (degrees) as a parameter
0.500

0.400

0.300

B=0
B = 10
0.200 B = 20
B = 30

0.100

0.000
B = 30

0.100

0.000

-0.100
0 5 10 15

Tip speed ratio (TSR)