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Grinding (abrasive cutting)

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Sketch of how abrasive particles in a grinding wheel remove material from a workpiece.
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Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.

A wide variety of machines are used for grinding:

Hand-cranked knife-sharpening stones (grindstones)


Handheld power tools such as angle grinders and die grinders
Various kinds of expensive industrial machine tools called grinding machines
Bench grinders often found in residential garages and basements

Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of manufacturing and toolmaking. It can produce
very fine finishes and very accurate dimensions; yet in mass production contexts it can also
rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. It is usually better suited to the machining of
very hard materials than is "regular" machining (that is, cutting larger chips with cutting tools
such as tool bits or milling cutters), and until recent decades it was the only practical way to
machine such materials as hardened steels. Compared to "regular" machining, it is usually
better suited to taking very shallow cuts, such as reducing a shaft's diameter by half a
thousand of an inch (thou) or 12.7 um.

Grinding is a subset of cutting, as grinding is a true metal-cutting process. Each grain of


abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake
angle), and shears a tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut"
chip (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, etc.). However, among people who work in the
machining fields, the term cutting is often understood to refer to the macroscopic cutting
operations, and grinding is often mentally categorized as a "separate" process. This is why
the terms are usually used in contradistinction in shop-floor practice, even though, strictly
speaking, grinding is a subset of cutting.

Similar abrasive cutting processes are lapping and sanding.

Contents
[hide]

1 Processes
o 1.1 Surface grinding
o 1.2 Cylindrical grinding
o 1.3 Creep-feed grinding
o 1.4 Others
2 Grinding wheel
3 Lubrication
4 The workpiece
o 4.1 Workholding methods
o 4.2 Workpiece materials
o 4.3 Workpiece geometry
o 4.4 Effects on Workpiece Materials
5 See also
6 References
o 6.1 Bibliography

[edit] Processes
Selecting which of the following grinding operations to be used is determined by the size,
shape, features and the desired production rate.

[edit] Surface grinding

Surface grinder
Main article: Surface grinding

Surface grinding uses a rotating abrasive wheel to smooth the flat surface of metallic or
nonmetallic materials to give them a more refined look or to attain a desired surface for a
functional purpose. The tolerances that are normally achieved with grinding are 2
104inches for a grinding a flat material, and 3 104inches for a parallel surface. (in metric
units : 5 um for flat material and 8 um for parallel surface).

The surface grinder is composed of an abrasive wheel, a workholding device known as a


chuck, either electromagnetic or vacuum, and a reciprocating table.

Typical workpiece materials include cast iron and minor steel. These two materials don't tend
to clog the grinding wheel while being processed. Other materials are aluminum, stainless
steel, brass and some plastics.

[edit] Cylindrical grinding

Cylindrical grinding (also called center-type grinding) is used in the removing the cylindrical
surfaces and shoulders of the workpiece. The workpiece is mounted and rotated by a
workpiece holder, also known as a grinding dog or center driver. Both the tool and the
workpiece are rotated by separate motors and at different speeds. The axes of rotation tool
can be adjusted to produce a variety of shapes.

The five types of cylindrical grinding are: outside diameter (OD) grinding, inside diameter
(ID) grinding, plunge grinding, creep feed grinding, and centerless grinding.[1]

A cylindrical grinder has a grinding (abrasive) wheel, two centers that hold the workpiece,
and a chuck, grinding dog, or other mechanism to drive the machine. Most cylindrical
grinding machines include a swivel to allow for the forming of tapered pieces. The wheel and
workpiece move parallel to one another in both the radial and longitudinal directions. The
abrasive wheel can have many shapes. Standard disk shaped wheels can be used to create a
tapered or straight workpiece geometry while formed wheels are used to create a shaped
workpiece. The process using a formed wheel creates less vibration than using a regular disk
shaped wheel.

Tolerances for cylindrical grinding are held within five ten-thousandths of an inch (+/-
0.0005) (metric: +/- 13 um) for diameter and one ten-thousandth of an inch(+/- 0.0001)
(metric: 2.5 um) for roundness. Precision work can reach tolerances as high as five hundred-
thousandths of an inch (+/- 0.00005) (metric: 1.3 um) for diameter and one hundred-
thousandth of an inch (+/- 0.00001) (metric: 0.25 um) for roundness. Surface finishes can
range from 2 to 125 microinches (metric: 50 nm to 3 um), with typical finishes ranging from
8-32 microinches. (metric: 0.2 um to 0.8 um)

[edit] Creep-feed grinding

Creep-feed grinding (CFG) was invented in Germany in the late 1950s by Edmund and
Gerhard Lang. Unlike normal grinding, which is used primarily to finish surfaces, CFG is
used for high rates of material removal, competing with milling and turning as a
manufacturing process choice. Depths of cut of up to 6 mm (0.25 inches) are used along with
low workpiece speed. Surfaces with a softer-grade resin bond are used to keep workpiece
temperature low and an improved surface finish up to 1.6 micrometres Rmax

With CFG it takes 117 sec to remove 1 in.3 of material, whereas precision grinding would
take more than 200 sec to do the same. CFG has the disadvantage of a wheel that is
constantly degrading, and requires high spindle power, 51 hp (38 kW), and is limited in the
length of part it can machine.[2]

To address the problem of wheel sharpness, continuous-dress creep-feed grinding (CDCF)


was developed in the 1970s. It dresses the wheel constantly during machining, keeping it in a
state of specified sharpness. It takes only 17 sec. to remove 1 in3 of material, a huge gain in
productivity. 38 hp (28 kW) spindle power is required, and runs at low to conventional
spindle speeds. The limit on part length was erased.

High-efficiency deep grinding (HEDG) uses plated superabrasive wheels, which never need
dressing and last longer than other wheels. This reduces capital equipment investment costs.
HEDG can be used on long part lengths, and removes material at a rate of 1 in3 in 83 sec. It
requires high spindle power and high spindle speeds.[2]

Peel grinding, patented under the name of Quickpoint in 1985 by Erwin Junker
Maschinenfabrik, GmbH in Nordrach, Germany, uses a tool with a with superabrasive nose
and can machine cylindrical parts.[2]

VIPER (Very Impressive Performance Extreme Removal), 1999, is a process patented by


Rolls-Royce and is used in aerospace manufacturing to produce turbine blades. It uses a
continuously dressed aluminum oxide grinding wheel running at high speed. CNC-controlled
nozzles apply refrigerated grinding fluid during the cut. VIPER is performed on equipment
similar to a CNC machining center, and uses special wheels.[2]

Ultra-high speed grinding (UHSG) can run at speeds higher than 40,000 fpm (200 m/s),
taking 41 sec to remove 1 in.3 of material, but is still in the R&D stage. It also requires high
spindle power and high spindle speeds.[2]

[edit] Others

Centerless grinding

Form grinding is a specialized type of cylindrical grinding where the grinding wheel has the
exact shape of the final product. The grinding wheel does not traverse the workpiece.[3]
Internal grinding is used to grind the internal diameter of the workpiece. Tapered holes can
be ground with the use of internal grinders that can swivel on the horizontal.

Centerless grinding is when the workpiece is supported by a blade instead of by centers or


chucks. Two wheels are used. The larger one is used to grind the surface of the workpiece
and the smaller wheel is used to regulate the axial movement of the workpiece. Types of
centerless grinding include through-feed grinding, in-feed/plunge grinding, and internal
centerless grinding.

Pre-grinding When a new tool has been built and has been heat-treated, it is pre-ground
before welding or hardfacing commences. This usually involves grinding the OD slightly
higher than the finish grind OD to ensure the correct finish size.

Electrochemical grinding is a type of grinding in which a positively charged workpiece in a


conductive fluid is eroded by a negatively charged grinding wheel. The pieces from the
workpiece are dissolved into the conductive fluid.

A schematic of ELID grinding

Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding is one of the most accurate grinding
methods. In this ultra precision grinding technology the grinding wheel is dressed
electrochemically and in-process to maintain the accuracy of the grinding. An ELID cell
comprises of a metal bonded grinding wheel, a cathode electrode, a pulsed DC power supply
and electrolyte. The wheel is connected to the positive terminal of the DC power supply
through a carbon brush whereas the electrode is connected to the negative pole of the power
supply. Usually alkaline liquids are used as both electrolytes and coolant for grinding. A
nozzle is used to inject the electrolyte into the gap between wheel and electrode. The gap is
usually maintained to be approximately 0.1mm to 0.3 mm. During the grinding operation one
side of the wheel takes part in the grinding operation whereas the other side of the wheel is
being dressed by electrochemical reaction. The dissolution of the metallic bond material is
caused by the dressing which in turns results continuous protrusion of new sharp grits.[4]

[edit] Grinding wheel


The following text needs to be harmonized with text in Grinding wheel.
Main article: Grinding wheel

A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel used for various grinding and abrasive machining
operations. It is generally made from a matrix of coarse abrasive particles pressed and bonded
together to form a solid, circular shape, various profiles and cross sections are available
depending on the intended usage for the wheel. Grinding wheels may also be made from a
solid steel or aluminium disc with particles bonded to the surface.

[edit] Lubrication
The use of fluids in a grinding process is necessary to cool and lubricate the wheel and
workpiece as well as remove the chips produced in the grinding process. The most common
grinding fluids are water-soluble chemical fluids, water-soluble oils, synthetic oils, and
petroleum-based oils. It is imperative that the fluid be applied directly to the cutting area to
prevent the fluid being blown away from the piece due to rapid rotation of the wheel.
Work
Cutting Fluid Application
Material
Aluminum Light duty oil Flood
Brass Light duty oil Flood
Cast Iron Heavy duty emulsifiable oil, light duty chemical oil, synthetic oil Flood
Mild Steel Heavy duty water soluble oil Flood
Stainless Heavy duty emulsifiable oil, heavy duty chemical oil, synthetic
Flood
Steel oil
Water soluble oil, dry, heavy duty emulsifiable oil, dry, light
Plastics Flood
duty chemical oil, synthetic oil

[edit] The workpiece


[edit] Workholding methods

The workpiece is manually clamped to a lathe dog, powered by the faceplate, that holds the
piece in between two centers and rotates the piece. The piece and the grinding wheel rotate in
opposite directions and small bits of the piece are removed as it passes along the grinding
wheel. In some instances special drive centers may be used to allow the edges to be ground.
The workholding method affects the production time as it changes set up times.

[edit] Workpiece materials

Typical workpiece materials include aluminum, brass, plastics, cast iron, mild steel, and
stainless steel. Aluminum, brass and plastics can have poor to fair machinability
characteristics for cylindrical grinding. Cast Iron and mild steel have very good
characteristics for cylindrical grinding. Stainless steel is very difficult to grind due to its
toughness and ability to work harden, but can be worked with the right grade of grinding
wheels.

[edit] Workpiece geometry

The final shape of a workpiece is the mirror image of the grinding wheel, with cylindrical
wheels creating cylindrical pieces and formed wheels creating formed pieces. Typical sizes
on workpieces range from .75 in. to 20 in. (metric: 18mm to 1 m) and .80 in. to 75 in. in
length (metric: 2 cm to 4 m), although pieces between .25 in. and 60 in. in diameter (metric:
6 mm to 1.5 m) and .30 in. and 100 in. in length (metric: 8 mm to 2.5 m) can be ground.
Resulting shapes can range from straight cylinders, straight edged conical shapes, or even
crankshafts for engines that experience relatively low torque.

[edit] Effects on Workpiece Materials

Mechanical properties will change due to stresses put on the part during finishing. High
grinding temperatures may cause a thin martensitic layer to form on the part, which will lead
to reduced material strength from microcracks.

Physical property changes include the possible loss of magnetic properties on ferromagnetic
materials.

Chemical property changes include an increased susceptibility to corrosion because of high


surface stress.

[edit] See also


Cryogenic grinding
Diamond grinding
Diamond grinding of pavement
Flat honing
Grinding dresser
High stock removal
Honing (metalworking)
Hydro-erosive grinding
Swarf

[edit] References
1. ^ Stephenson, David. Metal Cutting Theory and Practice. 2nd. Boca Raton: CRC Press,
1997. 52-60.
2. ^ a b c d e Salmon, Stuart, "What is Abrasive Machining?," Manufacturing Engineering Feb.
2010, Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
3. ^ Adithan & Gupta 2002, p. 129.
4. ^ [1], T. Saleh, M. Sazedur Rahman, H.S. Lim, M. Rahman, Development and performance
evaluation of an ultra precision ELID grinding machine, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, Volumes 192-193, Pages 287-291.

[edit] Bibliography

Adithan, M.; Gupta, A. B. (2002), Manufacturing Technology, New Age International


Publishers, ISBN 9788122408171, http://books.google.com/?id=zeGOjAOZ-sMC.

[show]v d e Metalworking
[hide] Machining and computing
2.5D CAD CAM G-code Numerical control (NC
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and CNC) Stewart platform
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and die Tap wrench Threading
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grinder Dresser Grinding Grinding machine
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and cutter grinder
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machine Planer Pantograph Shaper
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Chatter Cutting fluid Speeds and feeds Swarf
Terminology
(chips) Tolerance Tramp oil

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinding_(abrasive_cutting)"


Categories: Grinding and lapping | Sharpening
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Surface grinding
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Surface grinding is used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. It is a widely used
abrasive machining process in which a spinning wheel covered in rough particles (grinding
wheel) cuts chips of metallic or non metallic substance from a workpiece, making a face of it
flat or smooth.

Contents
[hide]

1 Process
2 Equipment
o 2.1 Types of surface grinders
o 2.2 Grinding wheels for surface grinders
3 Lubrication
4 Effects on work material properties
5 See also
6 References
o 6.1 Bibliography

[edit] Process
Surface grinding is the most common of the grinding operations. It is a finishing process that
uses a rotating abrasive wheel to smooth the flat surface of metallic or nonmetallic materials
to give them a more refined look or to attain a desired surface for a functional purpose.
The surface grinder is composed of an abrasive wheel, a workholding device known as a
chuck, and a reciprocating table. The chuck holds the material in place while it is being
worked on. It can do this one of two ways: ferromagnetic pieces are held in place by a
magnetic chuck, while non-ferromagnetic and nonmetallic pieces are held in place by
vacuum or mechanical means. A machine vise (made from ferromagnetic steel or cast iron)
placed on the magnetic chuck can be used to hold non-ferromagnetic workpieces if only a
magnetic chuck is available.

Factors to consider in surface grinding are the material of the grinding wheel and the material
of the piece being worked on.

Typical workpiece materials include cast iron and minor steel. These two materials don't tend
to clog the grinding wheel while being processed. Other materials are aluminum, stainless
steel, brass and some plastics. When grinding at high temperatures, the material tends to
become weakened and is more inclined to corrode. This can also result in a loss of magnetism
in materials where this is applicable.

The grinding wheel is not limited to a cylindrical shape and can have a myriad of options that
are useful in transferring different geometries to the object being worked on. Straight wheels
can be dressed by the operator to produce custom geometries. When surface grinding an
object, one must keep in mind that the shape of the wheel will be transferred to the material
of the object like a mirror image.

Spark out is a term used when precision values are sought and literally means "until the
sparks are out (no more)". It involves passing the workpiece under the wheel, without
resetting the depth of cut, more than once and generally multiple times. This ensures that any
inconsistencies in the machine or workpiece are eliminated.

[edit] Equipment

Surface Grinder with electromagnetic chuck, inset shows a Manual magnetic chuck

A surface grinder is a machine tool used to provide precision ground surfaces, either to a
critical size or for the surface finish.

The typical precision of a surface grinder depends on the type and usage, however +/-
0.002 mm (+/- 0.0001") should be achievable on most surface grinders.

The machine consists of a table that traverses both longitudinally and across the face of the
wheel. The longitudinal feed is usually powered by hydraulics, as may the cross feed,
however any mixture of hand, electrical or hydraulic may be used depending on the ultimate
usage of the machine (i.e.: production, workshop, cost). The grinding wheel rotates in the
spindle head and is also adjustable for height, by any of the methods described previously.
Modern surface grinders are semi-automated, depth of cut and spark-out may be preset as to
the number of passes and once setup the machining process requires very little operator
intervention.

Depending on the workpiece material, the work is generally held by the use of a magnetic
chuck. This may be either an electromagnetic chuck, or a manually operated, permanent
magnet type chuck; both types are shown in the first image.

The machine has provision for the application of coolant as well as the extraction of metal
dust (metal and grinding particles).

[edit] Types of surface grinders

Horizontal-spindle (peripheral) surface grinders The periphery (flat edge) of the wheel is
in contact with the workpiece, producing the flat surface. Peripheral grinding is used in high-
precision work on simple flat surfaces; tapers or angled surfaces; slots; flat surfaces next to
shoulders; recessed surfaces; and profiles.[1]

Vertical-spindle (wheel-face) grinders The face of a wheel (cup, cylinder, disc, or


segmental wheel) is used on the flat surface. Wheel-face grinding is often used for fast
material removal, but some machines can accomplish high-precision work. The workpiece is
held on a reciprocating table, which can be varied according to the task, or a rotary-table
machine, with continuous or indexed rotation. Indexing allows loading or unloading one
station while grinding operations are being performed on another.[2]

Disc grinders and double-disc grinders Disc grinding is similar to surface grinding, but
with a larger contact area between disc and workpiece. Disc grinders are available in both
vertical and horizontal spindle types. Double disc grinders work both sides of a workpiece
simultaneously. Disc grinders are capable of achieving especially fine tolerances.[2]

[edit] Grinding wheels for surface grinders

Main article: Grinding wheel

Aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, diamond, and cubic boron nitride (CBN) are four
commonly used abrasive materials for the surface of the grinding wheels. Of these materials,
aluminum oxide is the most common. Because of cost, diamond and CBN grinding wheels
are generally made with a core of less expensive material surrounded by a layer of diamond
or CBN. Diamond and CBN wheels are very hard and are capable of economically grinding
materials, such as ceramics and carbides, that cannot be ground by aluminum oxide or silicon
carbide wheels.

As with any grinding operation, the condition of the wheel is extremely important. Grinding
dressers are used to maintain the condition of the wheel, these may be table mounted or
mounted in the wheel head where they can be readily applied.

[edit] Lubrication
See also: Cutting fluid

Lubricants are sometimes used to cool the workpiece and wheel, lubricate the interface, and
remove swarf (chips). It must be applied directly to the cutting area to ensure that the fluid is
not carried away by the grinding wheel. Common lubricants include water-soluble chemical
fluids, water soluble oils, synthetic oils, and petroleum-based oils. The type of lubrication
used depends on the workpiece material and is outlined in the table below.[3]

Types of lubricants used for grinding based on workpiece material[3]


Workpiece
Lubricant
material
Aluminium Light duty oil
Brass Light duty oil
Cast iron Heavy duty emulsifiable oil, light duty chemical and synthetic oil
Mild steel Heavy duty water-soluble oil
Stainless steel Heavy duty emulsifiable oil, heavy duty chemical and synthetic oil
Water-soluble oil, dry, heavy duty emulsifiable oil, light duty chemical
Plastics
and synthetic oil

[edit] Effects on work material properties


The high temperatures encountered at the ground surface create residual stresses and a thin
martensitic layer may form on the part surface; this decreases the fatigue strength. In
ferromagnetic materials, if the temperature of the surface is raised beyond the Curie
temperature then it may lose some magnetic properties. Finally, the surface may be more
susceptible to corrosion.[4]

[edit] See also


Angle grinder
Bench grinder
Cylindrical grinder
Flick grinder
Grinding (abrasive cutting)
Tool and Cutter grinder
Jig grinder
Centerless grinding

[edit] References
1. ^ Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook (TMEH), 4th edition, Volume 1, Machining.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 1983
2. ^ a b TMEH, Volume 1.
3. ^ a b Todd, Allen & Alting 1994, p. 141.
4. ^ Todd, Allen & Alting 1994, p. 139.

[edit] Bibliography

Todd, Robert H.; Allen, Dell K.; Alting, Leo (1994), Manufacturing Processes
Reference Guide, Industrial Press Inc., ISBN 0-8311-3049-0,
http://books.google.com/?id=6x1smAf_PAcC.

[show]v d e Metalworking
[hide] Machining and computing
2.5D CAD CAM G-code Numerical control (NC
Computer-aided engineering
and CNC) Stewart platform
Die head Drill Drill bit Drill bit shank Drill bit
Drilling and threading sizes Drill and tap size chart Drilling Jig borer Tap
and die Tap wrench Threading
Abrasive Angle grinder Bench grinder Coated
Grinding and lapping
abrasives Cylindrical grinder Diamond plate Flick
grinder Dresser Grinding Grinding machine
Grinding wheel Jig grinder Lapping Sanding
Sharpening stone Spark testing Surface grinder Tool
and cutter grinder
Electrical discharge machining Electrochemical
machining Endmill Engraving Hobbing Lathe
Machining and milling
Machine tool Machining Milling cutter Milling
machine Planer Pantograph Shaper
Angle plate Chuck Collet Jig Fixture Indexing
Machine tooling head Lathe center Machine taper Magnetic base
Mandrel Rotary table Wiggler
Chatter Cutting fluid Speeds and feeds Swarf
Terminology
(chips) Tolerance Tramp oil

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_grinding"


Categories: Grinders | Grinding and lapping

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Metalworking
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Machining a bar of metal on a lathe.

Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or
large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to
precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range
of skills, processes, and tools.

Metalworking is a science, art, hobby, industry and trade. Its historical roots span cultures,
civilizations, and millennia. Metalworking has evolved from the discovery of smelting
various ores, producing malleable and ductile metal useful for tools and adornments. Modern
metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming,
cutting or joining processes. Today's machine shop includes a number of machine tools
capable of creating a precise, useful workpiece.

Contents
[hide]

1 Prehistory
2 History
3 General metalworking processes
4 Forming processes
o 4.1 Casting
o 4.2 Plastic deforming
4.2.1 Sheet metal forming
5 Cutting processes
o 5.1 Machining
o 5.2 Turning
o 5.3 Threading
o 5.4 Grinding
o 5.5 Filing
o 5.6 Other
6 Joining processes
o 6.1 Welding
o 6.2 Brazing
o 6.3 Soldering
o 6.4 Riveting
7 Associated processes
o 7.1 Heat treatment
o 7.2 Plating
o 7.3 Thermal spraying
8 See also
9 References
o 9.1 Bibliography
10 Further reading
11 External links

[edit] Prehistory
Metalworking predates history. No one knows with any certainty where or when
metalworking began. The earliest technologies were impermanent and were unlikely to leave
evidence for long. The advance that brought metal into focus was the connection of fire and
metals. Who accomplished this is as unknown as the when and where, but the Egyptians are
thought to have been one of the first civilizations to work gold.

Not all metal required fire to obtain it or work it. Isaac Asimov speculated that gold was the
"first metal."[1] His reasoning is that gold by its chemistry is found in nature as nuggets of
pure gold. In other words, gold, as rare as it is, is always found in nature as the metal that it
is. There are a few other metals that sometimes occur natively, and as a result of meteors.
Almost all other metals are found in ores, a mineral bearing rock, that require heat or some
other process to liberate the metal. Another feature of gold is that it is workable as it is found,
meaning that no technology beyond eyes to find a nugget and a hammer and an anvil to work
the metal is needed. Stone hammer and stone anvil will suffice for technology. This is the
result of gold's properties of malleability and ductility. The earliest tools were stone, bone,
wood, and sinew. They sufficed to work gold.
At some unknown point the connection between heat and the liberation of metals from rock
became clear, rocks rich in copper, tin, and lead came into demand. These ores were mined
wherever they were recognized. Remnants of such ancient mines have been found all over
what is today the Middle East.[2] Metalworking was being carried out by the South Asian
inhabitants of Mehrgarh between 70003300 BCE.[3] The end of the beginning of
metalworking occurs sometime around 6000 BCE when copper smelting became common in
the Middle East.

The ancients knew of seven metals. Here they are arranged in order of their oxidation
potential:

Iron +0.44,
Tin +0.14
Lead +0.13
Copper -0.34
Mercury -0.79
Silver -0.80
Gold -1.50

The oxidation potential is important because it is one indicator of how tightly bound to the
ore the metal is likely to be. As can be seen, iron is significantly higher than the other six
metals while gold is dramatically lower than the six above it. Gold's low oxidation is one of
the main reasons that gold is found in nuggets. These nuggets are relatively pure gold and are
workable as they are found.

Copper ore, being relatively abundant, and tin ore became the next important players in the
story of metalworking. Using heat to smelt copper from ore, a great deal of copper was
produced. It was used for both jewelry and simple tools. However, copper by itself was too
soft for tools requiring edges and stiffness. At some point tin was added into the molten
copper and bronze was born. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze was an important
advance because it had the edge-durability and stiffness that pure copper lacked. Until the
advent of iron, bronze was the most advanced metal for tools and weapons in common use
(see Bronze Age for more detail).

Looking beyond the Middle East, these same advances and materials were being discovered
and used the world around. China and Britain jumped into the use of bronze with little time
being devoted to copper. Japan began the use of bronze and iron almost simultaneously. In
the Americas things were different. Although the peoples of the Americas knew of metals, it
wasn't until the arrival of Europeans that metal for tools and weapons took off. Jewelry and
art were the principal uses of metals in the Americas prior to European influence.

Around the date 2700 BCE, production of bronze was common in locales where the
necessary materials could be assembled for smelting, heating, and working the metal. Iron
was beginning to be smelted. Iron began its emergence as an important metal for tools and
weapons. The Iron Age was dawning.

[edit] History
See also: History of ferrous metallurgy
A turret lathe operator machining parts for transport planes at the Consolidated Aircraft
Corporation plant, Fort Worth, Texas, USA in the 1940s.

By the historical periods of the Pharaohs in Egypt, the Vedic Kings in India, the Tribes of
Israel, and the Mayan Civilization in North America, among other ancient populations,
precious metals began to have value attached to them. In some cases rules for ownership,
distribution, and trade were created, enforced, and agreed upon by the respective peoples. By
the above periods metalworkers were very skilled at creating objects of adornment, religious
artifacts, and trade instruments of precious metals (non-ferrous), as well as weaponry usually
of ferrous metals and/or alloys. These skills were finely honed and well executed. The
techniques were practiced by artisans, blacksmiths, atharvavedic practitioners, alchemists,
and other categories of metalworkers around the globe. For example, the ancient technique of
granulation is found around the world in numerous ancient cultures before the historic record
shows people traveled seas or overland to far regions of the earth to share this process that
still being used by metalsmiths today.

As time progressed metal objects became more common, and ever more complex. The need
to further acquire and work metals grew in importance. Skills related to extracting metal ores
from the earth began to evolve, and metalsmiths became more knowledgeable. Metalsmiths
became important members of society. Fates and economies of entire civilizations were
greatly affected by the availability of metals and metalsmiths. The metalworker depends on
the extraction of precious metals to make jewelry, build more efficient electronics, and for
industrial and technological applications from construction to shipping containers to rail, and
air transport. Without metals, goods and services would cease to move around the globe on
the scale we know today.

More individuals than ever before are learning metalworking as a creative outlet in the forms
of jewelry making, hobby restoration of aircraft and cars, blacksmithing, tinsmithing,
tinkering, and in other art and craft pursuits. Trade schools continue to teach welding in all of
its forms, and there is a proliferation of schools of Lapidary and Jewelers arts and sciences at
this- the beginning of the 21st Century AD.

[edit] General metalworking processes

A combination square used for transferring designs.


A caliper is used to precisely measure a short length.

Metalworking generally is divided into the following categories, forming, cutting, and,
joining. Each of these categories contain various processes.

Compatibility chart of materials versus processes[4]


Material
Iro Stee Aluminiu Coppe Magnesiu Nicke Refractor Titaniu Zin
Process
n l m r m l y metals m c
Sand
X X X X X X 0
casting
Permanen
t mold X 0 X 0 X 0 0
casting
Die
X 0 X X
casting
Investmen
X X X 0 0
t casting
Closed-die
X 0 0 0 0 0 0
forging
Extrusion 0 X X X 0 0 0
Cold
X X X 0
heading
Stamping
& deep X X X 0 X 0 0
drawing
Screw
0 X X X 0 X 0 0 0
machine
Powder
metallurg X X 0 X 0 X 0
y
Key: X = Routinely performed, 0 = Performed with difficulty, caution, or some sacrifice,
blank = Not recommended

Prior to most operations, the metal must be marked out and/or measured, depending on the
desired finished product.

Marking out (also known as layout) is the process of transferring a design or pattern to a
workpiece and is the first step in the handcraft of metalworking. It is performed in many
industries or hobbies, although in the repetition industries the need to mark out every
individual piece is eliminated. In the metal trades area, marking out consists of transferring
the engineer's plan to the workpiece in preparation for the next step, machining or
manufacture.
Calipers are hand tools designed to precisely measure the distance between two points. Most
calipers have two sets of flat, perpendicular edges used for inner or outer diameter. These
calipers can be accurate to within one-thousandth of an inch (25.4m). Different types of
calipers have different mechanisms for displaying the distance measured. Where larger
objects need to be measured with less precision, a tape measure is often used.

[edit] Forming processes


These forming processes modify metal or workpiece by deforming the object, that is, without
removing any material. Forming is done with heat and pressure, or with mechanical force, or
both.

[edit] Casting

A sand casting mold


Main article: Metal casting

Casting achieves a specific form by pouring molten metal into a mold and allowing it to cool,
with no mechanical force. Forms of casting include:

Investment casting (called lost wax casting in art)


Centrifugal casting
Die casting
Sand casting
Shell casting
Spin casting

[edit] Plastic deforming

A red-hot metal workpiece is inserted into a forging press.


Plastic deformation involves using heat or pressure to make a workpiece more conductive to
mechanical force. Historically, this and casting were done by blacksmiths, though today the
process has been industrialized.

Cold sizing
Extrusion
Forging
Hot metal gas forming
Powder metallurgy
Friction drilling

[edit] Sheet metal forming

A metal spun brass vase


See also: Sheet metal

These types of forming process involve the application of mechanical force at room
temperature.

Bending
Coining
Decambering
Deep drawing
Drawing
Spinning
Flow turning
Raising
Roll forming
Roll bending
Repouss and chasing
Rolling
Rubber pad forming
Shearing
Stamping
Wheeling using an English wheel (wheeling machine)

[edit] Cutting processes


A CNC plasma cutting machining
Main article: Cutting

Cutting is a collection of processes wherein material is brought to a specified geometry by


removing excess material using various kinds of tooling to leave a finished part that meets
specifications. The net result of cutting is two products, the waste or excess material, and the
finished part. If this were a discussion of woodworking, the waste would be sawdust and
excess wood. In cutting metals the waste is chips or swarf and excess metal. These processes
can be divided into chip producing cutting, generally known as machining. Burning or cutting
with an oxyfuel torch is a welding process not machining. There are also miscellaneous
specialty processes such as chemical milling.

Cutting is nearly fully represented by:

Chip producing processes most commonly known as machining


Burning, a set of processes which cut by oxidizing a kerf to separate pieces of metal
Specialty processes

Drilling a hole in a metal part is the most common example of a chip producing process.
Using an oxy-fuel cutting torch to separate a plate of steel into smaller pieces is an example
of burning. Chemical milling is an example of a specialty process that removes excess
material by the use of etching chemicals and masking chemicals.

There are many technologies available to cut metal, including:

Manual technologies: saw, chisel, shear or snips


Machine technologies: turning, milling, drilling, grinding, sawing
Welding/burning technologies: burning by laser, oxy-fuel burning, and plasma
Erosion technologies:by water jet or electric discharge.

Cutting fluid or coolant is used where there is significant friction and heat at the cutting
interface between a cutter such as a drill or an end mill and the workpiece. Coolant is
generally introduced by a spray across the face of the tool and workpiece to decrease friction
and temperature at the cutting tool/workpiece interface to prevent excessive tool wear. In
practice there are many methods of delivering coolant.

[edit] Machining
A milling machine in operation, including coolant hoses.
Main article: Machining

Milling is the complex shaping of metal or other materials by removing material to form the
final shape. It is generally done on a milling machine, a power-driven machine that in its
basic form consists of a milling cutter that rotates about the spindle axis (like a drill), and a
worktable that can move in multiple directions (usually two dimensions [x and y axis]
relative to the workpiece). The spindle usually moves in the z axis. It is possible to raise the
table (where the workpiece rests). Milling machines may be operated manually or under
computer numerical control (CNC), and can perform a vast number of complex operations,
such as slot cutting, planing, drilling and threading, rabbeting, routing, etc. Two common
types of mills are the horizontal mill and vertical mill.

The pieces produced are usually complex 3D objects that are converted into x, y, and z
coordinates that are then fed into the CNC machine and allow it to complete the tasks
required. The milling machine can produce most parts in 3D, but some require the objects to
be rotated around the x, y, or z coordinate axis (depending on the need). Tolerances are
usually in the thousandths of an inch (Unit known as Thou), depending on the specific
machine.

In order to keep both the bit and material cool, a high temperature coolant is used. In most
cases the coolant is sprayed from a hose directly onto the bit and material. This coolant can
either be machine or user controlled, depending on the machine.

Materials that can be milled range from aluminum to stainless steel and most everything in
between. Each material requires a different speed on the milling tool and varies in the amount
of material that can be removed in one pass of the tool. Harder materials are usually milled at
slower speeds with small amounts of material removed. Softer materials vary, but usually are
milled with a high bit speed.

The use of a milling machine adds costs that are factored into the manufacturing process.
Each time the machine is used coolant is also used, which must be periodically added in order
to prevent breaking bits. A milling bit must also be changed as needed in order to prevent
damage to the material. Time is the biggest factor for costs. Complex parts can require hours
to complete, while very simple parts take only minutes. This in turn varies the production
time as well, as each part will require different amounts of time.

Safety is key with these machines. The bits are traveling at high speeds and removing pieces
of usually scalding hot metal. The advantage of having a CNC milling machine is that it
protects the machine operator.

[edit] Turning

A lathe cutting material from a workpiece.


Main article: Turning

Turning is a metal cutting process for producing a cylindrical surface with a single point tool.
The workpiece is rotated on a spindle and the cutting tool is fed into it radially, axially or
both. Producing surfaces perpendicular to the workpiece axis is called facing. Producing
surfaces using both radial and axial feeds is called profiling.[5]

A lathe is a machine tool which spins a block or cylinder of material so that when abrasive,
cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the workpiece, it can be shaped to produce an
object which has rotational symmetry about an axis of rotation. Examples of objects that can
be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders, table legs, bowls, baseball bats,
crankshafts, camshafts, and bearing mounts.

Lathes have three main components: the headstock, the carriage, and the tailstock. The
headstock's spindle secures the workpiece with a chuck, whose jaws (usually three or four)
are tightened around the piece. The spindle rotates at high speed, providing the energy to cut
the material. While historic lathes were powered by belts from the ceiling, modern examples
uses electric motors. The workpiece extends out of the spindle along the axis of rotation
above the flat bed. The carriage is a platform that can be moved, precisely and independently,
horizontally parallel and perpendicular to the axis of rotation. A hardened cutting tool is held
at the desired height (usually the middle of the workpiece) by the toolpost. The carriage is
then moved around the rotating workpiece, and the cutting tool gradually shaves material
from the workpiece. The tailstock can be slid along the axis of rotation and then locked in
place as necessary. It may hold centers to further secure the workpiece, or cutting tools driven
into the end of the workpiece.

Other operation that can be performed with a single point tool on a lathe are:[5]

Chamfering: Cutting an angle on the comer of a cylinder.


Parting: The tool is fed radially into the workpiece to cut off the end of a part.
Threading: A tool is fed along and across the outside or inside surface of rotating parts to
produce external or internal threads.
Boring: A single-point tool is fed linearly and parallel to the axis of rotation.
Drilling: Feeding the drill into the workpiece axially.
Knurling: Produces a regular cross-hatched pattern in work surfaces intended to be gripped
by hand.

Modern computer numerical control (CNC) lathes and (CNC) machining centres can do
secondary operations like milling by using driven tools. When driven tools are used the work
piece stops rotating and the driven tool executes the machining operation with a rotating
cutting tool. The CNC machines use x, y, and z coordinates in order to control the turning
tools and produce the product. Most modern day CNC lathes are able to produce most turned
objects in 3D.

Materials appropriate for turning used are softer metals, although harder metals can be turned
with a bit more time and effort.

The turning tool material must be harder than the material being turned in order for the
process to work. Production rates for this process depend on the object being turned and the
speed at which it can be done. More complex materials, therefore, will take more time.

[edit] Threading
Three different types and sizes of taps.
Main article: Threading (manufacturing)

There are many threading processes including: cutting threads with a tap or die, thread
milling, single-point thread cutting, thread rolling and forming, and thread grinding. A tap is
used to cut a female thread on the inside surface of a pre-drilled hole, while a die cuts a male
thread on a preformed cylindrical rod.

[edit] Grinding

A surface grinder
Main article: Grinding (abrasive cutting)

Grinding uses an abrasive process to remove material from the workpiece. A grinding
machine is a machine tool used for producing very fine finishes, making very light cuts, or
high precision forms using an abrasive wheel as the cutting device. This wheel can be made
up of various sizes and types of stones, diamonds or inorganic materials.

The simplest grinder is a bench grinder or a hand-held angle grinder, for deburring parts or
cutting metal with a zip-disc.

Grinders have increased in size and complexity with advances in time and technology. From
the old days of a manual toolroom grinder sharpening endmills for a production shop, to
today's 30000 RPM CNC auto-loading manufacturing cell producing jet turbines, grinding
processes vary greatly.

Grinders need to be very rigid machines to produce the required finish. Some grinders are
even used to produce glass scales for positioning CNC machine axis. The common rule is the
machines used to produce scales be 10 times more accurate than the machines the parts are
produced for.

In the past grinders were used for finishing operations only because of limitations of tooling.
Modern grinding wheel materials and the use of industrial diamonds or other man-made
coatings (cubic boron nitride) on wheel forms have allowed grinders to achieve excellent
results in production environments instead of being relegated to the back of the shop.

Modern technology has advanced grinding operations to include CNC controls, high material
removal rates with high precision, lending itself well to aerospace applications and high
volume production runs of precision components.

[edit] Filing

Main article: Filing (metalworking)

A file is an abrasive surface like this one that allows machinists to remove small, imprecise
amounts of metal.
Filing is combination of grinding and saw tooth cutting using a file. Prior to the development
of modern machining equipment it provided a relatively accurate means for the production of
small parts, especially those with flat surfaces. The skilled use of a file allowed a machinist to
work to fine tolerances and was the hallmark of the craft. Today filing is rarely used as a
production technique in industry, though it remains as a common method of deburring.

[edit] Other

Broaching is a machining operation used to cut keyways into shafts. Electron beam
machining (EBM) is a machining process where high-velocity electrons are directed toward a
work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material. Ultrasonic machining uses ultrasonic
vibrations to machine very hard or brittle materials.

[edit] Joining processes

Mig welding

[edit] Welding

Main article: Welding

Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by


causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler
material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, but sometimes
pressure is used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld.

Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc,
a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding
can be done in many different environments, including open air, underwater and in space.
Regardless of location, however, welding remains dangerous, and precautions must be taken
to avoid burns, electric shock, poisonous fumes, and overexposure to ultraviolet light.

[edit] Brazing

Main article: Brazing

Brazing is a joining process in which a filler metal is melted and drawn into a capillary
formed by the assembly of two or more work pieces. The filler metal reacts metallurgically
with the workpiece(s) and solidifies in the capillary, forming a strong joint. Unlike welding,
the work piece is not melted. Brazing is similar to soldering, but occurs at temperatures in
excess of 450 C (842 F). Brazing has the advantage of producing less thermal stresses than
welding, and brazed assemblies tend to be more ductile than weldments because alloying
elements can not segregate and precipitate.
Brazing techniques include, flame brazing, resistance brazing, furnace brazing, diffusion
brazing, and inductive brazing.

[edit] Soldering

Main article: Soldering

Soldering a printed circuit board.

Soldering is a joining process that occurs at temperatures below 450 C (842 F). It is similar
to brazing in the fact that a filler is melted and drawn into a capillary to form a join, although
at a lower temperature. Because of this lower temperature and different alloys used as fillers,
the metallurgical reaction between filler and work piece is minimal, resulting in a weaker
joint.

[edit] Riveting

Main article: Rivet

Riveting is one of the most ancient metalwork joining processes. Its use has declined
markedly during the second half of the 20th century, but it still retains important uses in
industry and construction into the 21st century. The earlier use of rivets is being superseded
by improvements in welding and component fabrication techniques.

A rivet is essentially a two-headed and unthreaded bolt which holds two other pieces of metal
together. Holes are drilled or punched through the two pieces of metal to be joined. The holes
being aligned, a rivet is passed through the holes and permanent heads are formed onto the
ends of the rivet utilizing hammers and forming dies (by either coldworking or hotworking).
Rivets are commonly purchased with one head already formed.

When it is necessary to remove rivets, one of the rivet's heads is sheared off with a cold
chisel. The rivet is then driven out with a hammer and punch.

[edit] Associated processes


While these processes are not primary metalworking processes, they are often performed
before or after metalworking processes.

[edit] Heat treatment

Main article: Heat treatment

Metals can be heat treated to alter the properties of strength, ductility, toughness, hardness or
resistance to corrosion. Common heat treatment processes include annealing, precipitation
strengthening, quenching, and tempering. The annealing process softens the metal by
allowing recovery of cold work and grain growth. Quenching can be used to harden alloy
steels, or in precipitation hardenable alloys, to trap dissolved solute atoms in solution.
Tempering will cause the dissolved alloying elements to precipitate, or in the case of
quenched steels, improve impact strength and ductile properties.

Often, mechanical and thermal treatments are combined in what is known as thermo-
mechanical treatments for better properties and more efficient processing of materials. These
processes are common to high alloy special steels, super alloys and titanium alloys.

[edit] Plating

Main article: Plating

Electroplating is a common surface-treatment technique. It involves bonding a thin layer of


another metal such as gold, silver, chromium or zinc to the surface of the product. It is used
to reduce corrosion as well as to improve the product's aesthetic appearance.

[edit] Thermal spraying

Main article: Thermal spraying

Thermal spraying techniques are another popular finishing option, and often have better high
temperature properties than electroplated coatings.

[edit] See also


Metalworking hand tools
National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association
List of manufacturing processes
List of metalworking occupations
Timeline of materials technology

[edit] References
1. ^ Asimov, Isaac: "The Solar System and Back", page 151 ff. Doubleday and Company,Inc.
1969.
2. ^ Percy Knauth et al.: "The Emergence of Man, The Metalsmiths", page 10-11 ff. Time-Life
Books, 1974.
3. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (1996).
4. ^ Degarmo, p. 183.
5. ^ a b Schneider, George. Turning Tools and Operations, American Machinist, January 2010

[edit] Bibliography

Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, Ronald A. (2003), Materials and Processes in
Manufacturing (9th ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0-471-65653-4.

[edit] Further reading


Possehl, Gregory L. (1996). Mehrgarh in Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited
by Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press.

[edit] External links


Metalworking newsgroup on Usenet
Elementary Knowledge of Metalworking
Popular Mechanics' Metalworking Basics (December 2001)
Schneider, George. "Chapter 1: Cutting Tool Materials," American Machinist,
October, 2009
Schneider, George. "Cutting Tool Applications: Chapter 2 Metal Removal Methods,"
American Machinist, November, 2009

[show]v d e Metalworking
[show] Casting

[show] Forming, fabrication, and finishing

[show] Machining and computing

[show] Tools

[show] Welding

[show]v d eDecorative arts, handicrafts, arts and crafts

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High Speed Grinding


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

HSG grinding train RC01 in action

High Speed Grinding (HSG) is a rail care concept developed by the company Stahlberg
Roensch from Seevetal, Germany. It is based on the principle of rotational grinding and
serves to grind rails at up to 100 km/h (62 mph).

Contents
[hide]

1 Background
2 Principle
3 Implementation
4 Application Areas
5 Bibliography
6 External links

[edit] Background
Since roughly the beginning of the 1990s, rail network operators have experienced increasing
problems with rail surface defects. Head checks, squats, corrugation and slip waves all
contribute to higher maintenance costs, intensified noise pollution, traffic obstructions, and
ultimately a shortened rail lifespan. These increasingly common flaws are exacerbated by the
growing density and speed of both freight and passenger traffic. The direct consequence of
these problems is a growing need for rail maintenance.

The principle challenge for modern rail maintenance is the fact that less and less time is
available for it due to the aforementioned higher traffic densities. Accordingly, conventional
rail maintenance machines (e.g. rail milling, planing or grinding) working at speeds from 1 to
10 km/h (0.6 to 6 mph) can only work during possession time (track closure) which is in most
cases only available at night.

HSG was developed in order to cope with these challenges. It allows for working speeds of
up to 100 km/h (62 mph) and thus is deployable within regular traffic. As a normal train run
HSG works between scheduled passenger and/or freight trains.

[edit] Principle
Principle High Speed Grinding

HSG is based on the principle of circumferential grinding. Cylindrical grinding stones are
pulled over the rail at a certain angle, inducing rotation as well as an axial grinding motion.
The grinding stones are mounted on grinding units hauled by a carrier vehicle.

Two things are achieved through the combination of pulling and rotating motion: First, the
required material removal rate is obtained through the relative motion between grinding stone
and rail. Second, by rotating the stones, overheating, glazing and lopsided wear of the
grinding stones is prevented.

The usual grinding speed on Deutsche Bahn's rail network is 80 km/h (50 mph).

[edit] Implementation
Today two machines using HSG technology exist. Both are operated by the company
Stahlberg Roensch. The larger machine RC01 has four grinding units, each carrying 24
grinding stones. A smaller machine using just one grinding unit with 16 grinding stones is
also in use. RC01 is used on main line and high speed tracks of DB Netz AG, while the
smaller version is deployed mostly on commuter and metro rail networks.

[edit] Application Areas


Preventative rail grinding
Low friction coating removal
Acoustic grinding to reduce noise pollution emitted from the rail
Removal of the decarb layer

[edit] Bibliography
Hiensch, M. and Smulders, J.: Head Check Rifortschritt in Schienen,
Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, N. 6 (1999), pages 378-382
Grassie, S: Riffeln Grnde und Gegenmanahmen, Der Eisenbahningenieur, N. 46
(1995), pages 714-723
Lothar Marx, Dietmar Momann, Herrmann Kullmann: Arbeitsverfahren fr die
Instandhaltung des Oberbaus, Eisenbahn-Fachverlag, Heidelberg/Mainz 2003
Zarembski, Allan M.: The Art and Science of Rail Grinding, Simmons-Boardman
Books, Omaha 2005
Lichterberger, Bernhard: Track Compendium Formation, Permanent Way,
Maintenance, Economics, Eurailpress in DVV Media Group, Hamburg 2005
Marcel Taubert, Aiko Pschel: High Speed Grinding passes the test in Germany,
International Railway Journal, July 2009, S. 31-33

[edit] External links


Information on High Speed Grinding from Stahlberg Roensch

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Speed_Grinding"


Categories: Rail infrastructure

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This page was last modified on 16 October 2010 at 06:54.


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additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.
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organization.
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