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Experiment - 1

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Aim: To perform and observe various chemical reactions and classify them as:

1. Combination reaction

2. Decomposition reaction

3. Displacement reaction

4. Double displacement reaction

Theory/ Principle:

a. Action of water on quick lime- when water is added to quick lime a hissing sound
is heard. A combination reaction takes place along with the evolution of heat.

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 + HEAT

b. Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals- on heating ferrous sulphate , a


decomposition reaction takes place .

2FeSO4 Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3

c. Action of iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution- On placing an iron nail in
copper sulphate solution, iron being more reactive than copper ,will displace
copper from its salt solution.

Fe + CuSO4 Cu+ FeSO4

d. Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride - When a solution of


sodium sulphate is mixed with a solution of bariumchloride, the following double
displacement reaction takes place:

Na 2 SO4 (aq) + BaCl 2(aq) BaSO4 (s) + 2NaCl (aq)

Materials required:

Action of water on quick lime: a beaker, water, calcium oxide[ quick lime]

Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals: a test tube, tongs, ferrous sulphate crystals,
Bunsen burner.

Action of iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution:Two test tubes, two iron nails,
measuring cylinder (50 mL), laboratory standwith clamp, test tube stand, thread, a piece of
sand paper, single boredcork, copper sulphate, distilled water, and dil. sulphuric acid,
Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride:2 test tubes, a small measuring
cylinder (50 mL), aqueous solution of sodium sulphate, aqueous solution of barium chloride.

Procedure:

Action of water on quick lime:

Take a small amount of calcium oxide in a beaker. Slowly add water to this. Touch the outer
surface of the beaker. Note down the observation.

Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals:

Take about 2g of ferrous sulphate crystals in a dry boiling tube. Note the colour of the
crystals. Now heat the boiling tube over a Bunsen flame. Note down the observation.

Action of iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution:

Take two iron nails and clean them with a sand paper. Take 20 mL of distilled water in a
clean test tube and dissolve 1.0 g of copper sulphate in it. Add 2 or 3 drops of dil. sulphuric
acid to it to check hydrolysis of CuSO4 in water. Label this test tube as A. Transfer about 10
mL of copper sulphate solution from tube A to another clean test tube. Label this test tube as
B. Tie one iron nail with a thread and immerse it carefully in copper sulphate solution in test
tube B through a bored cork for about 15 minutes. Keep the other iron nail separately for
comparison afterwards. After 15 minutes take out the iron nail from the copper sulphate
solution.

Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride

Take 3 mL of sodium sulphate solution in a test tube and label it as A. In another test
tube, take 3 mL of barium chloride and label it as B.Transfer the solution from test tube A
to the test tube B. Mix the two solutions with gentle shaking. Observe the changes in
colours of the solutions

Observation:

Action of water on quick lime:

Calcium oxide reacts vigorously with water forming calcium hydroxide. The outer surface of
the beaker turns hot.

Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals:


Initially water droplets are seen on the sides of the test tube due to evolution of water of
crystallization. On strong heating the green colour of ferrous sulphate changes and a brown
coloured ferric oxide is formed. Smell of burning match stick can be detected.

Action of iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution:

The blue colour of copper sulphate changes and a pale green solution of ferrous sulphate is
formed. A reddish brown deposit of copper is formed.

Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride:

An instantaneous reaction takes place and a white coloured precipitate of barium sulphate is
formed.

Inference/Conclusion:

Action of water on quick lime:

The reaction is a combination reaction. It is exothermic in nature.

Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals

The reaction is a decomposition reaction.

Action of iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution:

It is a displacement reaction

Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride:

It is a double displacement reaction.

Experiment - 2
pH OF ACIDS AND BASES

Aim: To find pH of the following using pH paper

a. Dilute Hydrochloric acid

b. Dilute NaOH solution

c. Dilute ethanoic acid solution

d. Lemon juice

e. Water

f. Dilute sodium bicarbonate solution.

Theory/ Principle:

A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is called p H scale. On the scale
we can measure p H from very acidic " p H -0" to very alkaline " p H -14". The p H of a neutral
solution is 7. A paper impregnated with the universal indicator is used for measuring p H.

Materials required:

Dil Hydrochloric acid, Dil NaOH solution, Dil Ethanoic acid solution, Lemon juice, Water, Dil
sodium bicarbonate solution, pH paper, 6 droppers.

Procedure:

Take a pH paper and carefully place a drop of dil HCl on the pH paper. Note the change and
compare with the pH chart.

Repeat the procedure using Dil NaOH solution, Dil ethanoic acid solution, Lemon juice, Water,
Dil sodium bicarbonate solution taking care to use a new pH paper each time.

Observation:

Sl . Solution Value for pH


No.

1 Dil. HCl 0

2 Dil. NaOH 13

3 Ethanoic acid 3

4 Lemon juice 2.4


5 Water 7

6 Dil. Sodium bicarbonate 8.4

Inference/Conclusion:

From the values obtained we can infer that

a. Dilute Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

b. Dilute NaOH solution is a strong base.

c. Dilute ethanoic acid solution is a weak acid

d. Lemon juice contains a weak acid

e. Water is neutral.

f. Dilute sodium bicarbonate solution is weakly basic.

Experiment - 3
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES

Aim: To study properties of HCl and NaOH by reaction with

a. litmus paper

b. Zinc Metal.

c. Solid Sodium carbonate

Theory/ Principle:

An acid (HCl)

(i) turns blue litmus red

(ii) reacts with zinc metal to produce hydrogen gas,

2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 + H2

(iii) reacts with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas.

2HCl + Na2CO3 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

A base (NaOH)

(i) turns red litmus blue.

(ii) reacts with zinc metal to produce a complex called sodium zincate.

2 NaOH + Zn Na2ZnO2 + H2

Materials required:

Zn metal granules, dil. hydrochloric acid, sodium carbonate, sodiumhydroxide solution, freshly
prepared lime water, red and blue litmus papers, distilled water, four test tubes, a delivery tube,
single bore cork

to be fixed on a test tube, and a piece of sand paper.

Procedure:

Test with Litmus:

Place a drop of Dil HCl on blue and red litmus paper and observe. Place a drop of Dil NaOH on
blue and red litmus paper and observe.

Reaction with Zinc Metal


Take clean zinc granule in two test tubes A and B.Put about 5 mL of dil. hydrochloric acid
intotest tube A and dil NaOH in test tube B. Observe the changes.

Reaction with sodium carbonate

Take about 1 g of sodium carbonate in a clean and dry test tube. Add about 2 mL of dil.
hydrochloric

acid to it.

Observation:

Test with Litmus:

HCl turns blue litmus red. NaOH turns red litmus blue .

Reaction with Zinc Metal

HCl reacts with zinc forming a soluble substance. A gas Is evolved which makes a pop sound
when a burning matchstick is brought near it.

NaOH produces a soluble substance called sodium zincate. A gas Is evolved which makes a pop
sound when a burning matchstick is brought near it.

Reaction with sodium carbonate

HCl reacts with sodium carbonate producing effervescence.

Inference/Conclusion:

HCl is an acid which turns blue litmus red, reacts with metal Zn to produce the corresponding
salt and hydrogen gas; reacts with carbonate producing the salt, water and carbon dioxide gas.

NaOH is a base which turns red litmus blue; it reacts with metal zinc to form a complex along
with the evolution of hydrogen.
Experiment 4

REACTIVITY OF METALS

Aim: To study the interaction of metals such as zinc, iron, copper, aluminum with their salt
solutions and to arrange them according to their reactivity

Theory/ Principle:

Different metals have different reactivities towards chemical reagents. Some metals are more
reactive than others. The metals, which can lose electrons more readily to form positive ions are
more reactive. Displacement reactions can be used to find out the relative reactivities of metals.
A more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from its salt solution.

Materials required:

Metals such as zinc, copper, iron, and Aluminium solutions like zinc sulphate; copper (II)
sulphate; iron (II) sulphate; and aluminium sulphate, distilled water,4 beakers, 4 test tubes, test
tube stand.

Procedure:

Prepare solutions of zinc sulphate; copper (II) sulphate; iron (II) sulphate; and aluminium
sulphate using distilled water and place them in the four beakers labelled A,B,C and D
respectively. Place four test tubes labelled A,B,C and D on the test tube stand and pour 5mL of
the corresponding prepared solution into them. Put a piece of Zn metal in each of the test tubes
and note the observation.

Repeat the above experiment using copper metal, iron and aluminium and keeping a note in each
case.

Observation:

Metal ZnSO4 CuSO4 FeSO4 Al2(SO4)3

Zn No change Blue solution Green solution No noticeable


turns colourless turns colourless change.

Red ppt Black ppt

Cu No noticeable change. No noticeable No noticeable No noticeable


change. change. change.

Fe No noticeable change. Blue solution No noticeable No noticeable


turns green. change. change.
Red ppt

Al The solution remains Blue solution Green solution No noticeable


colourless. turns colourless turns colourless change.

A grey ppt formed. Red ppt Black ppt

Inference/Conclusion:

From the displacement reactions we come to the conclusion that the reactivity of the metals will
be in the following order:

Al> Zn>Fe> Cu.