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# Mechanics of Fluid AC110

## Hydrodynamics (Fluid In Motion)

Accelerating Containers
The expression for the angle :

=

## Linearly Accelerating Container

Example:

A drag racer rests his coffee mug on a horizontal tray while he accelerates at

7 2 . The mug is 10 deep and 6 cm in diameter and contains coffee

7 deep at rest. a) Assuming rigid body acceleration of the coffee,
determine whether it will spill out of the mug. b) Calculate the gage pressure

in the corner at point if the density of coffee is 1010 3 .

=7
2

Ans. a) Since = 2.14 < 3 , so the coffee will not spill. b) 905.6 .
Rotating Containers

The volume of the paraboloid is one-half the base area times its height, the still-
water level is exactly halfway between the high and low points of the free
2 2
surface. The center of the fluid drops an amount = , and the edges rise
2 4
an equal amount.

2 2
=
2

## Rotating cylinder at an angular velocity

Example:

The coffee cup of the previous example is removed from the drag racer, placed
on a turntable, and rotated about its central axis until a rigid-body occurs. Find
a) the angular velocity which will cause the coffee to just reach the lip of the
cup and b) the gage pressure at point for this condition.

Ans. a) 36.17 b) 990.81

Exercises:

1. The tank of liquid shown accelerates to the right with the fluid in rigid-

body motion. a) Compute in 2 . b) Determine the gage pressure at

point A if the fluid is oil with specific gravity of 0.8.

2. For what uniform rotation rate about axis C will the U-tube take the
configuration shown?

Ans. 14.47 .

Continuous or Steady Fluid Flow

Fluid Flow or Discharge (): When a fluid that fills a pipe flows through
the pipe with an average velocity , the flow or discharge is

= = =

## where is the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The units of are / in

the SI and / in English units.
Sometimes is called the rate of flow or the discharge rate.

## Continuity Equation: Suppose an incompressible (constant-density) fluid

fills a pipe and flows through it. Suppose further that the cross-sectional are
of the pipe is 1 at one point and 2 at another. Since the flow through 2 ,
one has
2
= = = 1

where 1 and 2 are the velocities over 1 and 2 , respectively.
Example:

## 1. Water flows steadily through a nozzle as shown below at 0.06 3 /. The

diameters are 200 and 75 . Compute the average velocities at
sections 1 and 2.
Ans. 1.91 /, 13.58 /
Bernoullis Equation for the steady flow of a continuous stream of fluid:
Consider two different points along the stream path. Let point 1 be at a height
, and let and be the fluid velocity and pressure at that point. Similarly
define , , and for point 2. Then, provided the fluid is incompressible
and has negligible viscosity (negligible friction loss),

1 2 2 2
1 + + 1 = 2 + + 2
2 2
or dividing all terms by = ,

2
+ + = + +
1
2
2
1
where: = pressure head,

1
= velocity head, and

= elevation head. 1 2

datum
Daniel Bernoulli; Swiss,
8 February 1700 17 March 1782)
was a Swiss mathematician and
physicist and was one of the many
prominent mathematicians in the
Bernoulli family. He is particularly
remembered for his applications of
mathematics to mechanics, especially
fluid mechanics, and for his
pioneering work in probability and
statistics. His name is
commemorated in the Bernoulli's
principle, a particular example of the
conservation of energy, which
describes the mathematics of the
mechanism underlying the operation
of two important technologies of the
20th century: the carburetor and the
airplane wing.
Example:

The flow rate in a pipe is determined by using the Venturi meter shown. Using
the information given and = 4 , calculate the flow rate assuming uniform
flow and no losses.
Ans. 2.7103 3 /

## Venturi meter - a flow measurement instruments which is use to determine

the differential pressure of a converging section of pipe.
Torricellis Theorem: Suppose that a tank contains liquid and is open to the
atmosphere at its top. If an orifice (opening) exists in the tank at a distance
below the top of the liquid, then the velocity of outflow from the orifice is
, provided the liquid obeys Bernoullis equation and the top of the liquid
may be regarded as motionless.

=
Evangelista Torricelli ; 16081647)
was an Italian physicist and mathematician,
best known for his invention of the barometer,
but is also known for his advances in optics and
work on the method of Indivisibles.
Example:

Water flows from a steady water surface tank with elevation 15 m out of a pipe
that has a 2 cm diameter nozzle attached to the end as shown below. Neglecting
head losses, estimate the flow rate of water through the pipe. The nozzle is at an
elevation of 10 m.
Ans. 0.0031 3 /
Elev. 15 m

Elev. 10 m
Exercises:

## 1. Oil flows through a pipe 8 cm in diameter, at an average velocity of 4 /.

What is the flow Q in 3 /?

## 2. A 14 inner diameter water main furnishes water (through intermediate

pipes) to a 1 inner diameter faucet. If the water velocity in the faucet is
3 /, what will be the average velocity it causes in the water main in
/?

3. What volume of water will escape per minute from an open-top tank through
an opening 3 cm in diameter that is 5 m below the water level in the tank as
shown?
4. A horizontal pipe has a constriction in it, as shown. At point 1 the diameter is
6 cm, while at point 2 it is only 2 cm. At point 1, 1 = 2 / and 1 =
180 . Calculate 2 and 2 .

## 5. The pipe shown below has a diameter of 16 cm at section 1 and 10 cm at

section 2. At section 1 the pressure is 200 . Point 2 is 6 m higher than
point 1. When oil of density 800 /3 flows at a rate of 0.03 3 /, find
the pressure at point 2 if viscous effects are negligible.
Head Loss due to Friction

## Major friction losses for pipes:

=

where = = (Laminar flow)

or refer to Moody chart for Turbulent flow
=
=
2
= For all other minor frictional losses other
2
= than the pipe:
Laminar flow - when Re 2000
Turbulent flow- when Re > 2000
=

where if the minor loss coefficient
=

where =
=
Minor Loss Coefficients for Selected Devices
In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number
() is a dimensionless quantity that is
used to help predict similar flow patterns
in different fluid flow situations. The
concept was introduced by George Gabriel
Stokes in 1851, but the Reynolds number
is named after Osborne Reynolds (1842
1912), who popularized its use in 1883.
The Moody Chart
Examples:

a) Estimate the pipe frictional head loss in a 100 m long galvanized iron pipe
with 10 cm diameter, if the flow rate of water or discharge is 0.01 3 / and
the kinetic viscosity is at 1106 2 /.
b) What will be the minor losses if two gate valves(fully open), two standard
elbows and a rounded entrance as part of the system?
Ans. a) 0.022, = 1.8 b) = 0.12
POWER AND ENERGY

Energy Equation

Bernoullis Equation becomes:

+ + + = + + + +

Power Formula
Power output, =

Pumps
Power requirement of a pump is given by the expression

=

where is the flow rate, = is the efficiency of the pump,

and is the head to be added by the pump.
Turbines

Examples:

## 1. Water enters a pump through a 50 diameter pipe at 35 . It leaves the

pump at 140 through a 25 diameter pipe. If the flow rate is
15 , a) compute the velocity of discharge pipe, b) compute
the energy head added by the pump, and c) find the horsepower delivered by
the pump. Assume suction and discharge sides of pump are at the same
elevation.
Ans. a) 30.56 /, b) 55.33 , c) 10.91

1 2

50 25
2. During a flow of 500 /, the gage pressure is 70 in the
horizontal 300 supply line of a water turbine and a 40 at
450 section of the draft tube 2 below. Estimate the horsepower
output of the turbine under such conditions assuming efficiency of 85%.
Ans. 121.7

300
2
450