Sie sind auf Seite 1von 91

Skeletal

System: Bones
and Joints

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Skeletal System
Functions
1. Support
2. Protect
3. Movement
4. Storage
5. Blood cell production

2
Components of Skeletal System
Bone

Cartilage:
reduce friction and model for bone formation

Tendons:
attach bone to muscle

Ligaments:
attach bone to bone
3
Background Information
Bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments are
connective tissues.

Proteoglycans:
- large polysaccharides attached to proteins
- part of ground substance
- store water

4
Bones extracellular matrix is collagen and
minerals (flexible and able to bear weight)
collagen flexible strength of the bone
minerals- bone compression strength
HYDROXYAPATITE- minerals in the bone in the form of
calcium phosphate

Cartilages extracellular matrix is collagen and


proteoglycans (good shock absorber)
Collagen tough ; Proteoglycans- smooth and resilient

Tendons and ligaments extracellular matrix is


collagen (very tough)

5
Classification of Bones
Based on shape:
long, short, flat, irregular

Type of bone tissue:


compact and spongy (cancellous)

7
Bone Shapes
Long:
- Ex. Femur, tibia, fibula
Short:
Ex. Carpals, tarsals,
phalanges
Flat:
Ex. Ribs, sternum, skull
Irregular:
Ex. Vertebrae and facial

8
Long Bone Structures
Diaphysis:
Central shaft
compact bone
tissue (on outside)
Epiphysis:
ends
spongy bone tissue
Articular cartilage:
- covers epiphyses
- reduces friction

9
Epiphyseal plate:
site of growth
between diaphysis
and epiphysis

Medullary cavity:
center of
diaphysis
red or yellow
marrow
Periosteum:
membrane around
bones outer surface

Endosteum:
membrane that lines
medullary cavity

11
Compact Bone Tissue
Location:
outer part of diaphysis (long
bones) and thinner surfaces
of other bones
Osteon:
- structural unit of compact
bone
- includes lamella, lacunae,
canaliculus, central canal,
osteocytes
Lamella:
-rings of bone matrix (EM) 12
Lacunae:
spaces between lamella

Canaliculus:
- tiny canals
- transport nutrients
- remove waste

Central canal:
- center of osteon
- contains blood vessels

13
Figure 6.3b
Spongy Bone Tissue
Cancellous bone
Location: epiphyses of long bones and center of other bones
Trabeculae: interconnecting rods, spaces contain marrow
No osteons

15
Bone Cells
Osteocytes:
maintain bone matrix

Osteoblasts:
build bone

Osteoclasts:
carve bone

16
Bone Formation
Ossification:
process of bone formation

Osteoblasts role:
- build bone
- after an osteoblast becomes surrounded by
bone matrix it becomes an osteocyte

17
18
Ossification center:
where bone formation begins

Primary ossification center:


- where bone 1st begins to appear
- forms diaphyses

Secondary ossification center:


forms epiphyses

19
Intramembranous Ossification
Bone formation within connective tissue
membranes

Osteoblasts build bone

Ex. Skull bones

20
Endochondral Ossification
Bone formation inside cartilage

Cartilage models are replaced by bone

Ex. All bones (except skull)

22
Steps in Endochondral Ossification
1. Chondroblasts build a cartilage model, the
chrondroblasts become chondrocytes.

2. Cartilage model calcifies (hardens).

3. Osteoblasts invade calcified cartilage and a


primary ossification center forms diaphysis.

4. Secondary ossification centers form epiphysis.

5. Original cartilage model is almost completely


ossified and remaining cartilage is articular
cartilage.
23
25
Bone Growth
Infancy and youth:
- long bones lengthen at epiphyseal plate
- long bones widen by adding more lamella

End of bone growth (in length):


epiphyseal plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line

26
28
Bone Remodeling
What is it?
- removal of existing bone by osteoclasts and
deposition of new bone by osteoblasts
- occurs in all bones
- responsible for changes in bone shape, bone
repair, adjustment of bone to stress, and
calcium ion regulation

29
Bone Repair
1. Broken bone causes bleeding and a blood clot forms.

2. Callus forms which is a fibrous network between 2


fragments.

3. Cartilage model forms first then, osteoblasts enter


the callus and form cancellous bone this continues for
4-6 weeks after injury.

4. Cancellous bone is slowly remodeled to form compact


and cancellous bone.

30
Bone and Calcium Homeostasis
Bone is a major storage site for calcium
Movement of calcium in and out of bone helps
determine blood levels of calcium
Calcium moves into bone as osteoblasts build new
bone
Calcium move out of bone as osteoclasts break
down bone
Calcium homeostasis is maintained by
parathyroid hormone (PTH) parathyroid -LOW
Vitamin D from the skin or diet -LOW
Calcitonin thyroid - HIGH

32
Hematopoietic Tissue
What is it?
tissue that makes blood cells

Red marrow:
location of blood forming cells

Yellow marrow:
mostly fat

34
Location of hematopoietic tissue in newborns:
most bones (red marrow)

Location of hematopoietic tissue in adults:


- red is replaced with yellow marrow
- red marrow is mainly in epiphyses of femur
and humerus

35
36
Bone Anatomy
Foramen:
- hole
- Ex. Foramen magnum
Meatus:
- canal-like passageway
- Ex. External auditory meatus
Fossa:
- depression
- Ex. Glenoid fossa

37
Tubercle:
- lump of bone
- Ex. Greater tubercle

Process:
- projection
- Ex. Mastoid process

Condyle:
- smooth, rounded end
- Ex. Occipital condyle

38
SKULL
22 bones
Braincase 8 bones
Facial Bones 14 bones
Axial Skeleton
Mastoid process:
attached to neck muscles

External auditory meatus:


ear canal

Nasolacrimal canal:
canal between nasal cavity and eye
conducts tears

41
Styloid process:
attachment site for tongue

Mandibular fossa:
depression where lower jaw and skull meet

Glenoid fossa:
where humerus meets scapula

42
Hard palate:
roof of mouth

Foramen magnum:
hole where spinal cord joins brainstem

Zygomatic:
cheek bone

Mandible:
lower jaw

Maxilla:
upper jaw

43
Frontal View
Orbits
Eyes rotate within it
Superior and inferior orbital fissures
Blood vessels communicate with the orbit
Optic foramen
Optic nerve for vision
Nasolacraminal canal
Passes from the orbit to the nasal cavity
Lacrimal bone
Seen in the orbit just above the opening of the canal
Nasal Cavity
Right and Left halves divided by
Nasal septum
Vomer bony part
Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
Nasal bones
Nose bridge
Nasal conchae
Increase surface area in the nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses
Open into the nasal cavity
Resonating chambers during voice production
Mastoid air cells
Auditory tube that connects the middle ear to the
nasopharynx
Foramen magnum
Spinal cord joins the brain

Sella turcica
Contains the pituitary gland
Occipital condyles
Smooth points of articulation between skull and
vertebral column
Styloid processes
Inferior surface of the temporal bone
Muscles involved in moving the tongue, hyoid bone and
pharynx
Mandibular fossa
Mandle articulates with temporal bone

Hard palate
Floor of nasal cavity and roof of mouth
Palatine bone
1/3 of the hard palate

Soft palate
Connective tissues and muscles
HYOID BONE
Unpaired, U-shaped bone
Not part of skull
Muscle and ligaments
attached it to skull
Attachment to tongue
muscles and neck muscles
that elevate the larynx
during speech or
swallowing.
Vertebral Column
7 cervical vertebra
12 thoracic vertebra
5 lumbar vertebra
1 sacrum
1 coccyx
Atlas:
- 1st vertebra
- holds head
- nod (YES) tilting (side to side)
Axis:
- 2nd vertebra
- rotates head ; (NO)
-DENZ process of rotation
52
General Plan of the Vertebrae
Abnormal Vertebral Curvatures
Kyphosis
Abnormal posterior curvature of the spine,
Thoracic region
Hunchback condition
Lordosis
Abnormal anterior curvature of the spine
Lumbar region
Swayback condition
Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine
Functions of Vertebral Column
1. Support the weight of head and trunk

2. Protect spinal cord

3. Allow spinal nerve to exit the spinal cord

4. Site for muscle attachment

5. Movement of head and trunk


57
Thoracic Cage
Protects vital organs
Prevent the collapse of thorax during respiration
12 pair of ribs

True ribs:
1-7 attach directly to sternum by coastal cartilage
False ribs:
8-12 attach indirectly to sternum by cartilage
8-10 attach to sternum by common cartilage
Floating ribs:
11 and 12 - not attached to sternum
58
Sternum:
breastbone

Divided into 3 parts

Manubrium forms the handle


Body blade - CPR
Xiphoid tip

Jugular notch end of clavicle articulation to


sternum
Sternal angle- identifies on the location of 2nd ribs
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral Girdle
Scapula:
shoulder blade

Clavicle:
collar bone

63
Upper Limb Bones
Humerus:
upper limb
Ulna:
forearm
Radius:
forearm
Carpals:
wrist
Metacarpals:
hand
65
Pelvic Girdle
Where lower limbs attach to body
Pelvis:
includes pelvic girdle and coccyx
Ischium:
inferior and posterior region
Ilium:
most superior region
Acetabulum:
hip socket (joint)
Obturator forames:
large hole in each coxal bone that is closed off by
muscles and other structures
70
Lower Limb Bones
Femur:
thigh
Patella:
knee cap
Tibia:
large lower leg
Fibula:
small lower leg
Tarsals:
ankle
Metatarsals:
foot
Phalanges:
toes and fingers
74
Articulations / JOINT
where 2 bones come together
Considered movable

Based on the degree of motion:


Synarthrosis:
- nonmovable joint
- Ex. skull
Amphiarthrosis:
- slightly movable joint
- Ex. Between vertebrae
Diarthrosis:
- freely movable joint
- Ex. knee, elbow, wrist 78
Fibrous Joints
Consist of 2 bones that are united by fibrous
tissue and exhibit little or no movement.

Based on Structure
Sutures- bones of the skull
Fontanels - fetus
Syndesmoses held together by ligaments
Ex. Radius and Ulna
Gomphoses pegs fitted into sockets and held
in place by ligaments.
Ex. Joint between tooth and its socket
Cartilaginous Joint

Unite 2 bones by means of cartilage

Fibrocartilage
Additional collagen fiber
Forms joints such as intervertebral disks
Synovial Joint
Freely movable joints that contain fluid in a cavity
surrounding the ends of articulating bones.

Types of Synovial Joints


Plane Joints gliding joints
2 opposed flat surfaces that glide over each other
Saddle Joints
2 saddle shaped articulating surfaces oriented at right
angles to each other.
Hinge Joints
Movement in one plane only
Pivot Joint
rotation around a single axis
Ball and Socket Joint
Wide range of movement in any direction
Types of Movement
Flexion: bending
Extension: straightening
Abduction: movement away from midline
Adduction: movement toward the midline
Pronation: rotation of the forearm with palms
down
Supination: rotation of the forearm with palms
up
Rotation: movement of a structure about the
long axis
Circumduction: freely movable joints
82
Other movements
Protraction
Movement in which a structure glides anteriorly
Retraction
Structure glides posteriorly
Elevation
Movement of structure in a superior direction
Depression
Inferior direction
Excursion
Movement of structure to one side
Opposition
Unique to thumb and little finger brought towards the palm
Reposition
Returns the digits to anatomical position
Sprain
Joints are forcefully pulled apart and ligaments
around the joint are pulled or torn

Separation
Bones remain apart after injury to a joint

Dislocation
End of one bone is pulled out of the socket in a
ball and socket, ellipsoid or pivot joint.

Hyperextension
Abnormal, forced extension of a joint beyond its
normal range of motion.
Effects of Aging on
the Skeletal System
and Joints
Bone matrix becomes more brittle- less collagen fibers and
mineral

Decrease in bone matrix rate of osteoblasts decreases

Bone fractures

Loss of bone from jaws can lead to tooth loss

Production of synovial fluid declines

Arthritis inflammatory degeneration of joints

Tendons and Ligaments shorten and become less flexible


decreased range of motion

Joints are less flexible


Osteoporosis
Loss of bone matrix
This makes bone porous and weakened that
they become deformed and prone to fracture
Preventive measures
Combination of increasing physical activity

Take dietary calcium and Vitamin D supplements.

Intensive exercise can reverse the loss of bone


matrix

Calcitonin and Alendronate