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Kinetic Energy:

Consider a baseball flying through the air. The ball is said to have "kinetic
energy" by virtue of the fact that its in motion relative to the ground. You
can see that it is has energy because it can do "work" on an object on the
ground if it collides with it (either by pushing on it and/or damaging it
during the collision).

The formula for Kinetic energy, and for some of the other forms of energy
described in this section will, is given in a later section of this primer.

Potential Energy:

Consider a book sitting on a table. The book is said to have "potential


energy" because if it is nudged off, gravity will accelerate the book,
giving the book kinetic energy. Because the Earth's gravity is necessary to
create this kinetic energy, and because this gravity depends on the Earth
being present, we say that the "Earth-book system" is what really possesses
this potential energy, and that this energy is converted into kinetic energy
as the book falls.

Thermal, or heat energy:

Consider a hot cup of coffee. The coffee is said to possess "thermal


energy", or "heat energy" which is really the collective, microscopic,
kinetic and potential energy of the molecules in the coffee (the
molecules have kinetic energy because they are moving and vibrating,
and they have potential energy due their mutual attraction for one
another - much the same way that the book and the Earth have potential
energy because they attract each other). Temperature is really a measure
of how much thermal energy something has. The higher the temperature,
the faster the molecules are moving around and/or vibrating, i.e. the more
kinetic and potential energy the molecules have.

Chemical Energy:
Consider the ability of your body to do work. The glucose (blood sugar) in
your body is said to have "chemical energy" because the glucose releases
energy when chemically reacted (combusted) with oxygen. Your muscles
use this energy to generate mechanical force and also heat. Chemical
energy is really a form of microscopic potential energy, which exists
because of the electric and magnetic forces of attraction exerted between
the different parts of each molecule - the same attractive forces involved in
thermal vibrations. These parts get rearranged in chemical reactions,
releasing or adding to this potential energy.

Electrical Energy

All matter is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of smaller particles,
called protons (which have positive charge), neutrons (which have neutral
charge), and electrons (which are negatively charged). Electrons orbit
around the center, or nucleus, of atoms, just like the moon orbits the earth.
The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons.

Some material, particularly metals, have certain electrons that are


only loosely attached to their atoms. They can easily be made to move
from one atom to another if an electric field is applied to them. When
those electrons move among the atoms of matter, a current of electricity
is created.

This is what happens in a piece of wire when an electric field,


or voltage, is applied. The electrons pass from atom to atom, pushed by
the electric field and by each other (they repel each other because like
charges repel), thus creating the electrical current. The measure of how
well something conducts electricity is called its conductivity, and the
reciprocal of conductivity is called the resistance. Copper is used for
many wires because it has a lower resistance than many other metals and is
easy to use and obtain. Most of the wires in your house are made of copper.
Some older homes still use aluminum wiring.

The energy is really transferred by the chain of repulsive interactions


between the electrons down the wire - not by the transfer of electrons
per se. This is just like the way that water molecules can push on each
other and transmit pressure (or force) through a pipe carrying water. At
points where a strong resistance is encountered, its harder for the
electrons to flow - this creates a "back pressure" in a sense back to the
source. This back pressure is what really transmits the energy from
whatever is pushing the electrons through the wire. Of course, this
applied "pressure" is the "voltage".

As the electrons move through a "resistor" in the circuit, they interact


with the atoms in the resistor very strongly, causing the resistor to heat
up - hence delivering energy in the form of heat. Or, if the electrons are
moving instead through the wound coils of a motor, they instead create a
magnetic field, which interacts with other magnets in the motor, and
hence turns the motor. In this case the "back pressure" on the electrons,
which is necessary for there to be a transfer of energy from the applied
voltage to the motor's shaft, is created by the magnetic fields of the
other magnets (back) acting on the electrons - a perfect push-pull
arrangement!

Electrochemical Energy:

Consider the energy stored in a battery. Like the example above


involving blood sugar, the battery also stores energy in a chemical way.
But electricity is also involved, so we say that the battery stores energy
"electro-chemically". Another electron chemical device is a "fuel-cell".

Electromagnetic Energy (light):

Consider the energy transmitted to the Earth from the Sun by light (or by
any source of light). Light, which is also called "electro-magnetic
radiation". Why the fancy term? Because light really can be thought of as
oscillating, coupled electric and magnetic fields that travel freely
through space (without there having to be charged particles of some kind
around).

It turns out that light may also be thought of as little packets of energy
called photons (that is, as particles, instead of waves). The word
"photon" derives from the word "photo", which means "light". Photons are
created when electrons jump to lower energy levels in atoms, and absorbed
when electrons jump to higher levels. Photons are also created when a
charged particle, such as an electron or proton, is accelerated, as for
example happens in a radio transmitter antenna.
But because light can also be described as waves, in addition to being a
packet of energy, each photon also has a specific frequency and wavelength
associated with it, which depends on how much energy the photon has
(because of this weird duality - waves and particles at the same time -
people sometimes call particles like photons "wavicles"). The lower the
energy, the longer the wavelength and lower the frequency, and vice versa.
The reason that sunlight can hurt your skin or your eyes is because it
contains "ultraviolet light", which consists of high energy photons. These
photons have short wavelength and high frequency, and pack enough
energy in each photon to cause physical damage to your skin if they get past
the outer layer of skin or the lens in your eye.Radio waves, and the radiant
heat you feel at a distance from a campfire, for example, are also forms of
electro-magnetic radiation, or light, except that they consist of low energy
photons (long wavelength and high frequencies - in the infrared band and
lower) that your eyes can't perceive. This was a great discovery of the
nineteenth century - that radio waves, x-rays, and gamma-rays, are just
forms of light, and that light is electro-magnetic waves

Sound Energy:

Sound waves are compression waves associated with the potential and
kinetic energy of air molecules. When an object moves quickly, for example
the head of drum, it compresses the air nearby, giving that air potential
energy. That air then expands, transforming the potential energy into
kinetic energy (moving air). The moving air then pushes on and compresses
other air, and so on down the chain. A nice way to think of sound waves is as
"shimmering air".

Nuclear Energy:

The Sun, nuclear reactors, and the interior of the Earth, all have
"nuclear reactions" as the source of their energy, that is, reactions that
involve changes in the structure of the nuclei of atoms. In the Sun,
hydrogen nuclei fuse (combine) together to make helium nuclei, in a process
called fusion, which releases energy. In a nuclear reactor, or in the interior
of the Earth, Uranium nuclei (and certain other heavy elements in the
Earth's interior) split apart, in a process called fission. If this didn't happen,
the Earth's interior would have long gone cold! The energy released by
fission and fusion is not just a product of the potential energy released by
rearranging the nuclei. In fact, in both cases, fusion or fission, some of
the matter making up the nuclei is actually converted into energy. How
can this be? The answer is that matter itself is a form of energy! This
concept involves one of the most famous formula's in physics, the formula,
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas,
composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the
sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.[1]

Contents
[hide]

1 Propagation of sound

2 Perception of sound

3 Physics of sound

o 3.1 Longitudinal and transverse waves

o 3.2 Sound wave properties and characteristics

o 3.3 Speed of sound

o 3.4 Acoustics

o 3.5 Noise

4 Sound pressure level

5 Equipment for dealing with sound

6 Sound measurement

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

Propagation of sound

Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through compressible media such as air or
water. (Sound can propagate through solids as well, but there are additional modes of propagation).
During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.[2]

The behavior of sound propagation is generally affected by three things:

A relationship between density and pressure. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines
the speed of sound within the medium.
The propagation is also affected by the motion of the medium itself. For example, sound moving
through wind. Independent of the motion of sound through the medium, if the medium is moving, the
sound is further transported.
The viscosity of the medium also affects the motion of sound waves. It determines the rate at which
sound is attenuated. For many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible.
When sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, it may be
refracted (either dispersed or focused).[2]

Perception of sound
The perception of sound in any organism is limited to a certain range of frequencies. For humans, hearing
is normally limited to frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20kHz)[3], although these limits
are not definite. The upper limit generally decreases with age. Other species have a different range of
hearing. For example, dogs can perceive vibrations higher than 20 kHz, but are deaf to anything below
40 Hz. As a signal perceived by one of the major senses, sound is used by many species for detecting
danger, navigation,predation, and communication. Earth's atmosphere, water, and virtually any physical
phenomenon, such as fire, rain, wind, surf, or earthquake, produces (and is characterized by) its unique
sounds. Many species, such as frogs, birds, marine and terrestrial mammals, have also developed
special organs to produce sound. In some species, these produce song andspeech.
Furthermore, humans have developed culture and technology (such as music, telephone and radio) that
allows them to generate, record, transmit, and broadcast sound. The scientific study of human sound
perception is known as psychoacoustics.

Physics of sound
The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound are able to travel through all forms of
matter: gases, liquids, solids, and plasmas. The matter that supports the sound is called
the medium. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Longitudinal and transverse
waves

Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies; the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. The horizontal axis
represents time.

Sound is transmitted through gases, plasma, and liquids as longitudinal waves, also
called compression waves. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as both longitudinal waves
and transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternatingpressure deviations from
the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse
waves (in solids) are waves of alternatingshear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation.
Matter in the medium is periodically displaced by a sound wave, and thus oscillates. The energy carried
by the sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression (in
case of longitudinal waves) or lateral displacement strain (in case of transverse waves) of the matter and
the kinetic energy of the oscillations of the medium.

Sound wave properties and characteristics


Sound waves are often simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are
characterized by these generic properties:

Frequency, or its inverse, the period


Wavelength
Wavenumber
Amplitude
Sound pressure
Sound intensity
Speed of sound
Direction

Sometimes speed and direction are combined as a velocity vector; wavenumber and direction are
combined as a wave vector.

Transverse waves, also known as shear waves, have the additional property, polarization, and are not a
characteristic of sound waves.

Speed of sound
Most kinds of waves are transverse waves. In a transverse wave, as the wave is moving in one direction, it is
creating a disturbance in a different direction. The most familiar example of this is waves on the surface of water. As
the wave travels in one direction - say south - it is creating an up-and-down (not north-and-south) motion on the
water's surface. This kind of wave is very easy to draw; a line going from left-to-right has up-and-down wiggles. So
most diagrams of waves - even of sound waves - are pictures of transverse waves.

But sound waves are not transverse. Sound waves are longitudinal waves. If sound waves are moving south, the
disturbance that they are creating is making the air molecules vibrate north-and-south (not east-and-west, or up-
and-down. This is very difficult to show clearly in a diagram, so most diagrams, even diagrams of sound waves, show
transverse waves.

Absorption
Main articles: Absorption (acoustics) and Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

[edit]Reflection
Main article: Reflection (physics)

When a wave strikes a reflective surface, it changes direction, such that the angle made by
the incident wave and line normal to the surface equals the angle made by the reflected wave and the
same normal line.

[edit]Interference
Main article: Interference (wave propagation)

Waves that encounter each other combine through superposition to create a new wave called
an interference pattern. Important interference patterns occur for waves that are in phase.

[edit]Refraction
Main article: Refraction

Sinusoidal traveling plane wave entering a region of lower wave velocity at an angle, illustrating the decrease in wavelength
and change of direction (refraction) that results.

Refraction is the phenomenon of a wave changing its speed. Mathematically, this means that the
size of the phase velocity changes. Typically, refraction occurs when a wave passes from
one medium into another. The amount by which a wave is refracted by a material is given by
the refractive index of the material. The directions of incidence and refraction are related to the
refractive indices of the two materials by Snell's law. Diffraction

Main article: Diffraction


A wave exhibits diffraction when it encounters an obstacle that bends the
wave or when it spreads after emerging from an opening. Diffraction
effects are more pronounced when the size of the obstacle or opening is
comparable to the wavelength of the wave.
[edit]Polarization

Main article: Polarization (waves)

A wave is polarized if it oscillates in one direction or plane. A wave can


be polarized by the use of a polarizing filter. The polarization of a
transverse wave describes the direction of oscillation in the plane
perpendicular to the direction of travel.
Longitudinal waves such as sound waves do not exhibit polarization. For
these waves the direction of oscillation is along the direction of travel.
[edit]Dispersion

Schematic of light being dispersed by a prism. Click to see animation.

Main articles: Dispersion (optics) and Dispersion (water waves)


A wave undergoes dispersion when either the phase velocity or
the group velocity depends on the wave frequency. Dispersion is most
easily seen by letting white light pass through a prism, the result of which
is to produce the spectrum of colours of the rainbow. Isaac
Newtonperformed experiments with light and prisms, presenting his
findings in the Opticks (1704) that white light consists of several colours
and that these colours cannot be decomposed any further.[25]
[edit]

Mechanical waves
Main article: Mechanical wave

[edit]Waves on strings
Main article: Vibrating string

The speed of a wave traveling along a vibrating string ( v ) is directly proportional to the square root of
the tension of the string ( T ) over the linear mass density ( ):

where the linear density is the mass per unit length of the string.
[edit]Acoustic waves
Acoustic or sound waves travel at speed given by

or the square root of the adiabatic bulk modulus divided by the ambient fluid density
(see speed of sound).

[edit]Water waves
Main article: Water waves

Ripples on the surface of a pond are actually a combination of transverse and longitudinal
waves; therefore, the points on the surface follow orbital paths.
Sounda mechanical wave that propagates through gases, liquids, solids and plasmas;
Inertial waves, which occur in rotating fluids and are restored by the Coriolis effect;
Ocean surface waves, which are perturbations that propagate through water.
[edit]Seismic waves
Main article: Seismic waves

[edit]Shock waves

Main article: Shock wave

See also: Sonic boom and Cerenkov radiation

[edit]Other

Waves of traffic, that is, propagation of different densities of motor vehicles, and so forth,
which can be modeled as kinematic waves[26]

Metachronal wave refers to the appearance of a traveling wave produced by coordinated


sequential actions.
Electromagnetic waves
Main articles: Electromagnetic radiation and Electromagnetic
spectrum
(radio, micro, infrared, visible, uv)
An electromagnetic wave consists of two waves that are
oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields. An electromagnetic
wave travels in a direction that is at right angles to the oscillation
direction of both fields. In the 19th century, James Clerk
Maxwell showed that, in vacuum, the electric and magnetic fields
satisfy the wave equation both with speed equal to that of
the speed of light. From this emerged the idea that light is an
electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves can have different
frequencies (and thus wavelengths), giving rise to various types of
radiation such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible
light, ultraviolet and X-rays.
[edit]
Motion (physics)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

Motion involves change in position, such as in this perspective of rapidly leaving Yongsan Station

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Change in action is the result of an
unbalanced force. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time .[1] An
object's velocity cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described byNewton's first law. An
object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects
in a closed system(one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of
conservation of momentum.

A body which does not move is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-
invariant) position.

Motion is always observed and measured relative to a frame of reference. As there is no absolute frame of
reference, absolute motion cannot be determined; this is emphasised by the term relative motion.[2] A body
which is motionless relative to a given reference frame, is still moving relative to infinitely many other frames.
Thus, everything in the universe is moving.[3]

More generally, the term motion signifies any temporal change in a physical system. For example, one can talk
about motion of a wave or a quantum particle (or any other field) where the concept location does not apply.

Contents
[hide]

1 Laws of Motion

o 1.1 Classical mechanics

o 1.2 Quantum mechanics

2 Kinematics

3 List of "imperceptible" human motions

o 3.1 Universe

o 3.2 Galaxy

o 3.3 Solar System

o 3.4 Earth

o 3.5 Continents

o 3.6 Internal body

o 3.7 Cells
o 3.8 Particles

o 3.9 Subatomic particles

4 Light

5 Types of motion

6 References

[edit]Laws of Motion

Main article: Mechanics

In physics, motion in the universe is described through two sets of apparently contradictory laws of mechanics.
Motions of all large scale and familiar objects in the universe (such as projectiles, planets, cells, andhumans)
are described by classical mechanics. Whereas the motion of very small atomic and sub-atomic sized objects
is described by quantum mechanics.

[edit]Classical mechanics
Main article: Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts
of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces
very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects
in science, engineering and technology.

Classical mechanics is fundamentally based on Newton's Laws of Motion. These laws describe the relationship
between the forces acting on a body and the motion of that body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac
Newton in his work Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. His three laws
are:

1. In the absence of a net external force, a body either is at rest or moves with constant velocity.

2. The net external force on a body is equal to the mass of that body times its acceleration; F = ma.
Alternatively, force is proportional to the time derivative of momentum.

3. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force F on the
first body. F and F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.[4]

Newton's three laws of motion, along with his law of universal gravitation, explain Kepler's laws of planetary
motion, which were the first to accurately provide a mathematical model or understanding orbiting bodies
inouter space. This explanation unified the motion of celestial bodies and motion of objects on earth.
Classical mechanics was later further enhanced by Albert Einstein's special relativity and general relativity.
Special relativity explains the motion of objects with a high velocity, approaching the speed of light;general
relativity is employed to handle gravitation motion at a deeper level.

[edit]Quantum mechanics
Main article: Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a set of principles describing physical reality at the atomic level of matter
(molecules and atoms) and the subatomic (electrons, protons, and even smaller particles). These descriptions
include the simultaneous wave-like and particle-like behavior of both matter and radiation energy, this
described in the waveparticle duality.

In contrast to classical mechanics, where accurate measurements and predictions can be calculated
about location and velocity, in the quantum mechanics of a subatomic particle, one can never specify its state,
such as its simultaneous location and velocity, with complete certainty (this is called the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle).

In addition to describing the motion of atomic level phenomenon, quantum mechanics is useful in
understanding some large scale phenomenon such as superfluidity, superconductivity, and biological systems,
including the function of smell receptors and the structures of proteins.

[edit]Kinematics

Main article: Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics devoted to the study of motion, but not the cause of the motion.
As such it is concerned with the various types of motions.

Two classes of motion covered by kinematics are uniform motion and non-uniform motion. A body is said to be
in uniform motion when it travels equal distances in equal intervals of time (i.e. at a constant speed). For
example, a body travels 5 km in 1 hour and another 5 km in the next hour, and so on continuously. Uniform
motion is closely associated with inertia as described in Newton's first law of motion. However, most familiar
types of motion would be non-uniform motion, as most bodies are constantly being acted upon by many
different force simultaneously, as such they do not travel equal distances in equal intervals of time. For
example, a body travels 2 km in 25 minutes but takes 30 minutes to travel the next 2 km.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the exchange of thermal
energy from one physical system to another. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms,
such as heat conduction, convection, thermal radiationMechanisms

The fundamental modes of heat transfer are:

Conduction or diffusion
The transfer of energy between objects that are in physical contact
Convection
The transfer of energy between an object and its environment, due to circular fluid motion
Radiation
The transfer of energy to or from a body by means of the emission or absorption of
electromagnetic radiation
Mass transfer
The transfer of energy from one location to another as a side effect of physically moving an object
containing that energy
[edit]Conduction
Main article: conduction (heat)

On a microscopic scale, heat conduction occurs as hot, rapidly moving or vibrating


atoms and molecules interact with neighboring atoms and molecules, transferring
some of their energy (heat) to these neighboring particles. In other words, heat is
transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as
electrons move from one atom to another. Conduction is the most significant means
of heat transfer within a solid or between solid objects in thermal contact. Fluids
especially gasesare less conductive. Thermal contact conductance is the study of
heat conduction between solid bodies in contact.[6]

Steady state conduction (see Fourier's law) is a form of conduction that happens
when the temperature difference driving the conduction is constant, so that after an
equilibration time, the spatial distribution of temperatures in the conducting object
does not change any further.[7] In steady state conduction, the amount of heat
entering a section is equal to amount of heat coming out.[6]

Transient conduction (see Heat equation) occurs when the temperature within an
object changes as a function of time. Analysis of transient systems is more complex
and often calls for the application of approximation theories or numerical analysis by
computer.[6]
[edit]Convection

Convective heat transfer, or convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to
another by the movement of fluids. (In physics, the term fluid means any substance
that deforms under shear stress; it includes liquids, gases, plasmas, and some
plastic solids.) Bulk motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer between the solid
surface and the fluid.[8] Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in
liquids and gases. Although often discussed as a third method of heat transfer,
convection actually describes the combined effects of conduction and fluid flow.[9]

Free, or natural, convection occurs when the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy
forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature in the
fluid. Forced convection is when the fluid is forced to flow over the surface by
external meanssuch as fans, stirrers, and pumpscreating an artificially induced
convection current.[10]

Convective heating or cooling in some circumstances may be described


by Newton's law of cooling: "The rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the
difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings." However, by
definition, the validity of Newton's law of cooling requires that the rate of heat loss
from convection be a linear function of ("proportional to") the temperature difference
that drives heat transfer, and in convective cooling this is sometimes not the case.
In general, convection is not linearly dependent on temperature gradients, and in
some cases is strongly nonlinear. In these cases, Newton's law does not apply.

[edit]Radiation
Main article: thermal radiation

A red-hot iron object, transferring heat to the surrounding environment primarily through thermal
radiation.

Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves due to the


pool of thermal energy that all matter possesses that has a temperature
aboveabsolute zero. Thermal radiation propagates without the presence of matter
through the vacuum of space.[11]

Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random movements of atoms and


molecules in matter. Since these atoms and molecules are composed of charged
particles (protons and electrons), their movement results in the emission
of electromagnetic radiation, which carries energy away from the surface.
Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer, thermal radiation can be
concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors, which is exploited
inconcentrating solar power generation. For example, the sunlight reflected from
mirrors heats the PS10 solar power tower and during the day it can heat water to
285 C (545 F).[citation needed]
Reflections
Main article: Reflection (physics)

Diagram of specular reflection

Reflections can be divided into two types: specular reflection and diffuse reflection. Specular
reflection describes the gloss of surfaces such as mirrors, which reflect light in a simple,
predictable way. Refractions
Main article: Refraction

Illustration of Snell's Law for the case n1 < n2, such as air/water interface

Refraction occurs when light travels through an area of space that has a changing index of refraction; this
principle allows for lenses and the focusing of light. The simplest case of refraction occurs when there is
an interface between a uniform medium with index of refraction n1 and another medium with index of
refraction n2
Polarization is a general property of waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations.