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A

DISSERTATION REPORT

ON

DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF AN AGED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM-FOUNDATION


COUPLED SYSTEM USING DIRECT METHOD IN TIME DOMAIN

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree

of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

With Specialization

in

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

Submitted by

ARUNODAY KUMAR CHOUDHARY

M.tech (2nd Year)

Under the guidance of

Dr. AJAY KUMAR

&

Dr. AVIJIT BURMAN

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY-PATNA
PATNA-800005, INDIA
JUNE, 2017
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CANDIDATES DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the entire work which is being presented in this dissertation report entitled
DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF AN AGED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM-FOUNDATION
COUPLED SYSTEM USING DIRECT METHOD IN TIME DOMAIN, for the partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF TECHNOLOGY with
specialization in STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING , submitted in the Department of Civil
Engineering, National Institute of Technology- Patna, is an authentic record of my own work
carried out for the period from August, 2016 to June, 2017, under the guidance of Dr. AJAY
KUMAR # and Dr. AVIJIT BURMAN # ,

(# Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology-


Patna.)

The matter emboided in this report has not been submitted anywhere by me for the award of any
other degree or diploma of this Institute or any other University/Institute.

(ARUNODAY KUMAR CHOUDHARY)


Date: 15th June, 2017
Place: Patna

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the above statement/declaration made by the candidate is correct to the best
of my knowledge and belief.
Place: Patna
Date: 15th June, 2017

(Dr. AJAY KUMAR) (Dr. AVIJIT BURMAN)


Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,
National Institute of Technology, Patna. National Institute of Technology, Patna.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my guide Dr. Ajay Kumar, (Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology-Patna), who has always
supported me and guided me at every step whenever I faced any difficulty. The success of this
dissertation is largly attributed to my guide Dr. Avijit Burman, (Assistant Professor, Department
of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology-Patna.). He always encouraged me and
guided me to complete this project thesis. I have been really blessed to have him as my
supervisor/guide and mentor and would like to express my deepest gratitude to him for his
tremendous support and help. Without his support, guidance and encouragement this dissertation
would have never been materialized.

I also thank all the staff members of the Civil Engineering Department and Management for
their support in providing for computational facilities in the centres lab. I take this opportunity
to express my gratitude to my family, my colleague and all the people who have been
instrumental for the successful completion of this project.

Last but not the least I would like to express my thanks to the Almighty for making me capable
to complete the dissertation on time.

Place: Patna
Date: 15/06/2017 ARUNODAY KR. CHOUDHARY

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ABSTRACT

The dynamic response of a concrete gravity dam-foundation coupled system has been calculated
using finite element method. The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) as well as the ageing
effect of concrete has been considered to calculate the seismic response using direct method in
time domain. The dam-foundation coupled system has been analyzed considering it as a two
dimensional plane-strain model. The present study deals with the seismic behavior of dam-
structure at different ages, as we know that the concrete degrades with time due to various Hgro-
Chemo-Mechanical effects. This results in decrease in the strength of concrete and hence it
become important to consider the reduced strength to assess its behavior at different ages from
the time of construction. The variation of strength of concrete at different ages after construction
can be predicted by the curve-fitting analysis, which was carried out by Washa.et.al in 1989. The
degraded constitutive matrix is used to analysis the degraded behavior of concrete at different
ages. For an effective boundary condition, dashpots have been attached in vertical direction of
soil domain while the bottom horizontal has been fixed. The entire dam foundation coupled
system has been modeled as liner, elastic, homogeneous and isotropic material. In order to
achieve greater accuracy, the results obtained in Free-field analysis have also been added to
those developed during the complete analysis of dam-foundation coupled system. This proposed
algorithm has been used and simulated for both the cases of two published problem and the result
obtained have been found to be in close agreement. The present study investigates in finding the
displacement, strain and stresses against the Koyna earthquake data at every nodes and plot the
stress contour at the critical node.

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CONTENTS

Page no.
Candidates declaration i
Certificate ii
Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iii
Contents iv
List of Figures Vi
List of Tables Viii

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Importance Of The Study 2
1.2 Objective Of The Study 2
1.3 Scope Of The Study 3
1.4 Proposed Study 3
1.5organization Of The Text 3

2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4

3. ANALYTICAL MODELING 19
3.1 Dimensions Of The Structure 19

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 31


4.1 Validation 31

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5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 62

REFERENCES 64

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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2
Fig 2

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Material properties of concrete 29


Table 3.1.1 Stress, strain and damage coefficient in compression 29

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
A concrete gravity dam is a huge structure built generally to hold the water reservoir for various
purposes and to resist the unpredictable earthquake in seismic prone areas. The failure of
concrete gravity dam may leads to serious consequences of sudden release of massive water
causing several losses of habitats in the vicinity. During an earthquake the dam is subjected to
hydro-dynamic pressure which is basically a time dependent phenomenon. The seismic response
of concrete gravity dam has been in the interest area of researchers because of its major concern
during earthquake. The dynamic response of concrete dam depends mainly on the characteristic
behavior of ground motion, the nature and material of dam structure, the reservoir and the soil
surrounding it. Hence there is a need for design of safe structure which can sustain the ground
acceleration without causing much damage to the structure. The seismic safety evaluation of a
huge concrete gravity dam subjected to severe earthquake excitation is really a challenging task
for the engineers.
During the Kobe earthquake 1995, the damaged sustained in the dam highlights that the response
of the entire structure not only depends on the response of the super structure, but also on the
response of the sub structure and the soil or ground as well. Hence it become rational to
implement the effect of soil-structure interaction for heavy structures like concrete gravity dam.

1.1 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY


The present study incorporates the effect of soil structure interaction in estimating the dynamic
behavior of concrete gravity dam which is very important in terms of accuracy of the result
obtained. The affect of ageing has also been incorporated as it is very well known fact that the
concrete losses strength due to material degradation caused by various hygro-chemo-mechanical
actions. A suitable boundary condition proposed by Lysmer has also been considered to
represent the semi infinite soil domain. The present analysis is based on finite element technique
using direct method in time domain. A suitable programming has to be developed for analysis
based on finite element technique, since the scope of obtaining the result experimentally is not
possible. The importance of soil structure interaction effect and the ageing effect of the concrete
has been discussed below:

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Importance of soil-structure Interaction:
Involvement of soil structure interaction may be very significant in estimating the dynamic
response of the structure. Avoidance of this interaction may be advantageous in terms of
computational cost and utilization of computer memory but its introduction leads to the greater
accuracy of the result. When the structural model is very massive and stiff such as high rise
buildings, concrete gravity dam, nuclear power plant, nuclear containment structure etc with
considering the foundation soil to be flexible then the motion of the structure will be
significantly different than the free field surface motion of the structure. The seismic waves are
time dependent and the vibration of the structure increases with decreasing the stiffness of the
soil domain, it may be realized that estimating the response of a structure considering the
foundation to be fixed leads to serious error. Hence , it is important to consider the soil structure
interaction effect as it is simple and makes the result more accurate.

Ageing effect of concrete:


The ageing of concrete may be defined as the total or partial loss of its strength and stiffness via
slow progressive and irreversible process occurring over a long period of time. The ageing
process may directly affect the dam by changing its material property, leading to loss of its
resistance capacity. Dam ageing is a growing concern as the average age of the dam in the world
and the number of older dam is increasing. A concrete gravity dam is designed for a life time
more than 100 years. The main purpose of such dam is to hold the water in reservoir for its use in
various purposes like generating electricity. The dam face remains in continuous contact with the
water throughout its life time as a result the concrete faces degradation due to various hygro-
chemo-mechanical actions. The continuous degradation of concrete leads to change in the
engineering property of concrete like strength which may affect the structural resistance, seismic
behavior, location and mode of failure. Hence it becomes important to consider the effect of
degradation of concrete for the analysis of huge dam-foundation structure.

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1.2 OBJECTIVEOF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to estimate the dynamic response of concrete gravity dam under
seismic excitation. The main objective of the study is given below:

Development of a numerical scheme to predict dynamic behavior of dam-foundation


coupled system
Study the influence of concrete degradation (ageing) due to hygro-chemo-mechanical
actions (using the method suggested by Gogoi and Maity, 2007) on dynamic behavior of
dam-foundation coupled system.
Implementation of an efficient truncation boundary condition considering viscous
dashpots at the boundary.
Development of a direct finite element scheme for the solution of the dam-foundation
coupled system.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


This study report involves the following;
Using soil structure interaction effect in estimating the dynamic response of structure.
Incorporating the ageing effect by introducing the degradation index in constitutive
matrix.
Linear analysis of dam-foundation coupled system using direct method in time domain.

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The thesis is sub-divided into 5 chapters. Chapter 1 explains the importance of the matter
introduced in the present study, objective and scope of the study. Chapter 2 presents the literature
review available on this topic. The analytical modeling of the problem considered and theoretical
formulation is elaborated in chapter 3. Chapter 4 throws insight to the results obtained in the
present study followed by the conclusions and discussion presented in chapter 5.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The structural system consisting of more than one component always has independent response.
A concrete gravity dam consists of reservoir, foundation below and the structure itself (Fig.2.1).
Dam located in earthquake prone area causes severe damage under repeated earthquake and
cause loss to mankind. Hence it becomes important to study the effect of seismic response of
such heavy concrete gravity dam. Many approaches has been made to determine the response
and the conservative results have also been obtained, while others have also formulated more
complicated scheme to estimate the response result more accurate. The ability of computing at
present leads to development of numerical analysis technique to represent the physical behavior
of the concrete gravity dam more accurately. Much analysis procedure has been carried out
considering the base to be fixed and water in the reservoir as added mass. Since, this does not
reflect the actual behavior of dam foundation system, analysis considering the foundation to be
flexible and introducing the concept of soil structure interaction has been devised. The accuracy
of the results obtained depends on the modeling of the structure, selection of various parameters
to represent the actual field condition and the implementation of the numerical scheme.

Reservoir


Dam

Foundation

Fig. 2.1 A Typical Dam-Reservoir-Foundation System

The present study traces the development of various analysis procedure used for concrete gravity
dam. A brief review on traditional design of earlier dam is presented. The survey of different
technique of modeling and idealization of dam foundation system is discussed.

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2.1 Traditional Static Analysis and Design

As per the design method of U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Design Standards No.2
(1965, 66) and Design manual (1976), the dynamic response of the elastic dam foundation
system, water reservoir was not recognized. According to the Indian standard code (IS 1893-
1984) the hydrodynamic pressure can be determined by the relation established by Zangar (1952)
using an electric analog:
p C s h f H f
(2.1)

Where, Cs = a coefficient that is determined experimentally,


h = the seismic coefficient,
f = the density of water and
Hf = the depth of water in the reservoir.

The main demerit of static design procedure is that it does not account for the random earthquake
motion. The inertia force introduced by the seismic waves is applied at the center of the concrete
gravity dam. This method also discards the consideration of the elastic behavior of the dam
foundation system, damping capacity of the dam and time varying excitation force. Despite of all
these disadvantages, this method is still employed because of its simplicity. A large variation has
been observed between the results obtained by the use of standard static method and the result
obtained by the proper dynamic method (US Army Corps of Engineers 1977).

Fenves & Chopra (1987) proposed a simplified response spectrum method to determine the
structural response, in the fundamental vibration mode against the horizontal component of
ground motion. This procedure can be used to estimate the compressive stress and tensile stress
at location above the base of the dam. The method developed is basically hand calculated
alternative method to general analytical procedure.

Chandrashaker & Humar (1993) in case of kyona showed in his result that the maximum stresses
are developed at the upstream and downstream faces at the upper part of the gravity dam.

2.2 Modelling of Dam

2.3 Concrete Degradation

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2.4 Soil-Structure Interaction Effects

Involvement of soil structure interaction may be very significant in estimating the dynamic
response of the structure. Avoidance of this interaction may be advantageous in terms of
computational cost and utilization of computer memory but its introduction leads to the greater
accuracy of the result. When the structural model is very massive and stiff such as high rise
buildings, concrete gravity dam, nuclear power plant, nuclear containment structure etc with
considering the foundation soil to be flexible then the motion of the structure will be
significantly different than the free field surface motion of the structure. The seismic waves are
time dependent and the vibration of the structure increases with decreasing the stiffness of the
soil domain, it may be realized that estimating the response of a structure considering the
foundation to be fixed leads to serious error. However, dams are generally constructed on hard
rock strata where the impedance ratio (Ef/Ed) varies from 2.0 to , where Ef and Ed are the
modulus of elasticity of the foundation and the dam respectively.

Wilson (1969) first solved the problem on a layered foundation by formulating a large planar
mesh using finite element and analyses the response through step by step integration procedure.

Vaish & Chopra (1974), Chopra et al. 1980, Hall & Chopra 1982, Saini & Garg 1997 and Zhang
et al. 1999, Ghanaat 1993, Tan & Chopra 1995, Guan et al. 1996, 1997, uses the soil structure
interaction method of analysis by sub structured method or direct method (Bycroft & Mork 1987,
Liou & Huang 1994 and Kim & Yun 2000).

(Chopra et al. 1980 and Chopra & Chakrabarti 1981) considered a viscoelastic halfspace
idealization which may be appropriate if the dam site consist of similar rock extending to great
depth.

Chopra & Chakrabarti (1981) formulated the substructure technique inorder to couple indirectly
the dam-reservoir-foundation system using analysis in frequency domain. The hydrodynamic
pressure was determined analytically assuming the upstream face of the dam structure to be

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straight and vertical. The analysis is based on the idealization of two dimensional finite element
system to represent the geometry of the dam.

(Fenves & Chopra 1984) introduced the interaction effect of unbounded medium which accounts
for the complex value and frequency dependent stiffness matrices.

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CHAPTER 3

ANALYTICAL MODELING & THEORETICAL FORMULATION

3.1 DIMENSIONS OF THE DAM-FOUNDATION SYSTEM


DAM
Height of the dam =103.0m
Width of dam =70m
Height of crest from neck point A =36.5m
Width of crest =14.8m

FOUNDATION (SOIL DOMAIN)


Height of soil foundation =100m
Width of soil foundation =350m
The width of the soil domain shown in fig: below is of finite length of 350m but the presence
of dashpots in the vertical section of soil domain is the representation of semi infinite soil
domain. Dashpots have been attached in order to absorb the travelling waves generated
during seismic analysis.

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3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTY
DAM
The modulus of elasticity =31500 MPa
Poissons ratio =0.235
Mass density =2415.816 kg/m3
Damping ratio =0.03

FOUNDATION
Modulus of elasticity =1.7500MPa

Poissons ratio =0.2


Mass density =1800 kg/m3

Damping ratio =0.03


These values are considered following the works of Gogoi and Maity (2007).

3.3 2D MODELING
The structural dam system is a continuous long body whose geometry as well as loading
condition do not vary along the length, hence it is analyzed using two dimensional plane strain
formulation. The structural system considered for the present investigation is similar along the
longitudinal direction; it can be analyzed by this idealization appropriately. The entire dam and
foundation system have been modeled as linear, elastic materials and damping effect have also
been considered. The analysis of dam foundation structure has been done using finite element
technique using direct method in time domain.

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3.4 THEORETICAL FORMULATION
3.4.1 INTRODUCTION

The seismic safety analysis of the aged concrete gravity dam is important to predict the
dynamic behavior of the entire structure during earthquake, so that necessary measures can be
taken to withstand further earthquakes. If the evaluation of the result obtained is accurate then
appropriate and suitable measure may be taken. The accuracy of the method improves depending
on the approximation used in the development of the theoretical mathematical modeling of the
dam-foundation coupled system. During the service period the dam faces severe environmental
effects which lead to loss in the strength and durability of the concrete. Ageing of dam is also
another important criterion as we know that concrete loses its strength slowly during its life time
due to material degradation. Since the dam remains in constant contact with the water in
reservoir there is a greater possibility to form porosity in concrete due to hydo-chemo-
mechanical effect and hence it is important to consider the degradation effect of concrete. An
approach is made to incorporate the isotropic degradation index into constitutive matrix to
include the effect of degradation owing to various environmental effects. Both the dam and the
soil foundation is modeled and analyzed by finite element techniques.

The soil structure interaction effect is considered to analyze the proposed model. The solution is
obtained by performing the free field analysis first to get the interaction forces at common nodes
and then the desired results are furnished using these interaction forces using direct method. The
theoretical formulation of dam-foundation coupled system is introduced into two parts. Part A
and B contain the formulation of aged concrete gravity dam and the coupled dam-foundation
system respectively.

3.4.2 ELEMENT SELECTION


The structure is analyzed by discretizing it into smaller subdivision of finite dimension known as
finite element. The dam and the foundation are discretized both into eight noded isoparametic
elements. The isoparametric element has been oriented in the natural coordinate system (,) and
has been transformed to Cartesian coordinate system using the matrix of jacobian. The
elements in both the above said coordinate systems are shown in the following Fig: below .

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y 4 7(0,1)
4 3 (-1,1) 3 (1,1)
7

.
8 8 (-1,0) 6 (1,0)

1 2
5 (-1,-1) (1,-1)
x
5 (0, -1) 2
1

(a) Cartesian coordinate (b) Natural coordinate

Fig. Transformation of Cartesian coordinates to Natural coordinates for eight noded quadrilateral
element

3.4.3 SHAPE FUNCTION FOR DAM AND FOUNDATION


The dam and foundation are discretized using eight noded quadrilateral element as shown in the
Fig. above. The shape function has been derived from an interpolation polynomial in terms of
natural coordinates so that the displacement can be represented as a function of nodal
displacement. The interpolation polynomial has the following form as given below:

u ( , ) A0 A1 A2 A3 2 A4 A5 2 A6 2 A7 2 ( 3.1)

The shape functions that has been derived from the interpolation polynomial are as follows

N di
1
1 i 1 i i i 1 I = 1,2,3,4
4

N di
1
2

1 i 1 2 i = 5,7 (3.2 )

N di
1
2

1 i 1 2 i = 6,8

Here, i denotes the node number of an element.

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The accuracy of the shape functions has been checked from the relations:

N di N di
N di 1, 0 and 0 (3.3)

3.4.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARTESIAN AND NATURAL COORDINATES

The displacements u and v has been expressed using the interpolation functions as

u N diui and v N di vi (3.4)

The shape functions used for the dam, Ndi are functions of the natural coordinates , . Here, i
represents the node numbers. Since the element used in present model is isoparametric, the same
interpolation functions can be used to represent the geometry in terms of the Cartesian
coordinates xi and yi as below

x N di xi and y N di yi (3.5)

Similarly, the pressure p can be expressed by the nodal pressure, pi through the shape functions
as below

p N ri pi (3.6)

The relationship between the two coordinate systems may be computed by using the chain rule
of partial differentiation as:

x y

x
J x (3.7)
x y
y y

where [J] is the Jacobian matrix. The derivative operators with respect to Cartesian coordinate
system may be represented as




J
x 1 (3.8)

y

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PART A

3.4.4 THEORITICAL FORMULATION FOR DAM

The steps for the formulation of the structural part are mentioned below

(a) Selecting the appropriate shape functions for an element chosen


(b) Relate between Cartesian and natural coordinates
(c) Strain displacement relation
(d) Evaluation of degradation index
(e) Modification of constitutive matrix by incorporating degradation index
(f) Building mass, stiffness and damping matrices
(g) Evaluation of hydrodynamic pressure from the reservoir.
(h) Selecting suitable numerical scheme for analysis using direct method in time domain
(i) Computation of displacement, stresses
The shape function for the element chosen and the relation between the Cartesian and natural
coordinate system has been discussed in section 3.4.3 and 3.4.4 respectively.

3.4.4.1 STRAIN DISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIP


For stress analysis problem using finite element technique, the relation between strain and
displacement is more important for evaluation. For two dimensional plane strain problem the
generalized strain displacement relation is shown below

u 1 u v
2 2
x
x 2 x x

v 1 u
2 2
v
y (3.9)
y 2 y y

v u u u v v
xy
x y x y x y

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Using eq. (3.4 ) the elemental strain is given as

u v
B1 u B1 v
x x
(3.10)
u v
B2 u B2 v
y y

where, [B1] and [B2] represents the derivative w.r.t x and y respectively of the shape function
[Nd]. The vectors u and v is the nodal displacement vector in x and y directions respectively.

The vector of strains at any point inside an element, may be expressed in terms of nodal
displacement as

B0 d (3.11)
Where, [B0] is the strain displacement matrix and
u
d is the nodal displacement vector.
v

3.4.4.2 CONSTITUTIVE MATRIX

The dam structure is similar along its length in terms of geometry and loading condition, the
assumption of formulating the dam using plane strain is considerable. It provide displacement
perpendicular to the cross-section of the dam and do not result in strain. The entire structural
system is considered to analyze using two dimensional plane strain formulations, the following
mathematical relates as below

z zx yz 0 (3.12)

Hence, for elastic isotropic material, the constitutive relation in two dimensions is written as:

D (3.13)
Where,

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x , y , xy and x , y , xy
T T
are the vector stresses
and strain respectively and [D] is the constitutive matrix as below
1 0
Ed
D 1 0 (3.14)
1 1 2 0
0 1 2
For material with Ed as dam modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio .

3.4.4.3 DEGRADATION MODEL FOR CONCRETE

The isotropic damage model used to measure the degradation of concrete has been derived by
following the extensive work of Ghrib & tinawi (1995). The basic concept of degradation has
been adopted from the fact that concrete loses strength due to loss of net area capable of
supporting the stresses developed due to various loading imposed. The following analogy has
been given by Ghrib and Tinawi to determine the orthotropic degradation index of concrete.

i id n
d gi 1 1 i (3.15)
i i

Where, i = tributary area of the surface in direction i and

id = area affected by degradation.

The value of d gi varies from 0 to 1. d gi =0 indicates no degradation ,while d gi =1 indicates

complete degradation of concrete. The suffix index i= 1,2 corresponds to Cartesian axes x and y
in two dimension. The effective constitutive matrix for plane strain material matrix is given as

1 2 1 2 0
1
Dd Ed
1 22 0
1 1 2 1 2 (3.16)

0 0
1 2 21 22 / 21 22

Where, = (1 - dg1) and = (1 - dg2).

Ed = is the elastic modulus of the material without degradation.

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If dg1 = dg2 = dg, the isotropic degradation model is expressed as

Dd 1 d g 2 D (3.17)

Where, [Dd]= constitutive matrix of degraded model and

[D] = the constitutive matrix of un-degraded model.

3.4.4.4 EVALUATION OF DEGRADATION INDEX

It is a very well known fact that the concrete gains strength with age and various relation has
been formulated to predict the gain in strength for a short period of time. Till date no such
relation exists to predict the strength of concrete at any age in its life time. Generally, empirical
relation exists whose results are based on the experimental results. The concrete gravity dam is a
very huge structure and no such experimental results exist or can be performed to estimate the
strength of concrete. The main difficulty that arises in testing the mass concrete is the use of
152mm maximum size of aggregate. However , mix design of mass concrete is reported using
similar aggregate size having same fineness modulus as in mass concrete by Andrade et al 1981,
Bittencourt et al. 2001. Hence, the concrete mix consisting of two different size of aggregate but
having same fineness modulus and geometrical gradation as in mass concrete has been used by
Washa et al.1989 and performed experimental procedure to estimate the variation of strength up
to fifty years. The present formulation used is based on the experimental results obtained during
the fifty years of experimental work of Washa et el.1989. The degradation index obtained also
consider the fact of gain in strength of concrete with ages.

3.4.4.5 DEGRADATION WITH AGES

The degradation of concrete is mainly due to formation of porosity due to various hydro-chemo-
mechanical actions in the surrounding environment. Hence the total porosity has been considered
as a measure to determine the degradation parameter. The total porosity is calculated by
summing up the initial porosity( ), the porosity due to matrix dissolution (c),and the
mechanical porosity(m). Mathematically the total porosity is expressed as below

0 c m (3.18)

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The parameter m is obtained as

m 1 0 c d m (3.19)

Where, dm is the scalar degradation parameter which is basically a strain based exponential
degradation function and it was proposed by Simo and Ju (1987). The function is given as


c
0
0

dm as 1 c c e (3.20)

Where, 0 = ft /E0, initial threshold degradation and is an integral variable representing the
current damage threshold which depends on the loading history. ft is the static tensile strength and E0
is the modulus of elasticity of an un-degraded material before imposing any mechanical load.
c and c are material parameters obtained experimentally by (Bangert et al. 2003). Simo and
Ju (1987), considered the value of as to be 1 which is the maximum degradation allowable due to
mechanically induced porosity.

The kinetic law for the ageing process may be stated as per Atkin (1994) with = 0 for a freshly
laid concrete and = 1 for its completely aged state.


1
1 m (3.21)
a

Where, is the derivative of w.r.t time and a is the characteristic time representing the

ageing of structure that should be assumed equal to the design life of the structure. Integrating
equation 3.21 we get,

t
( )
a
1 e (3.22)

Replacing with degradation index dg in eq. (3.22)

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t
( )
a
d g 1 e (3.23)

The reaction extent, at a constant ambient humidity for given characteristic time, r for a

structure is given by Steffens et al. (2003) as

t

r
1 e (3.24)

Substituting the value of t from eq. (3.24) in eq.(3.23) , we get

r
a
1 d g (1 ) (3.25)

The degraded elastic modulus Em is expressed as

Em = (1-dg)E0 . (3.26)

E0 is the elastic modulus of concrete witout degradation. Hence from equation 3.26 and 3.25 we
get

ta
a
Em 1 E0 (3.27)

Where, a = the characteristic designed age (life-span)and

ta= the time for which the degradation index is determined.

Obtaining the value of degraded elastic modulus Em we can obtain the isotropic degradation
index, dg as given below

E
dg 1 m (3.28)
E0

3.4.4.6 GAIN IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH AGE

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The concrete gains strength with age is a well known fact and its strength at any age during its
life span can be predicted by the mathematical relation given by Washa et al.(1989). The relation
had been obtained from the curve fitting of the experimental data. The relation is as follows

f ta 3.57ln ta 44.33 (3.29)

Fig. Curve fitting of experimental data

The compressive strength obtained in in SI unit and ta is age of concrete in years. The static
modulus of elasticity of concrete can be obtained in SI units as per (Neville and Brooks 1987) as

E0 4733 f t a (3.30)

3.4.4.6 BUILDING ELEMENT STIFFNESS, MASS AND DAMPING MATRIX

Element mass matrix


Knowing the strain-displacement matrix, the stiffness matrix of the given quadrilateral element is
derived by using the following relation:

27
NITP- [1523010]
1 1
[ K ]e t
1 1
[ B ] T [ D ] [ B ] J dr ds
(3.31)
Where, t = the thickness of element,
B= the strain-displacement matrix and
J=s the Jacobian matrix.

Element mass matrix


A consistent element mass matrix is written as
1 1
[ Me ]
1 1
[ N ] T [ N ] J dr ds [ assuming constant density] (3.32)

Where, is the mass density of the material.


{N i }T [ N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 ]
Where,
N i = the shape function.
Element damping matrix
The damping matrix can be obtained from element mass matrix and stiffness matrix by the
relation given below:
C K M (3.33)

Where, and are the corresponding stiffness and mass proportional damping constants.

3.4.4.7 COMPUTING THE STRESSES

The elemental stress can be obtained from the following relation

e DB0 d e (3.34)

Where, [D] = the constitutive matrix,

[B0] = the strain displacement matrix,

{e} = the elemental stress vector and

{de} = the elemental displacement vector.


Using equation 3.34 the stress at gauss point are obtained. The nodal stresses are then obtained by
using local stress smoothing technique (Hinton and Campbell, 1974).

28
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The stresses has been calculated at four Gauss points shown in the fig below, at at point III, r = s =1
and = = 1 3 . Hence the proportionality factor becomes 3 ; i.e.,

r 3 and s 3 (3.35)

Stresses at any point P within the element are evaluated by theusing the usual shape function as

P N di
i for i = 1,2,3,4 (3.36)

Where, P = stress x , y and xy at point P

1
N di 1 r 1 s the bilinear shape functions written in terms of r and s rather
4
than and .
has been evaluated at r and s coordinates of point P within the element. Let the point P
N di

coincides with the corner 1. Inorder to calculate stress x1 at corner 1 from x values at the four
Gauss points, following equation is used

xI 1.8666 xI 0.500 xII 0.134 xIII 0.500 xIV (3.37)


=1

4 7
r=1
. 3 =1

IV . s
. III s=1

8 r
. 6

I . P
. II

1 2
5

Fig. 3.4 Natural coordinate systems used in extrapolation of stresses from Gauss points

The resultant extrapolation or transformation matrix is given as

29
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1
1 3 2 0.5 1 3 2 0.5

2

0.5
1 3 2 0.5
1 3 2


3
1 3 2

0.5
1 3 2 0.5

I

4 0.5
1 3 2 0.5
1 3 2
II
(3.38)
5 1 3 4 1 3 4

1 3 4 1 3 4
III
6
1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4
1 3 4 IV

7



1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4
1 3 4

8
1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4
1 3 4

Here, 1 , 2 , 8 = the smoothened nodal stress values and

I IV = the stresses at the Gauss points.


Finding the average of resultants of all elements meeting at a common node the stress can be
smoothened.

PART B

3.4.5 THEORETICAL FORMULATION FOR DAM-FOUNDATION COUPLED SYSTEM

The dam foundation system is analyzed using direct method considering the effect of soil
structure interaction. The entire dam foundation is analyzed considering it as a single system.
The mode of vibration is same for both soil as well as dam. In order to increase the accuracy of
the result the analysis has been subdivided into two parts. Part one consist of free field analysis
in which interaction force from the soil domain has been estimated at the common nodes due to
seismic loading. These interaction forces together with the soil have been used to estimate the
behavior of the dam under given loading condition.

3.4.5.1 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF DAM-FOUNDATION SYSTEM

The dynamic equation of motion of the system is given as

Mu Cu Ku M ug F f (3.39)

30
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Where, M = the mass matrix,

K = the stiffness matrix,

C = viscous damping coefficient,

u = displacement vector,

u = the velocity vector,

u = the acceleration vector and

Ff=the interaction force vector.


The formation of the stiffness and mass matrix of any model system depends upon the type of
element chosen. After calculating the soil interaction force, Ff , the dynamic behavior of the
structural system is obtained from Eq. (3.39). The analysis performed is based on the direct
method in time domain, there is no requirement for the convergence of result and thus is more
economic in terms of saving the computer memory, time of analysis and gives more accurate
results.

3.4.5.2 SOLUTION SCHEME FOR COUPLED DAM-FOUNDATION SYSTEM


Mathematical Model of coupled dam-foundation system
The dam-foundation coupled system vibrates together under seismic excitation and soil structure
interaction effect has been used to determine the response. The most common SSI approach is
based on the idea of added motion formulation which is easy to formulate and is used in linear
structural analysis problem. This formulation is valid even for free field motion under seismic
waves. To incorporate the SSI problem the following system as shown in the fig below is
considered. The absolute displacement of the structure is subdivided into two parts. First is the
free field displacement and the second is the added displacement. The free field displacement has
been calculated by removing the dam part and only analyzing the soil part under seismic load.
The added part of displacement has been estimated by carrying the analysis of coupled system.

U = v +u
Structure U = Absolute Displacements
v = Free Field Displacements
u = Added Displacements

Common Nodes
Soil media

31
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Fig. Soil- structure interaction model

Three sets of node points has been considered in the present SSI model viz. the common nodes
present in between the structure and the soil which is denoted by c; the nodes within the
structure as s and the nodes within the foundation as f.
The equation 3.39 can be written in the form given below


0 0 0 0
[ ] { } + [ ] { } + [ ] { }= [ ] (3.40)
0 0 0 0
{ }
Where, the stiffness and the mass at the common nodes are formed by the contributions from
both the structure (s) and foundation (f), and are given by:
M M s M f
cc cc cc = () + () K K s K f
(3.41)
cc cc cc

Free field displacement has been calculated in order to avoid solving the SSI problem directly.
The free-field displacements v, velocities and accelerations v ,has been used to designate the
free field solution. The absolute displacements U , velocities and accelerations U can be
formulated in terms of displacements u, and free-field displacements v as given below:

[ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ]
(3.42)

The above equation can further be written as:

0 0 0
[ ] { } + [ ] { } + [ ] { } = R+F (3.43)
0 0 0

Where,
32
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0 0 0
] { } (3.44)
R= [ ] { } [ ] { } [
0 0 0



0

And, F= [ ] (3.45)
0
{ }
This is a numerically cumbersome approach; hence there is a requirement of an alternative
approach to formulate the solution directly using absolute displacements of the structure. Free
field analysis has been done by considering the corresponding values of the displacement,
velocity and acceleration for the structural part to be zero. This involves the following change of
variables:

0 0 0

[ ] = [ ] + [ ]
[ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ]
(3.46)

Free field displacements v, is calculated considering no structure to be present above the soil
domain. The foundation domain is subjected to seismic excitation and thus the free-field
displacement for the common and other foundation nodes are determined.



[ ] { } +[

] { } + [

] { } = [

]{ }

(3.47)

The free field response can be obtained from equation 3.47 and then the interaction force R is
calculated using Eq. 3.48

0 0 0 0 0 0
R= [ () 0] { } [ () 0] { } [ () 0] { }
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (3.48)

After obtaining the interaction forces R, the added responses of the dam and foundation domain
are calculated using Eq. (3.49)
0 0 0

[ ] { } + [
] { } + [ ] { } = R+F
0 0 0
(3.49)
3.4.5.3 FORMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE
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The geometry of dam and adjacent reservoir is shown in the fig below. The governing equation
for the hydrodynamic pressure is formulated mathematically by(Westergaard, 1933) as
2 p 0 (3.50)

2 2
Here, 2 2 is known as the Laplacian operator and p is the hydrodynamic pressure.
2

x y

y
p=0

Y=H

Dam
p=0
Surface

x
x=
an
Fig. Geometry of Reservoir domain

The solution of Laplace equation in equation 3.50 can be expressed in Eq. (3.51) with the
following assumptions:Fig. 3.5 Geometry of the Reservoir Domain
i. The bottom of the fluid domain is horizontal and rigid.
ii. The fluid domain extends to infinity and its motion is two dimensional.
iii. The fluid-structure interface is vertical.

p 2an H

1n1 e Hx cos
n y


n
H
2
n 1 n (3.51)

where, n
2n 1
2
p = Hydrodynamic pressure at the upstream face of the dam.
= The mass density of water.
a n = The magnitude of acceleration normal to the upstream face of the dam.

34
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y = The variation of distance in the vertical direction.
H = The height of water at the upstream side of the dam.

3.4.5.4 VISCOUS OR ABSORBING BOUNDARY

Lysmer and Kulhemeyer (1969) proposed a boundary condition that will represent the semi
infinite soil domain. The soil domain is attached to dashpots along the vertical sides and fixing
them on the other sides. This is a way to eliminate waves propagating outward from the
structure. His boundaries are derived for an elastic wave propagation problem.

Fig. Viscous dashpots connected to each degrees of freedom of a boundary node

The dashpots has the damping coefficient C given as

C Ac (3.52)
Where, A = the cross section of the bar,
= the mass density and
c = the wave velocity
The wave velocity c that has to be selected according to the type of wave that has to be absorbed
(shear wave velocity Cs or compressional wave velocity Cp).
In two dimensional case equation 3.52 is represented in the following form given in equation
3.53 and 3.54 of damping coefficient cn and ct , in the normal and tangential direction
respectively.

C n A1 c p (3.53)

Ct A2 c s (3.54)

35
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The shear wave velocity Cs and compression wave velocity Cp is given by
G E 1
Cs and C p (3.56)
1 1 2
8 8
A1 = 15 (5 + 2 2 2 ) and A2 = 15 (3 + 2 2 ) (3.57)
(12 )
Where, 2 = 2(1
) , G is the shear modulus of the medium and is expressed as
E
G
21
(3.58)

Here E is the Youngs modulus and is the Poissons ratio.


This gives slightly better overall efficiency than the original Lysmer-Kulhemeyer (1969)
approach.

36
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CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
In the present work, a set of computer programming has been developed to predict the dynamic
behavior of a concrete gravity dam lying over infinite soil media, subjected to seismic
acceleration and hydro dynamic pressure. A suitable Lysmer boundary condition has been
incorporated to truncate the boundaries of infinite soil domain. The entire analysis has been done
by considering the ageing effect of concrete as well as incorporating the concept of soil structure
interaction using direct method in time domain. The ageing effect of concrete has been used by
introducing the term degradation index ( dgi ) in the constitutive matrix and the response of the
dam-foundation couple system has been estimated at different ages after construction. A
mathematical formulation to estimate the degraded strength of concrete has been used and the
corresponding displacement and stresses at different node are calculated. This technique is based
on direct method which has already been validated by Burman.at.al, (2012). The direct method
technique proposed for soil-structure interaction analysis in time domain does not requires any
Fourier transform or convolution integrals to determine the interaction forces at the dam
foundation interface. It also economic in terms of saving computer memory storage as well as
time that is required for performing analysis.
4.2 VALIDATION OF PROPOSED METHOD
The result obtained by analyzing the present model are compared with the results obtained by
analysis of dam model (Fig:1)by yazdchi.at.al (1999) against Koyna earthquake. Yazdchi.et.al
solved this problem considering the coupled (FEM-BEM) method. They included the concept of
viscous damping with damping ratio of 0.05. More over the hydrodynamic pressure was
incorporated in the analysis by the added mass concept proposed by westergaard (1933). When
the same model is analyzed by the proposed scheme, the effect of hydrodynamic pressure force
and the viscous damping are considered in the same way. The present model is analyzed by
Finite element technique using direct method in time domain. The dashpots incorporated acts as
a viscous damper and it is used to represent the semi-infinite soil domain. In spite of the
difference between the solutions method adopted by Yazdchi model, the proposed model yield
similar horizontal displacement pattern at the crest level. The variation of displacement obtained

37
NITP- [1523010]
in both the model is very less. The maximum crest displacement obtained in both the model is
tabulated in Table:1.

Fig:4.1 The geometry of dam-foundation prototype

Table:4.1 Validation table for proposed model


The slight discrepancy between the result in both cases may be due to the following reasons:
1) Implementation of different solution technique and numerical tools for the estimation of
response of coupled dam-foundation system.
2) Different mesh size considered for the dam model.

38
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4.3 ANALYSIS OF DAM STRUCTURE
The concrete gravity dam model developed is a prototype of Koyna gravity dam and it has been
analyzed against koyna earthquake (1967). The displacement and stresses (minor and major) are
evaluated under given dynamic loading data and proposed suitable boundary condition. The
contour plot of the stresses has been done for each and every nodes of the dam-foundation
system where the principal stresses were maximum and minimum.
The response has been estimated using soil-structure interaction effect along with the
introduction of the degradation index in the constitutive matrix which changes with the life of the
concrete dam and is therefore instrumental in estimating the behavior of gravity dam. This
degradation index varies from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates freshly prepared concrete or no
degradation of concrete and 1 indicate complete degradation.
The loading applied to the dam are both static as well as dynamic. The self weight of the dam is
static load while the hydrodynamic load from the reservoir generated due to seismic acceleration
is dynamic in nature which in dependent on time.
The entire analysis is divided into two parts:
(i) First part refer to free field analysis where the dam structure part is removed from the
foundation part and the analysis is performed only for the soil domain. This method is
based on soil structure interaction method and thus we can estimate the interaction force
at the common nodes of dam and foundation domain. This interaction force obtained is
used to estimate the free field displacement.
(ii) The second part refers to the estimation of absolute displacement of the dam structure
due to applied dynamic loading and the interaction force obtained.
The Koyna dam is located about 200 kilometers south of Mumbai, in the state of Maharashtra on
the western side of India. It was constructed in 1962.

39
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The input seismic acceleration given is

0.6

Acceleration in g 0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (second)

Fig.4.2. Horizontal accelerogram of Koyna earthquake, December 11, 1967


The displacement, principal stresses p1 (maximum tensile and minimum compressive) and p2
(maximum compressive and minimum tensile) developed in the Koyna dam due to Koyna
earthquake shown in (Fig.4.2), with design life of 100 years with HCM degradation are plotted in
Fig. 4.3 and Fig. 4.4 respectively. The optimum mesh size taken for the dam is
5(horizontal)*8(vertical) and for the foundation part the mesh size of 15(horizontal)*5(vertical)
had been found suitable for analysis. Fig 4.3 shows the comparison of crest displacement for
freshly prepared concrete and the displacement of crest after 25, 50, 75 years of construction.

DISPLACEMENT VS TIME
1.50E-01
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

1.00E-01

5.00E-02
No degradation
0.00E+00
After 25 years of construction
-5.00E-02
After 50 years of construction
-1.00E-01 After 75 years of construction
-1.50E-01

-2.00E-01
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Fig.4.3 Displacement graph at node A.

40
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From the Fig 4.3 it is observed that the crest displacement increases with increases in the age of
concrete and this is due to various environmental effect on the dam structure. Even the ageing
leads to the material degradation leading to decrease in the stress carrying capacity of the
structure and thus the displacement increases with the age of concrete.
It is observed that the degradation increase with the age of concrete and hence the damage also
increases. As a result the displacement increases with age and the stress carrying capacity
decreases. The stress contour has also been plotted at the time interval when the stresses
developed during the analysis is maximum or minimum.

MAJOR-PRINCIPAL STRESS VS TIME


3.00E+01
MAJOR-PRINCIPAL STREE

2.50E+01

2.00E+01
No Degradation
1.50E+01
(MPa)

After 25 years of construction

1.00E+01 After 50 years of construction


After 75 years of construction
5.00E+00

0.00E+00
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
-5.00E+00

Fig.4.4 major principal stress at node A


From Fig 4.4 it have been observed that the major principal stress was maximum for freshly
prepared concrete as compared to the stress carried out after 25,50 and 75 years of construction.
The comparison table for the stress for the concrete at different ages at node A is shown in table
4.2 below. From the table it is observed that the stress carrying capacity reduces with increase in
the age of the dam.

41
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Major principal stress Minor principal stress
Time Magnitude Time Magnitude
(sec) (MPa) (sec) (MPa)
No degradation 4.35 27.15535 4.2 -21.17001
After 25 years of construction 4.04 15.46129 3.88 -12.21683
After 50 years of construction 3.7 9.40394 3.52 -8.326492
After 75 years of construction 4.05 11.22705 4.26 -12.52619

Table 4.2 Comparison of major and minor principal stresses at different ages of dam structure at
node A under the seismic excitation applied.

MINOR-PRINCIPAL STRESS VS TIME


0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
5.00E+00
MINOR-PRINCIPAL STRESS (MPa)

0.00E+00

-5.00E+00 No degradation
After 25 years of construction
-1.00E+01 After 50 years of construction
After 75 years of construction
-1.50E+01

-2.00E+01

-2.50E+01

Fig.4.5 Minor principal stress at node A

From the fig 4.5 it is observed that the minor principal stress is maximum at 4.2 sec for freshly
prepared concrete. A contour plot for major and minor principal stresses has been done in fig 4.6
to fig 4.09 according to the table 4.2 for the time interval for which the stresses is maximum.

42
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Fig 4.6 Contour for sigma1 (left) at time 4.35 sec and sigma3 (right) at time 4.2 just after
construction.

Fig 4.7 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 4.04 sec and sigma3 (right) at 3.88 sec after 25 years
of construction.

43
NITP- [1523010]
Fig 4.8 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 3.70 sec and sigma3 (right) at 3.52 sec after 50 years
of construction.

Fig 4.9 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 4.05 sec and sigma3 (right) at 4.26 sec after 75 years
of construction.

44
NITP- [1523010]
From the Fig 4.6 the contour for stresses reveals that the maximum tensile stress appears around
the heel as well as opposite to the neck region on the vertical upstream face of the structure. It is
also observed that the neck and the toe both experiences maximum compressive stress. The
maximum compressive stress is developed near the heel portion of the dam.

From the contour Fig 4.7 it is observed that the maximum compressive stresses are accumulated
near the heel of the dam. Just opposite to the neck, on the vertical upstream side of the dam
experiences the accumulation of compressive stress.

From Fig 4.8 the contour stress reveals that when the major principal stress reaches irs
maximum value the neck and toe region experiences maximum tensile stress. At the same instant
of time, the compressive stress gets accumulated near the heel region of the dam as well as at the
vertical upstream face of the dam. Further it is observed that when the minor principal stress
reaches its maximum value, there is an accumulation of compressive stress at the neck region.
Also tensile stress develops near the heel of the dam at the same time.

45
NITP- [1523010]
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

5.1 CONCLUSION

The following conclusion has been drawn based on the present work:

The present work deals with the methodology to determine the response of concrete
gravity dam using soil structure interaction. A degradation model proposed by Gogoi and
Maith, 2007 has been used in interaction analysis. This degradation model varies with
time and describes the ageing effect of the concrete dam with ages.
With increase in the value of degradation index the natural frequency of the structure
decreases.
The effect of hydrodynamic pressure can be simulated with added mass approach
proposed by Westergaard, 1933 which is simple and effective.
With increase in the age of the dam the displacement increases, as the concrete suffers
degradation due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions.
From the contour plot, it is very clear that whenever the major principal stress reaches its
optimum value, the neck region of the dam experiences highest tensile stress. It has also
observed that when the minor principal stress are lowest the compressive stress
accumulates near the neck region of the dam.
The use of soil-structure interaction effect in the present analysis of concrete gravity dam
proves to be more effective algorithm.

46
NITP- [1523010]
5.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

An effective solution scheme has been used to analyze the dam-foundation coupled system
considering the material to be linear and elastic. The formulation used is based on direct method
and is very effective in determining the response with greater accuracy. However there are
certain aspects still exist that needs to be consider for future research work.

The effect of degradation has been considered without considering the formation of
cracks in it. The degradation of concrete also induces the crack formation and hence a
study regarding the crack formation and propagation needs to be carried out.

The present analysis is done considering the material to be linear and elastic and hence
consideration of material non linearity for both isotropic and anisotropic material using
direct method of analysis may be the subject of further research

The thermal stress gets developed due to hydration of concrete and it may affect the
ageing of the dam. In the present study the thermal stress has not been considered.

Present study deals with the evaluation of isotropic degradation index, which is
considered similar at each and every point of the concrete. There is a further scope of
evaluating the orthotropic degradation index.

The present study is based on 2-dimensional problem, which may be extended to 3-


dimensional problem with proper implementation of boundary condition.

In present work foundation is considered to be flexible and is limited to be elastic and


vary linearly. The foundation may be considered to vary beyond elastic limit.
Considering the foundation to vary non linearly is a scope of future study.

Earthquake vulnerability study can be done based on the method used to determine the
dynamic behavior of the ageing concrete gravity dam.

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NITP- [1523010]
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