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DISSERTATION REPORT

ON

COUPLED SYSTEM USING DIRECT METHOD IN TIME DOMAIN

of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

With Specialization

in

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

Submitted by

&

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY-PATNA

PATNA-800005, INDIA

JUNE, 2017

1

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CANDIDATES DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the entire work which is being presented in this dissertation report entitled

DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF AN AGED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM-FOUNDATION

COUPLED SYSTEM USING DIRECT METHOD IN TIME DOMAIN, for the partial

fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF TECHNOLOGY with

specialization in STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING , submitted in the Department of Civil

Engineering, National Institute of Technology- Patna, is an authentic record of my own work

carried out for the period from August, 2016 to June, 2017, under the guidance of Dr. AJAY

KUMAR # and Dr. AVIJIT BURMAN # ,

Patna.)

The matter emboided in this report has not been submitted anywhere by me for the award of any

other degree or diploma of this Institute or any other University/Institute.

Date: 15th June, 2017

Place: Patna

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the above statement/declaration made by the candidate is correct to the best

of my knowledge and belief.

Place: Patna

Date: 15th June, 2017

Assistant Professor Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,

National Institute of Technology, Patna. National Institute of Technology, Patna.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my guide Dr. Ajay Kumar, (Assistant Professor,

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology-Patna), who has always

supported me and guided me at every step whenever I faced any difficulty. The success of this

dissertation is largly attributed to my guide Dr. Avijit Burman, (Assistant Professor, Department

of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology-Patna.). He always encouraged me and

guided me to complete this project thesis. I have been really blessed to have him as my

supervisor/guide and mentor and would like to express my deepest gratitude to him for his

tremendous support and help. Without his support, guidance and encouragement this dissertation

would have never been materialized.

I also thank all the staff members of the Civil Engineering Department and Management for

their support in providing for computational facilities in the centres lab. I take this opportunity

to express my gratitude to my family, my colleague and all the people who have been

instrumental for the successful completion of this project.

Last but not the least I would like to express my thanks to the Almighty for making me capable

to complete the dissertation on time.

Place: Patna

Date: 15/06/2017 ARUNODAY KR. CHOUDHARY

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ABSTRACT

The dynamic response of a concrete gravity dam-foundation coupled system has been calculated

using finite element method. The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) as well as the ageing

effect of concrete has been considered to calculate the seismic response using direct method in

time domain. The dam-foundation coupled system has been analyzed considering it as a two

dimensional plane-strain model. The present study deals with the seismic behavior of dam-

structure at different ages, as we know that the concrete degrades with time due to various Hgro-

Chemo-Mechanical effects. This results in decrease in the strength of concrete and hence it

become important to consider the reduced strength to assess its behavior at different ages from

the time of construction. The variation of strength of concrete at different ages after construction

can be predicted by the curve-fitting analysis, which was carried out by Washa.et.al in 1989. The

degraded constitutive matrix is used to analysis the degraded behavior of concrete at different

ages. For an effective boundary condition, dashpots have been attached in vertical direction of

soil domain while the bottom horizontal has been fixed. The entire dam foundation coupled

system has been modeled as liner, elastic, homogeneous and isotropic material. In order to

achieve greater accuracy, the results obtained in Free-field analysis have also been added to

those developed during the complete analysis of dam-foundation coupled system. This proposed

algorithm has been used and simulated for both the cases of two published problem and the result

obtained have been found to be in close agreement. The present study investigates in finding the

displacement, strain and stresses against the Koyna earthquake data at every nodes and plot the

stress contour at the critical node.

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CONTENTS

Page no.

Candidates declaration i

Certificate ii

Acknowledgement ii

Abstract iii

Contents iv

List of Figures Vi

List of Tables Viii

1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Importance Of The Study 2

1.2 Objective Of The Study 2

1.3 Scope Of The Study 3

1.4 Proposed Study 3

1.5organization Of The Text 3

2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4

3. ANALYTICAL MODELING 19

3.1 Dimensions Of The Structure 19

4.1 Validation 31

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5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 62

REFERENCES 64

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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2

Fig 2

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1.1 Stress, strain and damage coefficient in compression 29

8

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A concrete gravity dam is a huge structure built generally to hold the water reservoir for various

purposes and to resist the unpredictable earthquake in seismic prone areas. The failure of

concrete gravity dam may leads to serious consequences of sudden release of massive water

causing several losses of habitats in the vicinity. During an earthquake the dam is subjected to

hydro-dynamic pressure which is basically a time dependent phenomenon. The seismic response

of concrete gravity dam has been in the interest area of researchers because of its major concern

during earthquake. The dynamic response of concrete dam depends mainly on the characteristic

behavior of ground motion, the nature and material of dam structure, the reservoir and the soil

surrounding it. Hence there is a need for design of safe structure which can sustain the ground

acceleration without causing much damage to the structure. The seismic safety evaluation of a

huge concrete gravity dam subjected to severe earthquake excitation is really a challenging task

for the engineers.

During the Kobe earthquake 1995, the damaged sustained in the dam highlights that the response

of the entire structure not only depends on the response of the super structure, but also on the

response of the sub structure and the soil or ground as well. Hence it become rational to

implement the effect of soil-structure interaction for heavy structures like concrete gravity dam.

The present study incorporates the effect of soil structure interaction in estimating the dynamic

behavior of concrete gravity dam which is very important in terms of accuracy of the result

obtained. The affect of ageing has also been incorporated as it is very well known fact that the

concrete losses strength due to material degradation caused by various hygro-chemo-mechanical

actions. A suitable boundary condition proposed by Lysmer has also been considered to

represent the semi infinite soil domain. The present analysis is based on finite element technique

using direct method in time domain. A suitable programming has to be developed for analysis

based on finite element technique, since the scope of obtaining the result experimentally is not

possible. The importance of soil structure interaction effect and the ageing effect of the concrete

has been discussed below:

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NITP- [1523010]

Importance of soil-structure Interaction:

Involvement of soil structure interaction may be very significant in estimating the dynamic

response of the structure. Avoidance of this interaction may be advantageous in terms of

computational cost and utilization of computer memory but its introduction leads to the greater

accuracy of the result. When the structural model is very massive and stiff such as high rise

buildings, concrete gravity dam, nuclear power plant, nuclear containment structure etc with

considering the foundation soil to be flexible then the motion of the structure will be

significantly different than the free field surface motion of the structure. The seismic waves are

time dependent and the vibration of the structure increases with decreasing the stiffness of the

soil domain, it may be realized that estimating the response of a structure considering the

foundation to be fixed leads to serious error. Hence , it is important to consider the soil structure

interaction effect as it is simple and makes the result more accurate.

The ageing of concrete may be defined as the total or partial loss of its strength and stiffness via

slow progressive and irreversible process occurring over a long period of time. The ageing

process may directly affect the dam by changing its material property, leading to loss of its

resistance capacity. Dam ageing is a growing concern as the average age of the dam in the world

and the number of older dam is increasing. A concrete gravity dam is designed for a life time

more than 100 years. The main purpose of such dam is to hold the water in reservoir for its use in

various purposes like generating electricity. The dam face remains in continuous contact with the

water throughout its life time as a result the concrete faces degradation due to various hygro-

chemo-mechanical actions. The continuous degradation of concrete leads to change in the

engineering property of concrete like strength which may affect the structural resistance, seismic

behavior, location and mode of failure. Hence it becomes important to consider the effect of

degradation of concrete for the analysis of huge dam-foundation structure.

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1.2 OBJECTIVEOF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to estimate the dynamic response of concrete gravity dam under

seismic excitation. The main objective of the study is given below:

coupled system

Study the influence of concrete degradation (ageing) due to hygro-chemo-mechanical

actions (using the method suggested by Gogoi and Maity, 2007) on dynamic behavior of

dam-foundation coupled system.

Implementation of an efficient truncation boundary condition considering viscous

dashpots at the boundary.

Development of a direct finite element scheme for the solution of the dam-foundation

coupled system.

This study report involves the following;

Using soil structure interaction effect in estimating the dynamic response of structure.

Incorporating the ageing effect by introducing the degradation index in constitutive

matrix.

Linear analysis of dam-foundation coupled system using direct method in time domain.

The thesis is sub-divided into 5 chapters. Chapter 1 explains the importance of the matter

introduced in the present study, objective and scope of the study. Chapter 2 presents the literature

review available on this topic. The analytical modeling of the problem considered and theoretical

formulation is elaborated in chapter 3. Chapter 4 throws insight to the results obtained in the

present study followed by the conclusions and discussion presented in chapter 5.

11

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The structural system consisting of more than one component always has independent response.

A concrete gravity dam consists of reservoir, foundation below and the structure itself (Fig.2.1).

Dam located in earthquake prone area causes severe damage under repeated earthquake and

cause loss to mankind. Hence it becomes important to study the effect of seismic response of

such heavy concrete gravity dam. Many approaches has been made to determine the response

and the conservative results have also been obtained, while others have also formulated more

complicated scheme to estimate the response result more accurate. The ability of computing at

present leads to development of numerical analysis technique to represent the physical behavior

of the concrete gravity dam more accurately. Much analysis procedure has been carried out

considering the base to be fixed and water in the reservoir as added mass. Since, this does not

reflect the actual behavior of dam foundation system, analysis considering the foundation to be

flexible and introducing the concept of soil structure interaction has been devised. The accuracy

of the results obtained depends on the modeling of the structure, selection of various parameters

to represent the actual field condition and the implementation of the numerical scheme.

Reservoir

Dam

Foundation

The present study traces the development of various analysis procedure used for concrete gravity

dam. A brief review on traditional design of earlier dam is presented. The survey of different

technique of modeling and idealization of dam foundation system is discussed.

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2.1 Traditional Static Analysis and Design

As per the design method of U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Design Standards No.2

(1965, 66) and Design manual (1976), the dynamic response of the elastic dam foundation

system, water reservoir was not recognized. According to the Indian standard code (IS 1893-

1984) the hydrodynamic pressure can be determined by the relation established by Zangar (1952)

using an electric analog:

p C s h f H f

(2.1)

h = the seismic coefficient,

f = the density of water and

Hf = the depth of water in the reservoir.

The main demerit of static design procedure is that it does not account for the random earthquake

motion. The inertia force introduced by the seismic waves is applied at the center of the concrete

gravity dam. This method also discards the consideration of the elastic behavior of the dam

foundation system, damping capacity of the dam and time varying excitation force. Despite of all

these disadvantages, this method is still employed because of its simplicity. A large variation has

been observed between the results obtained by the use of standard static method and the result

obtained by the proper dynamic method (US Army Corps of Engineers 1977).

Fenves & Chopra (1987) proposed a simplified response spectrum method to determine the

structural response, in the fundamental vibration mode against the horizontal component of

ground motion. This procedure can be used to estimate the compressive stress and tensile stress

at location above the base of the dam. The method developed is basically hand calculated

alternative method to general analytical procedure.

Chandrashaker & Humar (1993) in case of kyona showed in his result that the maximum stresses

are developed at the upstream and downstream faces at the upper part of the gravity dam.

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2.4 Soil-Structure Interaction Effects

Involvement of soil structure interaction may be very significant in estimating the dynamic

response of the structure. Avoidance of this interaction may be advantageous in terms of

computational cost and utilization of computer memory but its introduction leads to the greater

accuracy of the result. When the structural model is very massive and stiff such as high rise

buildings, concrete gravity dam, nuclear power plant, nuclear containment structure etc with

considering the foundation soil to be flexible then the motion of the structure will be

significantly different than the free field surface motion of the structure. The seismic waves are

time dependent and the vibration of the structure increases with decreasing the stiffness of the

soil domain, it may be realized that estimating the response of a structure considering the

foundation to be fixed leads to serious error. However, dams are generally constructed on hard

rock strata where the impedance ratio (Ef/Ed) varies from 2.0 to , where Ef and Ed are the

modulus of elasticity of the foundation and the dam respectively.

Wilson (1969) first solved the problem on a layered foundation by formulating a large planar

mesh using finite element and analyses the response through step by step integration procedure.

Vaish & Chopra (1974), Chopra et al. 1980, Hall & Chopra 1982, Saini & Garg 1997 and Zhang

et al. 1999, Ghanaat 1993, Tan & Chopra 1995, Guan et al. 1996, 1997, uses the soil structure

interaction method of analysis by sub structured method or direct method (Bycroft & Mork 1987,

Liou & Huang 1994 and Kim & Yun 2000).

(Chopra et al. 1980 and Chopra & Chakrabarti 1981) considered a viscoelastic halfspace

idealization which may be appropriate if the dam site consist of similar rock extending to great

depth.

Chopra & Chakrabarti (1981) formulated the substructure technique inorder to couple indirectly

the dam-reservoir-foundation system using analysis in frequency domain. The hydrodynamic

pressure was determined analytically assuming the upstream face of the dam structure to be

14

NITP- [1523010]

straight and vertical. The analysis is based on the idealization of two dimensional finite element

system to represent the geometry of the dam.

(Fenves & Chopra 1984) introduced the interaction effect of unbounded medium which accounts

for the complex value and frequency dependent stiffness matrices.

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CHAPTER 3

DAM

Height of the dam =103.0m

Width of dam =70m

Height of crest from neck point A =36.5m

Width of crest =14.8m

Height of soil foundation =100m

Width of soil foundation =350m

The width of the soil domain shown in fig: below is of finite length of 350m but the presence

of dashpots in the vertical section of soil domain is the representation of semi infinite soil

domain. Dashpots have been attached in order to absorb the travelling waves generated

during seismic analysis.

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3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTY

DAM

The modulus of elasticity =31500 MPa

Poissons ratio =0.235

Mass density =2415.816 kg/m3

Damping ratio =0.03

FOUNDATION

Modulus of elasticity =1.7500MPa

Mass density =1800 kg/m3

These values are considered following the works of Gogoi and Maity (2007).

3.3 2D MODELING

The structural dam system is a continuous long body whose geometry as well as loading

condition do not vary along the length, hence it is analyzed using two dimensional plane strain

formulation. The structural system considered for the present investigation is similar along the

longitudinal direction; it can be analyzed by this idealization appropriately. The entire dam and

foundation system have been modeled as linear, elastic materials and damping effect have also

been considered. The analysis of dam foundation structure has been done using finite element

technique using direct method in time domain.

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3.4 THEORETICAL FORMULATION

3.4.1 INTRODUCTION

The seismic safety analysis of the aged concrete gravity dam is important to predict the

dynamic behavior of the entire structure during earthquake, so that necessary measures can be

taken to withstand further earthquakes. If the evaluation of the result obtained is accurate then

appropriate and suitable measure may be taken. The accuracy of the method improves depending

on the approximation used in the development of the theoretical mathematical modeling of the

dam-foundation coupled system. During the service period the dam faces severe environmental

effects which lead to loss in the strength and durability of the concrete. Ageing of dam is also

another important criterion as we know that concrete loses its strength slowly during its life time

due to material degradation. Since the dam remains in constant contact with the water in

reservoir there is a greater possibility to form porosity in concrete due to hydo-chemo-

mechanical effect and hence it is important to consider the degradation effect of concrete. An

approach is made to incorporate the isotropic degradation index into constitutive matrix to

include the effect of degradation owing to various environmental effects. Both the dam and the

soil foundation is modeled and analyzed by finite element techniques.

The soil structure interaction effect is considered to analyze the proposed model. The solution is

obtained by performing the free field analysis first to get the interaction forces at common nodes

and then the desired results are furnished using these interaction forces using direct method. The

theoretical formulation of dam-foundation coupled system is introduced into two parts. Part A

and B contain the formulation of aged concrete gravity dam and the coupled dam-foundation

system respectively.

The structure is analyzed by discretizing it into smaller subdivision of finite dimension known as

finite element. The dam and the foundation are discretized both into eight noded isoparametic

elements. The isoparametric element has been oriented in the natural coordinate system (,) and

has been transformed to Cartesian coordinate system using the matrix of jacobian. The

elements in both the above said coordinate systems are shown in the following Fig: below .

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y 4 7(0,1)

4 3 (-1,1) 3 (1,1)

7

.

8 8 (-1,0) 6 (1,0)

1 2

5 (-1,-1) (1,-1)

x

5 (0, -1) 2

1

Fig. Transformation of Cartesian coordinates to Natural coordinates for eight noded quadrilateral

element

The dam and foundation are discretized using eight noded quadrilateral element as shown in the

Fig. above. The shape function has been derived from an interpolation polynomial in terms of

natural coordinates so that the displacement can be represented as a function of nodal

displacement. The interpolation polynomial has the following form as given below:

u ( , ) A0 A1 A2 A3 2 A4 A5 2 A6 2 A7 2 ( 3.1)

The shape functions that has been derived from the interpolation polynomial are as follows

N di

1

1 i 1 i i i 1 I = 1,2,3,4

4

N di

1

2

1 i 1 2 i = 5,7 (3.2 )

N di

1

2

1 i 1 2 i = 6,8

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The accuracy of the shape functions has been checked from the relations:

N di N di

N di 1, 0 and 0 (3.3)

The displacements u and v has been expressed using the interpolation functions as

The shape functions used for the dam, Ndi are functions of the natural coordinates , . Here, i

represents the node numbers. Since the element used in present model is isoparametric, the same

interpolation functions can be used to represent the geometry in terms of the Cartesian

coordinates xi and yi as below

x N di xi and y N di yi (3.5)

Similarly, the pressure p can be expressed by the nodal pressure, pi through the shape functions

as below

p N ri pi (3.6)

The relationship between the two coordinate systems may be computed by using the chain rule

of partial differentiation as:

x y

x

J x (3.7)

x y

y y

where [J] is the Jacobian matrix. The derivative operators with respect to Cartesian coordinate

system may be represented as

J

x 1 (3.8)

y

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PART A

The steps for the formulation of the structural part are mentioned below

(b) Relate between Cartesian and natural coordinates

(c) Strain displacement relation

(d) Evaluation of degradation index

(e) Modification of constitutive matrix by incorporating degradation index

(f) Building mass, stiffness and damping matrices

(g) Evaluation of hydrodynamic pressure from the reservoir.

(h) Selecting suitable numerical scheme for analysis using direct method in time domain

(i) Computation of displacement, stresses

The shape function for the element chosen and the relation between the Cartesian and natural

coordinate system has been discussed in section 3.4.3 and 3.4.4 respectively.

For stress analysis problem using finite element technique, the relation between strain and

displacement is more important for evaluation. For two dimensional plane strain problem the

generalized strain displacement relation is shown below

u 1 u v

2 2

x

x 2 x x

v 1 u

2 2

v

y (3.9)

y 2 y y

v u u u v v

xy

x y x y x y

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Using eq. (3.4 ) the elemental strain is given as

u v

B1 u B1 v

x x

(3.10)

u v

B2 u B2 v

y y

where, [B1] and [B2] represents the derivative w.r.t x and y respectively of the shape function

[Nd]. The vectors u and v is the nodal displacement vector in x and y directions respectively.

The vector of strains at any point inside an element, may be expressed in terms of nodal

displacement as

B0 d (3.11)

Where, [B0] is the strain displacement matrix and

u

d is the nodal displacement vector.

v

The dam structure is similar along its length in terms of geometry and loading condition, the

assumption of formulating the dam using plane strain is considerable. It provide displacement

perpendicular to the cross-section of the dam and do not result in strain. The entire structural

system is considered to analyze using two dimensional plane strain formulations, the following

mathematical relates as below

z zx yz 0 (3.12)

Hence, for elastic isotropic material, the constitutive relation in two dimensions is written as:

D (3.13)

Where,

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x , y , xy and x , y , xy

T T

are the vector stresses

and strain respectively and [D] is the constitutive matrix as below

1 0

Ed

D 1 0 (3.14)

1 1 2 0

0 1 2

For material with Ed as dam modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio .

The isotropic damage model used to measure the degradation of concrete has been derived by

following the extensive work of Ghrib & tinawi (1995). The basic concept of degradation has

been adopted from the fact that concrete loses strength due to loss of net area capable of

supporting the stresses developed due to various loading imposed. The following analogy has

been given by Ghrib and Tinawi to determine the orthotropic degradation index of concrete.

i id n

d gi 1 1 i (3.15)

i i

complete degradation of concrete. The suffix index i= 1,2 corresponds to Cartesian axes x and y

in two dimension. The effective constitutive matrix for plane strain material matrix is given as

1 2 1 2 0

1

Dd Ed

1 22 0

1 1 2 1 2 (3.16)

0 0

1 2 21 22 / 21 22

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If dg1 = dg2 = dg, the isotropic degradation model is expressed as

Dd 1 d g 2 D (3.17)

It is a very well known fact that the concrete gains strength with age and various relation has

been formulated to predict the gain in strength for a short period of time. Till date no such

relation exists to predict the strength of concrete at any age in its life time. Generally, empirical

relation exists whose results are based on the experimental results. The concrete gravity dam is a

very huge structure and no such experimental results exist or can be performed to estimate the

strength of concrete. The main difficulty that arises in testing the mass concrete is the use of

152mm maximum size of aggregate. However , mix design of mass concrete is reported using

similar aggregate size having same fineness modulus as in mass concrete by Andrade et al 1981,

Bittencourt et al. 2001. Hence, the concrete mix consisting of two different size of aggregate but

having same fineness modulus and geometrical gradation as in mass concrete has been used by

Washa et al.1989 and performed experimental procedure to estimate the variation of strength up

to fifty years. The present formulation used is based on the experimental results obtained during

the fifty years of experimental work of Washa et el.1989. The degradation index obtained also

consider the fact of gain in strength of concrete with ages.

The degradation of concrete is mainly due to formation of porosity due to various hydro-chemo-

mechanical actions in the surrounding environment. Hence the total porosity has been considered

as a measure to determine the degradation parameter. The total porosity is calculated by

summing up the initial porosity( ), the porosity due to matrix dissolution (c),and the

mechanical porosity(m). Mathematically the total porosity is expressed as below

0 c m (3.18)

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The parameter m is obtained as

m 1 0 c d m (3.19)

Where, dm is the scalar degradation parameter which is basically a strain based exponential

degradation function and it was proposed by Simo and Ju (1987). The function is given as

c

0

0

dm as 1 c c e (3.20)

Where, 0 = ft /E0, initial threshold degradation and is an integral variable representing the

current damage threshold which depends on the loading history. ft is the static tensile strength and E0

is the modulus of elasticity of an un-degraded material before imposing any mechanical load.

c and c are material parameters obtained experimentally by (Bangert et al. 2003). Simo and

Ju (1987), considered the value of as to be 1 which is the maximum degradation allowable due to

mechanically induced porosity.

The kinetic law for the ageing process may be stated as per Atkin (1994) with = 0 for a freshly

laid concrete and = 1 for its completely aged state.

1

1 m (3.21)

a

Where, is the derivative of w.r.t time and a is the characteristic time representing the

ageing of structure that should be assumed equal to the design life of the structure. Integrating

equation 3.21 we get,

t

( )

a

1 e (3.22)

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NITP- [1523010]

t

( )

a

d g 1 e (3.23)

The reaction extent, at a constant ambient humidity for given characteristic time, r for a

t

r

1 e (3.24)

r

a

1 d g (1 ) (3.25)

Em = (1-dg)E0 . (3.26)

E0 is the elastic modulus of concrete witout degradation. Hence from equation 3.26 and 3.25 we

get

ta

a

Em 1 E0 (3.27)

Obtaining the value of degraded elastic modulus Em we can obtain the isotropic degradation

index, dg as given below

E

dg 1 m (3.28)

E0

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The concrete gains strength with age is a well known fact and its strength at any age during its

life span can be predicted by the mathematical relation given by Washa et al.(1989). The relation

had been obtained from the curve fitting of the experimental data. The relation is as follows

The compressive strength obtained in in SI unit and ta is age of concrete in years. The static

modulus of elasticity of concrete can be obtained in SI units as per (Neville and Brooks 1987) as

E0 4733 f t a (3.30)

Knowing the strain-displacement matrix, the stiffness matrix of the given quadrilateral element is

derived by using the following relation:

27

NITP- [1523010]

1 1

[ K ]e t

1 1

[ B ] T [ D ] [ B ] J dr ds

(3.31)

Where, t = the thickness of element,

B= the strain-displacement matrix and

J=s the Jacobian matrix.

A consistent element mass matrix is written as

1 1

[ Me ]

1 1

[ N ] T [ N ] J dr ds [ assuming constant density] (3.32)

{N i }T [ N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 ]

Where,

N i = the shape function.

Element damping matrix

The damping matrix can be obtained from element mass matrix and stiffness matrix by the

relation given below:

C K M (3.33)

Where, and are the corresponding stiffness and mass proportional damping constants.

e DB0 d e (3.34)

Using equation 3.34 the stress at gauss point are obtained. The nodal stresses are then obtained by

using local stress smoothing technique (Hinton and Campbell, 1974).

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The stresses has been calculated at four Gauss points shown in the fig below, at at point III, r = s =1

and = = 1 3 . Hence the proportionality factor becomes 3 ; i.e.,

r 3 and s 3 (3.35)

Stresses at any point P within the element are evaluated by theusing the usual shape function as

P N di

i for i = 1,2,3,4 (3.36)

1

N di 1 r 1 s the bilinear shape functions written in terms of r and s rather

4

than and .

has been evaluated at r and s coordinates of point P within the element. Let the point P

N di

coincides with the corner 1. Inorder to calculate stress x1 at corner 1 from x values at the four

Gauss points, following equation is used

=1

4 7

r=1

. 3 =1

IV . s

. III s=1

8 r

. 6

I . P

. II

1 2

5

Fig. 3.4 Natural coordinate systems used in extrapolation of stresses from Gauss points

29

NITP- [1523010]

1

1 3 2 0.5 1 3 2 0.5

2

0.5

1 3 2 0.5

1 3 2

3

1 3 2

0.5

1 3 2 0.5

I

4 0.5

1 3 2 0.5

1 3 2

II

(3.38)

5 1 3 4 1 3 4

1 3 4 1 3 4

III

6

1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4

1 3 4 IV

7

1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4

1 3 4

8

1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 4

1 3 4

Finding the average of resultants of all elements meeting at a common node the stress can be

smoothened.

PART B

The dam foundation system is analyzed using direct method considering the effect of soil

structure interaction. The entire dam foundation is analyzed considering it as a single system.

The mode of vibration is same for both soil as well as dam. In order to increase the accuracy of

the result the analysis has been subdivided into two parts. Part one consist of free field analysis

in which interaction force from the soil domain has been estimated at the common nodes due to

seismic loading. These interaction forces together with the soil have been used to estimate the

behavior of the dam under given loading condition.

Mu Cu Ku M ug F f (3.39)

30

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Where, M = the mass matrix,

u = displacement vector,

The formation of the stiffness and mass matrix of any model system depends upon the type of

element chosen. After calculating the soil interaction force, Ff , the dynamic behavior of the

structural system is obtained from Eq. (3.39). The analysis performed is based on the direct

method in time domain, there is no requirement for the convergence of result and thus is more

economic in terms of saving the computer memory, time of analysis and gives more accurate

results.

Mathematical Model of coupled dam-foundation system

The dam-foundation coupled system vibrates together under seismic excitation and soil structure

interaction effect has been used to determine the response. The most common SSI approach is

based on the idea of added motion formulation which is easy to formulate and is used in linear

structural analysis problem. This formulation is valid even for free field motion under seismic

waves. To incorporate the SSI problem the following system as shown in the fig below is

considered. The absolute displacement of the structure is subdivided into two parts. First is the

free field displacement and the second is the added displacement. The free field displacement has

been calculated by removing the dam part and only analyzing the soil part under seismic load.

The added part of displacement has been estimated by carrying the analysis of coupled system.

U = v +u

Structure U = Absolute Displacements

v = Free Field Displacements

u = Added Displacements

Common Nodes

Soil media

31

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Fig. Soil- structure interaction model

Three sets of node points has been considered in the present SSI model viz. the common nodes

present in between the structure and the soil which is denoted by c; the nodes within the

structure as s and the nodes within the foundation as f.

The equation 3.39 can be written in the form given below

0 0 0 0

[ ] { } + [ ] { } + [ ] { }= [ ] (3.40)

0 0 0 0

{ }

Where, the stiffness and the mass at the common nodes are formed by the contributions from

both the structure (s) and foundation (f), and are given by:

M M s M f

cc cc cc = () + () K K s K f

(3.41)

cc cc cc

Free field displacement has been calculated in order to avoid solving the SSI problem directly.

The free-field displacements v, velocities and accelerations v ,has been used to designate the

free field solution. The absolute displacements U , velocities and accelerations U can be

formulated in terms of displacements u, and free-field displacements v as given below:

[ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ]

(3.42)

0 0 0

[ ] { } + [ ] { } + [ ] { } = R+F (3.43)

0 0 0

Where,

32

NITP- [1523010]

0 0 0

] { } (3.44)

R= [ ] { } [ ] { } [

0 0 0

0

And, F= [ ] (3.45)

0

{ }

This is a numerically cumbersome approach; hence there is a requirement of an alternative

approach to formulate the solution directly using absolute displacements of the structure. Free

field analysis has been done by considering the corresponding values of the displacement,

velocity and acceleration for the structural part to be zero. This involves the following change of

variables:

0 0 0

[ ] = [ ] + [ ]

[ ] = [ ] + [ ] [ ] = [ ] + [ ]

(3.46)

Free field displacements v, is calculated considering no structure to be present above the soil

domain. The foundation domain is subjected to seismic excitation and thus the free-field

displacement for the common and other foundation nodes are determined.

[ ] { } +[

] { } + [

] { } = [

]{ }

(3.47)

The free field response can be obtained from equation 3.47 and then the interaction force R is

calculated using Eq. 3.48

0 0 0 0 0 0

R= [ () 0] { } [ () 0] { } [ () 0] { }

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (3.48)

After obtaining the interaction forces R, the added responses of the dam and foundation domain

are calculated using Eq. (3.49)

0 0 0

[ ] { } + [

] { } + [ ] { } = R+F

0 0 0

(3.49)

3.4.5.3 FORMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE

33

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The geometry of dam and adjacent reservoir is shown in the fig below. The governing equation

for the hydrodynamic pressure is formulated mathematically by(Westergaard, 1933) as

2 p 0 (3.50)

2 2

Here, 2 2 is known as the Laplacian operator and p is the hydrodynamic pressure.

2

x y

y

p=0

Y=H

Dam

p=0

Surface

x

x=

an

Fig. Geometry of Reservoir domain

The solution of Laplace equation in equation 3.50 can be expressed in Eq. (3.51) with the

following assumptions:Fig. 3.5 Geometry of the Reservoir Domain

i. The bottom of the fluid domain is horizontal and rigid.

ii. The fluid domain extends to infinity and its motion is two dimensional.

iii. The fluid-structure interface is vertical.

p 2an H

1n1 e Hx cos

n y

n

H

2

n 1 n (3.51)

where, n

2n 1

2

p = Hydrodynamic pressure at the upstream face of the dam.

= The mass density of water.

a n = The magnitude of acceleration normal to the upstream face of the dam.

34

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y = The variation of distance in the vertical direction.

H = The height of water at the upstream side of the dam.

Lysmer and Kulhemeyer (1969) proposed a boundary condition that will represent the semi

infinite soil domain. The soil domain is attached to dashpots along the vertical sides and fixing

them on the other sides. This is a way to eliminate waves propagating outward from the

structure. His boundaries are derived for an elastic wave propagation problem.

C Ac (3.52)

Where, A = the cross section of the bar,

= the mass density and

c = the wave velocity

The wave velocity c that has to be selected according to the type of wave that has to be absorbed

(shear wave velocity Cs or compressional wave velocity Cp).

In two dimensional case equation 3.52 is represented in the following form given in equation

3.53 and 3.54 of damping coefficient cn and ct , in the normal and tangential direction

respectively.

C n A1 c p (3.53)

Ct A2 c s (3.54)

35

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The shear wave velocity Cs and compression wave velocity Cp is given by

G E 1

Cs and C p (3.56)

1 1 2

8 8

A1 = 15 (5 + 2 2 2 ) and A2 = 15 (3 + 2 2 ) (3.57)

(12 )

Where, 2 = 2(1

) , G is the shear modulus of the medium and is expressed as

E

G

21

(3.58)

This gives slightly better overall efficiency than the original Lysmer-Kulhemeyer (1969)

approach.

36

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In the present work, a set of computer programming has been developed to predict the dynamic

behavior of a concrete gravity dam lying over infinite soil media, subjected to seismic

acceleration and hydro dynamic pressure. A suitable Lysmer boundary condition has been

incorporated to truncate the boundaries of infinite soil domain. The entire analysis has been done

by considering the ageing effect of concrete as well as incorporating the concept of soil structure

interaction using direct method in time domain. The ageing effect of concrete has been used by

introducing the term degradation index ( dgi ) in the constitutive matrix and the response of the

dam-foundation couple system has been estimated at different ages after construction. A

mathematical formulation to estimate the degraded strength of concrete has been used and the

corresponding displacement and stresses at different node are calculated. This technique is based

on direct method which has already been validated by Burman.at.al, (2012). The direct method

technique proposed for soil-structure interaction analysis in time domain does not requires any

Fourier transform or convolution integrals to determine the interaction forces at the dam

foundation interface. It also economic in terms of saving computer memory storage as well as

time that is required for performing analysis.

4.2 VALIDATION OF PROPOSED METHOD

The result obtained by analyzing the present model are compared with the results obtained by

analysis of dam model (Fig:1)by yazdchi.at.al (1999) against Koyna earthquake. Yazdchi.et.al

solved this problem considering the coupled (FEM-BEM) method. They included the concept of

viscous damping with damping ratio of 0.05. More over the hydrodynamic pressure was

incorporated in the analysis by the added mass concept proposed by westergaard (1933). When

the same model is analyzed by the proposed scheme, the effect of hydrodynamic pressure force

and the viscous damping are considered in the same way. The present model is analyzed by

Finite element technique using direct method in time domain. The dashpots incorporated acts as

a viscous damper and it is used to represent the semi-infinite soil domain. In spite of the

difference between the solutions method adopted by Yazdchi model, the proposed model yield

similar horizontal displacement pattern at the crest level. The variation of displacement obtained

37

NITP- [1523010]

in both the model is very less. The maximum crest displacement obtained in both the model is

tabulated in Table:1.

The slight discrepancy between the result in both cases may be due to the following reasons:

1) Implementation of different solution technique and numerical tools for the estimation of

response of coupled dam-foundation system.

2) Different mesh size considered for the dam model.

38

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4.3 ANALYSIS OF DAM STRUCTURE

The concrete gravity dam model developed is a prototype of Koyna gravity dam and it has been

analyzed against koyna earthquake (1967). The displacement and stresses (minor and major) are

evaluated under given dynamic loading data and proposed suitable boundary condition. The

contour plot of the stresses has been done for each and every nodes of the dam-foundation

system where the principal stresses were maximum and minimum.

The response has been estimated using soil-structure interaction effect along with the

introduction of the degradation index in the constitutive matrix which changes with the life of the

concrete dam and is therefore instrumental in estimating the behavior of gravity dam. This

degradation index varies from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates freshly prepared concrete or no

degradation of concrete and 1 indicate complete degradation.

The loading applied to the dam are both static as well as dynamic. The self weight of the dam is

static load while the hydrodynamic load from the reservoir generated due to seismic acceleration

is dynamic in nature which in dependent on time.

The entire analysis is divided into two parts:

(i) First part refer to free field analysis where the dam structure part is removed from the

foundation part and the analysis is performed only for the soil domain. This method is

based on soil structure interaction method and thus we can estimate the interaction force

at the common nodes of dam and foundation domain. This interaction force obtained is

used to estimate the free field displacement.

(ii) The second part refers to the estimation of absolute displacement of the dam structure

due to applied dynamic loading and the interaction force obtained.

The Koyna dam is located about 200 kilometers south of Mumbai, in the state of Maharashtra on

the western side of India. It was constructed in 1962.

39

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The input seismic acceleration given is

0.6

Acceleration in g 0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (second)

The displacement, principal stresses p1 (maximum tensile and minimum compressive) and p2

(maximum compressive and minimum tensile) developed in the Koyna dam due to Koyna

earthquake shown in (Fig.4.2), with design life of 100 years with HCM degradation are plotted in

Fig. 4.3 and Fig. 4.4 respectively. The optimum mesh size taken for the dam is

5(horizontal)*8(vertical) and for the foundation part the mesh size of 15(horizontal)*5(vertical)

had been found suitable for analysis. Fig 4.3 shows the comparison of crest displacement for

freshly prepared concrete and the displacement of crest after 25, 50, 75 years of construction.

DISPLACEMENT VS TIME

1.50E-01

DISPLACEMENT (mm)

1.00E-01

5.00E-02

No degradation

0.00E+00

After 25 years of construction

-5.00E-02

After 50 years of construction

-1.00E-01 After 75 years of construction

-1.50E-01

-2.00E-01

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

40

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From the Fig 4.3 it is observed that the crest displacement increases with increases in the age of

concrete and this is due to various environmental effect on the dam structure. Even the ageing

leads to the material degradation leading to decrease in the stress carrying capacity of the

structure and thus the displacement increases with the age of concrete.

It is observed that the degradation increase with the age of concrete and hence the damage also

increases. As a result the displacement increases with age and the stress carrying capacity

decreases. The stress contour has also been plotted at the time interval when the stresses

developed during the analysis is maximum or minimum.

3.00E+01

MAJOR-PRINCIPAL STREE

2.50E+01

2.00E+01

No Degradation

1.50E+01

(MPa)

After 75 years of construction

5.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

-5.00E+00

From Fig 4.4 it have been observed that the major principal stress was maximum for freshly

prepared concrete as compared to the stress carried out after 25,50 and 75 years of construction.

The comparison table for the stress for the concrete at different ages at node A is shown in table

4.2 below. From the table it is observed that the stress carrying capacity reduces with increase in

the age of the dam.

41

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Major principal stress Minor principal stress

Time Magnitude Time Magnitude

(sec) (MPa) (sec) (MPa)

No degradation 4.35 27.15535 4.2 -21.17001

After 25 years of construction 4.04 15.46129 3.88 -12.21683

After 50 years of construction 3.7 9.40394 3.52 -8.326492

After 75 years of construction 4.05 11.22705 4.26 -12.52619

Table 4.2 Comparison of major and minor principal stresses at different ages of dam structure at

node A under the seismic excitation applied.

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

5.00E+00

MINOR-PRINCIPAL STRESS (MPa)

0.00E+00

-5.00E+00 No degradation

After 25 years of construction

-1.00E+01 After 50 years of construction

After 75 years of construction

-1.50E+01

-2.00E+01

-2.50E+01

From the fig 4.5 it is observed that the minor principal stress is maximum at 4.2 sec for freshly

prepared concrete. A contour plot for major and minor principal stresses has been done in fig 4.6

to fig 4.09 according to the table 4.2 for the time interval for which the stresses is maximum.

42

NITP- [1523010]

Fig 4.6 Contour for sigma1 (left) at time 4.35 sec and sigma3 (right) at time 4.2 just after

construction.

Fig 4.7 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 4.04 sec and sigma3 (right) at 3.88 sec after 25 years

of construction.

43

NITP- [1523010]

Fig 4.8 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 3.70 sec and sigma3 (right) at 3.52 sec after 50 years

of construction.

Fig 4.9 contour stress sigma1 (left) at time 4.05 sec and sigma3 (right) at 4.26 sec after 75 years

of construction.

44

NITP- [1523010]

From the Fig 4.6 the contour for stresses reveals that the maximum tensile stress appears around

the heel as well as opposite to the neck region on the vertical upstream face of the structure. It is

also observed that the neck and the toe both experiences maximum compressive stress. The

maximum compressive stress is developed near the heel portion of the dam.

From the contour Fig 4.7 it is observed that the maximum compressive stresses are accumulated

near the heel of the dam. Just opposite to the neck, on the vertical upstream side of the dam

experiences the accumulation of compressive stress.

From Fig 4.8 the contour stress reveals that when the major principal stress reaches irs

maximum value the neck and toe region experiences maximum tensile stress. At the same instant

of time, the compressive stress gets accumulated near the heel region of the dam as well as at the

vertical upstream face of the dam. Further it is observed that when the minor principal stress

reaches its maximum value, there is an accumulation of compressive stress at the neck region.

Also tensile stress develops near the heel of the dam at the same time.

45

NITP- [1523010]

CHAPTER 5

5.1 CONCLUSION

The following conclusion has been drawn based on the present work:

The present work deals with the methodology to determine the response of concrete

gravity dam using soil structure interaction. A degradation model proposed by Gogoi and

Maith, 2007 has been used in interaction analysis. This degradation model varies with

time and describes the ageing effect of the concrete dam with ages.

With increase in the value of degradation index the natural frequency of the structure

decreases.

The effect of hydrodynamic pressure can be simulated with added mass approach

proposed by Westergaard, 1933 which is simple and effective.

With increase in the age of the dam the displacement increases, as the concrete suffers

degradation due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions.

From the contour plot, it is very clear that whenever the major principal stress reaches its

optimum value, the neck region of the dam experiences highest tensile stress. It has also

observed that when the minor principal stress are lowest the compressive stress

accumulates near the neck region of the dam.

The use of soil-structure interaction effect in the present analysis of concrete gravity dam

proves to be more effective algorithm.

46

NITP- [1523010]

5.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

An effective solution scheme has been used to analyze the dam-foundation coupled system

considering the material to be linear and elastic. The formulation used is based on direct method

and is very effective in determining the response with greater accuracy. However there are

certain aspects still exist that needs to be consider for future research work.

The effect of degradation has been considered without considering the formation of

cracks in it. The degradation of concrete also induces the crack formation and hence a

study regarding the crack formation and propagation needs to be carried out.

The present analysis is done considering the material to be linear and elastic and hence

consideration of material non linearity for both isotropic and anisotropic material using

direct method of analysis may be the subject of further research

The thermal stress gets developed due to hydration of concrete and it may affect the

ageing of the dam. In the present study the thermal stress has not been considered.

Present study deals with the evaluation of isotropic degradation index, which is

considered similar at each and every point of the concrete. There is a further scope of

evaluating the orthotropic degradation index.

dimensional problem with proper implementation of boundary condition.

vary linearly. The foundation may be considered to vary beyond elastic limit.

Considering the foundation to vary non linearly is a scope of future study.

Earthquake vulnerability study can be done based on the method used to determine the

dynamic behavior of the ageing concrete gravity dam.

47

NITP- [1523010]

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