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Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

The flux is a maximum

when the surface is perpendicular to the field.

= 0°)

The flux is zero when the surface is parallel to the field. = 90°)

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

In the more general case, look at a small area element.

φ E = E i ∆A i cosθ i

φ E = E i .∆A i

In general, this becomes

φ E =

φ E =

lim

∆A i →0

E i .dA i

E i .∆A i

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Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

φ E =
E i .dA i
Assume a closed surface

At (1), the field lines are crossing the surface from the inside to the outside;

θ < 90º , Φ is positive.

At (2), the field lines graze surface;

θ = 90º, Φ = 0

At (3), the field lines are crossing the surface from the outside to the inside; 180o > θ > 90º, Φ is negative.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E =
E i .dA i
The integral is over a closed surface.

This net number of lines is the number of lines

leaving the surface minus the number entering the surface.

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

The closed surface is often called

a gaussian surface.

Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777 1855)

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E =

EdA

The magnitude of the electric field everywhere

on the surface of the sphere is E = kq 2

r

φ E =

( kq )dA

r

2

φ E = ( kq 2 )

r

dA

17

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E = ( kq 2 )

r

dA

φ E = ( kq 2 )A

r

φ E = ( kq 2 )(4πr 2 )

r

φ E = 4πkq

18

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E = 4πkq

φ E = 4π(

φ E =

q

ε o

1

4πε o )q

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface
q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o

q in : the net charge inside the surface.

E : the electric field at any point on the surface.

The net flux through any closed surface is independent of the shape of that surface.

20

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

Since the electric field due to many charges is the vector sum of the electric fields, the flux through any closed surface can be expressed as

φ E =

(E 1 + E 2 + … )dA =

q in

ε o

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

Notes

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

- To use Gauss’s law, you want to choose a gaussian surface over which the surface Integral can be simplified and the electric field determined.

- Remember, the gaussian surface is a surface you choose, it does not have to coincide

with a real surface.

Gaussian Surface

Closed surfaces of various shapes can

surround the charge. Only S1 is spherical.

Verifies the net flux through any closed surface surrounding a point charge q is

given by

q in

ε

φ E =

o and is independent of the shape of the surface.

Gaussian Surface

The charge is outside the closed surface with

an arbitrary shape.

Any field line entering the surface leaves at another point.

Verifies the electric flux through a closed surface that surrounds no charge is zero.

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r > a (outside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in = Q

q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(4πr 2 ) = Q
ε
o
Q
= kQ
E outside =
4πr 2 ε o
r
2

25

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r = a (surface)

A = 4πa 2 and q in = Q

q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(4πa 2 ) = Q
ε
o
Q kQ
=
E surface =
4πa 2 ε o
a 2

26

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < a (inside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in < Q

charge density ρ is constant

ρ = ρ

Q

q

in

4/3πa 3 = 4/3πr 3

Q

a

3

= q in

r

3

q in = Qr 3

a 3

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Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < a (inside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in = Qr 3

a

3

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

( Qr
3
)
a
3
E(4πr 2 ) =
ε o
Qr
kQr
=
E inside =
4πa 3 ε o
a 3

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Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

kQ
For r ≥ a
E =
2
r
kQr
For r < a
E =
a 3

Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r > R (outside)

A = 4πr 2 q in = σA = σ(4πR 2 )

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(4πr 2 ) = σ(4πR 2 )

ε

o

σR 2
E outside =
ε o r 2

30

Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < R (inside)

A = 4πr 2 q in = 0

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

E inside = 0

Line Charge Distribution

Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and length .

E perpendicular with dA

cosθ = cos90 = 0

then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

q in

ε o

EdA =

Line Charge Distribution

Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and length .

E same direction with dA

A = 2πrl

q in = λl

q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(2πrl) = λl
ε
o
λ
E =
= 2k λ
2πrε o
r
33

Plane of Charge

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

E perpendicular with dA cosθ = cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA

cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

Plane of Charge

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

E same direction with dA

The flux through each end of the cylinder is EA

and so the total flux is 2EA.

and q in =

φ E =

σA

EdA =

2EA = σA

ε

o

E =

σ

o

q in

ε o

35

Plane of Charge

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

σ
E =
2ε o
Note:

E does not depend on r.

E is uniform everywhere.

Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution

A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell

Analyze

Construct a Gaussian sphere between the surface of the solid sphere and the inner surface of the shell. Region 2 a < r < b Charge inside the surface is +Q

Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution

A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell

Analyze

The electric field for each area can be calculated.

E = kQr

a

3

E = kQ

r

2

E = 0

E =kQ

r

2

For r < a

 For a < r < b For b < r < c For r > c

Electric Flux Through a Cube

φ E =

For face 1

For face 2

E i .dA i

For the other sides Therefore

φ E = -El 2 φ E = El 2 φ E = 0 φ E total = 0

The field lines pass through two surfaces perpendicularly and are parallel to the other four surfaces.

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

E perpendicular with dA

cosθ = cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

q in

ε o

EdA =

E(2πrl) = ρV ε o

41

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

at r1 = 20 cm

E(2πrl) = ρV

o

E(2πrl) = ρ(πr 2 l − πa 2 l)

ε

ε

o

E

E

= ρ(r 2 − a 2 ) 2rε o

= 10 9 (0.2 2 − 0.1 2 )

2(0.2)(8.85x10 12 )

= 8.47 N/C

42

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, r = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

at r2 = 40 cm

E(2πrl) = ρV

o

E(2πrl) = ρ(πR 2 l − πa 2 l)

ε

ε

o = ρ(R 2 − a 2 ) 2rε o

= 10 9 (0.3 2 − 0.1 2 )

E

E

2(0.4)(8.85x10 12 )

= 11.30 N/C

43

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

A
B

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(4πr 2 ) = ρV

ε

o ρ( 3 4 πa 3 )

ε

E(4πr 2 ) =

o = ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

E

A
B

45

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

at point A (r = 0.05)

E

=

ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

8.6 x 10 4 =

ρ(0.05 3 )

3(8.85x10 12 )(0.05 2 )

ρ = 8.6 x 10 4 x 3 x 8.85x10 12

0.05

ρ = 4.57x10 5 C/m 3

A
B

46

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

at point B (r = 0.15)

E

E

E

= ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

=

4.57x10 5 (0.1 3 )

3(8.85x10 12 )(0.15 2 )

= 7.65x10 4 N/C

A
B

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

48

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

at r = 1.5 m

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(2πrl) = λl

ε

o

E =

E = 3.6x10 4 N/C

λ

2πrε o

3x10 6

2π(1.5)(8.85x10 12 )

= 3.6x10 4 N/C

E =

49

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

= 8.76x10 3 N/C

50

at r = 3.0 m

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(2πrl) = λl + σ2πal

ε

o E = λ + σ2πa 2πrε o

E (line charge) E (cylinder)

= 3x10 6 1.54/4πx10 6 x2πx2

2π(3)(8.85x10 12 )

E

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

52

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

dE
= k dq 2 r
r
dE = k dq 2 cosθ
r
dE = k (λds)
cosθ
2
r

53

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

dE = k (λds)
cosθ
2
r
dE = k λ(rdθ)
cosθ
2
r
dE = kλ cosθdθ
r
60
E =
cosθdθ
r −60
60
E =
sinθ
r
−60

54

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

E =

kλ

r

sin60 − sin(−60)

E

= 1.73kλ

r

E =

1.73k( Q )

l

r

E

E

Q

2πr/3 )

1.73k(

=

r

= 0.83kQ

r 2

55

56

57

HW A uniformly charged insulating rod of length 14 cm is bent into the shape of semicircle as shown in Figure. The rod has a total charge of

-7.5 μC. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the point P, the center of semicircle .