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Electric Flux ( φ E : N.m 2 /C) is the product of the magnitude

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

surface area perpendicular to the field. Φ E = EAcosθ The electric flux is proportional to
surface area perpendicular to the field. Φ E = EAcosθ The electric flux is proportional to
Electric Flux ( φ E : N.m 2 /C) is the product of the magnitude

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

The flux is a maximum

when the surface is perpendicular to the field.

= 0°)

The flux is zero when the surface is parallel to the field. = 90°)

when the surface is parallel to the field. (θ = 90 ° ) The electric flux
Electric Flux ( φ E : N.m 2 /C) is the product of the magnitude

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

is the product of the magnitude of the electric field and the surface area perpendicular to the field.

Φ E = EAcosθ

In the more general case, look at a small area element.

φ E = E i ∆A i cosθ i

φ E = E i .∆A i

In general, this becomes

φ E =

φ E =

lim

∆A i →0

E i .dA i

E i .∆A i

E i .∆ A i In general, this becomes φ E = φ E = lim
14 Electric Flux ( φ E : N.m 2 /C) φ E = E i
14
14

Electric Flux (φ E : N.m 2 /C)

φ E = E i .dA i Assume a closed surface
φ E =
E i .dA i
Assume a closed surface

At (1), the field lines are crossing the surface from the inside to the outside;

θ < 90º , Φ is positive.

At (2), the field lines graze surface;

θ = 90º, Φ = 0

At (3), the field lines are crossing the surface from the outside to the inside; 180o > θ > 90º, Φ is negative.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface φ E = E i .dA i The integral is

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E = E i .dA i The integral is over a closed surface.
φ E =
E i .dA i
The integral is over a closed surface.

This net number of lines is the number of lines

leaving the surface minus the number entering the surface.

surface. This net number of lines is the number of lines leaving the surface minus the
Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

The closed surface is often called

a gaussian surface.

Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777 1855)

enclosed by the surface. The closed surface is often called a gaussian surface. Karl Friedrich Gauss
Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

a closed surface and the charge enclosed by the surface. Electric Flux Through Closed Surface φ

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E =

EdA

The magnitude of the electric field everywhere

on the surface of the sphere is E = kq 2

r

φ E =

( kq )dA

r

2

φ E = ( kq 2 )

r

dA

17

Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

a closed surface and the charge enclosed by the surface. Electric Flux Through Closed Surface φ

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E = ( kq 2 )

r

dA

φ E = ( kq 2 )A

r

φ E = ( kq 2 )(4πr 2 )

r

φ E = 4πkq

18

Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E = 4πkq

φ E = 4π(

φ E =

q

ε o

1

4πε o )q

the surface. Electric Flux Through Closed Surface φ E = 4πkq φ E = 4π( φ
Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface q in φ E = EdA = ε o
Electric Flux Through Closed Surface
q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o

q in : the net charge inside the surface.

E : the electric field at any point on the surface.

E : the electric field at any point on the surface. The net flux through any

The net flux through any closed surface is independent of the shape of that surface.

20

Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

Since the electric field due to many charges is the vector sum of the electric fields, the flux through any closed surface can be expressed as

φ E =

(E 1 + E 2 + … )dA =

q in

ε o

Gauss’ Law is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through

Gauss’ Law

is an expression of the general relationship between the net electric flux through a closed surface and

the charge enclosed by the surface.

Electric Flux Through Closed Surface

Notes

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

- To use Gauss’s law, you want to choose a gaussian surface over which the surface Integral can be simplified and the electric field determined.

- Take advantage of symmetry.

- Remember, the gaussian surface is a surface you choose, it does not have to coincide

with a real surface.

Gaussian Surface

Closed surfaces of various shapes can

surround the charge. Only S1 is spherical.

Verifies the net flux through any closed surface surrounding a point charge q is

given by

q in

ε

φ E =

o and is independent of the shape of the surface.

surface surrounding a point charge q is given by q in ε φ E = o
surface surrounding a point charge q is given by q in ε φ E = o

Gaussian Surface

The charge is outside the closed surface with

an arbitrary shape.

Any field line entering the surface leaves at another point.

Verifies the electric flux through a closed surface that surrounds no charge is zero.

surface leaves at another point. Verifies the electric flux through a closed surface that surrounds no
surface leaves at another point. Verifies the electric flux through a closed surface that surrounds no
Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r > a

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r > a (outside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in = Q

q in φ E = EdA = ε o E(4πr 2 ) = Q ε
q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(4πr 2 ) = Q
ε
o
Q
= kQ
E outside =
4πr 2 ε o
r
2
π r 2 and q i n = Q q in φ E = EdA =

25

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r = a

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r = a (surface)

A = 4πa 2 and q in = Q

q in φ E = EdA = ε o E(4πa 2 ) = Q ε
q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(4πa 2 ) = Q
ε
o
Q kQ
=
E surface =
4πa 2 ε o
a 2
π a 2 and q i n = Q q in φ E = EdA =

26

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r < a

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < a (inside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in < Q

charge density ρ is constant

ρ = ρ

Q

q

in

4/3πa 3 = 4/3πr 3

Q

a

3

= q in

r

3

q in = Qr 3

a 3

density ρ is constant ρ = ρ Q q in 4/3πa 3 = 4/3πr 3 Q

27

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r < a

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < a (inside)

A = 4πr 2 and q in = Qr 3

a

3

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

( Qr 3 ) a 3 E(4πr 2 ) = ε o Qr kQr =
( Qr
3
)
a
3
E(4πr 2 ) =
ε o
Qr
kQr
=
E inside =
4πa 3 ε o
a 3
3 a 3 φ E = E d A = q i n ε o (

28

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution kQ For r ≥ a E = 2 r kQr For

Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution

kQ For r ≥ a E = 2 r kQr For r < a E
kQ
For r ≥ a
E =
2
r
kQr
For r < a
E =
a 3
Spherically Symmetric Charge Distribution kQ For r ≥ a E = 2 r kQr For r
Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r >

Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r > R (outside)

A = 4πr 2 q in = σA = σ(4πR 2 )

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(4πr 2 ) = σ(4πR 2 )

ε

o

σR 2 E outside = ε o r 2
σR 2
E outside =
ε o r 2
) φ E = E d A = q i n ε o E(4 π r

30

Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution Select a sphere as the gaussian surface. For r <

Thin Spherically Shell Charge Distribution

Select a sphere as the gaussian surface.

For r < R (inside)

A = 4πr 2 q in = 0

φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

E inside = 0

surface. For r < R (inside) A = 4 π r 2 q i n =

Line Charge Distribution

Line Charge Distribution Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and

Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and length .

E perpendicular with dA

cosθ = cos90 = 0

then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

q in

ε o

EdA =

= cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0 E same direction with dA cos θ

Line Charge Distribution

Line Charge Distribution Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and

Select a cylinder as the gaussian surface. The cylinder has radius r and length .

E same direction with dA

A = 2πrl

q in = λl

q in φ E = EdA = ε o E(2πrl) = λl ε o λ
q in
φ E =
EdA =
ε o
E(2πrl) = λl
ε
o
λ
E =
= 2k λ
2πrε o
r
33
33

Plane of Charge

Plane of Charge Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

E perpendicular with dA cosθ = cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA

cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

EdA =

q in

ε o

= cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0 E same direction with dA cos θ

Plane of Charge

Plane of Charge Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

E same direction with dA

The flux through each end of the cylinder is EA

and so the total flux is 2EA.

and q in =

φ E =

σA

EdA =

2EA = σA

ε

o

E =

σ

o

q in

ε o

so the total flux is 2EA . and q i n = φ E = σ

35

Plane of Charge

Plane of Charge Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the

Choose a small cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the plane for the gaussian

surface.

σ E = 2ε o Note:
σ
E =
2ε o
Note:

E does not depend on r.

E is uniform everywhere.

to the plane for the gaussian surface. σ E = 2ε o Note: E does not
Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell Analyze Construct

Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution

A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell

Analyze

Construct a Gaussian sphere between the surface of the solid sphere and the inner surface of the shell. Region 2 a < r < b Charge inside the surface is +Q

of the solid sphere and the inner surface of the shell. Region 2 a < r
Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell Analyze The

Sphere and Shell Charge Distribution

A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell

Distribution A charged sphere is surrounded by a shell Analyze The electric field for each area

Analyze

The electric field for each area can be calculated.

E = kQr

a

3

E = kQ

r

2

E = 0

E =kQ

r

2

For r < a

For

a < r < b

For

b < r < c

For

r > c

Electric Flux Through a Cube φ E = For face 1 For face 2 E

Electric Flux Through a Cube

φ E =

For face 1

For face 2

E i .dA i
E i .dA i

For the other sides Therefore

φ E = -El 2 φ E = El 2 φ E = 0 φ E total = 0

2 φ E = El 2 φ E = 0 φ E total = 0 The

The field lines pass through two surfaces perpendicularly and are parallel to the other four surfaces.

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

- 9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod
- 9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod
Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

E perpendicular with dA

cosθ = cos90 = 0 then φ E = 0

E same direction with dA cosθ = cos0 = 1

then φ E =

q in

ε o

EdA =

E(2πrl) = ρV ε o

same direction with dA cos θ = cos0 = 1 then φ E = q i

41

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, R = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

at r1 = 20 cm

E(2πrl) = ρV

o

E(2πrl) = ρ(πr 2 l − πa 2 l)

ε

ε

o

E

E

= ρ(r 2 − a 2 ) 2rε o

= 10 9 (0.2 2 − 0.1 2 )

2(0.2)(8.85x10 12 )

2 − a 2 ) 2rε o = 10 − 9 (0.2 2 − 0.1 2

= 8.47 N/C

42

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, r = 30 cm, has a hole inside with

Ex1.19 A very long charge rod, r = 30 cm, has a hole inside with 10 cm radius, a = 10 cm. The charge density is 10 -9 C/m 3 . Calculate the electric field at the position far away from rod center r1 = 20 cm and r2 = 40 cm.

at r2 = 40 cm

E(2πrl) = ρV

o

E(2πrl) = ρ(πR 2 l − πa 2 l)

ε

ε

o = ρ(R 2 − a 2 ) 2rε o

= 10 9 (0.3 2 − 0.1 2 )

E

E

2(0.4)(8.85x10 12 )

2 − a 2 ) 2rε o = 10 − 9 (0.3 2 − 0.1 2

= 11.30 N/C

43

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

Ex1.20 Spherical charge, r = 10 cm, has a uniform charge distribution. If the electric field

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

A B
A
B

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

Ex1.20 Spherical charge, r = 10 cm, has a uniform charge distribution. If the electric field

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(4πr 2 ) = ρV

ε

o ρ( 3 4 πa 3 )

ε

E(4πr 2 ) =

o = ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

E

A B
A
B

45

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

Ex1.20 Spherical charge, r = 10 cm, has a uniform charge distribution. If the electric field

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

at point A (r = 0.05)

E

=

ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

8.6 x 10 4 =

ρ(0.05 3 )

3(8.85x10 12 )(0.05 2 )

ρ = 8.6 x 10 4 x 3 x 8.85x10 12

0.05

ρ = 4.57x10 5 C/m 3

A B
A
B

46

Ex1.20

Spherical charge, r

=

Ex1.20 Spherical charge, r = 10 cm, has a uniform charge distribution. If the electric field

10 cm,

has a uniform

charge

distribution. If the electric field at the point A is 8.6 x 10 4 N/C.

A) What is the charge density of this sphere?

B) Find the electric field point B.

at point B (r = 0.15)

E

E

E

= ρ(a 3 ) 3ε o r 2

=

4.57x10 5 (0.1 3 )

3(8.85x10 12 )(0.15 2 )

= 7.65x10 4 N/C

A B
A
B
Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μ C/m and a horrow a charge

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

– 1.54/4 π μ C/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at A) r = 1.5

48

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μ C/m and a horrow a charge

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

at A) r = 1.5 m B) r = 3.0 m 2 m are lied on

at r = 1.5 m

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(2πrl) = λl

ε

o

E =

1.5 m E d A = q i n ε o E( 2 π rl )

E = 3.6x10 4 N/C

λ

2πrε o

3x10 6

2π(1.5)(8.85x10 12 )

= 3.6x10 4 N/C

E =

49

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μ C/m and a horrow a charge

Ex1.21 A long line charge with density 3 μC/m and a horrow

a charge density of the

cylinder, r

cylinder is 1.54/4π μC/m 2 . Calculate the electric field at

A) r = 1.5 m
B) r = 3.0 m

2

m

are

lied on

Z

axis. If

=

at A) r = 1.5 m B) r = 3.0 m 2 m are lied on

= 8.76x10 3 N/C

50

at r = 3.0 m

EdA =

q in

ε o

E(2πrl) = λl + σ2πal

ε

o E = λ + σ2πa 2πrε o

+ σ 2 π a l ε o E = λ + σ2πa 2πrε o E

E (line charge) E (cylinder)

= 3x10 6 1.54/4πx10 6 x2πx2

2π(3)(8.85x10 12 )

E

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what
52

52

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

dE = k dq 2 r r dE = k dq 2 cosθ r dE
dE
= k dq 2 r
r
dE = k dq 2 cosθ
r
dE = k (λds)
cosθ
2
r
is the electric field due to the rod at point P? dE = k dq 2

53

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

dE = k (λds) cosθ 2 r dE = k λ(rdθ) cosθ 2 r dE
dE = k (λds)
cosθ
2
r
dE = k λ(rdθ)
cosθ
2
r
dE = kλ cosθdθ
r
60
E =
cosθdθ
r −60
60
E =
sinθ
r
−60
r dE = k λ(rdθ) cosθ 2 r dE = kλ cosθdθ r kλ 60 E

54

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in

Ex1.22 Figure shows a plastic rod with a uniform charge -Q. It is bent in a 120° circular arc of radius r and symmetrically paced across an x

axis with the origin at the center of curvature P of the rod. In terms of Q and r, what is the electric field due to the rod at point P?

E =

kλ

r

sin60 − sin(−60)

E

= 1.73kλ

r

E =

1.73k( Q )

l

r

E

E

Q

2πr/3 )

1.73k(

=

r

= 0.83kQ

r 2

λ r sin60 − sin(−60) E = 1.73kλ r E = 1.73k( Q ) l r
λ r sin60 − sin(−60) E = 1.73kλ r E = 1.73k( Q ) l r

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56

56

57
57

57

HW A uniformly charged insulating rod of length 14 cm is bent into the shape

HW A uniformly charged insulating rod of length 14 cm is bent into the shape of semicircle as shown in Figure. The rod has a total charge of

-7.5 μC. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the point P, the center of semicircle .

charge of -7.5 μ C. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the