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Phenomenology Research is based on narrative, not about life but about phenomenon.

In
this paper the phenomenon is living with heart failure. The researcher tries to find the
common meaning of the phenomenon. For this purpose lived experiences of HF patients were
accounted to construct a common meaning, an experience common to all, which could be
generalized. The individual experiences of HF patients were reduced to a description of
universal essence.
Summary:
A hermeneutic phenomenological design was used. The objective of this study was to
describe the lived experience of adults with HF.
Method:
Cohen's method was used to conduct the study. Thirty HF patients were enrolled between
February and July 2014 from an outpatient cardiovascular clinic in Tuscany, Italy.
Phenomenological interviews took place at patients' homes, and the investigators analyzed
verbatim transcripts. Once data saturation was achieved, to ensure data trustworthiness,
participants were asked to confirm all the extracted themes. Atals.ti vers.7 was used for data
analysis.
Results:
The patients were mostly male (67%) with a mean age of 71 (SD 9.15) and an age range of
48-86. Seven themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis: 1) important life
changes; 2) social isolation caused by the illness; 3) anger and resignation associated with the
disease; 4) relief from spirituality; 5) will to live; 6) uncertainty about the future and 7) the
inescapability of disease and death.
Conclusions:
The meaning that patients attribute to their lived experience helps to create their needs, which
are important to direct care. Family support and religious beliefs are an important source for
HF patients to better manage their fears and cope with the future. Findings of this study
provide nurses with a comprehensive description of what it is like to live with HF, which can
be useful in helping to meet patients' needs more effectively and in tailoring interventions.
The elements of phonological research which could be observed in the study were:
1. The concept or phenomenon being studied here ie lived experience of HF among
adults, It is of universal nature.
2. The participants have different accounts of the experience of living with Heart
Failure, some take it positively that it brought positive changes in them, and some
associated it with the negativity of social isolation caused by illness and uncertainity
about future.
3. The real meaning of the experience was tried to be found out. That real, basic and
invariable meaning or essence of the experience was investigated which was still
hidden as there was no prior deep investigation on the comprehensive description of
lived experience of the HF patients. There was anger, helplessness, the fear of
inescapable death, all associated with HF disease.
4. All participants were asked to describe their experience of having HF and to describe the
meaning of this experience. (What was experience? and how it was experienced?)
5. The researchers interpreted the data, trying to express the meaning in a way that essence
was not lost.
6. The participants displayed emotions when they were asked about the experience.