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Corridor VIII Secretariat

Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Participating Countries
Italy, Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey

Funding:
Ministry of Economic Development of Italy
Central European Initiative

General Coordination:
Corridor VIII Secretariat
website: www.corridor8.org

Technical Coordination:
ANAS S.p.A.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The present Study has been carried out by a Multinational Working Group composed of high level technical
Representatives nominated by the Ministries and Road National Agencies of the participating Member
Countries: Italy, Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, under the general
coordination of Mr. Michele Grimaldi (Corridor VIII Secretariat), the technical supervision of Mr Gianni Nobili
(ANAS S.p.A - Italy) and the general supervision of Mr Roberto Ferrazza (Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and
Transport).

The study has been financed by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, through FdL Servizi, in the
framework of the Law 84/2001 for cooperation in the Balkans, co-financed by participating Countries and by
the Central European Initiative.

The following Ministries and Institutions of the Member Countries hosted the meetings or provided logistic
support for the field work: Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, Albanian Ministry of Public Works
Transport and Telecommunication, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ministry of Transport and
Communications, Bulgarian Ministry of Transport, Fiera del Levante and FdL Servizi (Italy). The Italian Customs
Agency provided updated information about ongoing projects on cross-border custom procedures.

The Italian Embassies in Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria provided an
important support for the successful development of the Study.

The members of the Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group are listed in the table on page 17

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

FOREWORDS
Minister of Infrastructure and Transport
Italy

The Report that I have the pleasure to present contains the result of an extended analysis and assessment of
the technical characteristics of the over 900 km of road and motorway infrastructures which constitute, across
the West Balkans, the alignment of Corridor VIII.

It has been possible to bring this work to a successful conclusion thanks to the efforts of the high-level working
group that brought together representatives of the Ministries of Transport of Italy, Albania, former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, that have met for almost two years under the general
supervision of this Ministry.
The technical coordination and the homogeneous elaboration of data has been granted, throughout all the
different phases of the study, by the International Division of ANAS, the Italian National Agency for roads,
which is also responsible for the elaboration of the project fiches which are probably the most original
contribution offered by this report to the identification of national and regional priorities in the development of
road infrastructures.
Finally, this study would have not been possible without the invaluable promotion and general coordination
activity of the Corridor VIII Secretariat, financially supported by Italy, through Law 84/2001 and by Central
European Initiative (CEI).

As we proceed in the direction of the European Union enlargement, we are convinced that a new
neighbouring policy must aim for greater economic integration through an ambitious neighbouring
partnership. Such integration requires a more effective transport market. This Report marks a new phase
towards reaching a regional integrated market for road transport in the interested region. Thanks to the
concreteness of the analysis that points out in detail criticalities along cross-border areas, bottlenecks and
requested upgrading of existing alignment, the study opens new opportunities for specific projects identified in
coherence with national programmes.

The effort made in analysing and bringing together the planned investments underlined by the master plan
of each single Member State, is a pre-requisite for the credibility of the conclusions contained in this report,
where the ambition is to contribute in identifying short and middle-term interventions, which best may serve
the purpose of integrating Corridor VIII road infrastructures in the South East Europe Regional core network, as
well as in the South East Europe transnational axes, thus making Corridor VIII road system more competitive
for regional and international freight traffic operators.
Finally, one of the interesting findings that stand out clearly from this Report is that the amount of investments
required is significantly lower than other transport modes and attractiveness along the Corridor can be
effectively implemented in a shorter span of time.
I am confident that national Governments of Corridor VIII Countries will look with interest to this Report and will
continue in guaranteeing the necessary level of attention and support to this multilateral cooperation in the
field of transport in our neighbouring Countries.

Altero Matteoli

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Minister of Public Works, Transports and Communications


Albania

Dear Colleague,

May I convey to you my congratulations and thanks as well as to the staff that made possible the completion
of the studies on Corridor VIII roads and ports.

This is a prove of the commitment of the Italian Government in the realization of this project that has now
gained new values even greater in comparison with the initial variant. This is because of the fact that with the
adherence of Bulgaria in the European Union, it is transformed in an internal artery of the EU area.
Moreover, the countries it crosses along are close to the adherence in another Euro-Atlantic structure such as
NATO and the establishment of an adequate multimodal infrastructure would serve to the accomplishment of
its mission in the region at a higher level. In addition, the study clearly identifies the socio-economic benefit
that the countries this Corridor links will have from its realization.

Albania has made efforts to accomplish its obligations in this major project and we can confirm that important
steps have been undertaken in roads, airports and ports so that they can face successfully the traffic raise in
the itinerary of this Corridor, especially in the traffic with the EU countries, Bulgaria, Greece and Italy.
It has also tried to participate actively and give its contribution in different bilateral and multilateral forums that
serve to promote the works in Corridor VIII axis.

Greeting once again the accomplishment of these two studies that make an important basis also for the
application at financial institutions, please accept dear Collague, the assurances of my highest consideration

Sincerely yours,

Sokol Olldashi

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Minister of Transport and Communications


former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Dear colleague,

Allow me to present you my compliments and at the same time to express my gratitude for the overall activity
related to promoting and developing the projects of Corridor VIII, recognized in the High Level Final Report.

Furthermore, I would like to stress my compliments addressed to the Study Corridor VIII as a backbone of the
SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport System and at the same time to
support the Technical Secretariat of the Corridor VIII for their contribution regarding the development of
transport projects along Corridor VIII.

Looking forward to a future good co-operation the Ministry of Transport and Communications avails itself of this
opportunity to renew to the Ministry of the Transport and Communications of Italy the assurances of its highest
consideration.

Yours Sincerely,

Mile Janakieski

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Minister of Transport
Bulgaria

Dear Colleague,

First of all let me present you my compliments and at the same time to express my gratitude for the overall
activity related to the development and promotion of Pan-European Transport Corridor VIII as an important
element of the European transport network.

In the report of the High Level Group, chaired by Loyola de Palacio, from November 2005 the multimodal
connection Bari/Brindisi Duras/Vlyora Tirana Skopje Sofia Burgas/Varna (i.e. Corridor VIII) is defined as
part of the South-Eastern priority axis of the extension of the Trans-European Transport Network. This is a key
corridor for the major transport network in the Balkans.

This transportation route continues not only to facilitate the exchange of goods, people and energy supplies
between the European Union, the Balkan states and the Central Asian states, but it is significant due to its
important role in strengthening the links between the Balkan countries and improving the stability in the region.
Furthermore the corridor has new significance as an element linking the European and the Asian transport
systems through the TRACECA project.

The development of the transport corridors crossing Bulgaria is a main priority of our transport policy. During the
official meeting held in December 2008 in Tirana between the Bulgarian and the Albanian presidents Mr
Georgi Parvanov reconfirmed out strong interest in the development of Corridor VIII.
Corridor VIII is inevitably amongst the main priorities of our policy. The Operational Programme on Transport
2007-2013, one of the strategic documents of the Ministry approved by the European Commission, outlines the
main priority projects along the Pan-European Transport Corridors. Our mutual work proves in practice the
significant importance of the development of Corridor VIII.

I would like to express my full support to the study on the Road System of Corridor VIII, entitled Corridor VIII as
a backbone of the South-Eastern European Region: technical assessment of the Infrastructure and Transport
System. We recognize the study as a considerable feat, achieved through the collaboration of national
experts under the coordination and with the invaluable support of the Secretariat of Corridor VIII. I am
convinced that it will make significant contribution for launching and financing important infrastructure
projects as well as for the overall development of the entire Corridor VIII.

I am looking forward to our future fruitful cooperation.

Sincerely,

Peter Mutafchiev

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Minister of Transport
Turkey

Dear Minister,

i am very pleased to see the conclusion of the Study on Road Corridor VIII, namely Corridor VIII as a
backbone of the South-Eastern European Region: Technical Assessment of the Road Infrastructure and
Transport System.

As is known, there have been strong historical and cultural links between the Balkans and Turkey which
constitute a long-standing cooperation platform in our region. In this context, Turkey attaches great
importance to the development of the transport infrastructure in South-East Europe, particularly through Pan-
European Transport Corridor VIII.

The present Road Report, prepared by a working group of experts from the National Ministries of Transport and
road transport authorities of the concerned countries, would definitely make an essential contribution for
providing an updated assessment of the present situation of the road system, defining urgent issues and short-
term priority projects along the alignment of Corridor VIII.

I would like to express my sincere appreciation and support for the present and previous successful studies on
transport infrastructure on the Corridor. I also avail myself of this opportunity to renew you the assurances of my
highest consideration and personal regards.

Sincerely,

Binali Yildirim

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

President of Puglia Region


Italy

An integrated European transport network, actually bound to overcome national borders and standardize
infrastructural differences, was a clear sign of the European Governments' insight in pursuing common interests.
In keeping with that duty, this Road Study on Corridor VIII, beyond its acknowledged technical significance, is
pushing us to an urgent task: the common effort of Government experts of Albania, former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Italy goes along the same path established with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty
as well as the 1997 Amsterdam Agreement, which constitute the official foundation for completing road,
railway, air and port networks.

However, despite Corridor VIII is often referred to as a project or even a venture, it is quite clear from this
study that an uninterrupted road infrastructure from the Adriatic to the Black Sea already exists, needing just our
attention in order to be improved and modernized. Most of the times non physical barriers (i.e. borders,
customs and patrols) - being hindering the integration process more than obsolete infrastructures or
inadequate motorways.

As regards Puglia and its Regional institutions, its leading role as a natural counterpart for the Balkan people is
paying spectacular dividends: thanks to Corridor VIII and its Apulian headquarters the Mediterranean basin
can increase its potential as a modern market area instead of an imaginary border.

Qualified experts are here clearly stating that the development of Road Corridor VIII has a positive impact on
three levels: 1st as a national route for each of the crossed Countries, 2nd as a connection between those
Countries of the Balkan Region, and 3rd as a transnational route, linking the Mediterranean/Adriatic Transport
Area to the Black Sea Transport Area. Thus, from West to East connecting the EU TEN networks (Italy) and the
Motorways of the Sea to the EU TEN networks (Bulgaria) and Traceca Corridor.

This study, promoted and coordinated by Corridor VIII Secretariat through Fiera del Levante Servizi with the
technical coordination of ANAS, the Italian National Road Agency, will render an essential backing for the
Balkan cohesion process. This is a task that deserves a deeper attention from Brussels authorities within the
implementation of the European Union. Corridor VIII is above all a necessary transport axis, and its realization
will significantly increase economical as well as cultural exchanges among our Countries.

Nichi Vendola

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport


Head of Department of Infrastructure
Italy

It is for me a reason of satisfaction to introduce the present report on the road and motorway infrastructures of
Corridor VIII, which, in the interpretation given by its authors , is considered as the backbone of the South-
Eastern European Region

Along with the study on the railway infrastructure, published in 2007, and the one on ports and maritime
transport, this study is part of a trilogy dedicated to the transport infrastructure on Corridor VIII.

As for the other studies, this report as been developed by a Multinational Working Group, composed of the
representatives of the Ministries and National Road Agencies of Italy, Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, under the general coordination of the Corridor VIII Secretariat, the technical
coordination of ANAS, the Italian National Road Agency, and the supervision of the Italian Ministry of
Infrastructure and Transport.

The direct involvement in the study of the public transport Administrations of the Corridor VIII Countries is a
guarantee of the accuracy in the analysis and of the soundness of the proposals.
One of the unprecedented conclusion which is highlighted by this report is that, unlike other transport modes,
the road and motorway alignment of Corridor VIII is already a reality.

Furthermore, the amount of investments necessary to increase the attractiveness of the road network
underpinned to the Corridor VIII route, is significantly lower than other transport sectors and can be effectively
implemented in a relatively short period of time.

The development of a fully efficient road network along Corridor VIII will have a positive impact on the
development of the South East Europe core transport network, both as a new regional route inside e Balkan
Region and as a transnational axis, connecting the Mediterranean Sea, to the Black Sea and to the Caspian
region.

The present report offers, also, a contribution in terms of identifying a list of priorities projects, which are
included in the national transport development programme of each Country, and could also enter in the
short-list of projects to be submitted to the international financial institutions, to receive financial support.
In conclusion, I would like to underline the strong commitment of Corridor VIII Member States representatives
in the preparation of this report, who gave a valuable support in providing all the necessary information.
Special thanks to ANAS S.p.A, for the general survey of road infrastructure and for the synthesis of the
documents concerning national development plans.

In consideration of such a fruitful cooperation, I am confident that programs and priorities established here will
find positive feedbacks at national and European levels, in the perspective of implementing a more efficient
transport networks throughout the European Union and neighbouring Countries.

Domenico Crocco

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................. 13


Composition of the Working .............................................................................................................. 17
List of figures, List of tables, Abbreviations and .............................................................................. 18

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Study background ...................................................................................................................... 21
1.2 Study scope ..................................................................... ............................................................ 24
1.3 Object and organization of the study ..................................................................................... 24
1.4 Financing ...................................................................................................................................... 25
1.5 Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 25

2 ROAD CORRIDOR VIII CURRENT SITUATION


2.1 Corridor VIII: main characteristics and conditions of existing roads ................................... 27
2.1.1 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania ................................................................... 29
2.1.1.1 Main Sections 1 and 4: Durrs - Rrogozhine - Qafe Thane ............................ 29
2.1.1.2 Main section 2: Vlor - Rrogozhine.................................................................... 33
2.1.1.3 Main Section 3: Durrs - Tiran - Elbasan ......................................................... 33
2.1.2 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia . 34
2.1.3 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria .................................................................. 40
2.1.4 Secondary branches of road Corridor VIII ................................................................... 45
2.1.4.1 Albania .................................................................................................................. 45
2.1.4.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ....................................................... 45
2.1.4.3 Bulgaria.................................................................................................................. 46
2.1.5 Main projects related to Corridor VIII in Greece ............................................ 46
2.1.6 Situation of transport infrastructures related to Corridor VIII in Turkey ...................... 46
2.1.7 Conclusions on current condition of existing roads .................................................... 47
2.1.7.1 Albania ................................................................................................................. 47
2.1.7.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ...................................................... 48
2.1.7.3 Bulgaria.................................................................................................................. 49
2.2 Ports accessibility: main characteristics of the existing roads .............................................. 50
2.2.1 Port of Bari .......................................................................................................................... 50
2.2.2 Port of Brindisi ..................................................................................................................... 50
2.2.3 Port of Durrs...................................................................................................................... 51
2.2.4 Port of Vlor ....................................................................................................................... 51
2.2.5 Port of Burgas ..................................................................................................................... 51
2.2.6 Port of Varna...................................................................................................................... 52
2.3 Logistic and horizontal issues ..................................................................................................... 52
2.3.1 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 52
2.3.2 Analysis of the results ........................................................................................................ 53
2.3.2.1 General analysis ................................................................................................... 53
2.3.2.2 Analysis by country .............................................................................................. 56

3 EXISTING STUDIES AND PLANS


3.1 International studies and plans ................................................................................................. 59
3.1.1 Transport Infrastructure Regional Study in the Balkans (TIRS) ..................................... 59
3.1.2 Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study (REBIS) ............................................................... 61
3.1.3 Transport Project Preparation Facility in the Balkan Region (TPPF) ........................... 62
3.1.4 South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO) ...................................................... 63
3.1.5 United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE-TEM) ................................................. 65
3.1.6 European Commission ..................................................................................................... 66
3.2 National planning context ......................................................................................................... 68
3.2.1 Albania ............................................................................................................................... 68

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Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

3.2.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia .................................................................... 70


3.2.3 Bulgaria ............................................................................................................................... 72

4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAIN CURRENT ISSUES OF THE CORRIDOR .............................................. 77

5 LOGICAL FRAME OF THE INTERVENTION STRATEGY AIMED AT INCREASING THE ATTRACTIVENESS


OF CORRIDOR VIII
5.1 Traffic and trade: current situation and future scenarios...................................................... 79
5.1.1 International trade: current situation and trends......................................................... 79
5.1.2 Traffic flows: current situation and short term trends ................................................... 82
5.1.2.1 Road traffic current situation ............................................................................. 82
5.1.2.2 Road traffic evolution in the short term............................................................ 86
5.2 Current and short term capacity bottleneckS ....................................................................... 90
5.3 Short term priority projects: basic consideration .................................................................... 89
5.3.1 Ports accessibility .............................................................................................................. 89
5.3.2 Project aimed at Increasing of the general attractiveness of the Corridor ............ 90
5.3.2.1 Logistic and horizontal issues ............................................................................. 90
5.3.2.2 Existing and future capacity bottlenecks..................................................... 91
5.3.2.3 Structural bottlenecks ........................................................................................ 92
5.3.3 Opening alternative connections to international itineraries ................................... 92
5.4 List of short term priority project and project fiches ............................................................ 108
5.5 Short term project list by country ........................................................................................... 108
5.6 Main points of a medium term project ................................................................................. 108
5.7 Soft measures and non physical barriers: some national and international projects .. 109
6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 General Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 114
6.2 Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 115

ATTACHMENTS
1) Road Condition Tables ............................................................................................................... 117
2) Model of The Questionnaire and Summary of the results ..................................................... 123
3) National Planning Project fiches ............................................................................................... 129

ANNEXES
1) Corridor VIII Memorandum of Understanding ....................................................................... 157
2) Agreements between Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ....... 161
3) Agreements between the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria ....... 165
4) Plovdiv Declaration 165
5) Minutes of Meetings of the MWG: Summary ......................................................................... 167

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - Italian Translation ....................................................................................... 171

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Scope and expected results of the Study


The present Report has been promoted by the Corridor VIII Secretariat as an implementation of the art.9 of the
Memorandum of Understanding signed on 9 September 2002 by Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Italy. The Priority Sectors for the Studies, approved by the 3rd
Steering Committee, held in Tirana (Albania) on 27 May 2005, were:
Railroads: Cross-border areas, missing links, rehabilitation and upgrading of existing alignment
Roads: Cross-border areas, bottlenecks, maintenance and upgrading of existing alignment
Ports, Intermodality and Logistics along the Corridor

The first Report, carried out in 2005-2006 Corridor 8: Pre-feasibility Study on the Development of the Railway
Axis has been completed and it has been published after receiving the official endorsement by the Ministers
of the participating Countries.

The present Report on Corridor VIII road system, financed through the Italian Law n.84/2001 and co-financed
by Central European Initiative, has been carried out in 2007-2008 by a Multinational Working Group,
composed of the representatives of Ministries and National Road Agencies of Italy, Albania, former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, under the general coordination of the Corridor VIII Secretariat
and the technical coordination of ANAS, the Italian National Road Agency.

The expected result was:

a joint updated assessment of the Road Corridor VIII, including an appraisal of the present situation
(physical state, projects being implemented and projects planned both by national authorities and by
international organizations) and connected issues (in particular: horizontal issues, such as non physical
barriers, and port accessibility);

the identification and preliminary evaluation of a number of Short Term Priority Projects finalized to quickly
improving the main alignment of Corridor VIII as an international road;

a joint definition of a mid-term development strategy;

The procedure followed in the elaboration of the Report, represents a positive exercise of transnational
cooperation among Corridor VIII Countries, towards common regional development objectives. The
present Report has been published after receiving the official endorsement by the Ministers of Transport of
the participating Countries.

The third Report, carried out in 2008 Ports and Logistic System of Corridor VIII: Technical Assessment and
Definition of a Coordinated Development Strategy, also has been completed and will be published after
receiving the official endorsement by the participating Countries.

A rapidly evolving regional scenario


In the last 5 years the scenario concerning South Eastern Europe has rapidly changed. The enlargement of EU
to 25 Members in 2004 caused the EU eastern boundary to move further east: most of the previously identified
Pan-European Corridors became part of the TEN European transport network. A new strategy was defined in
the Report by the High Level Group, chaired by Ms Loyola de Palacio (December 2005), which identified 5
trans-national axes. Corridor VIII was identified as an integral part of the South Eastern European Axis.

The accession of Bulgaria and Rumania to EU (1 January 2007), created a new scenario, strategically more
important for Corridor VIII, which became the East-West land bridge between two EU Member Countries, Italy
and Bulgaria, also crossing two Countries in the process of pre-accession, Albania and former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia.

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

The development of Road Corridor VIII will have a positive impact on three levels: as a national route for each
of the Countries crossed, as a connection between Countries of the Balkan Region (characterized by a very
limited reciprocal accessibility until the 90's) and as a transnational route, connecting the
Mediterranean/Adriatic Transport Area to the Black Sea Transport Area, thus connecting the EU TEN networks
(Italy) and the Motorways of the Sea, on the west, to the EU TEN networks (Bulgaria) and Traceca Corridor on
the east.

The South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO) has prepared multi-annual plans, indicating priorities for
the Western Balkans. In the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council
"Western Balkans: Enhancing the European perspective" (Brussels, 5 March 2008), the Commission is proposing
negotiating directives for a "Transport Community Treaty" with the Western Balkans.
All the initiatives to develop Road Corridor VIII will have to be taken in agreement and in the general
framework of the above mentioned regional transportation development strategy.
The general goal is to work towards a regional integrated market for road, rail, inland waterways and maritime
transport in the Balkan region.

The making of the Study


As far as existing road characteristics and current condition of road Corridor VIII, updated data have been
collected through a dedicated field survey performed along the entire main alignment of the Corridor and
with the cooperation of the members of the Working Group.
The analysis has covered road infrastructure conditions, logistic and horizontal issues, ports accessibility, current
planning at national and international level.
Data regarding the AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic) of the different sections of both the main alignment
and secondary branches of Corridor VIII relevant to 2006 (and consequent forecast at year 2012) have been
also analysed in order to identify current and future bottlenecks needing short term intervention.

The results can be summarized as follows:

Road Corridor VIII already exists and is continuous from Adriatic Sea to Black Sea.
In the recent years a number of upgrading/rehabilitation projects have been implemented along the main
and secondary branches of the Corridor. The geometrical standards of the existing road network are not of
the level required for an international road axis, however, with the exception of a limited number of local
critical points, current standards are sufficient to serve the current and the short-term future freight traffic;
However, a number of quick, efficient and well defined interventions should be implemented in the short
term in order to improve the attractiveness of the Corridor to international freight traffic (see Table below).
As far as Ports accessibility is concerned, this point is considered one of key elements conditioning the
efficiency and attractiveness of the whole Corridor VIII transport system. Local governments and Ports
authorities are managing this issues planning and executing necessary interventions and projects in
accordance with the different ports development situations.
Logistic and horizontal issues are the most urgent problems to be solved since they have a great impact on
the total cost of transport.
Road planning concerning Road Corridor VIII is presently fragmented into different national planning
approaches, while an overall co-ordinated strategic perspective of the east-west alignment along the
Corridor is not clearly perceived by national planning authorities.

Short term Priority Projects


Through the above said analyses a list of Short Term Priority Projects (see Table below) finalized to quickly
improving the main alignment of Corridor VIII as an international road has been prepared.

These Priority Projects are clearly finalized and quickly executable interventions aimed at increasing the quality
of the service offered by the existing infrastructure of the road Corridor and at making it more attractive and
competitive for international freight traffic operators. This Report highlights the need of priority intervention on
some specific sections of Corridor VIII road alignment defined on the basis of their physical/structural condition
and/or the intensity of both passengers and freight traffic. These priority projects have been identified in
coherence with national planning as made available by the members of the Working Group. Project Fiches
relevant to these priority projects are included in this report.

The following Table synthetically shows the estimated investments required for the identified short term priority
projects:

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
Corridor VIII as a backbone of the SEE Region: Technical assessment of the road infrastructure and transport system

SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : WORKS

Albania former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Bulgaria

code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro)

Completion of the upgrading


Elimination of black spot and
Completion of the upgrading program of the Gyueshevo-
safety upgrading on Corridor BU-STP-
AL-STP-01 works on the Rrogozhine 10 MA-STP-01 18 Sofia section 20
VIII in former Yugoslav 01
Elbasan road (project fiche
Republic of Macedonia
Bulgaria 2 in att. 4)

Road safety upgrading of Optimizing the road


Construction of the Pernik and
AL-STP-02 Road Corridor VIII in 26 MA-STP-02 maintenance service efficiency 2 BU-STP-02 40
Radomir bypasses
Albania in mountain sections

Road safety upgrading of non


Construction of Rrogozhine Upgrading of the road section
AL-STP-03 15 MA-STP-03 15 BU-STP-03 motorway section of Road 10
and Elbasan bypasses Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka
Corridor VIII in Bulgaria

Institution of a network of
services to the drivers along the Institution of a network of
Optimizing the road
existing road infrastructure of services to the drivers along
AL-STP-04 maintenance service (especially 2 MA-STP-04 5 BU-STP-04 3
Corridor VIII in former the existing "non highway" of
in mountain sections)
Yugoslav Republic of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Macedonia

Institution of a network of
services to the drivers along the
AL-STP-05 5
existing road infrastructure of
Corridor VIII in Albania

TOTAL (MEuro) 58 40 73
SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : STUDIES
Albania - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Bulgaria

code project name value (Meuro)

FS-STP-01 Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the medium-long term completion project of Road Corridor VIII 5

Projects in bold are already planned or ongoing

Conclusions and Recommendations

General Conclusions

The first conclusion of the present Study can be summarized in the fact that, unlike others transport sectors
such as Rail, Road Corridor VIII already exists. The amount of investments necessary to increase the
attractiveness of Road Corridor VIII is significantly lower than other transport sectors and can be effectively
implemented in a shorter span of time.

The main issue concerning Corridor VIII has been unanimously identified in the so-called "non-material barriers"
to accessibility. These non-material barriers include Ports Efficiency, cross-border procedures (both in terms of
customs procedures and in terms of operational efficiency), services to freight transport, road safety and
security. The result of this exercise suggests that the increasing use of the Corridor as an international route is
not impeded by infrastructural constraints as much as by horizontal issues.

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The Corridor VIII road freight traffic development will derive not only from the transnational east-west
connection, but also from the several connections with other Corridors in the Region, in the frame of the SEE
Transnational Axis. However, currently there is not a recent traffic study that takes into account the rapidly
evolving transport scenarios.

As for the national routes, investments follow countries national priorities. For instance, Road Corridor VIII in
Bulgaria constitutes the main west-east backbone connecting the city capital, Sofia, to countrys most
important ports, Bourgas and Varna. The result is that Road Corridor VIII is more developed at east of Sofia and
less at west of Sofia. However, the need to improve the transport connection between Sofia and Skopje is felt
as an important issue. Less marked is the situation in Albania and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
where north-south routes are at the moment equally or even more important in the countries national
planning than the west-east orientation. In fact, actual investments and projects follow national priorities.

These considerations lead to the clear need for a General Framework concerning the whole route of Corridor
VIII, from Southern Italy and Southern Adriatic, through Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
Bulgaria, to the Black Sea that, taking into account the national priorities, also gives a transnational
perspective to the planning process.

Recommendations
Given these general conclusions the Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group recommends that Corridor VIII
Countries:

1. Sign a Transport Policy Agreement, in accordance to the general Framework of the "Transport
Community Treaty" proposed by EC to EU Council, aiming at increasing the attractiveness of Road
Corridor VIII. The agreement should include the commitment by the signatory Countries to:
1.1. give new impetus to all ongoing initiatives aiming to alleviate or solve horizontal issues that reduce
road corridor attractiveness;
1.2 give priority to projects and initiatives that improve the operational efficiency and accessibility to
Corridor VIII ports, as strategic intermodal exchange points;
1.3 give priority, in their National Transport Plans, to the list of short term priority projects, described in the
point 5.4, jointly identified by the Working Group, with the purpose of facilitating the west-east
crossing and guaranteeing road itinerary maintenance and services.

2. Consistently with the goals of the Transport Policy Agreement mentioned above, adopt an immediate
common intervention strategy - aimed at quickly increasing the attractiveness of the existing
infrastructures and putting into operation the Corridor as an international road itinerary based on the
following points:
2.1 Immediate execution of the Short Term Priority Projects listed in the Report (see specific project
fiches), aimed at increasing Corridor VIII attractiveness, including:
Localized works;
Intervention on logistic issues;
2.2 Immediate definition of a jointly agreed Medium/Long Term completion strategy of the entire
Corridor VIII - considered as a single multinational infrastructure - through a General Corridor VIII
Feasibility Study prepared collecting, completing and updating, in the view of a common general
framework, all the existing studies/projects performed at national and regional level. As specified in
the specific project fiche included in the Report, this study should include some strategic areas,
jointly identified by the Working Group, such as:
a. The Albanian area Durres-Tirana-Elbasan-Rrogozhine, involving an efficient connection of Corridor
VIII with the Port of Durres. This area is also at the crossing of Corridor VIII with the North-South Axis
and the Tirana-Kukes-Pristina road.
b. The cross-border areas between Albania and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
between former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria.
c. Potential integrations and extensions of the present route of Road Corridor VIII, such as the
connection Struga-Bitola in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, connecting Corridor VIII to
Corridor Xd, and the central connection between former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
Bulgaria, through Veles-Delcevo-Blagoevgrad, connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor IV.

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COMPOSITION OF THE CORRIDOR VIII MOTORWAYS WORKING GROUP


GENERAL COORDINATION
Mr Michele GRIMALDI
Project Manager, Secretariat Corridor VIII
GENERAL SUPERVISION
Mr Roberto FERRAZZA Head of the TEN-T and Pan-European Corridors Unit,
DG for Planning, Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport
TECHNICAL SUPERVISION
Mr Gianni NOBILI
Vice-Director, International Unit, ANAS S.p.A.
Mr Claudio GATTI TECHNICAL COORDINATION, International Unit, ANAS S.p.A.
Mr Vincenzo PORRO Economist - Corridor VIII Secretariat
Mr Carlo Vivani DG for Planning, Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport
Mr Gino Lorenzelli PR Officer - Corridor VIII Secretariat
Ms Maxi Torau Operative Assisstant - Corridor VIII Secretariat

REPRESENTATIVES NOMINATED BY MEMBER COUNTRIES:


ALBANIA
Mr Eduard PRODANI
Secretary General, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
ALBANIA
Mr Osman METALLA Advisor of the Minister, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and
Telecommunication
ALBANIA
Ms Yllka ZALOSHNJA Director of Financial Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Public Works, Transport
and Telecommunication
ALBANIA
Mr Skender OTA Deputy General Director of Roads, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and
Telecommunication
ALBANIA
Mr Kujtim HASHORVA
Director, Road Transport Policy Directorate, Ministry of Public Works, Transport
and Telecommunication
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Mr Mustafa VALBEN
State Advisor, Ministry of Transport and Communications
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Mr Naste SAPASOVSKI
Assistant Director, Fund for National and Regional Roads
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Mr Boris DRAKULOVSKI
Assistant Director, Fund for National and Regional Roads
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Mr Dragan PERCINKOV Head of Procurement and Planning Department of the Macedonian Fund for
National and Regional Roads
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Mr Gjoko DINEVSKI
Assistant Director, Fund for National and Regional Roads
Mrs Miglena BULGARIA
BOTOUSHAROVA Expert, Ministry of Transport, National Transport Policy Directorate
BULGARIA
Mr Lyubomir LILOV
Expert, Road Executive Agency
BULGARIA
Mr Stefan POPOV Head of International Relations, Protocol and Information Attendance,
National Road Infrastructure Fund
TURKEY
Mr Seref TABAK Ministry of Transport and Communications
Head of Department EU Export and Foreign Relation
TURKEY
Mr Kenan KAYACI Chief of Planning and Study - General Directorate of Highways
Ministry of Public Works and Settlements
TURKEY
Mr Umut DEMIRCI
EU Expert - Department of Foreign Relations, Ministry of Transport

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List of figures
Figure 1.01 Pan - European Corridors in the Balkan Region
Figure 1.02 MoU Corridor VIII Alignment
Figure 1.03 Corridor VIII in the Southern Eastern Axis
Figure 2.01 Road Corridor VIII: main alignment and secondary branches
Figure 2.02 Corridor VIII in Albania Main sections
Figure 2.03 Road characteristics along the Albanian section of Corridor VIII
Figure 2.04 Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Figure 2.05 Road characteristics in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia section of Corridor VIII
Figure 2.06 Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Figure 2.07 Road characteristics in the Bulgarian section of Corridor VIII
Figure 2.08 Road network under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Turkish Highways
Figure 2.09 Possible secondary alignment and connections in the former Yugoslav Republic of acedonia
Figure 2.10 Most significant issues for Corridor VIII as resulting from the questionnaires
Figure 2.11 Summary of the results of the questionnaires
Figure 3.01 TIRS Study: MAP 21-AL
Figure 3.02 TIRS Study: MAP 21-MA
Figure 3.03 TIRS Study: MAP 21-BU
Figure 3.04 REBIS Study- Road Projects
Figure 3.05 TPPF Study Selected Projects
Figure 3.06 SEETO Area
Figure 3.6b Location of SEETO 2008-2012 MAP priority road projects
Figure 3.07 Location of SEETO 2008-2012 MAP Priority Seaport and Waterway Investment Projects
Figure 3.08 UNECE TEM MASTER PLAN COVERED REGION
Figure 3.09 LOCATION OF UNECE TEM PRIORITY PROJECTS CLASS 1
Figure 3.10 HLG Major trans-national axes
Figure 3.11 HLG South Eastern Axis
Figure 3.12 Corridors in Albanian Territory
Figure 3.13 Corridor VIII in Albania
Figure 3.14 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia European Road Corridors
Figure 3.15 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Corridor VIII: Detailed Designs by Sections
Figure 3.16 Pan-European Corridors crossing Bulgaria
Figure 5.01 Road and Rail Access from Southern Italy to the Balkans
Figure 5.02 Development of Passenger traffic
Figure 5.03 Development of Car traffic
Figure 5.04 Development of Trucks traffic
Figure 5.05 Development of TEU Number
Figure 5.06 Newton Project
Figure 5.07 RO-RO market traffic forecast between Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans
Figure 5.08 Total potential trucks induced by the opening of the Egnatia Motorway
Figure 5.09 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII (year 2006)
Figure 5.10 Level of Services along Corridor VIII (year 2006)
Figure 5.11 Predicted Level of Service along Corridor VIII (year 2012)
Figure 5.12 Capacity and structural bottlenecks requiring intervention
Figure 5.13 World Bank TTFSE Project

List of pictures
Picture 1.1 Premises of the Corridor VIII Secretariat
Picture 1.2 First Meeting of the Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group
Pictures 2.1/2 Albania: Section Durrs Kavaje Rrogozhine
Pictures 2.3, 2.4 Albania: Section Durrs-Kavaj-Rrogozhine -not rehabilitated sections
Pictures 2.5/6/7 Albania: Rrogozhine - connection with the Tiran Elbasan Road
Pictures 2.8/9 Albania: Rrogozhine - Tiran - Elbasan Road not rehabilitated sections
Pictures 2.10/11 Albania: Connection with the Tiran Elbasan Road Librazhd
Pictures 2.13/14/15 Albania: Section alongside the Shkiumbinit river
Pictures 2.16/17 Albania: Section Librazhd-Prenjas-Qafe Thane - border
Picture 2.18 Albania: Additional climbing line in the Librazhd-Prenjas-Qafe Thane - border section

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Picture 2.19 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section after Struga in the direction of Kicevo
Picture 2. 20 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section between Pesocani and Kicevo
Pictures 2. 21/22 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Climbing line between Pesocani and Kicevo
Picture 2. 23 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Crossing of Kicevo
Picture 2. 24 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section after Kicevo
Picture 2. 25 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section to Straza pass
Picture 2. 26 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Concrete deterioration on a viaduct wall
Picture 2. 27 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Road section in the Gostivar plateau
Pictures 2. 28/29 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Motorway Gostivar Tetovo
Picture 2. 30 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Motorway Tetovo - Skopje
Pictures 2. 31/32 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Motorway Skopje - Kumanovo
Pictures 2.33/34 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section Kumanovo Kriva Palanka
Pictures 2.35/36 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section Kumanovo Kriva Palanka
Picture 2.37 former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section Kriva Palanka Bulgarian border
Pictures 2.38/39 Bulgaria: Section Bulgarian border Kiustendyl
Picture 2. 40 Bulgaria: Section Kiustendyl Yabalkovo
Pictures 2.41/42/43 Bulgaria: Section Kiustendyl Radomir Pernik
Picture 2. 44 Bulgaria: Crossing of Radomir
Pictures 2. 45/46 Bulgaria: Section Radomir Sofia
Pictures 2. 47/48 Bulgaria: Section through Sofias outer periphery
Picture 2.49 Bulgaria: Trakya motorway in the section Sofia Stara Zagora
Picture 2.50 Bulgaria: By-pass of Stara Zagora
Pictures 2.51/52 Bulgaria: Section Stara Zagora Karnobat
Pictures 2.53/54/55/56 Bulgaria: Section Burgas Varna along the coastal road

List of tables
Table 2.1 Comparative analysis of costs and transit times between Bari and Skopje
Table 3.1 Main Projects on Road Corridor VIII in Albania
Table 3.2 Main projects on Road Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Table 3.3 Main Projects on Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Table 3.4 Bulgaria- Ministry of Transport - Linear time-schedule for the implementation of priority Transport
Infrastructure Projects till 2015 - Roads
Table 3.5 Bulgaria - Ministry of Transport Motorway Project Implementation Public-Private partnership -
Concessions
Table 5.1 Statistical Data for the Port of Bari
Table 5.2 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII main alignment in Albania (year 2006)
Table 5.3 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the secondary branch of Corridor VIII in Albania, (Year 2006)
Table 5.4 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the main alignment of Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia (year 2006)
Table 5.5 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII main alignment in Bulgaria (year 2006)
Table 5.6 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII secondary branch in Bulgaria (Year 2006)
Table 5.7 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the Main alignment of Corridor VIII (year 2006)
Table 5.8 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the main Alignment of Corridor VIII (year 2012)
Table 5.9 Average Annual Daily Traffic along different sections of Corridor VIII (year 2012)
Table 5.10 Short Term Project (STP) List
Table 5.11 Main steps of a Medium and Long Term plan
Table 5.12 Short term Priority Projects
Table 5.13 Recent Interreg Projects on Horizontal Issues

Abbreviations and acronyms


CARDS Community Assistance for Reconstruction, Development and Stability in the Balkans
CEI Central European Initiative
CERPEM Centro Ricerche per il Mezzogiorno Research Center for Southern Italy
DPS Dipartimento per le politiche dello sviluppo - Department for Development Policies, Italian Ministry
of Finance
EC European Commission
EU European Union
GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit - Technical arm of the German
Development Agency

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HLG High Level Group


IFI International Financial Institution
IPA Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance
ISDEE Istituto di studi e documentazione sullEuropa Comunitaria e lEuropa orientale - Studies and
Documentations Institute on the EU and East Europe
ISPA Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession
ANAS Italian National Roads Agency
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MTC Ministry of Transport and Communications
PHARE Programme of community aid to central and east European countries
PON-T Programma Operativo Nazionale Trasporti Italian National Transport Plan
REBIS Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study
RO-RO Roll on - Roll off
MWG Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group
SEETO South East Europe Transport Observatory
TEN-T TransEuropean Transport Network
TINA Transportation Infrastructure Needs Assessment
TIRS Transport Infrastructure Regional Study
TPPF Transport Project Preparation Facility
TTFSE-II Trade & Transport Facilitation in Southeast Europe II
UNECE-TER United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Trans European Railway
USTDA U.S. Trade and Development Agency

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Study background

General Framework

Following the political changes in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in 1992 the Republics of Albania, former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria agreed on a transport Corridor Durrs-Tiran-Gostivar-Skopje-
Kumanovo-Gyueshevo-Sofia-Burgas in a Memorandum of Understanding (South Balkan Development
Initiative, Bechtel Report on East-West Transport Corridor Feasibility Study, 1997).
This is the forerunner of Corridor VIII. Political and financing difficulties slowed down the development of this
infrastructure project, even though the international community and various donors began to analyze and
discuss the development opportunities linked to the creation of this PanEuropean axis, capable of stabilizing
this part of the SouthEast region and improving EastWestbound freight traffic.
The concept of Pan - European Corridors, linking Europe to neighbouring Countries, first surfaced in 1991 during
the Pan - European Conference of Prague. Successively, at a second conference in Crete held in 1994, long
distance transport Corridors were defined as priorities for infrastructure development. A tenth Corridor and the
PanEuropean Transport Areas for maritime basins were added at the third conference in Helsinki, held in 1997.
(High Level Group Report, Karel Van Miert).

Figure 1.1 - Pan - European Corridors in the Balkan Region

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

Corridor VIII is the southernmost among the West-East Pan-European Corridors, linking the Adriatic/Ionian to the
Black Sea Pan-European Transport Areas.
A proof of renewed interest in Corridor VIII came on September 2002, when Italy, Albania, former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey signed in Bari (Italy) a Memorandum of Understanding,
aimed at reinforcing the necessary political will between Member Countries for this long term infrastructure-
building project (see Annex no. 1 Text of MoU).
The main alignment of Corridor VIII, as defined in the MoU, runs from the southern Italian ports of Bari and
Brindisi, the Albanian ports of Durrs and Vlor, the cities of Tiran, Skopje, Sofia, Plovdiv, to the Bulgarian ports
of Burgas and Varna (Black Sea), thus connecting the Italian Adriatic Transport Corridor, the Adriatic branch of
the Motorway of the Sea and the Mediterranean Transport Area to the Black Sea Pan-European Transport
Area.
According to the MoU, Corridor VIII also includes the following sections:
1. Kafasan-Kapshtice/Kristallopigi, connecting to the Trans-European Network;
2. Byala/Gorna Oriahovica-Pleven-Sofia, connecting to Corridors IV and IX;

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3. The Ormenio-Svilengrad-Burgas road connection, connecting to Corridors IV, IX and the Trans-
European Network.

Along its route Corridor VIII is interconnected with Pan-European Corridors IV, IX and X.

Figure 1.2 MoU Corridor VIII Alignment

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

A major change took place with the EU enlargement to 25 countries, which brought many PanEuropean
Corridors into EU territory. These were often overlapping the TransEuropean Transport Network (TENT), which
was reviewed in the same year in order to extend the network to the new Member States in Central and
Eastern Europe. The Report by the High Level Group (HLG) chaired by Ms Loyola de Palacio, Networks for
peace and development - Extension of the major trans-European transport axes to the neighbouring countries
and regions (November 2005) provides a new strategic scenario for European Transport Policies in the Balkan
Region.
The HLG Report identifies five major Transnational Axes: Motorways of the Sea, Northern Axis, Central Axis,
South Eastern Axis, and South Western Axis.
The main alignment of Corridor VIII has been included as an integral part of the South Eastern Transnational
Axis and the port of Durrs is identified as one of the three ports of the Motorways of the Sea along the Eastern
Adriatic coast.

Figure 1. 3 Corridor VIII in the Southern Eastern Axis

Source: European Commission, Report from the High Level


Group chaired by Loyola de Palacio, November 2005.

The following sections, included in the Corridor VIII Memorandum of Understanding, were not included in the
South Eastern Axis:
the Lin-Kapshtice/Kristallopigi section (cross border Albania-Greece);

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the Durrs-Vlor section;


the Skopje-Pleven-Byala/Gorna Orjahovica section (connection between Corridor VIII and IX);
The Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio road connection.

MoU goals and actions


The Memorandum of Understanding on Pan-European Corridor VIII (Annex 1) includes among its objectives the
study and harmonization of the technical parameters and the scheduling of the projects to carry out along
the axis of the Corridor, along with the exchange of information, the formulation of regulations for investments,
prerequisites for a more efficient use of funds, and technical assistance from both public and private entities.
The MoU indicates a Start-off Phase, which includes the following activities:
complete inventory of existing studies;
state of the infrastructure and on-going works along the Corridor;
complete inventory of existing information system;
first assessment on infrastructure and other needs.
The task of coordinating and promoting initiatives for the implementation of the Corridor is carried out by a
Steering Committee of Representatives of the participating Countries, chaired by Italy.
The 1st Steering Committee, held in Rome in June 2003, established a Standing Secretariat. Specific tasks of
the Secretariat include supporting the Steering Committee, as well as the Member Countries, in the
formulation and development of coordinated projects/programs for the implementation of Corridor VIII.
The Secretariat, financed by Italian funds (Law no. 84 / 2001), has been established on October 2004 as a
Project, administratively managed by FdL Servizi, financed by the Ministry of Economic Development and
operationally supervised by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport.

Picture 1.1 - Premises of the Corridor VIII Secretariat

The Secretariat of Corridor VIII is based in Bari, Italy, at the Headquarters of the Fiera del Levante. The
Secretariats Staff includes 4 experts: Project Manager-Coordinator, Economist, PR Officer, and Administrative
Assistant.
The 2nd Steering Committee, held in Bari in December 2004, approved the Plan of Action proposed by the
Secretariat.
The Plan of Action, in accordance with indications contained in the MoU, defined the initiatives for 2005-2006
along the following lines:
Supporting the Steering Committee and Member Countries in identifying and developing infrastructure
projects for the Corridor and submitting projects to EC and IFIs, as well as implementing the activities
approved by the Steering Committee;
Implementing studies approved by the Steering Committee, coordinating working groups on railway, road
construction and sea-based transportation;
Creating a network of high-level technical representatives from the Ministries of Transport of Member
Countries aimed at achieving multinational technical cooperation;
Developing a database focused on Corridor VIII and disseminating information to Stakeholders;
Coordinating with other Corridors Secretariats and Regional Agencies operating in the Balkans (SEETO,
UNECE-TER, TTFSE II);
Facilitating collaboration with and involvement of the private sector;
Preparing and carrying out a Communication Plano.
The 3rd Steering Committee, held in Tiran, Albania, on 27th May 2005, approved the Secretariats Plan of
Studies (2005-2006).

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Priority sectors for studies and projects were defined as follows:


Railroads: Cross-border areas, missing links, rehabilitation and upgrading of existing alignment;
Roads: Cross-border areas, bottlenecks, maintenance and upgrading of the existing alignment;
Ports, Intermodal and Logistics: ports infrastructures, transport intermodal and logistic organization.

1.2 Study scope

The present Study, carried out by the MWG under the general coordination of the Secretariat, with the
technical support of ANAS and supervision by the Italian Ministry of Infrastructure, is the second one to be
implemented in the framework of the Secretariat Plan of Studies.
This Study is aimed at achieving a joint assessment by Corridor VIII MoU signatory countries on the state of the
road infrastructure along the Corridor VIII alignment and connected issues, in particular non-physical barriers or
horizontal issues and port accessibility.
For this reason, this evaluation was carried out by a working group of experts from the national Ministries of
Transport and Railroad Agencies of the Countries concerned as a multilateral cooperation exercise.

Picture 1.2 First Meeting of the Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group

The final result of this work is therefore an updated assessment of Road Corridor VIII, including an appraisal of
the present situation (physical state, projects being implemented and projects planned both by national
authorities and by international organizations), the identification and preliminary evaluation of viable projects,
pursuing a higher level of detail compared to existing studies and projects.
This study is intended to be a basic shared document, approved by participating Member Countries, to be
submitted to the European Commission and IFIs in order to move towards a jointly agreed promotion of the
East-West Road Corridor in the Southern Balkans.

The Working Group was made up of by two Representatives for each Member State (usually one from the
Ministry of Transport and one from the National Road Agency).
The agreed working program was originally established as follows:
a) Five working sessions, over a period of 6 months (to be held in Bari, at the premises of the Secretariat,
and in the proximity of the cross-border areas); actually, two working sessions were merged into a 5-day
field inspection along the rail alignment of Corridor VIII.
b) Desk work to be carried out by each national group between the sessions.
Participating Countries were: Albania, Bulgaria, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
Turkey.

The Steering Committee Representative from Greece communicated that Greece was not participating in the
Study, confirming nevertheless their interest in receiving information on the results.

1.3 Object and organization of the study

This study focuses on:


accessibility, at local scale, to ports along Corridor VIII,
national and international road connections, which constitute the main road route along Corridor VIII, and

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their connections to other main international roads.

Object of the study is:


1. to perform an updated assessment of the present road system along the Corridor that will include a
coordinated and agreed appraisal between member countries;
2. to identify specific urgent issues along the alignment of Corridor VIII (bypasses for main cities, urgent
upgrading and maintenance, etc);
3. to draw up a list of jointly-identified short-term priority projects - both in the infrastructural and in the logistic
field - aimed at establishing the corridors road system as an international road route. This point is based
upon the basic principle, generally agreed among the Motorway Working Group, that the existing road
infrastructure system along the main alignment of the Corridor VIII could, through local and clearly
finalised interventions in the field of infrastructure works and logistics, increase its attractiveness for
international freight transport traffic.

The study has been performed through the joint cooperation of the members of the International Motorway
Working Group (MWG), described in the previous chapter.
This has guaranteed:
collection of updated data,
standardisation of the information collected and its distribution among members,
general agreement on the strategy to adopt and on the results obtained.

The study has been divided into two separate phases:


Phase 1 (3 meetings), whose main objectives were:
1. To perform an up-to-date assessment of the road system in terms of:
road conditions and characteristics;
implementation of projects already defined or undertaken by national road agencies;
medium- and long-term future implementation of projects planned by national road agencies;
existing national and international studies and analyses performed on the subject
2. To identify specific urgent issues along the alignment of Corridor VIII
Phase 2 (2 meetings) to define an approach strategy and a number of short-term priority projects,
relevant to infrastructural and logistic issues, aimed at quickly establishing the road system of the
corridor and increasing its attractiveness at international level.

1.4 Financing

The budget for the Study amounted to 170,000. Of the total sum, 83% was financed by the budget of the
Secretariat, which operates with the resources of Italian Law for stabilization in the Balkans (L. 84/2001). The
Central European Initiative (CEI) contributed by co-financing the remaining 17%, having evaluated the study
as being consistent with the Economic Development goals of the CEIs 2006-08 Plan of Action. In particular,
developing project ideas on transport cross-border facilities and port connections was considered a priority
issue in Transport area.
Furthermore, Albania, Bulgaria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are all priority CEI Countries
according to the Sarajevo Declaration, having the greatest need for accelerated economic development or
recovery.
During the field inspection, National Representatives from Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia and Bulgaria supplied facilities and other services to ANAS, thus fulfilling CEIs commitment to
partially contribute to the project through co-financing.

1.5 Methodology

One of the first issues arising during the Study planning phase was agreeing upon a proper methodology to
reach its proposed goals. After careful review, the Working Group opted for a methodology based on a
coordinated approach among national teams of experts.
This approach ensured that the relatively small budget (previously mentioned), integrated by the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Albania with in-kind contributions, would allow the Working
Group to operate properly and efficiently.

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This decision resulted in the creation of a multinational Working Group that shared an operational working plan
over a 6-month period.
Therefore, at the invitation of Mr. Gaetano Fontana, Chairman of the Steering Committee, the National
Administrations of Albania, Bulgaria, Italy, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey each
appointed their own national teams, made up of two members, one representing the National Ministry of
Transport and the other the National Road Agency.
An action Plan was defined, setting out the main activities to be performed.
The first phase of activities consisted in a field inspection by ANAS surveying the current situations on the road
infrastructure along the main alignment of the corridor.
The second phase of activities was aimed at collecting up all available studies, data and projects on Road
Corridor VIII, integrating this with previous field inspections.
At the same time, the Secretariat developed a coordination activity with other existing Agencies operating in
the Balkan region, such as SEETO, UNECE-TER, World Bank TTFSE II and the European Commission DG TREN, in
order to assure consistency and coordination in the general goals and priority criteria for identification of
initiatives.
The final phase of activities was aimed at jointly identifying a common and shared framework of issues, goals,
priorities, initiatives and projects in order to respond to local and national issues, while at the same time being
consistent with broader development goals, as defined by Regional Agencies.
Having carried out these activities on the state of the art of technical documents, the Working Group then
elaborated and completed an up-to-date examination of the current situation, to use for the identification of
a shared list of priority projects/initiatives as well as recommendations to Governments concerning the
implementation stage.
A detailed description of contents and results of the meetings is reported in Annex 5.

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2. ROAD CORRIDOR VIII CURRENT SITUATION


2.1 Main characteristics and conditions of existing roads

Corridor VIII (Figure 2.1) runs in a West-East direction linking the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea, and crossing
Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria.
The road route along Corridor VIII starts from the Italian ports of Bari and Brindisi that are connected to the
Albanian ports of Durrs and Vlor by Ro-Ro lines and skirts Tiran, Rrogozhine, Elbasan, Skopje, Sofia and
Plovdiv, finishing up at the Bulgarian ports of Burgas and Varna, on the Black Sea.
Corridor VIII also has three secondary branches:
Kafasan - Kapshtice/Kristallopigi (Greek border), in Albania;
Byala-Pleven-Sofia, in Bulgaria
Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio (Greek border), in Bulgaria.

The main characteristics of the existing roads along both the main alignment of the corridor and the
secondary branches are summarized in the tables in Attachment 1.
These tables report the following parameters for existing roads:
geometrical characteristics of the cross section and alignment;
geographical context in which the road is located;
road conditions in terms of surface status, road signage, existence of main or particular problems ;
traffic volume and type of traffic (local transit, transit traffic, percentage of truck traffic);
accident rate;
availability of services to motorists;
future implementation plans or planned projects.

For the definition of road standard cross section and technical terminology, reference has been made to:
the Transport Infrastructure Regional Study (TIRS) in the Balkans - Agence Franaise de Dveloppement -
European Conference of Ministers of Transport - March 2002.
The technical dictionary of the World Road Association / Association Mondiale de la Route (AIPCR/PIARC)

On this basis, the following cross sections and road classifications have been used in the study:
Cross section
A - 2x2 lane motorway
B - Expressway (2+2 lanes divided carriageway [4x3.53.75m] + shoulders)
C - Half motorway profile (2x3.75 m lanes + shoulders)
D - Standard (7m pavement on 11m platform + crawler lane 3.5m)
E - Standard without crawler lane
F - Sub Standard (56m pavement on 89m platform)
Road classification
HI - Motorway / toll motorway
EX - Expressway
MR - Main rural road (main extra-urban road)
UR - Urban road
BY - Bypass
RR - Ring Road

The objectives of these tables are:


to collect and standardize all data in order to identify the main issues or problems of any single section;
to enable the evaluation of the appropriateness and urgency of upgrading or rehabilitation works;
to identify any problems that could arise while planning or performing these activities.

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It should be noted that the data reported in the tables cover both geometrical and technical
characteristics of the road and logistical problems such as the availability of services for trucks and motorists,
accident rates, and traffic volume.
These data have been collected and analysed, for each single state, in cooperation with the members of the
MWG.

Figure 2.1- Road Corridor VIII: main alignment and secondary branches

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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2.1.1 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania

The main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania is made up of four different main sections (Figure 2.2):
Main Section 1: Durrs-Rrogozhine (44 km);
Main Section 2: Durrs-Tiran-Elbasan (99 km);
Main Section 3: Vlor-Rrogozhine (87.5 km);
Main Section 4: Rrogozhine-former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border (110 km).
Figure 2.3 summarises the condition and main characteristics of the Albanian Corridor VIII road arising from the
data reported in Attachment 1 and from the information acquired on site as described in the following
paragraphs.

2.1.1.1 Main Sections 1 and 4: Durrs - Rrogozhine Qafe Thane (former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia border)

The two Main Sections, i.e. Durrs-Rrogozhine and Rrogozhine-former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border,
in consideration of the present status of the Albanian road network, can be seen as the main alignment of
Corridor VIII in Albania.
This alignment has a total length of 154 km and is mainly constituted by a Main Rural Road with a half
motorway cross section (type C in the above tables).
The road is generally in good condition, with the exception of some local points along the Rrogozhine-Elbasan
section, as it has recently been almost completely modernised.
A survey dedicated to this main route (from Durrs to Burgas and Varna) was performed by ANAS in
September 2005. The resulting data were revised and updated with the cooperation of MWG members.
The Durrs - Rrogozhine - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border route runs almost entirely parallel
to the existing railway line, which alternates from one side of the road to the other. The intersections between
these two infrastructures are staggered. In some places, where the railway line passes over the road, a central
pier stands in the middle of the carriageway of the road.

Figure 2.2 - Corridor VIII in Albania Main sections Figure 2.3 - Road characteristics of sections

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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The areas affected by this section are predominantly stable from a geological and geotechnical point of view
with no problems except for the need to secure, locally, the limestone embankments along the mid coast
stretches, due to leaching and slight debris slides, using simple metal mesh suitably reinforced with steel
cables.
From a technical point of view, this section can be broken down into five well-defined sub-sections (Fig. 2.3).

1st sub-section approx. 5 km (through Durrs)


The urban section through Durrs, starting from the Port up to the main national road network, is made up of
an Urban Road with a type B cross section (2+2 lines divided carriageway). The road is in good/very good
condition, but being an urban road, great interference with local traffic has been noted.
The construction of a direct connection between the Port of Durrs and the main national road network has
already been planned as a part of the project for the new Durrs bypass.

2nd sub-section of approx. 39 km (Durrs-Kavaj-Rrogozhine)


Almost entirely modernized with a 9.50 m platform, it runs completely on the flat. Photos no. 1 and 2 show the
geometrical features of the road.

Pictures 2.1, 2.2 - Albania: Section Durrs Kavaje Rrogozhine

Modernization works are ongoing and only the last 5-6 km of this sections still have to be completed, starting
from the fork at the turn-off for Rrogozhine, where the road to Vlor begins (photos no. 3 and 4).

Pictures no. 2.3, 2.4 - Albania: Section Durrs-Kavaj-Rrogozhine not


rehabilitated sections
A shortage of drainage works for rainwater disposal was noted, since signs of frequent flooding of the road,
even following light rainfall, were noted (land at the sides of the platform and blockage of the ditches at the
foot of the slope).
Large numbers of slip roads on both sides of the main road have been noted, most of which are on a slope
(towards the main road).
Vertical signage is in bad condition for the whole length of the route, while those at the sides of the road (road
delineators) are almost completely absent.
Similarly, essential safety facilities at individual points (e.g. safety barriers on bends) are often absent.
Similarly, essential safety facilities at individual points (safety barriers on bends) are often absent.
At the 20th, approximately, the route passes the town of Kavaje and at the 28th km it crosses the river Darcit on

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a new bridge, with four spans, approximately 120 m across.


The volumes of traffic are considerable: on average, 700 Vehicles/hour were noted in each direction.
Furthermore, it has been highlighted that section Durrs-Kavaj presents the important problem of a very high
volumes of local traffic, especially in the summer season, this area being one of great attraction to tourists.
3rd sub-section of approx. 41 km (Rrogozhine-connection with the Tiran-Elbasan Road
This section is almost entirely modernized with a 9.50 m platform (photos 5 7), except for the first sub-section
near Rrogozhine and the last 4 km near the fork between Elbasan and Tiran (photos no. 8 and 9).

Pictures. 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 - Albania: Rrogozhine connection with the Tiran Elbasan Road

Pictures 2.8, 2.9 - Albania : Rrogozhine connection with the Tiran Elbasan
Road not rehabilitated sections

This section, as the previous one, runs on the flat, through the valley of the Shkiumbinit River, one of the main
Albanian waterways.
The same problems as in the 1st sub-section were noted, i.e. the absence or inefficiency of the rainwater
drainage system and the lack of safety signals and equipment.

4th sub-section of approx. 31 km (connection with the Tiran Elbasan Road Librazhd)
In this section, the road is completely modernized (Picture 2.10 and 11). The route passes through the town of
Elbasan with significant problems for transit traffic (Picture 2.12). Immediately after Elbasan another pier of a
railway bridge stands in the middle of the carriageway.

Pictures 2.1, 2.11 - Albania: Connection with the Tiran Elbasan Road Librazhd

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Picture 2.12. - Albania: Crossing of Elbasan


The carriageway, on the first stretch of this sub-section, is reduced to 8.50 m (still on the flat) with a wide, non-
asphalted, strip at the sides and soon starts running in the mid-coast alongside the Shkiumbinit River and the
railway (Picture 2.13, 14 and 15).

Pictures 2.13, 2.14, 2.15 - Albania: Section alongside the Shkumbin river
A general deficiency of safety facilities was noted, both for possible flooding of the river (in many places the
road platform runs approximately 1.00 2.00 m from the riverbed and for the proximity of the railway line,
separated from the road merely by a concrete barrier (Picture 2.13).
The road surface is in good condition, as is the horizontal signage. However, a complete absence of vertical
signage at the roadsides was noted.
5th sub-section of approx. 38 (Librazhd-Prenjas-Qafe Thane-AL-former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
border)
This sub-section runs in the mid coast with heavy slopes and an extremely varied altimetric and planimetric
resolution: tight bends and steep slopes of up to 7% (photos no. 16 and 17).

Pictures. 2.16, 2.17 - Albania: Section Librazhd-Prenjas-Qafe Thane - border


Approximately 4 km after Prenjas the longitudinal slope reaches 10% with several hairpin bends. Light traffic
flow is guaranteed by the additional climbing lane (Picture 2.18) built on all sections characterized by a steep
slope.

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Picture 2.18 - Albania: Additional climbing line in


the Librazhd-Prenjas-Qafe Thane - border section

By contrast, the descent has no escape routes for several km.


Measured traffic volumes proved to be less high (130-160 Vehicles/hours in each direction).
The horizontal alignment geometry along this sub-section would require a feasibility analysis for an alternative
route more in keeping with the general conditions of Corridor VIII.

2.1.1.2 Main section 2: Vlor Rrogozhine

The section Vlor Rrogozhine connects the port of Vlor to the main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania
(Durrs Rrogozhine border).

This section has a total length of 88 km and can be broken down into four well-defined sub-sections:
crossing of Vlor (3.5 km);
Vlor Fire (35 km);
Fier Lushnj (31 km);
Lushnj Rrogozhine (18 km).

A general upgrading program is being carried out along this section, in order to complete the construction of
a new Expressway (2+2 lines, divided carriageway).
As of June 2008, works have been completed in the Vlor Crossing section and in the Lushnj-Rrogozhine
section.
Works are in progress in the Fier-Lushnj section.
The upgrading of the section (Vlor-Fier) is planned in the short term.
In the upgraded section, road conditions are generally good or very good.
There are some problems due to the interference with local traffic and to the presence of frequent slip roads
and accesses to a number of commercial activities, houses and facilities that require better control and
organization.
This problem would require, in the long term, the construction of secondary service roads and the upgrading
of the expressway to a protected expressway or motorway.

2.1.1.3 Main Section 3: Durrs Tiran Elbasan

The second part of this section from Tiran to Elbasan - is the less developed of the entire Corridor VIII in
Albania and is definitely unsuitable for a heavy international traffic.
For these reasons, this section is not used at all by traffic coming from Durrs and heading to the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border and it is hardly used by any traffic originating from Tiran.

The section could be split into three sub-sections:


Durrs-Tiran (41 km);
Tiran Crossing (approx. 4 km);
Tiran-Elbasan (54 km).

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The Durrs -Tiran section is made up of an expressway with a half motorway cross section (type C) which
is generally in good condition and is characterized by good geometrical standards.
Traffic volume is generally high.
Frequent slip roads and private accesses to a very high number of commercial activities and services have
been noted, and their control and organization seems to be required.
Traffic having to go through Tiran is clearly an important cause of problems and delay for potential transit
traffic and, in this view, the construction of a bypass should be considered a priority.
As far as the Tiran-Elbasan connection is concerned, it is a Mountain road with longitudinal gradients of up to
6% and its condition is generally poor.
As has been said above, it not widely used even by heavy traffic originating from Tiran and heading towards
Elbasan.

2.1.2 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of


Macedonia

Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia runs from Kafasan (Qafe Thane, in Albania) on the
Albanian border, to Deve Bair on the Bulgarian border. Its total length is 331.5 km.
The Corridor serves Struga, Gostivar, Tetovo, Skopje and Kriva Palanka and can be split into five different Main
Sections (Figure 2.4), homogeneous from the point of view of their road characteristics:
Kafasan-Gostivar (120 km): main rural road with a standard cross section (type E) in generally good
condition. This section can be split into three sub-sections:

o Kafasan-Struga (13 km) crosses the mountain area close to the border with longitudinal gradients of up
to 6%;
o Struga - Pesocani (22 km): crossing flat or gently hilly terrain. The corridor passes through several small
villages;
o Pesocani - Gostivar (85 km): runs across mountainous terrain. Steep longitudinal gradients of up to 6%
are found in several sub-sections. Road conditions are generally good and locally poor
o especially after the Straza Pass. Some problems connected with crossing a number of small villages
have been reported;

Gostivar-Skopje (64 km): motorway in generally good condition;


Crossing of Skopje [New Skopje bypass expected to come into operation by Oct. 2008] (27.5 km); presents
all the problems connected with the crossing of important urban areas.
Skopje-Kumanovo (39 km). Motorway in generally good condition;
Kumanovo-Bulgarian border (81 km) Main rural Road, cross section E to F (standard to sub-standard) in
generally good condition. The terrain is mountainous.

Figure 2.5 summarises the conditions and main characteristics of the Corridor VIII Road through the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as arising from the data reported in Attachment 1 and from the information
acquired on site.

A survey dedicated to the main alignment of Corridor VIII was performed by ANAS in September 2005. The
resulting data have been revised and updated with the cooperation of MWG members.
As far as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia section of the Corridor is concerned, the survey started
from the Albanian border at Kafasan. The whole of the route up to the Bulgarian border was inspected.

A summary of the information acquired during the survey is presented in Attachment 2 together with a
photographic report.
Beyond the AL-MK border, the road descends towards Struga (16 km from the border) with a three-lane
carriageway, one of which is reserved for the climb towards the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia-
Albania.

Seven km after Struga, the road branches off towards the tourist resort of Ohrid (a further 7.0 km) and, to the
North, towards Kicevo.

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Figure 2.4- Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

Figure 2.5- Road characteristics in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia section

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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The road is in generally good condition (Picture 2.19) however the surface of some stretches features extensive
cracking and requires resurfacing. The cross section provides lanes of 3.75 m on each side with no hard
shoulder.

Picture 2.19 - former Yugoslav Picture 2. 20 - former Yugoslav


Republic of Macedonia: Section after Republic of Macedonia: Section
Struga in the direction of Kicevo between Pesocani and Kicevo

The transversal slope should be checked, since it sometimes looked to be less than 2% (the frequent presence
of gutters was noted) and limit signs are generally lacking or absent.
The embankments in the mid coast area were noted to be prevalently composed of schist rock.
It appears possible, with reasonable financial investment and adequate technical staff, to reorganize the road
layout, enlarging the current section and altering the planimetric and altimetric resolution, with particular
focus on the need to implement safety measures.
Approximately 17 km after the fork to Ohrid and Struga , the road passes the town of Pesocani and, still
running in the mid coast with slopes of up to 6%, starts climbing the Karaorman massif (Picture 2.20).
In general, extremely low volumes of traffic were noted during the survey (even less than 100 Vehicles/hour in
some sections from quick traffic counts performed during the survey).
After a short descent (3 lanes with one climbing lane Picture 2.21), the section begins to ascend once more
with steep slopes (6%, but with 3 climbing lanes, photo 22) up to approximately 1150 m ASL.

Pictures 2. 21, 2.22 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section


between Pesocani and Kicevo with additional climbing line
Following the cutting of a stream, the road runs towards Kicevo, crossing it along a double divided
carriageway road (Picture 2.23).

Picture 2. 23 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: crossing of Kicevo

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Along this sub-section, a considerable lack of drainage works was noted, and the carriageway was indeed
flooded in several places.
After passing through a series of small villages (Picture 2.24), the road begins to climb once again towards the
Straza pass (1210 m ASL) with steep slopes (up to 7%) for several km There are no escape routes on the
descent while the climbing lane is present (Picture 2. 25).

Picture 2. 24 - former Yugoslav Picture 2. 25 - former Yugoslav


Republic of Macedonia: Section Republic of Macedonia: Section to
after Kicevo Straza pass

During the descent, after the Straza pass, the width is limited to two lanes (7 m) with no climbing lane and no
hard shoulder.
The structure of the road would not permit the addition of further lanes to widen the road.
Should an alternative route not be identified, the modernization of this part would present serious problems in
particular as regards the construction of new structures alongside existing ones.
The implementation of the road connection from Struga to Bitola, on branch D of Corridor X, could give
traffic running from Albania to Skopje and vice-versa, the opportunity of bypassing the mountain section
between Kicevo and Gostivar.
Picture 2.26 shows the severe deterioration of the concrete in the approach wall of a viaduct (piers of the
suspended metal barriers).

Picture 2. 26 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Concrete


deterioration on a viaduct approach wall

The surrounding land is predominantly of very stable schist rock. There are no signs of landslides or rockslides.
20 km beyond the Straza pass lies the Gostivar plateau (Picture 2. 27). After the town, the first stretch of toll
motorway begins, continuing for 26 km as far as Tetovo and, then, for a further 42 km to Skopje.

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Picture 2. 27 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:


Road section in the Gostivar plateau

During the first stretch up to Tetovo, the motorway is a double carriageway with two lanes 3.75 m wide in each
direction with no emergency lane and the central safety barrier consists of a single New Jersey line (photos no.
28 and 29).

Pictures 2. 28, 2.29 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Motorway


Gostivar Tetovo

From Tetovo, however, the road has the characteristics of a modern motorway. It is a double carriageway
with two lanes 3.75 wide in each direction, with an emergency lane, 2.50 m in width, at the side and a central
3.00 m median (Picture 2.30).

Picture 2. 30 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:


Motorway Tetovo - Skopje

The new Skopje bypass is under construction and is expected to be fully completed by October 2008.
From Skopje towards the East, the motorway splits into two branches. The first runs South-East towards Veles
and Greece, and the second, which follows the Corridor VIII alignment, runs North-East to Kumanovo (19 km
down the E75). The motorway section as far as Kumanovo, which runs predominantly along the mid coast,
features two asphalted carriageways with two lanes 3.75 m wide in each direction. There is no emergency

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lane for the uphill carriageway. The surface is extensively deteriorated and requires resurfacing (photos no. 31
and 32).

Pictures 2. 31, 2.32 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Motorway


Skopje - Kumanovo
Just after Kumanovo, the E871 begins, leading to Kriva Palanca (15 km from the MK-BG border).
The road for Kriva Palanka runs uphill with two lanes (one climbing lane) and one descending lane, with no
emergency lanes or hard shoulder. The conditions of the road surface are good and the climbing lane is
present even where there are gentle slopes (photos no. 33 and 34).

Pictures 2.33, 2.34 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section


Kumanovo Kriva Palanka

Along the flat stretches, the carriageway has two lanes of 3.75 m each.
The land alongside the road is predominantly flat, so no major problems are foreseen for modernising the road.
The traffic, however, is extremely light: a total of 16 cars in both directions in 3 minutes (320 Vehicles/hour)
have been reported.
After 40 km of mainly uncultivated, barren plateau, just after a small saddle, there is a sudden change in the
scenery. Thick, green vegetation, clusters of colonial houses and heavily cultivated land (photos no. 35 and
36).

Pictures 2.35, 2.36 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Section


Kumanovo Kriva Palanka

The width of the road is reduced to 3 m with the surface in a fair state of repair and an absence of hard
shoulder, safety facilities and signage to the sides of the road.

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Approximately 10 from Kriva-Palanka, the road plunges into dense forest which lines the road as far as the
Border (Picture 2.37).

Picture 2.37 - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:


Section Kriva Palanka Bulgarian border

2.1.3 Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria

The main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria runs from Gyueshevo, at the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia border, to the ports of Burgas and Varna, on the Black Sea, serving Sofia and Plovdiv. Its total
length is 664 km.

In Bulgaria, the Corridor can be split into six different Main Sections (Figure 2.6):
Gyueshevo-Sofia (102 km): Main Rural road with a standard cross section (type E) and, locally, a type B
section (2+2 lanes divided carriageway). Road conditions vary from good to poor and problems are
experienced especially in passing through several urban centres (including 4-5 km through the outskirts of
Sofia).
Sofia Beltway Northern Arch (41 km): Main Rural Road, sections D (90%) and A (10%). Very high traffic
volumes from local traffic have been noted. Road conditions are generally good. The new Northern Arch
of the Sofia Beltway is under construction.
Sofia-Plodovitovo - Stara Zagora (210 km): new modern motorway in excellent conditions. The Chirpan-
Stara Zagora section has been completed and opened to traffic in 2008;
Stara Zagora - Karnobat (126 km): the Corridor runs on a Main Rural Road, with a half-motorway section in
good condition. No particular problems were reported, with the exception of the crossing of some village
or town.
Karnobat-Burgas (47 km) new modern motorway in excellent conditions;
Burgas - Varna (138 km): a Main Rural Road with a half motorway type C section in generally good
condition having been recently modernised. The road follows the coastline and is strongly aimed at tourist
traffic. A new motorway connection has been planned.

Figure 2.6 summarises the condition and main characteristics of the Bulgarian Road Corridor VIII arising from
the data reported in Attachment 1 and from the information acquired on site as described in the following
paragraphs.

A survey dedicated to the main alignment of Corridor VIII was performed by ANAS in September 2005. The
resulting data have been revised and updated with the cooperation of MWG members.

As far as the Bulgarian section of the Corridor is concerned, the survey started from the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia border at Gyueshevo. The whole route of the main alignment up to the Bulgarian
ports of Burgas and Varna was inspected.

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Figure 2.6- Corridor VIII in Bulgaria

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

Figure 2.7- Road characteristics in the Bulgarian section of Corridor VIII

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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For the first 24 km into Bulgaria, the section of road (E871) is in good condition (Picture 2.38).
During the stretches with notable slopes, a climbing lane is present while safety facilities and road delineators
are often lacking (Picture 2.39).

Pictures 2.38, 2.39 - Bulgaria: Section Bulgarian border - Kiustendyl

The road surface is made up of coarse granulometry.

After 16 km, the alignment passes the town of Kyustendil. From Km. 24 to 27, the road artery turns into a dual
carriageway (4 lanes with a median) (Picture 2.40). The road surface needs renewing due to a poor state of
repair (cracking and tracking).

Picture 2.40 - Bulgaria: Section Kiustendyl - Yabalkovo

Beyond the town of Yabalcovo, as far as Radomir, for 32 km, the road has long stretches of reduced width (2
lanes of 3.5 m each) and is in poor condition (photos no. 41-43) with surface deterioration, tracking, damaged
barriers to the sides and illegible signage).

Pictures 2.41, 2.42, 2.43 - Bulgaria: Section Kiustendyl Radomir Pernik

Only near Radomir (for approx. 2 km) is the surface in excellent condition. The road passes through the whole
of Radomir, (Picture 2.44) so the construction of the alternative route could be useful.

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Picture 2.44 - Bulgaria: Crossing of Radomir

From Radomir to the outskirts of Sofia, for 33 km, the road passes through a number of urban centres. It has 2+2
lanes, separated by a median. The road surface is in poor condition and maintenance, with a complete
absence of horizontal and roadside signage (photos no. 45 and 46).

Pictures 2. 45, 2.46 - Bulgaria: Section Radomir - Sofia

The Centre of Sofia is bypassed by a 6-lane Beltway with a central median. The bypass is reached after
travelling for several km through Sofias outer periphery. This stretch, which precedes the Beltway, features
heavy, mixed traffic (photos no. 47 and 48) typical of urban areas, so the construction of an alternative route
is considered necessary, permitting fast entry to the Beltway.

Pictures 2. 47, 2.48 - Bulgaria: Section through Sofias outer periphery

At the exit from the Capital, Corridor VIII runs on a new modern motorway in excellent condition.
For a short stretch of 4 km, the motorway has 3+3 lanes, separated by a median, and then continues with a
width of 2+2 lanes with a median for approx. 200 km up to Stara Zagora (Picture 2.49).

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Picture 2.49 - Bulgaria: Trakya motorway in the


section Sofia Stara Zagora

The traffic on the motorway is considerable, and 600-700 Vehicles/hour were noted. The condition of the road
surface, with the exception of short stretches, is good.
Stara Zagora is skirted (7 km) with 2+2 lanes in extremely poor condition (Picture 2.50).

Picture 2.50 - Bulgaria: By-pass of Stara Zagora

From Stara Zagora to Karnobat the road has one lane in each direction. The lanes are mainly 3.50 m wide,
with no hard shoulder, except for a stretch of approx. 8 km (immediately after the town of Sliven where the
road platform has a 3.00 m strip of land to the sides (photos no. 51-52).

Pictures 2. 51, 2.52 - Bulgaria: Section Stara Zagora - Karnobat

In the Karnobat-Burgas section, for approx. 45 km, a new motorway has been recently opened to traffic.
Burgas and Varna, two extremely important development poles on the Black Sea, are connected by a
coastal road 138 km long (photos no. 53-56). The road platform is 7.50 m wide, except for the first 7 km, on the
Burgas side, which is a dual carriageway with a traffic barrier. Immediately after Sunny Beach, a famous tourist
spot, the coastal road climbs up the Ponor promontory (443 m ASL) with climbing lanes on the ascent. The
volume of traffic on this single road is considerable. Travel times are affected by very heavy traffic.

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Pictures 2.53, 2.54, 2.55 & 2.56 - Bulgaria: Section Burgas - Varna along the
coastal road

2.1.4 Secondary branches of Road Corridor VIII

2.1.4.1 Albania

The secondary branch of Corridor VIII in Albania is a northsouth axis that provides a hinterland connection
between Albania and Greece and in particular, between the main axis of Corridor VIII, in Albania, and the
Egnatia motorway, in Greece
It starts from Qafe Thane and reaches Kapshtice/Kristallopigi, on the Albanian-Greek border (Figure2.2).

The branch has a total length of 105 km and can be split into four sections (see table in Attachment 1):
Qafe Thane-Progradec (25 km);
Progradec-Piloce (10 km): Main rural Road. The road, which still has a sub-standard section in poor
condition, crosses the mountain area south of Pogradec. Steep longitudinal gradients and hairpin bends
are also found in this section.
Piloce-Korce (35 km):
Korce-Kapstice (35 km):
The road, in the first three sections, is a Main rural Road with a sub-standard section type F (5-6m pavement
on 8-9 m platform). Road conditions are generally poor and, up to Piloce, steep longitudinal gradients (up to
10%) together with hairpin bends are found.
Despite such poor conditions making this road highly unsuitable for heavy traffic, this road is widely used by
international truck traffic to Greece due to the lack of infrastructure in the region.
The construction of new roads with alternative alignments has been already planned by the Albanian
government.
In the last section, Korce-Kapstice, works have already been completed and a new Main Rural Road with a
half motorway section (type C) has been completed.

2.1.4.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

No secondary branches of Corridor VIII are foreseen in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

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2.1.4.3 Bulgaria

There are two secondary branches of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria (Figure 2.6):
Byala-Plaven-Sofia (240 km);
Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio (196 km).

The first branch (Byala-Plaven-Sofia) connects Corridor IX, running in a North-South direction from Bucharest,
with Sofia and Corridor VIII.
The Byala-Yablanitza section is a Main Rural Road with a half motorway section (type C). The road is in
generally good condition thanks to a general rehabilitation programme that is currently ongoing.
No particular problems are encountered apart from crossing a number of small villages and towns, creating
great interference with local traffic. Close to Yablanitza, steep slopes up to 5% are found.
The construction of a new motorway along the entire extension of this section has been planned.
In the Yablanitza-Sofia section, the construction of a new motorway has already been completed between
Yablanitza and Yana (10 km from the Sofia Beltway). The connection between the motorway and the Beltway
has already been planned.

The second branch (Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio) is a direct connection between the port of Burgas and the
Greek border at Ormenion.
From Harmanli to the border (approx. 43 km) this branch, Corridor IV (that runs in a NW-SE direction connecting
Sofia and Plovdiv to Istanbul) and Corridor IX follow the same alignment.
In this section, a new motorway is under construction while the existing road is a main Rural road with a type
C section in generally good condition.
In the section between Harmanli and Burgas the existing road is a main Rural road with a type E section in
generally good condition. No upgrading is foreseen in the short period.
It must be underlined that this road crosses ecologically protected areas and/or potentially ecologically
protected areas which is unlikely to allow any upgrading/new construction works along this alignment.
Furthermore, this direction is not part of the Trans-European-Road Network time horizon 2020, as reflected in
the accession treaty of the Republic of Bulgaria to the EC.

2.1.5 Main projects related to Corridor VIII in Greece

The Greek sections of Corridor VIII are:


Kapshitce/Kristalopigi (Albanian/Greek borders), consisting in a part of the vertical axis Siatista Kristalopigi,
with a total length of 81 Km.
Greek/Bulgarian bordersOrmenio, consisting in a part of the vertical axis Ormenio Ardanio, with a total
length of 128 Km.

The Kapshitce/Kristalopigi section belongs to the Northern part of the vertical axis Siatista Kristalopigi. It is 30
Km long and is already constructed and open to traffic. It is a dual carriageway with a cross section of 22 m.
The Ministry of Environment and Public Works of Greece has also upgraded the section Kristalopigi Hani Biriki.
The section Greek/Bulgarian bordersOrmenion is 6 Km long and has been constructed before 1994 as an
expressway. The section will be upgraded towards the cross section of the rest of the axis (12-14 m.), as part of
the construction contract of Dikaia Ormenion.

The construction contract cost for this section (Dikaia to Ormenion) was 30M including the upgrade of two
existing junctions in the section Kastanies-Dikaia towards the interchanges and the upgrade of the 6 Km long
section from Ormenion to the Greek/Bulgarian borders. Works have been completed in 2007.

2.1.6 Situation of transport infrastructures related to Corridor VIII in Turkey

The total length of Turkish highways is about 383.347 km. Of this length 1.987 km are motorway, 31.333 km state
road, 30.579 km. provincial road and 319.448 km village road (Source for the length of village roads is the
works of Head of Maintenance Department, April 2006). The General Directorate of Turkish Highways (KGM) is

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responsible for the administration, maintenance, construction and operation of these motorways, state and
provincial roads which amounts to 63.899 km as of 01. 01. 2008.

As known, the road section of Pan European Corridor IV extending into Turkey ends in Istanbul and its
continuation intersects with Corridor VIII in Sofia (Sofia- Plovdiv- Istanbul). The Kapkule- Istanbul road section of
Corridor IV in Turkey is approximately 261 km in length and is of motorway standard. The D-100 highway is
located parallel to the same road. The existing motorway is on the E-80, TEM and BSEC highway networks.
The Hamzabeyli-Edirne and Dereky-Krklareli - Babaeski (E87) links on Pan-European Corridor IV reach
Bulgaria. Within the framework of Turkish-Bulgarian Cross Border Cooperation and financial cooperation with
the European Union, the Krklareli - Dereky Aziziye section of state road (Km:63+500-68+878), 5.3 km in length,
is going to be improved. Tenders for construction and supervision works of this road section were realized by
the Central Finance and Contracts Unit.
The road network under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Turkish Highways is presented in the
following map.

Figure 2.8- Road network under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Turkish Highways

2.1.7 Conclusions on the current condition of existing roads

2.1.7.1 Albania

1) Actions aimed at increasing the level of service offered by the existing road corridor are urgently
requested and should be taken as soon as possible, such as:
completion of the upgrading works on the existing Rrogozhine-Elbasan road ;
upgrading of the safety of the existing road (upgrading of safety provisions, rehabilitation of horizontal
and vertical road signage, resolution of local black spots, etc...);
construction of bypasses around Rrogozhine, Elbasan and other small villages;
increases in the general efficiency of the road maintenance service, especially in the mountain
section close to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border.
In this view, a feasibility study aimed at a detailed definition of these actions and at their programming
and financing should be considered a priority.

2) Upgrading of the central core of the Albanian road network should be considered a priority.

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Although its official definition claims that Corridor VIII touches Tiran, the actual main road route along the
Corridor starts in Durrs and heads south (towards Vlor), bypassing Tiran at a distance of about 50 km.
In addition, it should be considered that Rinas International Airport is located 20 km north of Tiran.
This network, formed by the Durrs Rinas - Tiran section, on one side and the Durrs - Rrogozhine -
Elbasan section, on the other, makes up a quadrilateral road formation in which all traffic is closely
connected to that running on Corridor VIII and to that running on the North-South Albanian Corridor, the
two main road corridor in Albania.

The modernization and rationalization of this core quadrilateral should therefore be considered a top
priority in the Albanian programme of road network development and a dedicated feasibility study should
be performed in order to define its final optimal configuration and to plan the intervention phases.

The following main items should be considered in the study:


interference between local tourist traffic and transit traffic in the Durrs-Rrogozhine section up to
Kavaj ;
the need for a general upgrading of the Durrs - Tiran motorway that should be fitted with several
overpasses and with a secondary road network in order to avoid the widespread and dangerous
interference, now existing, between local and transit traffic;
the need for a new connection between Tiran and Elbasan,
the need for a Tiran Beltway/bypass;
the need for a direct connection between the port of Durrs and the main road network (Durrs
Bypass).

3) Other issues should be considered in the medium term:


The upgrading of the mountain section close to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border
needs to be faced in the medium term.
The road to the Qafe Thane customs post has hairpin bends and stretches with slopes of up to 10%.
It is of absolute necessity to give priority to the planning of an alternative route that, given the nature
of the terrain in the area, may include several important works (viaducts and tunnels). This project
would certainly have notably influence on the cost of transport both in terms of reduced route length
as well as reduced commercial schedules.
Since a railway connection between Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is
entirely lacking, the study of road and railway works should be coordinated together from the very
beginning.
Resolution of the interference with local traffic along the new main road connections between Vlor
and Rrogozhine, which would require the organization of a secondary, road network.
Upgrading of the Elbasan-Librazhd connection that presents the problem of a strict parallelism
between the road and the railway in the narrow Shkiumbinit river valley.

2.1.7.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

1) Even though the quality of the Corridor VIII road is generally good, actions aimed at raising the level of
service offered by the existing Road Corridor should be taken as soon as possible, such as:
the need for localized rehabilitation or renovation of the road pavement;
local upgrading of the safety facilities along the road;
increasing the efficiency of the road maintenance service, especially in the mountain sections;
upgrading of a 15-20 km section close to Kriva Palanca in the Kumanovo-Bulgarian border section;
feasibility study for a new road/motorway connection between Gostivar and Kicevo aimed at
bypassing the existing mountain section. This study should also include the evaluation of building an
efficient connection between Corridor VIII and branch D of Corridor X in the Ohrid-Bitola section
that could be a good alternative to the Kicevo-Gostivar mountain section (see Figure 2.9).

2) A feasibility study aimed at defining the final configuration of the corridor in the former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia should also be performed in the short term, in order to define a medium/long term action
program.

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The study should also include the analysis of a future secondary alignment of Corridor VIII in the section
between Skopje and the Bulgarian border, in the SouthCentral area of the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, as shown in the following figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9- Possible secondary alignment and connections in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

2.1.7.3 Bulgaria

1) Even though the quality of the Corridor VIII road is generally good, actions aimed at improving the level of
service offered by the existing road corridor should be taken in the very short term, especially in the
Gyueshevo-Sofia section.
According to the information acquired, the top short-term priorities are:
completion of the general upgrading of the Gyueshevo-Sofia section;
construction of bypasses for villages and towns in this same section (e.g. Radomir);
upgrading of the safety equipment along the road in the non-motorway sections.

2) As far as medium- to long-term projects are concerned, the Bulgarian situation is quite well defined since:
programmes regarding the rehabilitation/upgrading of the sections East of Sofia are defined. The
completion of the main alignment of Corridor VIII has been defined together with the
upgrading/rehabilitation programmes of the secondary branches. In particular, a general programme
of upgrading has been defined for the northern secondary branches, while only ordinary
maintenance activities have been planned in the short/medium term on the southern branch.
on the opposite side, a general plan of the upgrading/new construction of the Gyueshevo-Sofia
section seems to be required.

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2.2 Ports accessibility: main characteristics and conditions of the existing roads

This chapter deals with the connection of the six ports along the Corridor with the main road network of
Corridor VIII.

2.2.1 Port of Bari

The Port of Bari is one of the terminal points of Corridor VIII in Italy. It can be considered a multi-functional
port being at the same time an important passenger, Ro-Ro and freight port.
Bari is assuming the role of the hub for ro-ro traffic toward Balkan countries. In 2007, some 204,000 trailers and
trucks utilized the port to reach the Balkans: 75% with Greece and 23% with Albania. Beyond the number with
Greece, there is the traffic with Bulgaria, Turkey and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. A recent
enquiry established that some 85% of traffic from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to Bari enters
from Greece through Egnatia and only 15% enters from Durrs through Corridor VIII. The ro-ro tendency is in
progress so that in the first four months of 2008 ro-ro traffic has increased by 13% with Albania and 9% with
Greece. For this reason, the priority project, in the implementation phase, is to double the size of the ro-ro
parking area in Marisabella dock.
Passenger traffic for transit and tourism is the other important role of Bari. In 2007, 1,800,000 passengers, 350,000
cruise and 1,450,000 ferry, plus 254,000 cars and 5,000 buses utilized the port facilities.
With reference to freight traffic, Bari is also one of the most important freight terminals in Italy, with more then
5,000,000 tons in 2006, all moved by road.
On the basis of these data, it appears clear how important it is to guarantee efficient road connections
between the port and the Italian main road network in order to avoid interference between local and transit
traffic to the Port, also taking into account that the port is located in a central position with regard to the city.
Currently, thanks to a recent reorganization, all light and heavy road traffic generated by and heading for the
port, that as stated above, is mainly related to Ro-Ro services, has been re-directed through a single access to
the port known as Varco della Vittoria located in the northern area of the town and connected to a road
route designed in order to reduce, as far as possible, any interference with urban areas.
A new solution more easily connecting the port with the main road networks is currently under definition by the
Municipality of Bari and the Apulian Regional administration.
The project consists in a new road dedicated especially to freight traffic and equipped with sophisticated ITS
that will connect the port of Bari to the main road infrastructures in Apulia (the A14 Motorway, the SS16
National Road), to the interport of Bari and to the industrial area of Bari-Modugno
The project is intended to reduce timescales for modal change (from sea to road and vice versa) for freight
and passengers, in order to improve the competitiveness of the port of Bari and to free up the urban roads of
Bari from trucks entering and leaving the port of Bari
The road will also help to ease the sea-roads connection and so make the Bari Metropolitan Area logistically
more attractive for ro-ro traffic and reduce congestion on urban roads of Bari near the port and therefore
reduce traffic accidents and pollution.
As far as implementation risks and assumptions are concerned:
The road is being designed on the hypothesis that maritime traffic in Bari will keep on growing at the high
rate of recent years. This seems to be reasonable given the institution of the Free Trade Zone of the
Mediterranean Sea in 2010.
Given the very high construction costs, the help of European funds is needed. If the preparation and
expropriation procedures are as slow as for the public works built in the last year, Bari Municipality and the
Bari Metropolitan Area Authority would not be able to use the 2007-2013 structural funds, the last ones that
the Apulian Regional administration will be receiving as an Objective 1 region.

2.2.2 Port of Brindisi

The port of Brindisi is the other Italian terminal of Corridor VIII.


The present situation of the port is characterized by a strong orientation toward energy commodities: 90% of
total merchandise amounting to 10.5 mil tons in 2006. Of these, about 67% were made up of coal, about 7 mil
tons., to serve the needs of the electricity power stations at Cerano (ENEL) and Costa Morena (Edipower).
Passenger traffic has registered a considerable decrease since 2000, falling to 450,000 in 2006 from 950,000 in
the year 2000. About 70% of passenger traffic was with Greece and some 20% with Albania.

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The Three Year Operational Plan drawn up by the Brindisi Port Authority for the years 2007-2009 highlight the
fact that the port is currently undergoing a reorganization, as part of a co-ordinated project with the other
ports operating in the south of Italy.
The need for projects aimed at the construction of fast and efficient connections to the national transport
infrastructure is highlighted in the above multi annual plan that underlines the fact that this point is to be
considered as one of the key factors defining the attractiveness and efficiency of a port.
A new project aimed at concentrating in a single gate located in Via Spalato all the road and truck traffic
entering and leaving the Port is currently being investigated by the port and local authorities together with
other projects aiming to create a quick connection between this port entrance, located in the centre of the
town, with the main national road network.

2.2.3 Port of Durrs

The port of Durrs is the main Albanian gateway to Corridor VIII. Volumes of tons and numbers of ships and
ferries have been steadily increasing in the last five years. In 2007, the port worked 3.5 mil tons and handled
1300 ships and 1600 ferries.
Passenger traffic amounted in 2007 to about 800,000 arrivals and departures with 170,000 cars. At present,
there are three lines with Bari, Ancona and Trieste/Coper; in the future, three more lines are due to commence
with Brindisi, Rijeka and Bar.
Commercial activities registered about 65.000 trucks and trailers in 2007 and a continuous increase in
containers: 33,000 teu, the equivalent of about 360,000 tons.
The road connection to the main Albanian road network currently crosses the town, the main road entrance
to the port being located in the central area of Durrs.
The current road connection is approximately 5-6 km long and is characterized by a B cross section (2+2 lines).
In spite of significant interference with local traffic and of the problem connected with freight traffic crossing
urban areas, this road connection seems adequate for current traffic.
In consideration of the traffic growth connected with the expected expansion of the port of Durrs, a new
road connection has been planned in the short term (see project fiche Albania 1 in Attachment 3).

2.2.4 Port of Vlor

Vlor is the second Albanian port by importance and is mainly a passenger and general cargo port.
Passenger traffic has been constantly increasing since 2001, reaching about 75000 passengers in 2007, more
than twice that of 2001. There are three lines, all with Brindisi, for a total of 731 arrivals/departures in 2007.
After a decrease in the years 2003-04, general cargo once again began to increase and in 2007 reached half
a million tons, back to the levels of the year 2000. More than fifty percent of imports are made up of cement
and construction materials.

Also the number of trucks and trailers have remained rather constant in recent years: in 2007, there was a total
of 4331.
The second Albanian port is connected to the Albanian main road network by road that currently crosses the
town of Vlor with significant interference for local traffic.
A new direct road connection between the port and the Vlor-Fier-Lushnj-Rrogozhine road (currently being
upgraded) with a cross section type B (2+2 lines) approximately 3.3 km long is currently under construction (see
project fiche Albania 5 in att. 3) and it is expected to be completed by 2009.

2.2.5 Port of Bourgas

The port has three terminals: East dedicated to bulk cargoes, coal, coke, ores etc.; West dedicated to metals
of all kinds, ro-ro and containers; the new terminal 2A intended for handling bulk cargoes but equipped with
most sophisticated handling technologies.
From the main road network, the access road goes into the ring road and crossing an overhead road enters
the port area. The urban road network is in relatively good condition with normal traffic.

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The type of pavement within the territory of the Port of Burgas is bituminous concrete, but the general
condition of the road is not good, excluding the road to the newly built Terminal 2A. The rehabilitation of the
pavement is included in the investment program of the Bulgarian Ports Infrastructure Company (BPI Co).
Access to the port is split into two: Eastern for cars and Western for trucks.
There are two more overhead roads within the port territory. Overhead road 1 is fundamental for accessing
the port and allocating traffic. A general reconstruction of Overhead road 1 is ongoing under contract,
awarded by BPI Co. This renovation includes replacing the stone mastic asphalt and bituminous concrete..

2.2.6 Port of Varna

Varna is the largest Bulgarian port, handling some 7 million tons of cargo per year with a peak of 8.5 million
tons in 2005.
The Port of Varna has easy and convenient access to the national road network. From the main road network,
the approach road crosses the 3km Asparuchov Bridge over Channel 1 and goes into the ring road. The
terminals of the Port of Varna-East are accessed almost immediately under the Bridge while the terminals of
the Port of Varna-West are accessed through the ring road and then along the lakeside road, at a distance of
approximately 30 km from the city.
The roads within the territory of the Port of Varna ensure access to the ports terminals. The pavement is mostly
bituminous concrete, but partially in the Port of Varna-West there are roads covered with stone mastic asphalt.
Their status is good and they are appropriate for exploitation due to the periodical renovation, which has
been carried out.
In 2002 the renovated and extended cargo passage was put into operation in the Port of Varna-East.
At the end of 2006 the bituminous pavement on the section from the main rural Varna-Devnia road to the port
of Varna-West was renovated.
The motorway network can be accessed from the port terminals through the urban roads of the municipalities
of Devnia, Varna and Balchik.

2.3 Logistic and horizontal issues

2.3.1 Methodology

With the aim of defining and evaluating the main issues that currently decrease the attractiveness of the
Corridor for the international road transport operator, an examination of the current status of the Corridor from
a logistic point of view has also been carried out.
This activity focused on the main alignment of the corridor only, since the development of the
secondary branches will only be possible as a consequence of a general increase in traffic on the main
alignment.
Analysis of the logistic and, more in general, horizontal issues was carried out through direct interview and
through the submission of a questionnaire (Attachment 3) to a number of associations and companies
operating in the field of international road freight transport and currently operating in the region under
consideration.

The following items has been considered and analysed:


Safety of the roads from the point of view of the road user (represents the feeling of the road users. It is
influenced both by the general and geometrical characteristics of the infrastructure and by the traffic
characteristics);
Trip security;
Trip comfort;
Regularity and efficiency of the maintenance services;
Information to drivers;
Sea connection with Italy;
Ports services efficiency;
Custom system efficiency.

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preferred route for reaching the Black Sea ports in Bulgaria from central and southern Italy or vice-versa:
(sea-land via Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia- sea-land via Greece and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia- via sea)
preferred route for reaching the Timeshare region from central and southern Italy (land via Slovenia and
Serbia - sea-land via Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia - sea-land via
Greece - the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia)
The interviewees were also requested to list the two items in the list above of most importance to them.
The members of the MWG guaranteed their cooperation in contacting, submitting the questionnaire and
organizing meetings with companies and organizations from their own country.
A total of 14 companies/associations were interviewed on the subject and agreed to fill in the questionnaire:
6 transport companies from Albania;
the International Secretariat of the Union of Road Transport Associations in the Black Sea Economic
Cooperation Region (BSECURTA), from Albania;
companies from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia;
the Bulgarian Association of the Automobile Companies Society;
Society of the Automobile Transport Organisations (Bulgaria)
The Italian General Confederation of Transport and Logistics:

The questionnaire offers the possibility to award a score to any of the above listed items in order to express
their quality/conditions.
The score could range among the following four possibilities:
very poor (VP);
poor (P);
good (G);
very good (VG);

2.3.2 Analysis of the results

2.3.2.1 General analysis

The text of the questionnaire is reported in Attachment 2 together with a table summarising the results
obtained.
Data and information arising from the questionnaires were analysed both from a general point of view (i.e.
with reference to the entire corridor) and with reference to the single countries.
They were examined with the objective of identifying the most urgent issues on which an action should be
taken with the final scope of increasing the quality of the service offered by the Corridor and its attractiveness,
also taking into account the characteristics of existing alternative routes.
Information from a general examination of the questionnaires is presented in the graphs below:

Figure 2.10- Most significant issues for Corridor VIII as resulting from the questionnaires

MOST SIGNIFICANT ISSUE


Custom system efficiency

Ports services efficiency

Trip comfort

Trip security

Service regularity

Safety of the trip

Users informations

Naval connection w ith Italy

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0%

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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Figure 2.11- Summary of the results of the questionnaires

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat


It is noted that the distribution of the results follows a Gaussian distribution curve for each item, with the sole
exception of the one relating to security.
Security needs, in this view, require a more critical approach.

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The general scenario arising from this graph shows a generally profound dissatisfaction on each item, with
prevailing results usually close to the poor or to the very poor score.

Efficiency of customs is definitely considered the most significant item. It is evaluated as Poor or Very Poor
by approximately 70% of the interviewees.
The great importance given to this issue is connected to the fact that it is a potential cause of significant waste
of time and, consequently, of significant increases in overall journey costs.
During the interview, it was underlined that several hours up to even a couple of days may be spent at
customs waiting for a transit permit.

This single point, alone, (i.e. the risk of great delays in journey times) in itself makes it definitely worthwhile for a
transport company working between Bulgaria or the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Italy, to use
the alternative route through Greece (Sofia/Skopje, Greece, Igoumenitsa, Bari) that, in terms of km is far longer
(approx. + 300 km).
As a matter of fact, trucks travelling to/from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia or Turkey have the
advantage of reducing the number of customs points (just one between Greece and the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia or Turkey).

On the other hand, since the accession of Bulgaria into the EU, trucks travelling between Bulgaria and Italy
along this route through Greece can travel without leaving EU territory.
These considerations should be evaluated, also taking into account the study performed by DPS ISDEE
CERPEM, which contained an estimate of the cost of travel for trucks travelling along the two routes.
According to this study, it could be 25% more convenient to use Durrs rather than Igoumenitsa to reach
Skopje from Bari in terms of costs evaluated with reference to the overall length of the trip and time required
to drive along the route - and this route could potentially save 10 hours of travel time as well.

Table 2.1 Comparative analysis of costs and transit times between Bari and Skopje
Transport mode Route km Cost /truck Travelling time hours

Sea + land Bari-Igoumenitsa-Skopje 635 1,600 64

Sea + land Bari-Durrs-Skopje 330 1,200 54

Source: DPS, ISDEE CERPEM, Transport Infrastructure Development in the Balkans and their Impact on the Economy of
South Italy, June 2005.

According to the above considerations, it seems that difficulties in overcoming customs procedures and other
non-physical barriers in general, could even nullify this advantage and even to make the route through
Greece more convenient.

The efficiency of custom services and procedures in the Balkan area has also been investigated by the World
Bank through the Trade and Transport Facilitation in South-East Europe (TTFSE) program.
This program fosters trade by promoting more efficient and less costly trade flows across the countries in South-
Eastern Europe and provides European Union-compatible customs standards.
It seeks to reduce non-tariff costs to trade and transport, to reduce smuggling and corruption at border
crossings, and to strengthen and modernize the customs administrations and other border control agencies.
More details on the objects and the results of this studio are reported in the following within the paragraph
dedicated to International Studies and Plans (Chapter 3, Paragraph 3.1).

The same considerations could be outlined with reference to the issue: Ports services efficiency that is
considered unsatisfactory by approximately 60% of the sample. This item, like the one related to customs, is
seen as the cause of a notable increase in travel time.

The Journey Comfort item, regarded as unsatisfactory by almost 75% of the sample, is related to the
availability of services (rest areas, S.O.S. services, mechanical assistance, etc....) along the route.

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Journey security ranges between Poor and Good scores but, as already mentioned, the distribution of
the results suggests some caution in their evaluation.
As far as this point is concerned, it should be noted that profoundly different positions have been expressed by
Albanian and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia companies/associations, on one side, and Italian
and Bulgarian companies, on the other.

The first group considers good the situation on this topic. During the interviews Albanian and former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia companies have underlined that the situation in terms of security has improved
markedly in recent times and that the problem should be considered to be over.
The same considerations were expressed by the Albanian authorities.
By contrast, this judgment was not shared by Italian and Bulgarian companies/associations but it is noted that
they claim not to have had many recent experiences of travelling in the Albanian section of Corridor VIII, since
they consider the alternative via Greece to be far more convenient.
For this reason, their evaluation may not be so updated.
In any case, their opinion is that the situation is to be evaluated as poor or very poor and security is
considered a significant problem that profoundly conditions their decision not to drive along the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albanian sections of the Corridor.
Furthermore, with regards to the problems reported with customs, it is worth underlining that no protected or
equipped areas are available for the trucks waiting at the border, especially in Albania.

As regards efficiency of the Road Operation and Maintenance service and road safety, it is noted that
these are the sole items concerning road conditions.
They are not at the top of the priority list, and the general judgment on their condition is between poor and
good. This evaluation seems to indicate that the existing road infrastructures are not the main problem of the
Corridor even though intervention is needed in order to increase the quality of the service offered.
As far as road operation and maintenance is concerned, the lowest scores are especially for the Albanian
and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia sections, where two important sections of the corridor cross
high mountain areas.
Information for the users and sea connection to Italy are generally considered very poor .

In the end, the high cost and low efficiency of the sea connection between Italy and Albania was also heavily
underlined during some interviews. It may be supposed that these services could increase their quality and
competitiveness as a consequence of a general increase in traffic.
These general analyses justify the results of the two questions on the preferred route for reaching the Black
Sea ports in Bulgaria from central and southern Italy, or vice-versa, and for reaching the Timisoara region from
central and southern Italy.
Approximately 100% of the sample declared the alternative via Greece to be more convenient.

2.3.2.2 Analysis by Country

In Albania, the situation is generally considered ranging from poor to very poor on every item (with the
exception of the item security that is characterised by more varying results, as mentioned above).
Very Good

MOST SIGNIFICANT ISSUE


Very Poor

ALBANIAN SECTION
Good

Custom system efficiency


Poor

Ports services efficiency

Road Safety 0% 62% 31% 8% Naval connection with Italy

Trip security 23% 23% 46% 8% Users informations


Trip comfort and services 31% 46% 23% 0% Service regularity
Service regularity 8% 54% 31% 8% Trip comfort and services
Users informations 69% 23% 8% 0%
Trip security
Naval connection with Italy 23% 46% 31% 0%
Road Safety
Ports services efficiency 15% 54% 31% 0%
Custom system efficiency 46% 31% 23% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

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The most urgent need seems to be to simplify the custom procedures (problem shared with Bulgaria and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and to increase the efficiency of port services.
A more in-depth analysis is required for security as mentioned earlier.

As far as logistics issues are concerned, intervention aimed at a general increase in road safety and
availability of services to trucks and motorists seems to be urgent, such as:
rehabilitation and upgrading of road signals;
local interventions aimed at eliminating black spots;
increasing the routine maintenance services especially in the mountain sections;
construction of protected parking and rest areas close to the borders and along the route;
organization of emergency and technical assistance services along the route.

In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia too, the most urgent issue is related to customs procedures.

Very G ood
MOST SIGNIFICANT ISSUE
Very Poor

FORMER REPUBLIC OF G ood

MACEDONIA SECTION Custom system efficiency


Poor

Users informations

Road Safety 0% 43% 57% 0% Service regularity


Trip security 0% 29% 57% 14% Trip comfort and services
Trip comfort and services 29% 57% 14% 0%
Trip security
Service regularity 0% 75% 13% 0%
Road Safety
Users informations 57% 29% 14% 0%
Custom system efficiency 0% 86% 14% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Other important items regard:


road safety (non- former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia companies marked this item as poor);
efficiency of the maintenance services and the lack of services to trucks and motorists. This point is in line
with the technical recommendations from the survey performed in Sept. 2005 on the entire main alignment
of the corridor.

Interventions aimed at:


general upgrading of road safety through the rehabilitation and upgrading of road signals and the
execution of local interventions aimed at eliminating black spots;
a more efficient organization of routine maintenance services, especially in the mountain sections;
should therefore be considered as a priority.

As far as Bulgaria is concerned, the most urgent item is again the simplification of customs procedures.
Very Good

MOST SIGNIFICANT ISSUE


Very Poor

BULGARIAN SECTION
Good

Custom system efficiency


Poor

Ports services efficiency

Road Safety 17% 50% 33% 0% Naval connection with Italy

Trip security 0% 67% 33% 0% Users informations


Trip comfort and services 0% 50% 50% 0% Service regularity
Service regularity 0% 50% 50% 0%
Trip comfort and services
Users informations 29% 43% 0% 14%
Trip security
Naval connection with Italy 75% 0% 0% 25%
Road Safety
Ports services efficiency 0% 40% 40% 20%
Custom system efficiency 0% 33% 50% 17% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Security and Port efficiency, could also be the subjects of a more in-depth analysis in consideration of the
high number of poor marks arising from the questionnaire.
Problems are also highlighted in road safety in accordance with the results of the survey performed in
September 2005 that reported this problem for the non-motorway sections of the Corridor and, in particular in
the Gyueshevo-Sofia section.

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Efficiency of road maintenance services also seems to require verification, since 50% of the interviewees
marked the quality of this item as poor. Problems in this area were also reported from the survey but only
with reference to the Gyueshevo-Sofia section.
Availability of services to trucks and motorists was considered of high importance even though the general
judgment on these items varies between good and poor. An analysis aimed at increasing the level of
services could therefore be considered useful.

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3. EXISTING STUDIES AND PLANS

3.1 International Studies and Plans

The Working Group collected and examined in depth the main regional studies concerning transport in the
Balkans, focusing their attention on the east-west alignment in general and east-west road alignment along
Corridor VIII in particular.
The main recent regional studies dealing with road issues in the Balkans are TIRS, REBIS and TPPF.

3.1.1 Transport Infrastructure Regional Study in the Balkans (TIRS)

The TIRS study (Transport Infrastructure Regional Study (TIRS) in the Balkans - Agence Franaise de
Dveloppement European Conference of Ministers of Transport - March 2002) can be considered the most
comprehensive picture of the infrastructure situation in the Balkans since, while definitely comprehensive for
Bulgaria, the TINA (Transport Infrastructure Needs Assessment) Study does not cover all the countries along
Corridor VIII.
The TIRS Study area covers seven countries, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Romania. The study includes therefore the whole of Road Corridor VIII.
The study reviewed the plans of the Authorities from countries in the Balkan Region, in line with the TINA
methodology used for the accession countries, to establish the basic inter-regional transport infrastructure
network.

According to this study: Corridor VIII may be clearly split into two different parts:
East of Sofia, it is made up of continuous motorway and railway lines, supporting substantial traffic to and
from Turkey and/or the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea.
West of Sofia, it is made up of a succession of heterogeneous sections of road and railway, continuous for
roads and discontinuous for railways. Potential through-traffic or international transport demand is low.
This part of Corridor VIII is similar to a juxtaposition of short transport links of local or national interest.

The expected development of Corridor VIII reflects this duality.

The Eastern part of Corridor VIII should continue to develop high capacity and standard infrastructures, but
according to the current level of traffic: further construction of motorways may still be postponed, whereas
upgrading of railway infrastructure (projects Bu-R-01 and Bu-R-07) should be rapidly implemented.

On the Western part of Corridor VIII, the different motorway projects considered in the first categories will result
in the medium term in a continuous motorway infrastructure at standard level (projects Al-H-03 and Ma-H-
03/07/10/12). Conversely, the implementation of a continuous rail link still appears to be a long term prospect,
except perhaps between Kumanovo and Sofia (projects Ma-R-01 and Bu-R-05) if complementary analyses
recommended for TIRS 2 are conclusive.

Predicting passenger and freight demand over the period 2000-2015, the TIRS analysis indicates that transport
demand by road should continue to increase, growing by 100% before 2015.

More than half of the road projects proposed in Albania (8 over 15) have to do with Corridor XIII: six are
located on the main alignment (AL-H-01/02/03/08/09/13) and two on the Kafasan-Kapshtice/Kristallopigi
branch, connecting to Greece (Figure 3.1).

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Figure 3.1 TIRS Study: MAP 21-AL

SOURCE: Transport Infrastructure Regional Study in the Balkans (TIRS)

The study classified projects in different categories:


Projects under Category I are deemed to be immediately eligible for financing and should be
implemented immediately.
Projects under Categories II-A and II-B need some additional analyses before they can be approved for
financing. Category II-A includes the most worthwhile and well-defined projects whilst Category II-B
contains rather more questionable projects.
Category III includes all projects which should be discarded for the moment.

Following these general evaluation criteria, four road projects on the main alignment of Corridor VIII were
classified in the first category:
AL-H-01: Rehabilitation of Durrs-Plepa (category I)
AL-H-02: Rehabilitation of the Rrogozhine bypass (category I)
AL-H-03: Rehabilitation of Perrenjas-Qafe Thanes (category IIA)
AL-H-08: Rehabilitation of Lushnj-Fier (category I)
AL-H-09: Rehabilitation of Fier-Vlor (category I)
AL-H-13: Rehabilitation of Tiran-Elbasan (category III)
The two projects located on the branch towards Greece were classified in category IIA:
AL-H-10: Rehabilitation of Qafe Thanes-Pogradec (category IIB)
AL-H-11: Rehabilitation of Pogradec-Korka (category IIA)

The other seven projects have to do with road links to Montenegro, Kosovo, Tiran Airport and a more westerly
connection to Greece through Fier-Tepelene-Gjirokaster. Taking into account category I projects on the main
alignment and these other projects, priority appears to be assigned to the north-south connection along the
Adriatic Sea to Montenegro and Greece.

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As far as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is concerned, the study includes only three projects,
among eighteen, located on the main alignment foreseen in Corridor VIII MoU. These projects are:
Ma-H-03: Upgrading of Struga-Kafasan (category I)
Ma-H-12: New Motorway Podmolje-Struga(category I)
Ma-H-07: Upgrading of Stracin-Kriva Palanka (category IIB)

In the TIRS study, however, a kind of a different Corridor VIII alignment emerges that crosses the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia in the middle rather than in the North. This configuration aims to link the Albanian border
along the northern edge of Lake Ohrid to Bitola located on Corridor X. From here the TIRS version of east-west
alignment uses Corridor X up to Veles then proceeds east through the towns of Kadrifakovo-Stip-Kokani-Delcevo
and finally to the Bulgarian border. It is on this east-west alignment that the majority of proposed projects are
located (see Figure 3.2).
Figure 3.2 TIRS Study: MAP 21-MA Figure 3.3 - TIRS Study: MAP 21-BU

SOURCE: Transport Infrastructure Regional Study in the Balkans (TIRS)

In Bulgaria, two important road projects of interest to Corridor VIII East of Sofia were identified: the Hemus
Motorway (Bu-H-15), linking Sofia to Varna, and the Trakiya Motorway (Bu-H-12), linking Sofia to Burgas.
Furthermore the study also includes a motorway connection between Burgas and Varna, the Cherno More
Motorway (Bu-H-11). This scheme of course constitutes the core alignment of Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria; these
projects however were classified in category IIA (Hemus) and III (Trakiya and Cherno More) in consideration of
their magnitude.
In the meanwhile, the study puts in priority I the rehabilitation of some sections of these motorways (Bu-H-09/10)
and the completion of the Sofia Beltway North (Bu-h-06) and South (Bu-H-14). The latter in category IIB.

West of Sofia, the priority road projects identified concern only Corridor IV connecting Bulgaria with Greece in the
South, and Romania, in the North.

3.1.2 Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study (REBIS)

This study was developed following the TIRS study between June 2002 and July 2003 with the purpose of
identifying priority investment and preparing pre-feasibility studies for selected project proposals.

The region observed by the study includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Serbia - including Kosovo which is under international administration - and
Montenegro.

The study focuses on developing the so-called Core Regional Network which, however, covers only half of
Corridor VIII, disregarding any comprehensive East-West alignment strategy between the Adriatic basin and
the Black Sea.

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As a consequence, road traffic projections refer only to local transport flows within Albania and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the connection of this traffic from/toward North through Corridor X.
No meaningful international traffic forecasts are made on Corridor VIII Road from Durrs to Burgas or
toward/from Turkey-Romania-Ukraine through Durrs-Sofia. Consequently, the study includes only a few
projects in Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, along the East-West direction.

Figure 3.4 - REBIS Study- Road Projects

SOURCE: Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study (REBIS)

The short-term investment plan confirms the choices made by TIRS in Albania, with some minor changes:
Durrs by-pass (Durrs-Plepa)
Rrogozhine by-pass
Lushnj-Fier
Fier-Vlor
Elbasan-Librazhd-Perrenjas-Qafe Thanes
Perrenjas-Pogradec-Korka (branch to Greece)

However, the investment plan does not confirm the TIRS choices in the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia as far as East-West alignment is concerned. All TIRS projects connecting the Albanian border to
Corridor X in Bitola and all projects to connect Veles to the Bulgarian border at Delcevo are excluded. East-
West alignment in the so-called Core Road Network follow the official MoU configuration of Corridor VIII.
Along this alignment, it includes only the Stracin-Kriva Palanka section from Skopje to the Bulgarian border.
By contrast, REBIS includes more projects than TIRS regarding the North-South connection along Corridor X
towards Greece.

3.1.3 Transport Project Preparation Facility in the Balkan Region (TPPF)

This project (2004) is the natural follow-up to the REBIS project, which had introduced the concept of Core
Regional Network and developed a list of 60 short-term priority projects, carrying out pre-feasibility studies for
20 of them.

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During 2004, the TPPF study then selected 14 of these projects and evaluated 9 of them in detail and
expressed recommendations for the beneficiary countries and IFIs.

Given the general approach followed by REBIS, the TPPF study did not take into consideration any road
project concerning Corridor VIII.

We could consider that the only two projects mentioned by TPPF that are connected in some way to Road
Corridor VIII development are the Durrs Port Master Plan and the Bypass at Elbasan. However, it was decided
to defer the Port Master Plan by one year in order to include it in the EC CARDS programme and to postpone
the Elbasan by-pass because a short term solution was already in progress involving an inner relief road with
Italian co-financing.

In the end, the TPPF study did not include any Corridor VIII related projects.

In conclusion, the existing international studies usually mentioned on issues regarding transport infrastructures in
the Southern Balkans, namely TIRS, REBIS and TPPF, consider the north-south connections as the first priority,
mainly along Corridor X and Corridor IV, and choose to postpone investments on east-west South Balkan
alignment along Corridor VIII.

Figure 3.5 TPPF Study Selected Projects

Source: Transport Project Preparation Facility in the Balkan Region (TPPF)

3.1.4 South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO)

The South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO) was set up following REBIS recommendations to promote
the development of the Core Regional Transport Network in the Balkans.

A MoU was signed in Luxembourg on June 2004 by Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Croatia,
Serbia and Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the United Nations Interim
Administration Mission in Kosovo and the European Commission.

The region covered by SEETO includes, the same as REBIS, only about half of the main Road Corridor VIII
alignment, Bulgaria not being included.

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Furthermore, the SEETO routes network does not include the connection between Corridor VIII and Corridor X
in Bitola and the route from Veles to the Bulgarian border connecting to Corridor IV as envisaged in the TIRS
study.

At the end of 2006, the SEETO Secretariat prepared the second edition of a five-year Multi Annual Plan 2007-
2011 for the region and, recently, at the end of 2007, this MAP was up-dated by a new 2008-2012 Multi Annual
Plan.
The 2008-2012 Priority Project List includes the following intervention relevant to Corridor VIII:
ALBRD004: Construction of Rrogozhine Bypass on Corridor VIII
MACRD029: Construction of motorway, Deve Bair - Kriva Palanka Section
MACRD030: Construction of motorway, Kriva Palanka-Romanovce Section

Projects relevant to the rehabilitation of the Albanian ports are also included in the 2008-2012 MAP:
ALBSP017: Rehabilitation of the Port of Durrs
ALBSP022: Rehabilitation of the Port of Vlor

Figure 3.6 SEETO Area

SOURCE: South East Europe Transport Observatory.

Figure 3.6b Location of SEETO 2008-2012 MAP priority road projects

SOURCE: South East Europe Transport Observatory.

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Figure 3.7 Location of SEETO 2008-2012 MAP Priority Seaport and Waterway Investment Projects

SOURCE: South East Europe Transport Observatory.

3.1.5 United Nations Commission for Europe (UNECE-TEM)

The United Nations Commission for Europe TEM Project is a sub-regional co-operation established in 1977 by
the Governments of Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe.
It represents the backbone of Pan-European Road Corridors in the EU, as well as of TINA, thus representing an
important instrument of institutional inter-country cooperation and coordinated actions of the EU and SE
Europe, playing a general but concrete role in the future European Transport Integration process.
The area covered by the project is much larger than the Balkan region; nevertheless it does not include all the
Signatory Countries of the MoU on Corridor VIII. In particular, Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia do not participate in the project, Greece took part in the project in the period 1977-1991 while all
the others, i.e. Bulgaria, Italy, and Turkey, are all TEM Member Countries.

Of course this caused the Albanian road section to be missed out and the lack of an east-west alignment
along Road Corridor VIII. Consequently, the TEM backbone network extensions in the South Balkans are
formed mainly by Corridor X, for the North-South direction, and the Egnatia route for the East-West direction.
Figure 3.8 UNECE TEM MASTER PLAN COVERED REGION

Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

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UNECE prepared a Road Master Plan for the whole area. This master plan was presented in Brussels at the 7th
plenary meeting of the EU High Level Group on the extension of the major trans-European transport axes to
the neighbouring countries and regions on October 25, 2005.

In this Master Plan there are no Albanian road projects, while those, very few indeed, located in the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria are north of capital cities in the proximity of the connection
with Corridors X and IV.

In conclusion, the final picture emerging from UNECE-TEM and from the SEETO Master Plans is well defined in
the North-South direction while the absence of a clear specific strategic view concerning the East-West road
continuity along Corridor VIII and consequently a fragmentation or a lack in the identification of priority
projects along this East-West alignment is noted.

Figure 3.9 LOCATION OF UNECE TEM PRIORITY PROJECTS CLASS 1

SOURCE: UNECE TEM & TER MASTER PLAN, January 2006.

3.1.6 European Commission

The overall strategy and the transport policy goals of the EC DG for Energy and Transport constitute the main
framework for the analysis and the proposals of this Study.
With EU enlargement to 27 members, the countries of central Europe will increasingly adopt a dual role, both
as constituent parts of the wider European Union, and as interconnections with the new independent states in
eastern Europe and the littoral countries of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Following a ministerial seminar on Wider Europe for Transport in Santiago de Compostela on 7-8 June 2004, a
High Level Group was established. Ms Loyola de Palacio was appointed Chair of the Group, which comprised
26 neighbouring countries, the 25 EU Member States at that time plus Bulgaria and Romania, the European
Investment Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction & Development and the World Bank.

The main purpose of the HLG was to look into the issue of extending the major trans-European transport axes
to the neighbouring countries and regions.
The objectives of the Group were to present Proposals to the Commission on:
a limited number of priority axes connecting the Union with its neighbours with a focus on international
exchanges and freight movements;
a short list of priority projects on these axes, including motorways of the sea;
how to improve the efficiency of the current transport networks through horizontal measures, e.g.
interoperability, border-crossings, safety and security.

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The Final Report was presented on November 2005. The following figure shows the proposed system of
transnational axes to connect the Trans European Networks to the new neighbouring countries and to the
Near East, Far East and North Africa.

Figure 3.10 HLG Major trans-national axes

SOURCE: European Commission, Report from the High Level Group

The Group identified the following five major transnational axes (see Figure 3.10).
Motorways of the Seas: linking the Baltic, Barents, Atlantic, and Mediterranean, Black and the Caspian Sea
areas as well as the littoral countries within the sea areas and with an extension through the Suez Canal
towards the Red Sea.
Northern axis: to connect the northern EU with Norway to the North and with Belarus and Russia and
beyond to the East.
Central axis: to link the centre of the EU to Ukraine and the Black Sea and through an inland waterway
connection to the Caspian Sea. Connections towards Central Asia and the Caucasus are also foreseen.
South Eastern axis: to link the EU through the Balkans and Turkey to the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea as
well as to Egypt and the Red Sea. Access links to the Balkan countries are also foreseen.
South Western axis: to connect the south-western EU with Switzerland and Morocco and beyond, including
the trans-Maghrebin link connecting Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
Figure 3.11 HLG South Eastern Axis

SOURCE: European Commission, Report from the High Level Group

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The main alignment of Corridor VIII, Bari/Brindisi-Durrs/Vlor-Tiran-Skopje-Sofia-Burgas/Varna, is included as


an integral component of the South Eastern Axis, while the following segments of Corridor VIII, as defined in its
MoU, were not included in the HLG South Eastern Axis: the section Lin-Kapshtice/Kristallopigi (cross border
Albania-Greece), the branch Durrs-Vlor and the section Sofia-Pleven-Gorna Oriahovica (connection
between Corridor VIII and IX).
The HLG Report opened new opportunities for the implementation of a Road Corridor VIII to the west of Sofia.
In fact, in the HLG report an important project of interest for this Study is identified as a short-term priority
project (HLG report list 1, containing projects to start before 2010):
Road upgrading Albanian border-Skopje-Bulgarian border (List 1 project no. 25)
The report also includes, among other major projects (List 3), project no. 40:
Construction of the multi-modal terminal located in Struga (List 3 project 40)
Finally, the port of Durrs, the main access to Corridor VIII, is identified as one of the Motorways of the Sea
ports in the Southern Adriatic Sea.

3.2 National Planning Context

3.2.1 Albania

The planning situation of Albanian Roads has often been illustrated, for example in the 2nd Steering Committee
of Corridor VIII (6 December 2004) or in the Transport Donors Conference, held in Tiran the 24 March 2006.
Recently it was presented again in this Motorway Working Group.
The Albanian Government considers the country to be crossed by three main road corridors:

Figure 3.12 Corridors In Albanian Territory

Corridors in Albanian Territory


Priorities of the Transport Network
Main: 177 km

Durres Kukes Morine


Prishtine - Nish

Corridor VIII Main: 260 km


Bari, Brindisi - Durres, Vlore Branch: 96 km
Tirane Sofje Burgas, Varna

North Central - South Main: 405 km


Hani i Hotit Shkoder Branch: 72k m
Gjirokaster Kakavije
8

Source: Republic of Albania, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication

1) The North-South Corridor along the Adriatic Sea connecting Albania to Greece, in the south, and
Montenegro in the north. This alignment overlaps with that of Corridor VIII in the Durrs-Fier section.
2) The West-East Corridor VIII connecting to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, in the east, and to
Greece in the south along the western edge of Lake Ohrid.
3) The Durrs-Kukes-Morine Corridor connecting to Kosovo.

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Along the main alignment of Corridor VIII, Durrs-(Tiran)-Rrogozhine-(Tiran)-Elbasan-Qafe Thane, several


rehabilitation projects have already been carried out in recent years:
The Tiran-Durrs motorway (12.6 km, 15 M EU)
The Durrs-Kavaj-Rrogozhine section (28 km, 20.5 M EU)
The Rrogozhine-Peqin-Paper-Elbasan section (36 km, 37.8 M EIB and GoA)
The Elbasan-Librazhd section (31 km, 24.5 M CEI and GoA)
The Librazhd-Qukes section (21 km, 15.8 M WB and GoA)
The Qukes-Qafe Thane section (21 km, 10 M Kuwait Fund and GoA))

Along the other two branches of the Corridor, rehabilitation or design works have also been carried out:
The Rrogozhine-Lushnj section towards Vlor (19 km, 19.36 M)
The Korca-Kapshtice section towards Greece (28 km, 20.5 M EU)
The upgrading of the Qafe Thane-Pogradec section has been studied, analyzing four possible
road variants.
The most urgent road projects identified by the Albanian Authorities along the main alignment (Durrs-
Rrogozhine-former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border) are the bypasses for the cities of Durrs,
Rrogozhine and Elbasan.

Table 3.1 - Main Projects on Road Corridor VIII in Albania (relevant project fiches are in att. 3)

Main Section
Type of Project Project Estimated Investment Costs
Project Fiche Section Number
Project Name Status (Million )

Review of
New Durrs final design 19.7
Albania 1 AL 1
Durrs- construction Bypass M
Rrogozhine Planning
New New Durrs-
Albania 2 AL 2 no. a
construction Rrogozhine

New Tiran Study 14.6


Albania 3 Durrs- AL 4
construction Bypass M
Tiran-
Elbasan Planning
New New Tiran-
Albania 4 AL 5 no. a
construction Elbasan
sec. 1:
New road
New Construction sec. 1: 7.6
Albania 5 AL 6 links to Vlor
construction sec. 2: sec. 2: 7.0
port
Vlor- Design
Rrogozhine New Construction 96
Albania 6 AL 7
construction New Vlor- M
New Lushnje Construction 23.5
Albania 7 AL 8
construction M
New Rrogozhine Final design 6.5
Albania 8 AL 10
Rrogozhine- construction bypass M
border New Elbasan Planning
Albania 9 AL 11 no. a
construction bypass
New Qafe-
New Thane - Final design 44.5
Albania 10 AL 14
construction Pogradec M
Branch
Kafasan- New
New Detailed 21
Albania 11 Kapshtice- AL 15 Pogradec -
construction design M
Kristallopigi Qafe
New Qafe- Construction
New 23
Albania 12 AL 16 Plloce -
construction M
Korce
Source: Albanian Team of the MWG

Sections 7 and 8 on the Rrogozhine-Vlor branch are in a phase of upgrading, including a new road
connection to the port of Vlor. This last upgrading connection within the port has been divided into two lots,
the first of which is under construction while the second is at the design stage.
For the Kafasan-Kapshtice-Kristallopigi branch, made up of three sections, final designs have been developed
with four variants.

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Figure 3.13 - Corridor VIII in Albania


Corridor VIII in Albania

Variant A

Variant B

Variant C

Variant D

Section QAFE THANE - POGRADEC

Source: Albanian Representative 2nd Steering Committee of Corridor VIII

3.2.2 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

The geographical setting of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia determines the strategic importance
of having access to the sea through its neighbours territory. Consequently, road connections towards Greece
and Albania are of crucial importance for access to the Adriatic basin.
The Country considers connections with Aegean and Adriatic seaports as national economic priorities, in
particular access to the ports of Piraeus and to the ports of Taranto and Gioia Tauro. At the moment, however,
only the connections with Piraeus are adequately developed while those with Durrs and the Southern Italian
ports are in need of greater attention.
A program of investment in transport infrastructures is presently included in the National Economic Plan 2006-
2008.
Some 676 M is the total investment plan forecasted for the years 2006-2008. Almost one third of the total
(about 31%) is allocated to the transport sector. The money committed to Road Corridor VIII is for the
preparation of main potential projects as well the completion of the Skopje bypass.
The other money is allocated to the rehabilitation of some road sections (Radovish - Strumica and Majdan -
border with Greece), to the maintenance of national and regional roads, to the rehabilitation and
reinforcement of bridges of NATO interest, to the needs for local and city streets.

Figure 3.14 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia European Road Corridors

REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA IN Tabanovci


EUROPEAN ROAD CORRIDORS Deve Bair

K.Palanka
CORRIDOR 8: EAST-WEST Kumanovo

BULGARIA-ALBANIA Tetovo SKOPJE CORRIDOR 10: NORTH-SOUTH


YUGOSLAVIA-GREECE
Length: 304 km
Motorway: 91 km Length: 176 kmDel~evo
Ko~ani

Gostivar Motorway: 115 km

Veles Veles {tip

CORRIDOR 10: sub-section


Ki~evo C

VELES-GREECE Negotino

Length: 127 km
Prilep D.Kapija
Udovo

} afasan
Resen Gevgelija

Kafasan
Bitola
Bogorodica
Medzitlija

Source: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Transport

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There are three road corridors regarded as most important by the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Government:
1. The section of Pan-European Corridor X from Tabanovci (Serbia) to Bogorodica/Medzitlija (Greece)
crossing the Country in the middle in a north-south direction.
2. The section of Pan-European Corridor VIII from Kafasan (Albania) to Deve Bair (Bulgaria) crossing the
north part of the Country in a west-east direction.
3. The road alignment crossing the Country in the middle, in a west-east direction, from Kafasan to Bitola,
Veles, Delcevo, and the Bulgarian border. The distance to Sofia from the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia border at Deve Bair or at Delcevo is in both cases 105 km.

The third corridor is considered as important as the others. The project fiches prepared by the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia Team also in fact include those aiming to complete the Central Corridor VIII:
Project Fiche New Ohrid-Resen motorway
Project Fiche New Resen-Bitola motorway
Project Fiche New Veles Bulgarian border motorway

This former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia perspective has been also integrated into the recently presented
SEETO Multi annual plan 2007-2011. In the SEETO planning context the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
did make an official request to add a new branch to the Country road network, i.e. the Struga-Bitola segment,
with the aim of connecting Corridor VIII from Kafasan to Corridor X in Bitola.

Along the alignment of Road Corridor VIII crossing the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia since 1998 a
four lane motorway has been constructed from Gostivar to Kumanovo through Skopje, while a 25 km long
northern bypass of the capital city is under construction.
The Country regards completing the construction of the four-lane motorway along the entire Corridor VIII for
the total length of 304 km as being of high priority.

In the years 2000-2001, 8.43 M were committed to preparing preliminary project designs for completing the
entire four-lane Corridor VIII Motorway from the Albanian to the Bulgarian borders.

The Road Corridor still to be upgraded to four lanes is about 194 km long, and it has been divided into15
sections as better illustrated in detail in the following figure and table.

Figure 3.15 - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Corridor VIII: Detailed Designs by Sections
Corridor VIII: EAST - WEST 4 3 2 1
5

Kumanovo
Deve Bair
Kriva Palanka
Dlabocica

16
Stracin
Strezovce

km

Gostivar
6 17 km 16 14 14
km km 11 km
G Gonovica km
7 13 km
Bukojcani
8 12 km
Kicevo
9
10 km
10 Podvis
12 km
11 Preseka
13 km
Pesocani
12
13 km

Struga Trebeniste
TOTAL: 194 km
13 11 km
15
Podmolje
Ohrid
Kafasan
14 8 km
14 km

Preparation of Detailed Designs by sections

Source: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Transport

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Table 3.2 - Main projects on Road Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(relevant project fiches are reported in attachment 3)

Estimated
Section Type of Project
Project Fiche Project name Investment Cost
N. Project Status
(M Euro)
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Kafasan Design
MA 1 35.1
of Macedonia 1 construction Struga highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Struga - Design
MA 2 15.7
of Macedonia 2 Construction Podmolie highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Podmolie Design
MA 3 11.1
of Macedonia 3 Construction Ohrid highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Podmolie Design
MA 4 29.7
of Macedonia 4 Construction Trebenitsa highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Trebenitsa Design
MA 5 35.1
of Macedonia 5 Construction Pesocani highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Pesocani - Design
MA 6 33.6
of Macedonia 6 Construction Preseca highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Preseka - Design
MA 7 133.6
of Macedonia 7 Construction Kicevo highway level
New Kicevo -
Former Yugoslav Republic New Design
MA 8 Bokoikani 202.0
of Macedonia 8 Construction level
Gostivar Highway
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Skopje Constructi
MA 9 120.6
of Macedonia 9 Construction by- pass on
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Romanovce Design
MA 10 88.5
of Macedonia 10 Construction Stracin highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Stracin - Design
MA 11 56.0
of Macedonia 11 Construction Dlabocica highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Dlabocica Design
MA 12 56.9
of Macedonia 12 Construction K.Palanka highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New K.Palanka Design
MA 13 106.4
of Macedonia 13 Construction Deve Bair highway level
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Ohrid - Resen
MA 14 Planning Not defined yet
of Macedonia 14 Construction highway
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Resen -
MA 15 Planning Not defined yet
of Macedonia 15 Construction Bitola - Highway
Former Yugoslav Republic New New Bitola -
MA 16 Planning Not defined yet
of Macedonia 16 Construction Prilep highway
Former Yugoslav Republic New Design
MA 17 Prilep - Veles 110.0
of Macedonia 17 Construction level
Former Yugoslav Republic New Veles
MA 18 Planning Not defined yet
of Macedonia 18 Construction Bulgarian Border
Source: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Team of the MWG

3.2.3 Bulgaria

Bulgaria is located in a strategic position in the Southern Balkans: five Pan-European Corridors cross the
Country: IV, VII, VIII, IX and X.
More precisely, the main alignment of Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria has a length of 664 km and can be
divided into the following main sections:
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border -Gyueshevo-Sofia, along road I-6 (E 871);
Sofia Beltway -Northern Arch, along road II-18;

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Trakiya motorway section Sofia-Plodovitovo / Orizovo-Stara Zagora;


Stara Zagora-Sliven, along road II-66;
Sliven-Karnobat, along road I-6;
Karnobat Bypass-Trakiya motorway;
Trakiya motorway interchange Karnobat-Burgas;
Burgas-Varna, along road I-9 at present/along the Cherno More motorway after its construction.

Figure 3.16 - Pan-European Corridors crossing Bulgaria

Pan -European Transport Corridors


Pan-European
To Budapest, To Budapest, To Bucharest, To Black Sea
Bratislava and Bratislava, Kiev, Moscow and
Vienna Prague and Helsinki
Berlin
Rousse Ukraine
Vidin Varna
Gorna
To Belgrade, Oryahovitsa
Zagreb, Russia
Mezdra
Ljubljana, and
Salzburg
Plovdiv Bourgas Middle Asia
Sofia
Corridor IV
To Skopje, Corridor VII
Tirana, Durres
To Istanbul Corridor VIII
and Bari
Corridor IX
Corridor X
To Alexandroupolis TINA Links
To Thessaloniki

Ministry
Ministry of
of Transport
Transport -- Bulgaria
Bulgaria

SOURCE: Bulgarian Ministry of Transport

The MoU on Corridor VIII also includes the Sofia-Byala branch (a TINA link) and a Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio
road connection towards Greece, at present formed by local road sections.
The country has just joined the European Union in January 2007 and therefore has previously developed
overall plans, including those concerning the transport sector.
Bulgaria elaborated a strategy for the development of the National Transport System till 2015 (National
Strategy for the Integrated Development of the Technical Infrastructure for the period 2006-2015) involving all
relevant governmental institutions and interested agencies.

This National Strategy has been developed at three levels:


Strategic Plan, longer term (10-year time horizon), giving broad directions to the national transport policy,
consistent with the Ministrys mission statement and priority objectives, for the Transport Sector as a whole, in
an integrated context;
Mid-term Review, medium term (5 years), providing programs, in line with the Strategic Plan directions, for
transport sub-sectors (so-called small strategies);
Action Plans, short term (1 year), pertaining to specific projects, rolling annual updates linked to yearly
budget preparation.

Priorities in the Road Infrastructure Development Policy are:


1. Completion of the Countrys backbone motorways:
Trakiya (Sofia-Burgas): Lot 2, Lot 3 and Lot 4 L=116 km; Sofia Beltway Northern Arch section; L=22
km; Kalotina Sofia Beltway Northern Arch section; L=48 km
Lyulin (Sofia-Daskalovo);
Maritza (Orizivo-Turkey): L=114 km;
Struma (Sofia-Greece): Lot 1 Dolna Dikanya-Dupnitsa section; L=17 km ; Lot 2 Dupnitsa-Simitli
section; L=45 km; Lot 3 Simitli-Sandanski section; L=56 km; Lot 4 Sandanski-Kulata section; L=15 km
Cherno More (Burgas-Varna): L=92 km.

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For the period 2006-2015, the Strategic Plan forecasts the construction of 717 km of motorways with a
total indicative value of 3,305 M financed from the state budget, the Cohesion Fund of the European
Union and through public-private partnership (PPP concessions);
2. Reconstruction and rehabilitation of road sections along European Transport Corridors not upgraded
to motorways;
3. Ensuring improved and more homogeneous transport operational indicators of the main national road
network to adjust it to European norms and standards.

As far as Road Corridor VIII is concerned, the Plan includes completing construction of the Stara Zagora-
Karnobat motorway section.

Table 3.3 - Main Projects on Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria (relevant project fiches are in attach. 3)

Planning Status: Estimated


Main Section
Type of Project Investment
Project Fiche Section Number
Project Status Costs
Completed Planned (Million )

Rehabilitation of Financed by
former Road I-6 (E 871) Completed Rehabilitated
Bulgaria 1 Yugoslav BU 1 BCP Gyueshevo 2004, 103 km in 2004
PHARE and
Republic of Sofia section CBC
Macedonia
border-
Gyueshevo Road I-6 (E 871) Detail
-Sofia New section
Bulgaria 2 BU 2 section Kustendil Design/Tende 18.0 M
Rehabilitation Sofia- 33 km ring

19 km Ljulin
New Motorway Sofia Ring Feasibility 148.0 M ISPA
Bulgaria 3 BU 3 Road junction Study
construction 75 %
Daskalovo-Suhodol

Completed Road II-18 North


Sofia Feasibility
Bulgaria 4 BU 4 2000 North Arc 22 km, from km
Study
85.0 M
bypass 2 to km 24
Arc, 41 km
Road II-18 North
Arc 7 km, from km Feasibility
Bulgaria 5 BU 5 Rehabilitation 24 to km 31 (Sofia Study
5/10 M
Ring Road

Trakiya
Motorway:
Trakiya Motorway:
Sofia- New Lot 1:84.0 M
Bulgaria 6 Orizovo/Plo
BU 6 Lot 1: Orizovo - Stara Completed
construction Zagora, 38 km
tovitovo -
Karnobat
Trakiya Lot 2: Stara Zagora
Motorway: Rehabilitation Nova Zagora, 32 km Lot 2: 102 M
Sofia- New Completed Lot 3: Nova Zagora-
Bulgaria 7 Orizovo/Plo
BU 7 1994-96-98, Sliven/Jambol,35 km
Planned Lot 3: 113 M
construction
tovitovo - 111 km Lot 4: Sliven/Jambol Lot 4: 157 M
Karnobat Karnobat, 48 km

Rehabilitation
Completed
Sliven-
Bulgaria 8 Burgas
BU 8 Rehabilitation 1994-96-
2005-06, 108
km

Lot 9 Programme
TRRP IV phase I - Rehabilitation
4.2 M
Road I-9 (E 87) implementatio
section Varna n, 22 km
Rehabilitation
Burgas
Burgas- Completed
Bulgaria 9 Varna
BU 9 Rehabilitation 1995-97,
58/122 km Motorway Cherno Preparation of
more section Varna tender and
396 M
interchange Priceltzi expropriation
interchange Burgas documentatio no financing
West, 92 km n

SOURCE: Bulgarian Ministry of Transport

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Table 3.3 (continued) - Main Projects on Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria (project fiches in attachment 3)

Planning Status: Estimated


Project Main Section Type of
Project Status Investment Costs
Fiche Section Number Project
Completed Planned (Million )

section Sofia
North Arc Yana
Bulgaria New 32 M
BU 10 (Hemus Design level
10 construction Motorway), 8.5
km

Rehabilitation of
the secondary
branch of
Bulgaria Approx.
BU 11 Rehabilitation Corridor VIII from Design level
11 Jablanica 0.3 M /km
Branch interchange to
Sofia- Byala
Pleven-
Byala
Rehabilitation of
the secondary
branch of
Approx.
Corridor VIII from Design level
Jablanica 0.3 M /km
Rehabilitation interchange to
Bulgaria
BU 12 New Byala
12
construction
Hemus
Motorway
Northern Prefeasibility 600 M
Central part

from Burgas to
Bulgaria Branch Harmanli Approx.
BU 13 Rehabilitation (Motorway
Design level
13 Burgas- 0.3 M /km
Svilengrad Maritsa), km 170
(connectio
n Greek In construction
border: Maritsa
connection
Bulgaria Ormenio)
New Motorway:
BU 14 from Harmanli to
Svilengrad to 16 M
14 construction Motorway Maritsa, 4
Svilengrad
km

SOURCE: Bulgarian Ministry of Transport

Table 3.4 Bulgaria - Time-schedule of priority Transport Infrastructure Projects till 2015 - Roads

SOURCE: Bulgarian Ministry of Transport

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Table 3.5 Bulgaria - Motorway Project - Public-Private partnership - Concessions

SOURCE: Bulgarian Ministry of Transport

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4. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAIN CURRENT ISSUES OF THE ROAD


CORRIDOR VIII

Main conclusions can be summarized as follows.

1. The alignment of Road Corridor VIII is already existing and continuous from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.

2. In recent years, a number of upgrading/rehabilitation projects have been implemented along the main
and secondary branches of the Corridor. The geometrical standards of the existing road network are not af
the level required for an international road axis; however, with the exception of a number of critical points
and inconveniences that need to be solved in the short term, current standards are sufficient to serve the
current and the short-term future freight traffic;

3. However, a number of quick, efficient and well-defined interventions should be implemented in the very
short term in order to improve the attractiveness of the Corridor to international freight traffic.
These short-term improvements should cover:

In ALBANIA:
completion of the still not rehabilitated sections of the Rrogozhine-Elbasan road;
upgrading of the safety levels for the existing road (safety devices, horizontal and vertical road
signing, local black spots, drainage system, etc.);
construction of urgent bypasses: Rrogozhine, Elbasan;
increases in the general efficiency of the road maintenance service, especially in the mountain
section close to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border.

In the FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA:


localized rehabilitation or renovation of the road pavement;
local upgrading of the safety devices along the road;
increases in the efficiency of the road maintenance service, especially in the mountain sections;
upgrading of a 15-20 km section close to Kriva Palanka in the Kumanovo-Bulgarian border section.

In BULGARIA
completion of the general upgrading of the Gyueshevo-Sofia section;
construction of the Radomir bypass;
upgrading of the safety devices along the road in the non-motorway sections.

4. As far as Port accessibility is concerned, this point is considered one of the key elements conditioning
the efficiency and attractiveness of the whole system. Local governments and Port authorities are
managing these issues by planning and executing required interventions and projects in accordance
with the different port development situations.

5. Logistics and horizontal issues seem to be the most urgent problems to solve, since they have a great
impact on the total cost of transport.
The answers provided by transport firms and associations suggest indeed that:
Logistics/horizontal services are generally evaluated as poor and often very poor in terms of
quality of service.
Customs procedures are by far the most important issue in conditioning the competitiveness and
attractiveness of the Corridor in the international context.
The urgency of solving this horizontal issue is confirmed by the World Bank TTFSE Project.
Other important issues are reported to be: port services, the availability of services aimed at increasing
the level of comfort for motorists.
The security issue is still not clearly identified. Some firms evaluated it as an important problem; others
reported it as being not an important problem.

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6. Road planning concerning Road Corridor VIII is fragmented and an overall co-ordinated strategic
perspective of the east-west alignment along the Corridor is not clearly evident.
Road projects related to Corridor VIII are developed mainly in accordance with national priorities;
there is a lack of a co-ordinated focus on Road Corridor VIII across countries;
Regional Planning Agencies (SEETO and UNECE) do not cover the complete east-west alignment
along Road Corridor VIII: SEETO does not include Bulgaria while UNECE does not include Albania;
On the other hand, the EU High Level Group Report included the Main Alignment of Road Corridor VIII
within the European South Eastern Axis, and included the road connection between the Albanian and
Bulgarian borders within the list of priority projects.
In the short term, a general coordinated multinational program of investments on Corridor VIII
infrastructures should be considered, and evaluated by means of a general study integrated with
national development plans.

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5. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE INTERVENTION STRATEGY AIMED AT


INCREASING THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CORRIDOR VIII

5.1 Traffic and trade: current situation and future scenarios

5.1.1 International trade: current situation and trends

The basic scenario of this chapter is taken from the ISDEE-CERPEM Study financed by the Italian Ministry of the
Economy in 2005 (ISDEE: Istituto di Studi e Documentazione sullEuropa Comunitaria e LEuropa Orientale,
Trieste; CERPEM: Centro Ricerche per il Mezzogiorno, Bari).
This Study states that the Balkans market is open to considerable trade increases, but it appears to be slowed
down by the lack of suitable transport infrastructures and the poor commercial integration amongst Balkan
countries.
The Italian Ministry of Economys study shows that in general numerous Italian companies already operate in
Balkan countries with meaningful presences in all the area, though less so in the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia. This presence is connected to the export of intermediate products or to the outsourcing of some
operations within the entire manufacturing process.
This is not the case however with companies from Southern Italy: their presence is concentrated in Albania
and along the coastal areas of Montenegro and Croatia. It is clear according to the study that this presence is
limited by a deficiency of an appropriate transport network and by a lack of transport infrastructures.
The ISDEE-CERPEM Study also states that the Balkan market has great commercial potential: in particular,
potential exports from Southern Italy may reach around 2 billion Euros, taking into account the GDP levels
compared with the 2005 figure of 850 million Euros.
The predominant transport mode to/from Italy and the Southern Balkans is usually road-sea-road, so the
importance of the ports of the Southern Adriatic, Bari and Brindisi (Italy), Durrs (Albania), Bar (Montenegro) is
crucial.
According to the ISDEE-CERPEM study, Road Corridor VIII is the most convenient continuous road infrastructure
to consider in the short term to connect South Italy and the Southern Balkans, whereas the Bar-Beograd rail link
represents the short-term concrete rail alternative because the implementation of a continuous Durrs-Sofia
rail link appears to remain a medium-term endeavour.

Figure 5.1 - Road and Rail Access from Southern Italy to the Balkans

Source: ISDEE-CERPEM, 2005

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The ISDEE-CERPEM Study estimates the rate of increase in the volume of trade traffic and freight by 2020,
between the EU and the bordering Countries is set to rise by 100%.
The Table and Figures below seem to confirm the trend of growth in freight and passenger traffic of recent
years in the two main ports of Corridor VIII: Bari and Durrs.

Table 5.1: Statistical Data for the Port of Bari


Cars and Trucks and
Passengers Freight
EAR Buses trailers
(num.) (tons)
(num.) (num.)
2002 1,058,662 3,608,480 173,042 119,014
2003 1,094,835 3,927,662 178,985 121,829
2004 1,076,758 3,816,126 182,837 125,279
2005 1,176,969 4,416,145 210,127 151,766
2006 1,576,000 5,000,000 228,033 186,000
2007 1,800,000 5,555,000 259,000 204,000
Source: Bari Port Authority

Table 5.2/5.3/5.4: Statistical Data for the Port of Durres


Cars and Trucks and
Passengers Freight
EAR Buses trailers
(num.) (tons)
(num.) (num.)
2004 723,000 2,960,000 136,000 48,000
2005 704,000 3,112,000 143,000 56,000
2006 702,000 3,423,000 149,000 57,000
2007 770,000 3,441,000 169,000 64,000
Source: Durrs Port Authority

Figure 5.5: Durres Development of containers (TEU)


20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
TEU Number

10000
Export
8000
6000 Import
4000
2000
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Years
Source: Durrs Port Authority

In conclusion, as the Balkan market develops, this will create new business opportunities and boost the
export/import of products and services. The main obstacles to this market development potential are
identified in the lack of accessibility both physical (transport infrastructures) and non-physical (customs
procedures, security, management).
The only alternative available in the current situation to enable a positive trend and rapid growth in freight
transport and trade levels is the development of the intermodal access by sea+road between Southern Italy
and the Southern Balkans.

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The ISDEE-CERPEM report shows that Corridor VIII is a valid and efficient transport mode in agreement with the
general strategic indications of the EU, but is still at a stage of development and will require some years until
full development is achieved.
In this context, another relevant study is the INTERREG IIIB ARCHIMED (NEW.TON PROJECT) estimating RO-RO
present and potential traffic for a new short sea-shipping route from Taranto-Igoumenitsa.

Figure 5.6: Newton Project

Source: Taranto Port Authority

The NEW.TON study of a new connection between Taranto and Igoumenitsa intends to demonstrate the
feasibility of carrying out this new service with the use of two Ro-Pax ferries as a natural consequence of
having invested in the Egnatia Motorway and estimates to this purpose the traffic attraction that could
occur as a consequence of the development of this important road infrastructure.
The market of reference for the newly envisaged shipping company is constituted, for Italy, by the following
regions: Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, Campania, Molise and Abruzzi; and for the port of Igoumenitsa, by
all the nations bordering Greece and the Black Sea, following the layout of Corridors VIII and IV (Greece,
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey).
The Ro-Ro market forecast thus defined amounts to some 141,000 and the effects of opening the Egnatia
Motorway accounts for about 22,000 within the total estimate of 141,000.
The current flows of commodities between Apulia and Greece are today almost totally absorbed by the
competing ports of Bari and Brindisi. The results of the study however have confirmed the possibility that
Taranto can succeed in attracting around 21.20% of the traffic that at present use the other ports, equal to
around 29,870 trucks.

Figure 5.7 RO-RO market traffic forecast between Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans

Source: NEW.TON project

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This effect was calculated by analyzing the traffic of the commodities that currently move from the Greek
regions of the gravitation area toward the port of Igoumenitsa (14,337) and from the regions of the Black Sea
(7,488).
The conclusion of the study is that the traffic determined by the opening of the Egnatia Motorway can be
considered, for the year 2008, equal to about 22,000 trucks.

Figure 5.8 Total potential trucks induced by the opening of the Egnatia Motorway.

Source: NEW.TON project

5.1.2 Traffic flows: current situation and short term trends

5.1.2.1 Road traffic current situation

Data regarding the AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic) of the different sections of both the main alignment
and secondary branches of Corridor VIII for 2006 are reported in the tables in Attachment 1.
The text below contains a brief summary and analysis of these data aimed at evaluating the Level of Service
guaranteed by the existing infrastructure.
It is noted that no analysis has been carried out with reference to the sections crossing large urban areas,
where problems due to interference between local and transit traffic are clearly evident.

Table 5.2 reports the AADT and the percentage of truck traffic for different sections of the main alignment of
Corridor VIII in Albania.

Table 5.2 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII main alignment in Albania (year 2006)
Section Section Section
Durres - Rogozhine - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border Durres - Tirane - Elbasan Vlore - Rrogozhine

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section
AL-2 AL-3 AL-4 AL-5 AL-6 AL-7 AL-9 AL-11 AL-12 AL-13
AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
Durres - Rogozhine - Elbasan - Librazhd- Perrenjas - Durres- Tirane- Fier- Lushnje-
Vlore-Fier
Rogozhine Elbasan Librazhd Perrenjas Qafe-Thane Tirane Elbasan Lushnje Rrogozhine

Length of Selected
39.000 41.000 31.000 29.000 9.000 149.000

41.000 54.000 95.000


35.000 31.000 18.000 84.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
14000 6000 3500 3000 2800 6797 12000 3000 6884 8000 9000 12000 9226
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
10% 12% 14% 10% 12% 11% 12% 0% 9% 12% 14% 10% 12%
traffic

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members

Most of the traffic is concentrated along the Durrs-Vlor North-South Corridor, with values ranging between
8,000 and 14,000 vehicles per day (growing while approaching Tiran) and along the Durrs-Tiran road.
On the other side of the capital, traffic values fall from Tiran towards the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia border (sections AL-3 to AL-6), indicating that most traffic is to be considered local and not
travelling along the alignment of the Corridor.

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The highest traffic value is reported in the Durrs-Rrogozhine section with great interference (especially in the
summer season) between local tourist traffic and transit traffic. This interference has already been underlined
as a problem in paragraph 2.1.1
As far as the Secondary Branch to Greece is concerned (tab. 5.3), traffic values are quite homogeneous
along the route up to the Greek border, indicating that this route is currently used for international traffic to
Greece.
In the end, considering the traffic volumes on section AL-6, on section AL-14 and on section MA-1, it can be
seen that a significant percentage of the traffic travelling along the main axis of the corridor in Albania is
heading towards (or came from) Greece.

Table 5.3 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the secondary branch of Corridor VIII in Albania
(Year 2006)
SECONDARY BRANCH
Cafasan - Kapshtice/Kristallopigi

Section Section Section Section


AL-14 AL-15 AL-16 AL-17
AVERAGE
Korce -
Qafe-Thane - Pogradec-
Plloce - Korce Kapstiche
Pogradec Plloce

Length of Selected
25.000 10.000 35.000 35.000 105.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
3500 3200 3200 2500 2894
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
14% 12% 12% 10% 13%
traffic

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members

The percentage of truck traffic is generally homogeneous, ranging between 10% and 14% with the exception
of the Tiran-Elbasan road that is not used by trucks due to its poor geometrical characteristics.
The following table (tab. 5.4) reports the AADT and the percentage of truck traffic for different sections of the
main alignment of Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Table 5.4 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the main alignment of Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia (year 2006)
Section
Albanian border - Gostivar

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section


MA-1 MA-2 MA-3 MA-4 MA-5 MA-6 MA-7 MA-8 MA-9
AVERAGE
Kafasan - Struga - Podmolie - Podmolie- Trebenista - Pesocani- Preseka- Kicevo - Straza -
Struga Podmolie Ohrid Trebenista Pesocani Preseka Kicevo Straza Gostivar

Length of Selected
13.000 5.000 5.000 6.000 11.000 15.750 24.100 21.400 23.750 125.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
1007 4279 3656 3656 3656 3656 3656 3419 4966 3614
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
22% 16% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 21% 21% 16%
traffic

Section Section
Gostivar - Skopje Skopje - Bulgarian border

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section


AVERAGE AVERAGE
MA-10 MA-11 MA-13 MA-14 MA-15 MA-16 MA-17 MA-18 MA-19

Gostivar - Tetovo - Skopje - Romanovce- Kumanovo - Strezovce - Stracin- Dlabocica - K. K. Palanka -


Tetovo Skopje Romanovce Kumanovo Strezovce Stracin Dlabocica Palanka Deve Bair

Length of Selected
26.000 38.000 64.000

34.000 5.000 19.800 17.800 21.200 8.000 14.200 120.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
11141 9498 10165 7569 3165 2003 2003 2398 2398 1579 3674
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
5% 5% 5% 17% 11% 21% 21% 10% 10% 13% 16%
traffic

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members

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The highest traffic values are recorded in the sections closer to the capital, that clearly acts as an important
generation and destination pole. Traffic seems to be mainly local/national while international transit traffic is
characterized by values of little interest.

The highest values are in fact recorded on the motorway sections MA-10 and MA-11 from Gostivar to Skopje
(AADT close to 10.000 v/d) and on the motorway section MA-13 from Skopje to Romanovce (AADT close to
7500 v/d) connecting Skopje to branch D of Pan-European Corridor X.
Traffic values on all other sections East and West of Skopje are far lower.
In the Western section of the Corridor, AADT values range between 1000 (on the Albanian border) to 5000 v/d
approaching Gostivar.

In the Eastern section towards the Bulgarian border, AADT values fall abruptly beyond Romanovce. Values
close to 2000 V/d have been recorded in the section from Kumanovo to the Bulgarian border.
Truck traffic percentages are close to 15% with the exception of the Gostivar-Skopje section where it is closer
to 5%.

As far as Bulgaria is concerned, it is noted that in the table in Attachment 3, sections Bu 3 and BU 4 have been
updated in order to take into account the recent completion and opening to traffic of the Chirpan-Stara
Zagora section of the Trakiya Motorway.
However, as this traffic analysis is based on data relevant to 2006, the configuration of the Trakiya motorway
relevant to year 2006 (i.e. with the motorway completed up to Chirpan) has been referred to in the following
tables.

The highest AADT values are reported along the Sofia Beltway currently under construction and along the
Sofia-Burgas route, served by the Trakiya Motorway whose completion is scheduled in the near future.
More interesting is the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border-Sofia section (BU-1) and in particular
the Pernik-Sofia section that registered AADT values of 9000 v/d and that, as already stated in paragraph
2.1.7 would require urgent upgrading works.

As far as the Burgas-Varna connection is concerned, an AADT of 10000 v/d, with higher values in the area of
Burgas and lower values in the area of Varna, has been reported.

Table 5.5 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII main alignment in Bulgaria (year 2006)

Section
Section Section
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border -
Sofia - Burgas Burgas - Varna
Sofia
Section Section Section Section Section Section
BU-1 BU-2 BU-3* BU-4* BU-5 BU-6
AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
Sofia Ring Sofia-
Gyueshevo - Pernik - Chirpan - Karnobat - Bourgas -
Road (North Plodovitovo-
Pernik Sofia Karnobat Bourgas Varna
Arc) Chirpan

Length of Selected
80.000 42.000 41.000 163.000

187.000 149.000 47.000 383.000

138.000 138.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
4000 9000 25000 10571 17000 9000 15000 13642 10000 10000
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
18% 12% 40% 30% 32% 30% 30% 31% 25% 25%
traffic

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members
* Sections referred to the 2006 configuration of the Trakiya Motorway

The Byala/Gorna Oriahovica-Sofia secondary branch appears to have values ranging from 800 to 15000 v/d.
By contrast, the Burgas-Svilengrad-Ormenio branch is characterised by high values only in the Svilengrad-
Ormenio section, coinciding with Pan-European Corridor IV.

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Table 5.6 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII secondary branch in Bulgaria (Year 2006)
SECONDARY BRANCH -
SECONDARY BRANCH
Byala/Gorna Oriahovica - Pleven -
Bourgas - Svilengrad - Ormenion
Sofia

Section Section Section Section


BU-9 BU-10 BU-11 BU-12
AVERAGE AVERAGE
Harmanli -
Sofia - Yablanitza - Bourgas -
Ormenion (Greek
Yablanitza Byala Harmanli Border)

Length of Selected
72.000 168.000 240.000

153.000 43.000 196.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
15500 8000 10250 2000 9000 3536
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
26% 25% 25% 25% 22% 23%
traffic

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members

The average traffic along the entire Corridor was obtained from the above data using a weighted average.
Results expressed by country and by section are shown in the following table:

Table 5.7 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the Main alignment of Corridor VIII (year 2006)
AADT Truck traffic
(v/d) (%)

ALBANIA 7 444 11%

FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA 4 994 11%

BULGARIA 12 175 30%

ALBANIA + MACEDONIA 6 256 11%

ENTIRE CORRIDOR VIII 9 321 24%

Figure 5.9 Average Annual Daily Traffic along Corridor VIII (year 2006)

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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Significant differences are noted between the relatively small traffic volumes in Albania and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the significant traffic volumes in Bulgaria.
It is worth underlining the fact that the average AADT values for the sections in Albania and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reported in the previous table are generally consistent with the evaluation
reported in the SEETO 2008-2012 Five Year Multi Annual Plan (AADT = 7594 v/d) for the same sections, while the
percentage of truck traffic resulting from this study appears to be considerably lower then the SEETO
estimation (11% vs. 21.46%).
It is the opinion of the authors of this study that these differences produce no profound inconsistency in the
final results and considerations.

5.1.2.2 Road traffic evolution in the short term

A detailed analysis of traffic evolution is beyond the scope of this work. In any case, a preliminary evaluation
was carried out using the same simplified approach used in the SEETO 2008-2012 MAP (that estimates an
average 8% annual growth in the SEETO region on the basis of the estimated yearly GDP and population
growth in the same area) and applying the same growth rate to Bulgaria too.
In this way, a simplified tentative short-term traffic scenario for year 2012 for the whole of Corridor VIII has been
built up.
It is noted that this approach cannot take into account any traffic attraction phenomena that are
expected to occur as a consequence of improving Road Corridor VIIIs characteristics and of solving the
problems that currently reduce its attractiveness.
Such an evaluation should be the object of a dedicated traffic study to be performed on a regional scale as
part of the Feasibility Study proposed in the next chapters.

Results are reported in the following tables

Table 5.8 Average Annual Daily Traffic along the main Alignment of Corridor VIII (year 2012)
AADT Truck traffic
(v/d) (%)

ALBANIA 11 017 11%

FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA 7 392 11%

BULGARIA 18 020 30%

ALBANIA + MACEDONIA 9 259 11%

ENTIRE CORRIDOR VIII 13 795 24%

Source: Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway Working Group members

Table 5.9 Average Annual Daily Traffic along different sections of Corridor VIII (year 2012)
Section Section Section
Durres - Rogozhine - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border Durres - Tirane - Elbasan Vlore - Rrogozhine

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section
AL-2 AL-3 AL-4 AL-5 AL-6 AL-7 AL-9 AL-11 AL-12 AL-13
AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
Durres - Rogozhine - Elbasan - Librazhd- Perrenjas - Durres- Tirane- Fier- Lushnje-
Vlore-Fier
Rogozhine Elbasan Librazhd Perrenjas Qafe-Thane Tirane Elbasan Lushnje Rrogozhine

Length of Selected
39.000 41.000 31.000 29.000 9.000 149.000

41.000 54.000 95.000


35.000 31.000 18.000 84.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
20720 8880 5180 4440 4144 10059 17760 4440 10189 11840 13320 17760 13655
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
10% 12% 14% 10% 12% 11% 12% 0% 9% 12% 14% 10% 12%
traffic

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Section
Albanian border - Gostivar

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section


MA-1 MA-2 MA-3 MA-4 MA-5 MA-6 MA-7 MA-8 MA-9
AVERAGE
Kafasan - Struga - Podmolie - Podmolie- Trebenista - Pesocani- Preseka- Kicevo - Straza -
Struga Podmolie Ohrid Trebenista Pesocani Preseka Kicevo Straza Gostivar

Length of Selected 13.000 5.000 5.000 6.000 11.000 15.750 24.100 21.400 23.750 125.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
1490.36 6332.92 5410.88 5410.88 5410.88 5411 5410.88 5060.12 7350 5348
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck 22% 16% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 21% 21% 16%
traffic

Section Section
Gostivar - Skopje Skopje - Bulgarian border

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section


AVERAGE AVERAGE
MA-10 MA-11 MA-13 MA-14 MA-15 MA-16 MA-17 MA-18 MA-19

Gostivar - Tetovo - Skopje - Romanovce- Kumanovo - Strezovce - Stracin- Dlabocica - K. K. Palanka -


Tetovo Skopje Romanovce Kumanovo Strezovce Stracin Dlabocica Palanka Deve Bair

Length of Selected
26.000 38.000 64.000

34.000 5.000 19.800 17.800 21.200 8.000 14.200 120.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
16488.68 14057.04 15045 11202 4684.2 2964.44 2964.44 3549.04 3549.04 2337 5438
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
5% 5% 5% 17% 11% 21% 21% 10% 10% 13% 16%
traffic
Section
Section Section
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border -
Sofia - Burgas Burgas - Varna
Sofia
Section Section Section Section Section Section
BU-1 BU-2 BU-3 BU-4 BU-5 BU-6
AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
Sofia Ring Sofia-
Gyueshevo - Pernik - Chirpan - Karnobat - Bourgas -
Road (North Plodovitovo-
Pernik Sofia Karnobat Bourgas Varna
Arc) Chirpan

Length of Selected
80.000 42.000 41.000 163.000

187.000 149.000 47.000 383.000

138.000 138.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily
5920 13320 37000 15644 25160 13320 22200 20191 14800 14800
Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck
18% 12% 40% 30% 32% 30% 30% 31% 25% 25%
traffic

SECONDARY BRANCH - SECONDARY BRANCH


SECONDARY BRANCH
Byala/Gorna Oriahovica - Pleven - Cafasan - Kapshtice/Kristallopigi
Bourgas - Svilengrad - Ormenion
Sofia
Section Section Section Section
Section Section Section Section
AL-14 AL-15 AL-16 AL-17
BU-9 BU-10 BU-11 BU-12
AVERAGE
AVERAGE AVERAGE Korce -
Harmanli - Qafe-Thane - Pogradec-
Sofia - Yablanitza - Bourgas - Plloce - Korce Kapstiche
Ormenion (Greek Pogradec Plloce
Yablanitza Byala Harmanli Border)

Length of Selected Length of Selected


72.000 168.000 153.000 43.000 25.000 10.000 35.000 35.000 105.000

section (km)
240.000 196.000

section (km)
Average Annual Daily Average Annual Daily
22940 11840 15170 2960 13320 5233 5180 4736 4736 3700 4283
Traffic (v/d) Traffic (v/d)
Percentage of truck Percentage of truck
26% 25% 25% 25% 22% 23% 14% 12% 12% 10% 13%
traffic traffic

Secretariat elaboration of data from the Motorway working Group members

5.2 Current and short-term capacity bottlenecks

Traffic volumes reported in the previous chapter were used in order to evaluate the current and short-term
Level of Service guaranteed by the existing infrastructures along the different road sections.
These evaluations were performed according to the US Highway Capacity Manual (HCM).
Analyses were performed for the entire Corridor including all the secondary branches.
Results for the Albanian and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia sections were also compared with
the analyses reported in the SEETO 2008-2012 MAP and a general agreement was found.

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These results were used in order to identify the existing and short-term future capacity bottlenecks along
the Corridor. According to the standard followed in other international studies, a capacity bottleneck has
been defined as the section with a LoS lower than C.
The following figures summarise the resulting LoS for years 2006 and 2012.

Figure 5.10 Level of Services along Corridor VIII (year 2006)

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

Figure 5.11- Predicted Level of Service along Corridor VIII (year 2012)

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

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The Durrs-Rrogozhine road section (AL-2) , in Albania, is the only current bottleneck.
A number of other sections are characterized by a C LoS and should be considered critical.

The situation in 2012 shows a number of bottlenecks in the Albanian sections along the coast, in the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia mountain section, in the Guyshevo-Sofia section and in other non-motorway
sections in Bulgaria in strict accordance with the technical analyses performed in the previous chapters.

In greater detail, future short term bottlenecks are foreseen in the following sections:
ALBANIA
Durrs-Tiran (section AL-7)
Vlor-Fier (section AL-11)
Fier-Lushnj (section AL-12)

former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:


Albanian border-Struga (section MA-1)
Kicevo-Straza (section MA-8)
Straza-Gostivar (section MA-9)

BULGARIA:
Some sections between Gyueshevo and Sofia (section BU-1)
Stara Zagora-Karnobat (BU-4)
Yablanitza-Byala (BU-10)
Harmanli-Ormenio (BU-12)

5.3 Short term priority projects: basic consideration

The definition of a list of Short Term Priority Projects aiming to achieve quick improvements to the main
alignment of Corridor VIII as an international road route is one of the main objectives of this study, as reported
in chapter 1.2.
These Priority Projects consist in clearly finalized and quickly executable interventions aimed at increasing the
quality of the service offered by the existing infrastructure of the Corridor and at making it more attractive and
competitive for international freight traffic operators.
The Priority Project list was defined on the basis of the evaluations and the results reported in the previous
chapters.
Three main action lines were followed:
Improving accessibility to ports;
improving the quality of the service offered by the Corridor in order to increase its general attractiveness;
opening up alternative connections to international itineraries.

5.3.1 Ports accessibility

Accessibility to existing ports from Road Corridor VIII is one of the key efficiency points for the whole system. This
is particularly true for ports with a strong passenger and Ro-Ro traffic orientation, such as Bari and Durrs.
With reference to the need to perform urgent actions aimed at solving problems that could affect the
attractiveness of the Corridor, on the basis of the analysis carried out in the previous part of the report it is
argued that:
the Italian ports of Bari and Brindisi require optimization of their road connections to the main Italian road
network in order to reduce the existing interference between local traffic and traffic heading for the ports
and to avoid passing through urban areas. These projects are currently under advanced definition by the
local Government and Port Authorities, and this study regards dedicated specific priority projects as
necessary .
In any event, the MWG strongly support the activities carried out by Local Governments and local Port
Authorities since the availability of efficient road connections between the Ports and the main national

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road network is considered one of the key elements conditioning the efficiency and attractiveness of the
whole system.
As far as the Albanian ports are concerned, new connections to the main Albanian network from the port
of Durrs and Vlor, bypassing urban areas and solving the problems of interference with local traffic, are
either under construction or have already been included in the national planning. For this reason, no
priority project has been selected with reference to this item.
With reference to the Bulgarian ports of Burgas and Varna, the current road connections seem to allow
good accessibility to the two ports. Routine maintenance works guarantee good road conditions and a
tender for special maintenance work has recently been awarded for one of the access roads to the port
of Burgas. No priority project has been selected with reference to this item.

5.3.2 Project aimed at increasing the general attractiveness of the Corridor

5.3.2.1 Logistics and horizontal issues

As stated in paragraph 4, logistics and horizontal issues proved to be the most urgent problems to be solved in
order to make Corridor VIII more attractive for international traffic.
Among the issues considered in the analysis reported in the previous chapters, the following were considered
as the most significant:
Customs system efficiency
Port services efficiency
Journey comfort
Journey security
Regularity and efficiency of road maintenance services
Safety of the roads

Customs system efficiency was definitely the one with the greatest impact on the Corridors performance
and attractiveness.
Several international analyses, project and initiatives related to this issue have recently been executed or are
still ongoing.
Interventions and measures to be taken will then be defined in that context, which is beyond the objectives
and competencies of this study that can only highlight the importance of the matter and recommend the
quick adoption of all the necessary measures.
A brief overview on ongoing initiatives relevant to this matter is reported in paragraph 5.7.
The same can be stated also with regard to the items Ports services efficiency and Trip security.

With reference to
Comfort and services for motorists;
Regularity and efficiency of the road maintenance services
Safety of the roads;
the following subjects for Priority Projects should be considered.

A. Creation of truck points and services for motorists


The request of availability of a network of services for motorists (especially for the Albanian and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia sections) arose from an examination of the logistical issues of the Corridor.
Items such as mechanical assistance, emergency assistance (SOS service), rest points, protected parking
areas close to the ports or to the border are currently almost completely lacking.
A dedicated study and a short term intervention project aimed at making such services available in the short
time should therefore be performed.

B. Guaranteeing the Road Maintenance service efficiency along the alignment of the Corridor
The need for interventions aimed at increasing the general efficiency of the road maintenance services has
been highlighted both during the technical examination of the characteristics of the road and during the
evaluation of logistics and horizontal issues especially for the two mountain sections in Albania and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and with particular care during winter time.

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Such projects should therefore be foreseen for both the Albanian and the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia sections of the Corridor.

C. Improving road safety


The need for interventions aimed at increasing the level of safety in nearly all of the non-motorway sections
of the Corridor arose from the analysis in paragraph 2 and was reported as one of the projects to be
performed in the very short term, in order to increase the general quality of the infrastructure and its
attractiveness.
Such projects should therefore be foreseen for both the Albanian and the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia sections and for the non-motorway Bulgarian sections of the Corridor.

5.3.2.2 Existing and future capacity bottlenecks

The current and future short-term capacity bottlenecks are listed in chapter 5.2.

As far as Albania is concerned:


The Durrs-Rrogozhine (AL-2) and Durrs- Tiran (AL-7) sections are part of the central core quadrilateral of the
Albanian road network (Durrs-Tiran-Rrogozhine-Elbasan). The urgent need for an upgrading of this
quadrilateral also arose from the analysis reported in paragraph 2. In the same paragraph, it was underlined
that the optimal configuration of this core road network and, consequently, the project to be executed,
should arise from a detailed feasibility study aimed at defining its optimal configuration.
In this view, this feasibility study is considered to be the priority project to be launched in the short term.

The Vlor-Fier (AL-11) and Fier-Lushnj (AL-12) sections fall within the project of general upgrading of the Vlor-
Rogozhine road that is currently ongoing.
No additional short-term intervention seems to be required for these sections in the short term.

As far as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is concerned:


Projects for the new construction of the Kicevo-Straza (MA-8) and the Straza-Gostivar (MA-9) sections are
already available (see project fiches former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 7 and former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia 8 in Attachment 4).
In any case, the planning of these interventions should be analyzed in the context of a more general study as
recommended in paragraph 2.1.7.2 aimed at defining the optimum configuration of the west section of
Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Struga-Gostivar-Skopje). This study should also
evaluate the need for an efficient connection between Corridor VIII and branch D of Corridor X in the Ohrid-
Bitola section, since this branch could be a good alternative (at least even a provisional one) to the Kicevo-
Gostivar mountain section.
It should be noted that a feasibility study of the upgrading /completion of the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia motorway network through concessions contract is currently ongoing. The proposed Feasibility
Study should therefore be defined in order to be coordinated and consistent with the ongoing concession
study.

The Kafasan-Struga (section MA-1) connects the Albanian border to Struga. A LoS = D has been foreseen for
2012. A general rehabilitation/renovation project could be foreseen in the short-medium term as already
suggested for the other sections of the entire non-motorway section in the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia.

As far as the Bulgarian sections are concerned:


the need to complete a general upgrade of the Gyueshevo-Sofia section has already been highlighted in the
previous chapter, together with the urgent need to build the bypasses for some urban areas crossed by the
corridor (e.g. Radomir).
As far as the completion of the Trakiya Motorway is concerned, the Orizovo-Stara Zagora section (part of the
BU-4 Chirpan-Karnobat section) is already completed while the Stara-Zagora-Karnobat section has already
been planned.

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On the Yablanitza-Byala section (BU-10), rehabilitation works are still ongoing or have been planned. A
feasibility study for the construction of a new motorway has been carried out. No other short-term intervention
should be recommended on the basis of these results.
The Harmanli -Ormenio (BU-12) is already the object of new construction as part of the Maritza motorway.

5.3.2.3 Structural bottlenecks

A number of structural bottlenecks (i.e. local bed road conditions or insufficient geometrical characteristics
of the road) were highlighted when examining the current situation of the road main alignment in paragraph
2.
The problems found lead to the selection of the following short term interventions:
completion of the upgrading works on the existing Rrogozhine-Elbasan roads, in Albania ;
construction of the Rrogozhine and Elbasan bypasses, in Albania;
upgrading of a 15-20 km section close to Kriva Palanca in the Kumanovo-Bulgarian border section, in the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia;
need for localized rehabilitation or renovation of the road pavement in the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia;
completion of the general upgrading of the Gyueshevo-Sofia section, in Bulgaria;
construction of bypasses for villages and towns in this same section (e.g. Radomir), in Bulgaria;

Figure 5.12 - Capacity and structural bottlenecks requiring intervention

Source: Corridor VIII Secretariat

5.3.3 Opening alternative connections to international itineraries

The general increase in the competitiveness and attractiveness of the Corridor should also be achieved by
increasing its international connections and its integration with the local network.
In this view, three main points need to be analyzed and defined through a feasibility study:
the Albanian core quadrilateral
the connection to branch D of Corridor X in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
the alternative Central Corridor in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Carrying out such a study will enable all the interventions needed on the corridor, whether in the short,
medium or long term, to be correctly and efficiently planned.

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5.4 List of short term priority projects and project fiches

The following short term priority projects have been selected. Further details are reported in the dedicated
project fiches. Economic investment, costs and timings are tentative, having been estimated in a parametric
fashion.

Table 5.10 Short Term Project (STP )List

COUNTRY CODE SECTION OBJECT PROJECT NAME


AL-3 Rrogozhine - Completion of the upgrading works on the
Albania AL-STP-01 Upgrading work
Elbasan Rrogozhine-Elbasan road
Road safety upgrading of Road Corridor
Albania AL-STP-02 Corr. VIII in Albania Road safety
VIII in Albania
AL-3 Rrogozhine
Elbasan Construction of the Rrogozhine and Elbasan
Albania AL-STP-03 New constructions
AL-4 Elbasan bypasses
Librazhd
Optimizing the road maintenance service
Albania AL-STP-04 Corr. VIII in Albania Road maintenance
(especially in mountain sections)
Creation a of a network of services to motorists
Logistics and horizontal
Albania AL-STP-05 Corr. VIII in Albania along the existing road infrastructure of
issues
Corridor VIII in Albania
Corr. VIII in the
former Yugoslav Elimination of black spots and safety upgrading
former Yugoslav
Republic of MA-STP-01 Road safety works along Corridor VIII in the former
Republic of
Macedonia Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia
former Yugoslav
MA-8 Kicevo Straza Optimizing the road maintenance service
Republic of MA-STP-02 Road maintenance
MA-9 Straza Gostivar efficiency in mountain sections
Macedonia
former Yugoslav
MA-18 Dlabocica- Upgrading of the Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka road
Republic of MA-STP-03 Upgrading works
Kriva Palanka section
Macedonia
Corr. VIII in the Institution of a network of services to motorists
former Yugoslav
former Yugoslav Logistics and horizontal along the existing road infrastructure of
Republic of MA-STP-04
Republic of issues Corridor VIII in the former Yugoslav Republic
Macedonia
Macedonia of Macedonia
BU-1 Gyueshevo- Completion of the upgrading program of the
Bulgaria BU-STP-01 Upgrading works
Sofia Gyueshevo-Sofia section
BU-1 Gyueshevo-
Bulgaria BU-STP-02 New constructions Construction of the Radomir bypass
Sofia
Non motorway section
Road safety upgrading of the non-motorway
Bulgaria BU-STP-03 of Road safety
section of Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Corr. VIII in Bulgaria
Institution of a network of services to motorists
Logistics and horizontal along the existing road infrastructure of
Bulgaria BU-STP-04 Corr. VIII in Bulgaria
issues Corridor VIII in Bulgaria, with particular
regard to the non-motorway sections
Albania- former
Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the
Yugoslav Republic Bankable Feasibility
FS-STP-01 Entire Corridor VIII medium- to long-term completion project of
of Macedonia - Study
Road Corridor VIII
Bulgaria
NOTE: Project in bold are already included in national planning

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Short Term Priority Project: AL-STP-01


Country: Albania
AL-3
Section :
Rrogozhine - Elbasan

Completion of the upgrading works on the


Project Name:
Rrogozhine Elbasan road

Project Name: Completion of the upgrading works on the Rrogozhine Elbasan road
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania
Status of Project: Design
Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Elimination of existing structural bottlenecks along the main alignment of the
Corridor
Project Description: The project foresees the quick completion of the rehabilitation and upgrading works
that have already been performed on most of the main road alignment of Corridor VIII
in Albania.
Total length of Sections still to be rehabilitated : approx. 12 km
Est. Investment Cost
10 MEuro
(Euro):
Expected Benefits: Elimination of safety black spots and structural bottleneck from the existing
alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania.
Increasing of road capacity and Level of Service.
Completion of the general upgrading of the existing Durres-Rrogozhine-Elbasan- Qafe
Thane road.
Implementation Construction: 1
Preparation: 0.5 Expropriation: 0.5 Total: 2.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
Authority:
Implementation Risks and
Assumptions: Funds availability

Availability of a
Not requested
feasibility study
Plans for financing (public
/ private) Public

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Short Term Priority Project: AL-STP-02


Country: Albania
Section : Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII

Road safety upgrading of Road Corridor VIII


Project Name:
in Albania

Project Name: Road safety upgrading of Road Corridor VIII in Albania


Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII in Albania
Status of Project: Design
Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Increasing of the roan safety characteristics.
Project Description: The project foresees a first phase of data collection, analysis and definition of the
intervention to be put in place in order to achieve a sensitive increase of the safety level
along the entire road itinerary of Corridor VIII in Albania (approx. 440 km). This
intervention will include both local works (i.e. elimination of black spots, local upgrading
or renovation, etc...) and distributed interventions (i.e. renewing of vertical or horizontal
road signals , etc..)
The project should cover the design stage, the tendering, the work execution and
supervision.

Feasibility study and design 1 MEuro


Est. Investment Cost:
Works: 440 km x 50.000 Euro/km = 25 MEuro
Expected Benefits: Increasing of road safety.
Reduction of accidents, injuries and deads.
Better driving condition and higher comfort for the drivers.
Implementation Construction: 1.5
Programme (years): Preparation: 1.0 Expropriation: - Total: 2.5 years
years
Implementation
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
and Assumptions: Funds availability

Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
(public / private) Public

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Short Term Priority Project: AL-STP-03


Country: Albania
AL-3 Rrogozhine Elbasan
Section :
AL-4 Elbasan Librazhd

Construction of bypasses of Rrogozhine and


Project Name:
Elbasan

Project Name: Construction of the Rrogozhine and Elbasan bypasses


Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Albania
Status of Project: Design
Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Elimination of existing structural bottlenecks connected with the crossing of important
urban areas.
Project Description: These project are included in the national Albanian planning (see project fiches 8 and 9 in
att.4)
Scope of the project is the construction of the bypasses of the two urban areas of
Rrogozhine and Elbasan by a new 1+1 lane (type C) road.
The bypass of Rrogozhine is at design level, its length is approximately 4.3 km.
The bypass of Elbasan is still to be defined. At this level, a total length of no more the 10
km can be foreseen.

Est. Investment Cost


15 MEuro
(Euro):
Expected Benefits: Elimination of the deep interference between local and transit traffic.
Consequent increase of road safety, travel time and drivers comfort.
Implementation Construction: 2.0
Preparation: 1 Expropriation: 1 Total: 4.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
and Assumptions: Funds availability

Availability of a Rrogozhine: available


feasibility study Elbasan: to be prepared
Plans for financing
(public / private) Public

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Short Term Priority Project: AL-STP-04


Country: Albania
Section : Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII

Optimizing the road maintenance service


Project Name:
(especially in mountain sections)

Project Name: Optimizing the road maintenance service (especially in mountain sections)
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII in Albania
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Increasing the efficiency of the Road Maintenance Service along the entire road Corridor
Project Objectives: VIII in Albania with particular reference to the mountain section close to the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border.
The project foresees the review of the current organization of the road maintenance system
in Albania, the definition of the intervention to be taken in order to increase its efficiency
Project Description:
and the technical assistance the Albanian Ministry of Public Works, Transport and
Telecommunication during the implementation phase.
Est. Investment Cost
2.0 MEuro
(Euro):
Increasing of road safety.
Expected Benefits: Better driving condition and higher comfort for the drivers.
Reduction of travel time.
Implementation Construction: 1.5
Preparation: 1.0 Expropriation: 0 Total: 2.5 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
Authority:
Implementation
Risks and Funds availability
Assumptions:
Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: AL-STP-05


Country: Albania
Section : Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII

Institution of a network of services to the


Project Name: drivers along the existing road
infrastructure of Corridor VIII in Albania

Institution of a network of services to the drivers along the existing road infrastructure
Project Name:
of Corridor VIII in Albania
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Entire Albanian section of Corridor VIII
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Definition of the general architecture of a network of assistance and services to the
Project Objectives:
drivers and its implementation.
The project foresees the definition of the architecture of a network of assistance and
services aimed at a general growing of the attractiveness of the corridor in the
international drivers feeling. The network of services should cover both the comfort
oriented services, the mechanical services and the SOS emergency service such us the
Project Description: availability of protected/guarded parking areas close to the border crossing and to the
ports.
The project also foresees the put into operation of the service and the technical
assistance to the Albanian Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
during the implementation phase.
Est. Investment Cost
5 MEuro
(Euro):

Expected Benefits: General increase of the attractiveness of the road corridor.

Implementation Construction: 1.5


Preparation: 0.5 Expropriation: 0.5 Total: 2.5 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
To be defined
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: MA-STP-01


Country: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Entire former Yugoslav Republic of
Section :
Macedonia section of Corridor VIII

Elimination of black spot and safety


Project Name: upgrading on Corridor VIII in former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Elimination of black spot and safety upgrading works on Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav
Project Name:
Republic of Macedonia
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Road safety increasing
The project foresees a first phase of data collection, analysis and definition of the
intervention to be put in place in order to achieve a sensitive increase of the safety level
along the entire road itinerary of Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(approx. 320 km). This intervention will include both local works (i.e. elimination of black
Project Description:
spots, local upgrading or renovation, etc...) and distributed interventions (i.e. renewing of
vertical or horizontal road signals , etc..)
The project should cover the design stage, the tendering, the work execution and the work
supervision.
Est. Investment Cost Feasibility study and design: 1.5 MEuro
(Euro): Works: 320 x 50.000 Euro/km = 16 MEuro
Increasing of road safety.
Expected Benefits: Reduction of accidents, injuries and deads.
Better driving condition and higher comfort for the drivers.
Implementation Construction: 2.0
Preparation: 1.0 Expropriation: - Total: 3.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Transport and Communication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: MA-STP-02


Country: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
MA-8 Kicevo Straza
Section :
MA-9 Straza Gostivar

Optimizing the road maintenance service


Project Name:
efficiency in mountain sections

Project Name: Optimizing the road maintenance service efficiency in mountain sections
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Main alignment of Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in the
Location:
sections MA-8 and MA-9
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Increasing the efficiency of the Road Maintenance Service along the mountain section of
Project Objectives:
road Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
The project foresees the review of the current organization of the road maintenance
system in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the definition of the intervention to
Project Description: be taken in order to increase its efficiency and the technical assistance the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ministry of Transport and Communication during the
implementation phase.
Est. Investment Cost
2.0 MEuro
(Euro):
Increasing of road safety.
Better driving condition and higher comfort for the drivers.
Expected Benefits:
Reduction of travel time.

Implementation Construction: 1
Preparation: 1.5 Expropriation: 0 Total: 2.5 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
Ministry of Transport and Communication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
Not requested
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: MA-STP-03


Country: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
MA-18
Section :
Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka

Upgrading of the road section Dlabocica-


Project Name:
Kriva Palanka

Project Name: Upgrading of the road section Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka


Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Status of Project: Design
Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Upgrading to a standard type C cross section (1+1 lanes, 3.75 m wide) the road section
Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka
Project Description: The project foresees the upgrading of the Dlabocica-Kriva Palanka section (MA-19) up to
a standard type C cross section (1+1 lanes, 3.75 m wide).
The section is approximately 15 km long.

Est. Investment Cost


15 MEuro
(Euro):
Expected Benefits: Elimination of a capacity and structural bottleneck from the existing alignment of
Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Increasing of road safety and reduction of travel time.

Implementation Construction: 2
Programme (years): Preparation: 1.0 Expropriation: 0.5 Total: 3.5 years
years
Implementation
Ministry of Transport and Communication
Authority:
Implementation Risks
and Assumptions: Funds availability

Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
(public / private) Public

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Short Term Priority Project: MA-STP-04


Country: former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Entire former Yugoslav Republic of
Section :
Macedonia section of Corridor VIII
Institution of a network of services to the
drivers along the existing road
infrastructure of Corridor VIII in former
Project Name: Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Project Name: Institution of a network of services to the drivers along the existing road
infrastructure of Corridor VIII in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Entire former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia section of Corridor VIII
Status of Project: Design
Planning Study Procurement Planning
level
Project Objectives: Definition of the general architecture of a network of assistance and services to the
drivers and its implementation.
Project Description: The project foresees the definition of the architecture of a network of assistance and
services aimed at a general growing of the attractiveness of the corridor in the
international drivers feeling. The network of services should cover both the comfort
oriented services and the mechanical services and the SOS emergency service such
us the availability of protected parking areas close to the border crossing points.
The project also foresees the put into operation of the service and the technical
assistance to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ministry of Transport and
Communication during the implementation phase.
Est. Investment Cost
5 MEuro
(Euro):
Expected Benefits:
General increase of the attractiveness of the road corridor.
Implementation Construction: 1.5
Preparation: 0.5 Expropriation: 0.5 Total: 2.5 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation Authority:
Ministry of Transport and Communication
Implementation Risks and
Assumptions: Funds availability

Availability of a feasibility
Not requested
study
Plans for financing (public
/ private) Public

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Short Term Priority Project: BU-STP-01


Country: Bulgaria
BU-1
Section :
Gyueshevo-Sofia

Completion of the upgrading program of the


Project Name:
Gyueshevo-Sofia section

Project Name: Completion of the upgrading program of the Gyueshevo-Sofia section


Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Elimination of existing structural bottlenecks along the main alignment of the Corridor
The project foresees the completion of the rehabilitation and upgrading works that have
already been performed on most of section BU-1 on the main road alignment of Corridor
Project Description:
VIII in Bulgaria.
Total length of Sections still to be rehabilitated : approx. 40 km
Est. Investment Cost
20 MEuro
(Euro):
Elimination of safety black spots and structural bottleneck from the existing alignment
of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria.
Expected Benefits:
Increasing of road capacity.

Implementation Construction: 2
Preparation: 1.5 Expropriation: 1.0 Total: 3.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
National Road Infrastructure Fund
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: BU-STP-02


Country: Bulgaria
BU-1
Section :
Gyueshevo-Sofia

Construction of the Pernik and Radomir


Project Name:
bypasses

Project Name: Construction of the Pernik and Radomir bypasses


New
Nature of Project: Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
construction
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Elimination of existing structural bottlenecks connected with the crossing of
Project Objectives:
important urban areas.
The project foresees the construction the bypasses of Pernik and Radomir in order to
avoid the existing interference between local and transit traffic.
Project Description:
Total amount of km to be built is still to be defined. At this stage 20-25 km can be
considered as a rough estimation.
Est. Investment Cost
40 MEuro
(Euro):
Elimination of the deep interference between local and transit traffic.
Expected Benefits:
Consequent increase of road safety, travel time end drivers comfort.
Implementation Preparation: Construction: 2
Expropriation: 1 Total: 5 years
Programme (years): 2 years
Implementation
National Road Infrastructure Fund
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
No
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: BU-STP-03


Country: Bulgaria
Non-motorway sections of Corridor VIII in
Section :
Bulgaria

Road safety upgrading of non motorway


Project Name:
section of Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria

Project Name: Road safety upgrading of non motorway section of Road Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Non-motorway sections of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Construction
level
Project Objectives: Road safety increasing

The project foresees a first phase of data collection, analysis and definition of the
intervention to be put in place in order to achieve a sensitive increase of the safety level
along the entire non motorway section of Main alignment Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
(approx. 360 km). This intervention will include both local works (i.e. elimination of
Project Description:
black spots, local upgrading or renovation, etc...) and distributed interventions (i.e.
renewing of vertical or horizontal road signals, etc..)
The project should cover the design stage, the tendering, the work execution and work
supervision.

Est. Investment Cost Feasibility study and design: 1.0 MEuro


(Euro): Works: 360 x 25.000 Euro/km = 9.0 MEuro
Increasing of road safety.
Expected Benefits: Reduction of accidents, injuries and deaths.
Better driving condition and higher comfort for the drivers.
Implementation Construction: 1.0
Preparation: 1.0 Expropriation: - Total: 2.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
National Road Infrastructure Fund
Authority:
Implementation Risks
Funds availability
and Assumptions:
Availability of a
Not requested
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Corridor VIII Secretariat
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Short Term Priority Project: BU-STP-04


Country: Bulgaria
Non-motorway sections of Corridor VIII in
Section :
Bulgaria

Institution of a network of services to the


Project Name: drivers along the existing non motorway
section of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria

Institution of a network of services to the drivers along the existing non motorway
Project Name:
section of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Design
Status of Project: Planning Study Procurement Planning
level
Definition of the general architecture of a network of assistance and services to the
Project Objectives:
drivers and its implementation.
The project foresees the definition of the architecture of a network of assistance and
services aimed at a general growing of the attractiveness of the corridor in the
international drivers feeling. The network of services should cover both the comfort
oriented services and the mechanical services and the SOS emergency service such us
Project Description:
the availability of protected parking areas close to the border crossing and to the ports.
The project also foresees the put into operation of the service and the technical
assistance to the Bulgarian National Road Infrastructure Fund during the
implementation phase.
Est. Investment Cost
3 MEuro
(Euro):

Expected Benefits: General increase of the attractiveness of the road corridor.

Implementation Construction: 1
Preparation: 0.5 Expropriation: 0.5 Total: 2.0 years
Programme (years): years
Implementation
National Road Infrastructure Fund
Authority:
Implementation Risks and
Funds availability
Assumptions:
Availability of a
Not requested
feasibility study
Plans for financing
Public
(public / private)

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Short Term Priority Project: FS-STP-01


Albania former Yugoslav Republic of
Country:
Macedonia - Bulgaria
Entire main alignment and secondary
Section :
branches of Corridor VIII
Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the
medium-long term completion of Road
Project Name:
Corridor VIII

Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the medium-long term completion project of Road


Project Name:
Corridor VIII
Nature of Project: New construction Rehabilitation Upgrade Other
Location: Main alignment and Secondary Branches of Corridor VIII in Albania
Status of Project: Planning Study Design level Procurement Construction
The definition of a generally agreed medium long term development and investment plan
Project Objectives:
relevant to the entire alignment of Road Corridor VIII, including secondary branches.
The Study shall be prepared according to the European standard for bankable Feasibility
Studies (i.e. the level requested for the preparation of financial application to IFIs) and shall
deal with the technical., environmental, economical and financial aspects of the project.
The following will be the basic point of the approach to the Study:
- the Study shall be prepared according to an overall perspective of the East-West alignment and will be consistent
with the national and international planning;
- the road alignment shall be seen as single comprehensive project to be developed in a general and coordinated way;
- the road alignment shall be seen as a fully equipped alignment (i.e. equipped with all the facilities and services
requested in order to make the Corridor attractive form a logistic point of view too);
Project - the completion plan shall be spitted in a number of step and shall be flexible in order to be updated in consideration
of the real traffic and economy evolution in the area ;
Description:
the Study shall be organized in such a way to make it possible dividing it into 3 main sections (see fiches FS-STP-02,
FS-STP-03 and FS-STP-04) relevant to the three countries, to be developed in a coordinated way
The Study will include:
- the general long term upgrading/completion of the Albanian section of the Corridor VIII
- the urgent upgrading of the Albanian central road quadrilateral (Durres Tirana Elbasan Rrogozhine);
- the final long term configuration of and the completion program of the Skopje Sofia connection also taking into
account a possible secondary/complementary east-west connection in the central-south area of former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia (from Veles to Blagoevgrad in Bulgaria, on Corridor IV) and a connection to Corr. XD at
Bitola
- The completion of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
Est. Invest. Cost
5 MEuro
(Euro):
The definition of an investment plan based on a bankable feasibility study will allow the
Expected Benefits: general optimization of the investments and will increase the effectiveness of any fund-rising
activities.
Implement.
Preparation: 1.5 Expropriation: Construction: Total: 1.5 years
Progr.(years)
Impl. Auth. To be defined
Implement. Risks
Funds availability
and Ass.
Plans for financ.
Public
(public / private)

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5.5 Short- term project list by country

Table 5.12 Short term Priority Projects


SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : WORKS
Albania former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Bulgaria
code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro)
AL-STP-01 Completion of the 10 MA-STP-01 Elimination of black spot 18 BU-STP- Completion of the 20
upgrading works on the and safety upgrading on 01 upgrading program of the
Rrogozhine Elbasan road Corridor VIII in former Gyueshevo-Sofia section
Yugoslav Republic of (project fiche
Macedonia Bulgaria 2 in att. 4)

AL-STP-02 Road safety upgrading of 26 MA-STP-02 Optimizing the road 2 BU-STP-02 Construction of the Pernik 40
Road Corridor VIII in maintenance service and Radomir bypasses
Albania efficiency in mountain
sections
AL-STP-03 Construction of Rrogozhine 15 MA-STP-03 Upgrading of the road 15 BU-STP-03 Road safety upgrading of 10
and Elbasan bypasses section Dlabocica-Kriva non motorway section of
Palanka Road Corridor VIII in
Bulgaria

AL-STP-04 Optimizing the road 2 MA-STP-04 Institution of a network of 5 BU-STP-04 Institution of a network of 3
maintenance service services to the drivers along services to the drivers along
(especially in mountain the existing road the existing "non highway"
sections) infrastructure of Corridor of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
VIII in former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

AL-STP-05 Institution of a network of 5


services to the drivers along
the existing road
infrastructure of Corridor
VIII in Albania

TOTAL (MEuro) 58 40 73

SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : STUDIES


Albania - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Bulgaria

code project name value (Meuro)

FS-STP-01 Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the medium-long term completion project of Road Corridor VIII 5

Projects in bold are already planned or ongoing

5.6 Main points of a medium term project

While the short term interventions proposed in the previous chapter aim to increase the general attractiveness
of the existing infrastructures in Corridor VIII and the construction of important new infrastructures is not
foreseen, a medium-term program has, definitely, to face the problem of planning important investment for
either new construction or significant upgrading projects.
Keeping this point in mind, and underlining the fact that the definition of a medium-long term completion
program is beyond the scope of work of this exercise and would require a detailed study, the International
MWG has in any case prepared a rough indicative list of the most important projects to consider in a Medium-
Term development program (10-15 years). This evaluation was carried out on the basis of general

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considerations on the current situation, data and analyses reported in the previous chapters regarding current
trends and national planning.
In this view, the main points of the possible future medium-term completion plan defined by the MWG, are
reported in the following table:

Table 5.11 Main steps of a Medium and Long Term plan

Description Objective

New road/motorway construction for the Resolution of current bottlenecks.


upgrading/optimization of the Durrs-Tiran-Elbasan-
Rrogozhine road quadrilateral Connection of Tiran to Corridor VIII

Upgrading of the secondary branch in Albania Resolution and optimization of current bottlenecks.

New construction/upgrading of the Kicevo-Gostivar


Bypass for the former Yugoslav Republic of
section (NOTE: complementary connection to
Macedonia mountain section
Corridor Xd could be considered)

New construction of a Skopje-Sofia Motorway and


construction/completion of the Sofia Beltway (NOTE:
Connection between the two Capitals and
alternative route through central-southern area of
between the two existing motorway networks
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia could
be considered)
Completion of the East section of Corridor VIII in
Completion of the Trakiya Motorway
Bulgaria

New Burgas-Varna Motorway Connection between the two ports

Upgrading of northern secondary branches in


Resolution of current/future bottlenecks
Bulgaria

NOTE: project in bold are already, planned, financed or ongoing.

Completion of the whole motorway system is to be planned in the long term after careful evaluation through
a dedicated feasibility study.

5.7 Soft measures and non physical barriers: some ongoing national and
international projects

Full transport costs also include waiting times, freight breakups, delays in delivery, and time-consuming
administrative, fiscal and customs procedures. These cost components may vary between 10 to 30 per cent of
full transportation costs, reaching up to 50% for some logistics companies. For this reason, non-physical barriers
can significantly influence traffic flows.

For this reason, representatives of logistics operators sometimes complain to their governments about the
delays caused by horizontal barriers. For example, in May 2007, Mr. Trapolino, President of Fedespedi (Italian
Association of exporters-forwarders) complained about the large amount of freight waiting in Italian ports for
customs controls. He estimated 649 containers stuck for 10 days in the port of Naples at a cost of 2,25 M and
300 containers stuck for 10 days in the port of Genoa at a cost of 0,95 M. One of Fedespedis conclusions was
that the Italian Custom Agency is lacking some 4 000 officers.
In recent years, many projects have been financed to deal with non-physical barriers. The table below reports
some information on Interreg projects among Southern Adriatic ports, mainly in Italy (Bari, Brindisi), Albania
(Durrs) and Greece (Igoumenitsa, Patras and Corfu).

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The matters dealt with, however, almost all concentrated on security and safety, with very few on logistics. The
reason is that these issues can be tackled by initiatives and resources of Port Authorities alone while others,
such as customs procedures and organization or sanitary controls, are beyond their responsibilities.

Table 5.13 - Recent Interreg Projects on Horizontal Issues

FINANCIAL
PROJECT OBJECT PARTNERS STATUS
DIMENSION

To improve security control


BRINDISI DURRS in passenger and freight Brindisi Port Authority; Closed
1.750.000
PORT E-SECURITY traffic between Brindisi and Durrs Port Authority 2006
Durrs

Security in
loading/unloading Hellenic Republic Ministry
SECURITY CHECK
passengers and cars Of Mercantile Marine; 2.816.000 On going
IN SYSTEM (SECINS)
between Brindisi and Greek Brindisi Port Authority;
ports

GREEK ITALIAN
Developing an informatics Port Authorities of Bari,
PORT SYSTEMS AS
platform to manage Brindisi, Igoumenitsa,
MULTIMODAL
passenger and freight traffic Patras, Corfu; Local 2.887.631 On going
PLATFORMS
between Bari, Brindisi, Authorities of Bari, Brindisi,
MANAGED BY ICT
Igoumenitsa, Corfu Thesprotia
(GIPSY)

JOINT-VENTURE
Improving efficiency and Port Authorities of Bari,
BARI-DURRS 700.000 On going
security in the port of Durrs Durrs; Apulia Region
(JOVE)

Restructuring boarding Port Authorities of Bari,


areas and information Durrs; Apulian Regional
CONFRONTI administration 590.000 On going
control network in Bari port
passenger terminal

Modelling rail/road 333.333


Port Authorities of Patras,
intermodal connections
INTRAFLOWS Bari; Local Authorities of (Italian On going
among ports and logistic
Bari, Corfu, Cephalonia component)
platform

MEDITERRANEAN Local Authorities of


INTEGRATED Matera, Thesprotia,
To identify intermodal
TRANSPORT FOR Preveza; Turkish Maritime
initiatives among Southern 1.949.250 On going
DEVELOPMENT Directorate; Port
Italy, Greece and Turkey
ENTERPRISE Authorities of Brindisi and
(MED.IN.TRA.D.E.) Igoumenitsa

To study an intermodal Local Authorities of Brindisi, 333.333


SEALINK Greek-Italian corridor Thesprotia; Port Authorities (Italian On going
Brindisi-Igoumenitsa-Corfu of Brindisi and Igoumenitsa component)

Source: Apulian Regional Administration, Department for the Mediterranean Policies, www.europuglia.it

An important issue therefore is to find ways to create more efficient integration between requirements of
separate and independent Agencies operating in the ports and cross borders. An Italian governmental
initiative, agreed upon but not implemented yet, is the creation of a sportello unico doganale, that is a
unified procedure and a single organizational responsibility on different controls required by diverse Agencies:
Customs, Sanitary, Border Police, Fiscal etc.

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This general aim led to the establishment of The World Banks program Trade and Transport Facilitation in
South-East Europe (TTFSE) in the Balkan area. This program fosters trade by promoting more efficient and less
costly trade flows between countries in South Eastern Europe and provides European Union-compatible
customs standards.
The project, however, dealt with land, rail and road cross-border issues rather than port boarding and loading.
The experience could nevertheless be useful for sea cross-border issues.

The participating countries include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro
and all the Balkan signatories to the Corridor VIII MoU, i.e. Albania, Bulgaria and the former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia.

The Trade and Transport Facilitation program in South East Europe consists of the following project
components:

Customs Services Procedures Reform


Trade Facilitation Development
Support to Integrated Customs Information System (ICIS)
Improvement of Roads and Border Crossing Facilities

Figure 5.13 - World Bank TTFSE Project

SOURCE: World Bank, Trade and Transport Facilitation in South East Europe Project

The issues of the TTFSE project are directly relevant to the aims of the present Study, because the experience of
the TTFSE program is certainly very important for the development of Road Corridor VIII, in which issues
regarding border crossings are of paramount importance.
The TTFSE project in Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria closed in 2004, in Serbia
and Montenegro in 2006, while in Moldova it was due to be completed in 2007. The implementing party is
always the national Customs Agency.

A TTFSE-II Program is currently under deployment and was open to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and also to Turkey and
Kosovo.

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TTFSE II envisages support for:

(1) infrastructure upgrades along the core TEN-T corridors (road, rail, ports) with a special emphasis on
border crossing areas
(2) improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of border control agencies and government transport
related agencies (railways, ports authorities, toll agencies)
(3) optimization of information flows among border agencies, across borders, within border agencies, and
between those agencies and traders or transport operators
(4) building-up the capacities of the private sector

The World Bank published Implementation Completion and Result Reports on the funds lent to finance TTFSE
Project in Albania (Report No: 31710, October 2005), former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia(Report No:
35869, May 2006) and Bulgaria (Report No: 34588, March 2006).

The outcomes of these TTFSE exercises were evaluated in general as satisfactory with substantial institutional
development (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria) or as marginally satisfactory with modest
institutional development (Albania).

In any case, infrastructure improvements have been carried out at Border Crossing Points:

At Kafasan Border Crossing: the newly constructed building was made operational and furnished.
At Deve Bair Border Crossing: the existing facility was upgraded; the power supply was improved; and
advanced signalling was completed.
At the Gyueshevo border with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: a new administration
building, five booths for border control of trucks, cars, buses and pedestrians, and a public sanitary
facility have been completed.

The situation of transit traffic at the border seems also to have been somewhat improved.

At the Albania-former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border:

At Qafe Thane (Albanian side), the average border entry time reached the target of 30 minutes, in
2003, and it has been the pilot site with best results. In March 2005, the entry time registered was 28
minutes, thus improving on the target of 30 minutes. This was due to infrastructure improvements
financed by the project.
The practice of breaking all truck seals started to be phased out, once the ASYCUDA selectivity
module was initiated, and will be fully abolished when the module becomes fully operational.
Regarding the weighing of trucks at Durrs, which used to be a bottleneck, the GDC has installed a
new weighbridge, outside the Customs area, so that weighing will not impede Customs processes,
except for trucks whose final destination is in Durrs (about 15% of all traffic), which continue to be
weighed on the existing weighbridge, within the Customs controlled area.
At Kafasan (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia side) truck control percentages could not meet
the target of <35% in 2004 and 2005. They were much higher, at 50.5% and 45% respectively. Numbers
of irregularities detected was constantly zero, while the average border entry time was 15 minutes,
and met the target of <30 by 2005.

At the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia-Bulgaria cross border:

At Deve Bair (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia side) the percentages of trucks controlled
met the target of <35% in 2004 and 2005 at 7.5% and 8% respectively. The number of irregularities
detected was 25 in 2004 and 20 in 2005, which met the target of >10. The average entry time at the
border could not meet the target of <30 minutes in 2003, 2004, and 2005.
At Gyueshevo (Bulgarian side) the performance indicator data collected in the period 2000-2004
revealed a reduction in average import clearance times, border entry and exit times, of 30% (from 30
to 21 minutes).

The evidence has also shown that the TTFSE project, by supporting electronic data interchange, has
enhanced processing transparency, thus reducing corruption at border crossings as well. The World Banks
report on Bulgaria affirms that according to the BEEPS Survey1, corruption perceived as a problem doing

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business by firms in Bulgaria reduced from 55% in 2002, to 38% in 2005. The same Survey also showed that the
percentage of firms that stated that bribery is frequent for Customs, reduced from 26% in 2002 to 10% in 2005.

The European Commission on its side developed the concept of AEO: Authorized Economic Operator. The
result was Regulation 648/2005 amending the Community Customs Code and Regulation 1875/2006
amending the Implementing Provisions to the Code.

An Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) can be defined as an economic operator who is reliable throughout
the Community in the context of his customs-related operations, and, therefore, is entitled to enjoy benefits
throughout the Community. An AEO certificate provides either easier admittance to customs simplifications
(AEOC), or entitles the firm to facilitations concerning security and safety controls (AEOS).

Only companies established in the Community can apply for an AEO status but the AEO system is flexible
enough to allow manufacturers, warehouse keepers, customs agents, exporters, freight forwarders, carriers
and importers complying with the set of criteria to become an AEO.
A pilot action was conducted in 2006. The applicants in the pilot action were chosen so that, taken together,
they represented each part of the supply chain:

MANUFACTURER EXPORTER FORWARDER - WAREHOUSE-KEEPER - CUSTOMS AGENT CARRIER - IMPORTER

The results were considered positive but the AEO concept means new working methods for customs
authorities. According to the Commission, its introduction has to be carefully monitored, evaluated and
updated with best practices. There is in fact a need to delegate various tasks to both the national customs
authorities and to the Commission.
Furthermore, training needs and exchanges of customs officers should be considered as important tools to
ensure that the AEO concept is introduced in the same manner across the Community and to further develop
the concept.
The most recent European Community initiative on customs is the TACTA Project (Technical Assistance to
Customs and Tax Administrations). Launched on 4th April 2008 the Project is fully financed by European
Community for 7,1 M and it should be completed for August 2009. The project, led by the Italian Customs
Agency, is targeted at 5 countries of the Western Balkan Area: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo (Under
UNSCR 1244), Montenegro and Serbia. It is about the continuation of the EU assistance to the Customs and
Taxation Administrations in the Beneficiary Countries in preparing for future EU membership in view of
implementing and enforcing relevant legislation, organizational settings and procedures in line with EU
requirements.

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6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 General Conclusions

The development of Road Corridor VIII will have a positive impact on three levels: as a national route for each
of the Countries crossed, as a connection between Countries in the Balkan Region (characterized by very
limited reciprocal accessibility until the 90's) and as a transnational route, connecting the
Mediterranean/Adriatic Transport Area to the Black Sea Transport Area, thus connecting the EU TEN networks
(Italy) and the Motorways of the Sea, in the west, to the EU TEN networks (Bulgaria) and Traceca Corridor in the
east.
The present situation of Road Corridor VIII is certainly a fast evolving one, both because of the initiatives of the
single Countries and because of the development of the transport network in the Balkan Region.
In the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council "Western Balkans:
Enhancing the European perspective" (Brussels, 5 March 2008), the Commission is proposing negotiating
directives for a "Transport Community Treaty" with the Western Balkans.
The purpose is to work towards an integrated market for road, rail, inland waterways and maritime transport in
the Western Balkans region.
In the specific case of Corridor VIII, which also includes non-EU countries (Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia and Albania) the South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO) for the development of the
South East Europe Core Regional Transport Network is also relevant. SEETO has prepared multi-annual plans,
indicating priorities for the region.
All the initiatives to develop Road Corridor VIII will have to be taken in agreement and in the general
framework of the above-mentioned Balkan regional transportation development strategy.

The first conclusion of the present Study can be summarized in the fact that, unlike other transport sectors such
as Rail, Road Corridor VIII already exists. The amount of investments necessary to increase the attractiveness of
Road Corridor VIII is significantly lower than other transport sectors and can effectively be implemented in a
shorter time-span.

The main issue concerning Corridor VIII has been unanimously identified in the so-called "immaterial barriers" to
accessibility. These immaterial barriers include Port Efficiency, cross-border procedures (both in terms of
customs procedures and in terms of efficiency standards), and services to freight transport, road safety and
security. The results of this exercise suggest that the increasing use of the corridor as a road international route
is not impeded so much by infrastructural constraints as by horizontal issues, restrictions and volume of traffic.

Corridor VIII road freight traffic development will derive not only from the transnational east-west connection,
but also from the several connections with other Corridors in the Region, in the frame of the SEE Transnational
axis. However, currently there is not a recent traffic study that takes into account the rapidly evolving transport
scenarios.

As for the national routes, investments follow countries national priorities. For instance, Road Corridor VIII in
Bulgaria constitutes the main west-east backbone connecting the capital city, Sofia, to the countrys most
important ports, Burgas and Varna. The result is that Road Corridor VIII is more developed east of Sofia and less
west of Sofia.
Less marked is the situation in Albania and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia where north-south routes
are at the moment either equally or even more important in each country's national planning than west-east
orientation. In fact, actual investments and projects follow national priorities.
This consideration leads to the clear need for a General Framework concerning the whole route of Corridor
VIII, from Southern Italy and Southern Adriatic, through Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
Bulgaria, to the Black Sea, that, taking into account the National priorities, also gives a transnational
perspective to the planning process.

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In these conclusions, the Final Draft Report highlights the need for priority intervention on some specific
sections of the Corridor VIII road alignment, defined on the basis of their physical/structural condition and/or
the intensity of both passengers and freight traffic.
These priority projects have been identified in coherence with national planning as made available by the
members of the Working Group.
Project Fiches relevant to these priority projects are included in the report in order to be taken into account by
Member States.

6.2 Recommendations

Given these general conclusions, the Corridor VIII Motorways Working Group recommends that Member
Countries:

1. sign a Transport Policy Agreement, in accordance to the general Framework of the "Transport Community
Treaty" proposed by EC to EU Council, aiming at increasing the attractiveness of Road Corridor VIII. The
agreement should include the commitment by the signing Countries to:
1.1 give new impetus to all ongoing initiatives aiming to alleviate or solve horizontal issues that reduce
road corridor attractiveness;
1.2 give priority to projects and initiatives that improve the operational efficiency and accessibility to
Corridor VIII ports, as strategic intermodal exchange points;
1.3 give priority, in their National Transport Plans, to the list of short-term priority projects, described in point
2.1 below, jointly identified by the Working Group, with the purpose of facilitating west-east crossing
and guaranteeing road maintenance and services.
2. Consistently with the goals of the Transport Policy Agreement mentioned above, adopt an immediate
common intervention strategy - aimed at quickly increasing the attractiveness of the existing infrastructures
and putting into operation the Corridor as an international road route based on the following points:
2.1 Immediate execution of the Short Term Priority Projects listed in the Report (see specific project fiches),
aimed at increasing Corridor VIII attractiveness, including:
Localized works;
Intervention on logistic issues;
2.2 Immediate definition of a jointly-agreed Medium-/Long-Term completion strategy for the entire
Corridor VIII - considered as a single multinational infrastructure - through a General Corridor VIII
Feasibility Study prepared by collecting, completing and updating, in view of a common general
framework, all the existing studies/projects performed at national and regional level. As specified in
the dedicated project fiche included in the Report, this study should include some strategic areas,
jointly identified by the Working Group:
a. The Durrs-Tiran-Elbasan-Rrogozhine area in Albania, involving an efficient connection of Corridor
VIII with the Port of Durrs. This area is also where Corridor VIII crosses the North-South Axis and the
Tiran-Kukes-Pristina road.
b. The cross-border areas between Albania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
between the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria.
c. Potential integrations and extensions of the present route of Road Corridor VIII, such as the Struga-
Bitola connection in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, connecting Corridor VIII to
Corridor Xd, and the central connection between the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria, Veles-Delcevo-Blagoevgrad connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor IV and parallel to
the Kumanovo-Deve Bair-Gyueshevo north alignment.

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ATTACHMENT 1

ROAD CONDITION TABLES

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ATTACHMENT 2

MODEL OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND SINTHESIS OF THE RESULTS

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SINTHESIS OF THE RESULTS


MACEDONIAN SECTION
Alb. Companies fYRoM Companies Bulg. Companies It. Companies

CAUSHI TRANS

Very Good
MAK SOOBRA

MAK SOOBRA
STOPAN KOM

EUROSPEED*
AZUNI TRANS

Very Poor
BSECURTA*

CONFETRA
(No named)
MALOKU

SOMAT*

Good
JONARI

AREND

Poor
GEGA
COMPANIES

Road Safety G P P VG P G G P G P P P P 0% 62% 31% 8% 3


Trip security P VP P VG G G G G G G VP VP P 23% 23% 46% 8% 5
Trip comfort and services P VP VP G G P G P VP VP P P P 31% 46% 23% 0% 3
Service regularity P G VP VG G G G P P P P P P 8% 54% 31% 8% 2
Users informations VP VP VP VP P P G P VP VP VP VP VP 69% 23% 8% 0% 1
Naval connection with Italy VP VP VP P P G G G P P P P G 23% 46% 31% 0% 2
Ports services efficiency P VP P VP P G G G P P P P G 15% 54% 31% 0% 4
Custom system efficiency VP VP VP VP P G G G P P VP VP P 46% 31% 23% 0% 8
6 7 4 7 3 1 1 2 7 3 2 2 1

Most significant questions 8 8 5 8 4 6 2 3 8 7 8 8 2

8 8

ALBANIAN SECTION

Alb. Companies fYRoM Companies Bulg. Companies It. Companies


CAUSHI TRANS

Very Good
MAK SOOBRA

MAK SOOBRA
STOPAN KOM

EUROSPEED*
AZUNI TRANS

Very Poor
BSECURTA*

CONFETRA
(No named)
MALOKU

SOMAT*

Good
JONARI

AREND

Poor
GEGA

COMPANIES

Road Safety G G G G P P P 0% 43% 57% 0% 1


Trip security G G G G VG P P 0% 29% 57% 14% 2
Trip comfort and services VP P VP P P G P 29% 57% 14% 0% 1
Service regularity Data not available P G P P P P P 0% 75% 13% 0% 1
Users informations VP P VP VP G P VP 57% 29% 14% 0% 2
Custom system efficiency P G P P P P P 0% 86% 14% 0% 6
2 5 5 3 4 1

Most significant questions 6 6 6 6 6 2

BULGARIAN SECTION

Alb. Companies fYRoM Companies Bulg. Companies It. Companies


CAUSHI TRANS

Very Good
MAK SOOBRA

MAK SOOBRA
STOPAN KOM

EUROSPEED*
AZUNI TRANS

Very Poor
BSECURTA*

CONFETRA
(No named)
MALOKU

SOMAT*

Good
JONARI

Poor
AREND
GEGA

COMPANIES

Road Safety P P VP G G P 17% 50% 33% 0% 1


Trip security G P P P G P 0% 67% 33% 0% 1
Trip comfort and services P G G P G P 0% 50% 50% 0% 2
Service regularity G P P P G G 0% 50% 50% 0% 2
Users informations Data not available P P VP P VG VP 29% 43% 0% 14% 0
Naval connection with Italy VP VP VG VP 75% 0% 0% 25% 0
Ports services efficiency G P P VG G 0% 40% 40% 20% 2
Custom system efficiency G G P VG G P 0% 33% 50% 17% 4
2 7 7 4 4 1

Most significant questions 3 8 8 3 8 8

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ATTACHMENT 3

NATIONAL PLANNING PROJECT FICHES

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ANNEX 1

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING

ON PAN-EUROPEAN CORRIDOR NR.VIII

Bari, 9 September 2002

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ANNEX 2

AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ALBANIA AND

THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Ohrid Declaration 18 November 2004


Technical Protocol Lin Struga, 14 July 2005

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ANNEX 3

AGREEMENTS BETWEEN

THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA AND


BULGARIA

Protocol of understanding between the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia


and Bulgaria, September 2001
Joint Declaration between the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and
Bulgaria, September 2003

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ANNEX 4

PLOVDIV DECLARATION
OF THE MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT

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ANNEX 5

Minutes of the Motorway Working Group Meetings:

SUMMARY

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List of Corridor VIII Motorway Working Group Meetings


1st Meeting: Bari 11-12 May 2006
2nd Meeting: Skopje 4-5 December 2006
3rd Meeting: Rome 29-30 March 2007
4th Meeting: Bari 15 April 2008
5th Meeting: Roma 25 June 2008

In the 1st Meeting, held in Bari on 11-12 May 2006, the methodological basis for the work was identified and an operational
plan was agreed upon.
The scope of the study was agreed on performing a technical assessment of current situation in terms of:
- roads conditions and characteristics;
- implementation of projects already defined or undertaken by local road agencies;
- medium and long term future implementation projects foreseen by local road agencies;
- existing national and international studies and analyses performed on the subject.
The final expected result was the identification of specific urgent issues along the alignment of Corridor VIII (bypass of main
cities, urgent upgrading and maintenance, etc) and the preliminary definition of a list of jointly identified short term priority
projects for possible future submission to IFIs for financing and tendering by the national Authorities.
The Countries Representatives produced short status reports on national issues, priority, planned and ongoing projects
concerning the road system along Corridor VIII.
ANAS, the Italian National Roads and Motorways Agency, technically supporting the Working Group, illustrated a technical
proposal for the development of the study. Two tables were distributed to the Working Group Members, to be filled with
specific data for each country, and a questionnaire to be submitted to transport operators and relevant stakeholders:

TABLE ONE with, in the Head Row, the road sections along the main alignment of Corridor VIII and the branches
mentioned in the Memorandum of Understanding, Country by Country; in the First Column from the left, some
relevant technical parameters such as, length, geometry, speed, etc. This first table was designed to update the
technical status of the Road Corridor.

TABLE TWO with a Head Row similar to that of Table One, that is road sections, but in the first column, from the left,
the list of planning activities on those identified sections, classified according to the life cycle of projects:
o 1)Project identification and Terms of Reference prepared;
o 2) Pre-feasibility study done;
o 3) Feasibility study done;
o 4) Budgeting and Financing Plan ready;
o 5) Detailed Design prepared;
o 6) Tendering completed;
o 7) Under Construction

QUESTIONNAIRE including horizontal issues such as customs procedures, security, safety, naval connections etc.
that could obstacle the activation the Road Corridor.
In the 2nd Meeting, held in Skopje on 4-5 December 2006, a draft STATUS TABLE, including the previous proposed Table One
and Two, was presented filled with the data and information transmitted by Countries; and a draft of the Questionnaire, with
the list of stakeholders and the identification and definition of main horizontal issues to be dealt with, was also examined. An
Outline of the Final Draft Report describing a possible structure of various contents of the study was also analyzed.
After a comprehensive discussion the Group agreed to complete in detail the STATUS TABLE by bilateral meetings between
ANAS and national experts; for this purpose specific dates were scheduled for the months of December 2006 and January
2007; it was also agreed that in the final version of the STATUS TABLE also the branches of Corridor VIII towards other relevant
road networks would have been described.
As far as the Questionnaire was concerned Country Representatives propose to fix special sessions with transport operators
and relevant stakeholders during the planned bilateral meetings in each country.
The 3rd Meeting, held in Rome on 29-30 March 2007, was devoted to preliminary conclusions of the Interim Report, prepared
by ANAS on the present situation of Road Corridor VIII.
The first main conclusion was that technical standards of Road Corridor VIII are adequate to serve current freight traffic
because in recent years many upgrading/rehabilitation projects have been implemented or are in an advanced state of
completion.
Within this general acceptable situation, however, a number of critical infrastructural points were highlighted:
The rehabilitation/upgrading of other sections important for Road Corridor VIII still to be carried out: Rrogozhine-
Elbasan (Albania), Kumanovo-Bulgarian border (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), Radomir-Sofia (Bulgaria);
The construction/improvement of critical bypasses: Durres, Rrogozhine, Elbasan, Skopje, Pernik, Radomir;
The need to increase roads maintenance, especially in the mountain sections, and horizontal/vertical road signalling
and safety devices.
Furthermore ANAS raised two infrastructural issues on the overall alignment of the Corridor:

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1. The necessity to study the trapezium Durres-Tirana-Elbasan-Rrogozhine, in Albania, because in this area about 40% of
the country population lives and the section Durres-Rrogozhine carries already a heavy volume of traffic;
2. the opportunity of studying the section Struga-Bitola, in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, that will allow the
connection of Corridor VIII to Corridor X.
The second main conclusion was that logistic and horizontal issues seem to be the most important obstacles to the traffic
growth along Road Corridor VIII. In particular custom procedures are far the most important issue conditioning the
competitiveness and attractiveness of the Corridor against alternative routes such as Egnatia. This road is at the moment
more convenient for traffic from/to Bulgaria-Turkey because Bulgaria, Greece and Italy are now all EU Members and the
traffic from Turkey must pass just one international border. So a truck leaving early in the morning Sofia can take the ferry to
Bari from Igoumenitsa the evening and reach Bari early in the morning of the following day.
Country Representatives agree on the emerging picture and gave during the debate a number of detailed qualifications; in
any case experts said hey will communicate to ANAS integrations and specifications to the Interim Draft Report that will
accurately illustrate the current situation and particularly on paragraph 3.2 summarizing national planning priorities.
The 4th Meeting, held in Bari on 15 April 2008, had the objective of reaching a general agreement, among participating
countries, on the identification of the priority actions and projects, and a common definition of a long term development
strategy of the Road Corridor VIII.
ANAS proposed a logical framework for a strategy aimed at increasing the attractiveness of Road Corridor VIII based on
three main actions:
1. An easier accessibility and exploitation of the Corridors ports on which a more precise analysis will be carried out in
the opening Study on Ports and Logistic.
2. The facilitation of Corridor crossing, eliminating, for example but not only, bottlenecks; four measures were identified:
a) To address existing and future structural capacity bottlenecks where the Level of Service becomes minor
than C.
b) To guarantee road maintenance services and safety along the main alignment at a minimum efficiency
standard.
c) To manage to get over logistic and horizontal issues such as custom procedures and quality levels of ports
services and security.
d) To make available a minimum supply of services to truck drivers such as mechanical assistance, emergency
assistance (SOS service), rest points, protected parking areas close to the ports or to crossing borders.
3. The opening and the connecting of the Corridor to other road traffic directions; three main links were indicated to be
better analyzed and defined through a full feasibility study:
a) The Albanian core quadrilateral Durres-Tirana-Elbasan-Rrogozhine.
b) The connection Struga-Bitola in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor
Xd.
c) The central connection between former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, Veles-Delcevo-
Blagoevgrad, connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor IV and parallel to the north alignment Kumanovo-Deve Bair-
Gueshevo-Pernik.
After a debate and amendments, the Working Group approved the Draft Report on the identification of the priority actions
and projects, and a common definition of a long term development strategy of the Road Corridor VIII; it was also decided
that before the final meeting, ANAS would have worked bilaterally with the Representatives of the participating Countries,
to check, update and complete the technical material and the content of the Draft Final Report.
In the 5th Meeting, held in Roma on 25 June 2008, ANAS produced a Draft Final Report with main Conclusions on Road
Corridor VIII that were summarized as follows:
1. The alignment of Road Corridor VIII is already existing and continuous from Adriatic sea to Black Sea.
2. In recent years a number of upgrading/rehabilitation projects have been implemented along the main and
secondary branches of the Corridor. The geometrical standards of the existing road network, with some positive
exceptions and a number of critical points, are not at the level required for an international road; in general,
however, present standards are sufficient to serve the existing and the short-term future freight traffic.
3. In any case a number of fast, and well identified interventions should be implemented in the very short time in
order to improve the attractiveness of the Corridor to international freight traffic. A list of short term priority projects
and project fiches were included in the Report.
4. Logistic and horizontal issues seem to be the most urgent problems to be addressed since they have a great
impact on the total cost of transport so that Corridor itinerary suffers the competition of alternative routes and
alternative mode of transport.
The strategy proposed to increase the attractiveness of Road Corridor VIII consists in three main actions:
A. An easier accessibility and full exploitation of the Corridors ports.
B. The facilitation of Corridor crossing, eliminating bottlenecks-critical sections and efficiently addressing horizontal
issues.
C. Opening and connecting the Corridor to other road traffic directions in a larger network. A comprehensive
feasibility study to address a definition of a medium/long term completion strategy of the Corridor coordinated
with national and international plans and studies was proposed.
Motorway Working Group concluded the meeting proposing a list of Recommendations to Member Countries:
1. To sign a Transport Policy Agreement, within the general Framework of the "Transport Community Treaty" proposed
by EC to EU Council, aiming at increasing the attractiveness of Road Corridor VIII. The agreement should include
the commitment by the signing Countries to:

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1.1 give new impetus to all ongoing initiatives aiming to alleviate or solve horizontal issues that reduce Road
Corridor attractiveness;
1.2 give priority to projects and initiatives that improve the operational efficiency and accessibility to
Corridor VIII ports, as strategic intermodal transit points;
1.3 give priority, in their National Transport Plans, to the list of short term priority projects, jointly identified by
the Working Group, with the purpose of facilitating the west-east crossing and guaranteeing road itinerary
maintenance and services;
2. Consistently with the goals of the Transport Policy Agreement mentioned above, adopt an immediate common
intervention strategy - aimed at quickly increasing the attractiveness of the existing infrastructures based on the
following points:
2.1 Immediate execution of the Short Term Priority Projects listed in the Report (see specific project
fiches), aimed at increasing Corridor VIII attractiveness, including:
Carrying out localized works;
Intervention on logistic issues;
2.2 Immediate definition of a jointly agreed Medium/Long Term completion strategy of the entire
Corridor VIII - considered as a single multinational infrastructure - through a General Corridor VIII
Feasibility Study including some strategic areas, jointly identified by the Working Group:
The Albanian area Durres-Tirana-Elbasan-Rrogozhine, involving an efficient connection of Corridor VIII
with the Port of Durres. This area is also the crossing of Corridor VIII with the North-South Axis and the
Tirana-Kukes-Pristina road.
The cross-border areas between Albania and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and between
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria.
Potential integrations and extensions of the present route of Road Corridor VIII, such as the connection
Struga-Bitola in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor Xd, and
the central connection between former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, Veles-
Delcevo-Blagoevgrad connecting Corridor VIII to Corridor IV and parallel to the north alignment
Kumanovo-Deve Bair-Gueshevo-Pernik.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - ITALIAN TRANSLATION


1) Scopo dello Studio e risultati attesi

Il presente Rapporto stato condotto dal Segretariato del Corridoio VIII cos come previsto dall'art. 9 del
Memorandum di Intesa sottoscritto il 9 settembre 2002 da Albania, ex Repubblica Jugoslava di
Macedonia, Bulgaria, Grecia, Turchia e Italia. I settori prioritari degli Studi, cos come approvati dal terzo
Steering Committee tenuto a Tirana (Albania) il 27 maggio 2005, sono i seguenti:
Ferrovie: aree transfrontaliere, collegamenti mancanti, riabilitazione e ammodernamento del
tracciato esistente;
Strade: aree transfrontaliere, colli di bottiglia, manutenzione e ammodernamento del tracciato
esistente;
Porti, Intermodalit e Logistica lungo il tracciato del Corridoio.

Il primo Rapporto, condotto nel biennio 2005-2006 e intitolato Corridor 8: Pre-feasibility Study on the
Development of the Railway Axis stato pubblicato dopo aver ricevuto l'approvazione ufficiale da
parte di Ministeri competenti dei Paesi partecipanti.

Il presente Rapporto sul sistema stradale del Corridoio VIII, finanziato con i fondi della legge n.84/2001 e
co-finanziato da INCE-Iniziativa Centro Europea, stato condotto nel biennio 2007-2008 da un Gruppo
Multinazionale di Lavoro composto dai delegati dei Ministeri e delle Agenzie Nazionali per le Strade di
Italia, Albania, ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia, Bulgaria e Turchia, con il coordinamento
generale del Segretariato del Corridoio VIII e il coordinamento tecnico di ANAS, l'Agenzia Nazionale per le
Strade.
Lo Studio ha prodotto i seguenti risultati, condivisi dai Paesi partecipanti:
- una valutazione comune del Corridoio VIII stradale, con una stima della situazione attuale
(infrastrutture fisiche, progetti in via di ultimazione e progetti pianificati sia dalle autorit nazionali sia
dalle organizzazioni internazionali) e una identificazione comune delle problematiche connesse (in
particolare: problematiche orizzontali come le barriere non materiali e l'accessibilit dei porti);
- l'identificazione e la valutazione preliminare di una serie di Progetti Prioritari a Breve Termine
finalizzati ad un rapido miglioramento del tracciato principale del Corridoio VIII visto come
infrastruttura stradale di importanza internazionale;
- la definizione condivisa di una strategia di sviluppo a medio termine.
La procedura seguita per l'elaborazione del Rapporto rappresenta un valido esempio di cooperazione
transnazionale tra i Paesi del Corridoio VIII, che facilita il raggiungimento di obiettivi comuni nelle regioni
interessate.

Il terzo rapporto, condotto nel 2008 e intitolato Ports and Logistic System of Corridor VIII: Technical
Assessment and Definition of a Coordinated Development Strategy, stato completato e sar
pubblicato dopo aver ricevuto l'approvazione ufficiale dei Paesi partecipanti.

2) Uno scenario in rapida evoluzione

Negli ultimi 5 anni lo scenario del Sud Est Europa notevolmente mutato. Nel 2004, l'allargamento
dell'Unione Europea a 25 ha esteso i confini dell'Unione verso Est: la maggior parte dei Corridoi Pan-
Europei precedentemente stabiliti oggi parte delle Reti di Trasporto Europee TEN. Nel Rapporto finale
del Gruppo di Alto Livello presieduto da Loyola de Palacio (dicembre 2005) stata definita una nuova
strategia, che ha identificato 5 assi transnazionali. Il Corridoio VIII cos entrato a far parte dell'Asse di
Trasporto del Sud Est Europa.
L'entrata della Bulgaria e della Romania nell'Unione Europea (1 gennaio 2007) ha dato vita ad un nuovo
scenario, strategicamente molto importate per il Corridoio VIII, che in tal modo diventato il pi breve
collegamento via terra tra due Paesi Membri dell'Unione, l'Italia e la Bulgaria, attraversando cos due
Paesi in fase di pre-adesione, l'Albania e la ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia.

Lo sviluppo del Corridoio VIII stradale avr un impatto positivo sotto tre profili: si tratta di una infrastruttura
di rilevanza nazionale per ciascuno dei Paesi attraversati e di un collegamento transnazionale per i Paesi
della Regione Balcanica (caratterizzato fino agli anni '90 da un'accessibilit molto limitata), e infine il
Corridoio VIII diventato un asse internazionale che collega l'Area di Trasporto Mediterraneo-Adriatica
con l'Area di Trasporto del Mar Nero, in tal modo collegando ad ovest le Reti Europee TEN-T (dall'Italia)
alle Autostrade del Mare con le Reti Europee TEN-T (fino in Bulgaria), e il Corridoio TRACECA ad est.

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Il SEETO, l'Osservatorio sui Trasporti del Sud Est Europa, ha predisposto dei piani pluriennali indicando le
priorit per i Balcani occidentali. Nella comunicazione inviata dalla Commissione europea al Parlamento
europeo intitolata "Western Balkans: Enhancing the European perspective" (Bruxelles, 5 marzo 2008), la
Commissione UE propone alcune direttive per un Trattato sulle Comunit dei Trasporti con i Balcani
Occidentali.
Tutte le iniziative di sviluppo del Corridoio VIII stradale devono essere prese in accordo e secondo le
direttive stabilite dalla summenzionata strategia dei trasporti nei Balcani.
Lo scopo generale di arrivare ad un mercato inter-regionale dei trasporti integrato, con strade, ferrovie,
porti e vie fluviali interne alla regione Balcanica.

3) La metodologia dello Studio

Per quanto concerne le caratteristiche stradali esistenti e l'attuale condizione delle strade lungo il
Corridoio VIII, i dati aggiornati sono stati raccolti grazie ad una missione esplorativa lungo l'intero percorso
principale del Corridoio, con il supporto dei delegati del Gruppo di Lavoro.
L'analisi ha monitorato le condizioni delle infrastrutture stradali, la logistica e le problematiche orizzontali,
l'accessibilit dei porti e l'attuale pianificazione strategica a livello nazionale e internazionale. Sono stati
analizzati anche i dati riguardanti l'AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic, traffico giornaliero medio su base
annua) delle differenti sezioni, relativi al 2006 (e le conseguenti previsioni fino al 2012), sia lungo il percorso
principale sia nei rami secondari del Corridoio VIII, in modo da identificare i colli di bottiglia attuali e futuri
che necessitano di interventi a breve termine.

I risultati ottenuti possono essere cos riassunti:


1. Il Corridoio VIII stradale esiste gi ed percorribile dal Mar Adriatico al Mar Nero.
2. Negli ultimi anni sono stati portati a termine numerosi progetti di ammodernamento/riabilitazione sia
lungo il tracciato principale sia nei rami secondari del Corridoio. Gli standard geometrici della rete
stradale attuale non sono adeguati ai parametri richiesti per un asse stradale internazionale, tuttavia,
ad eccezione di un numero limitato di criticit in alcuni siti locali, gli standard sono da considerarsi
sufficienti per sostenere il traffico merci attuale e quello futuro a breve termine;
3. Tuttavia, su alcuni siti sono necessari interventi a breve termine rapidi, efficienti e ben strutturati, in
modo da migliorare l'attrattivit del Corridoio per il traffico merci internazionale (vedi tabella
seguente).
4. Per quanto riguarda l'accessibilit dei Porti, questo uno degli elementi chiave che condizionano
l'efficienza e l'attrattivit dell'intero sistema dei trasporti del Corridoio VIII. I Governi locali e le Autorit
portuali sono molto attivi nella pianificazione ed esecuzione degli interventi necessari e dei relativi
progetti.
5. Le problematiche logistiche e orizzontali costituiscono uno dei nodi pi urgenti, in quanto hanno un
forte impatto sul costo totale dei trasporti.
6. La pianificazione del Corridoio VIII stradale al momento frammentata a seconda delle diverse
pianificazioni nazionali, mentre le autorit nazionali preposte alla pianificazione non hanno una chiara
prospettiva di una strategia generale, coordinata e necessaria per l'intero percorso est-ovest del
Corridoio.

4) Progetti prioritari a breve termine

Attraverso le analisi menzionate si arrivati alla definizione di un elenco di Progetti prioritari a breve
termine finalizzati ad un veloce ammodernamento del tracciato principale del Corridoio VIII in quanto
asse di trasporto internazionale.
Tali Progetti Prioritari sono stati finalizzati all'esecuzione di interventi immediati, volti ad un miglioramento
della qualit dei servizi offerti dalle infrastrutture attuali del Corridoio stradale, e ad aumentare
l'attrattivit e la competitivit per gli operatori internazionali del traffico merci. Il presente Rapporto mette
in evidenza la necessit di interventi prioritari su determinate sezioni del Corridoio VIII in base alle
condizioni fisico/strutturali e/o all'intensit del traffico passeggeri e merci. Tali progetti prioritari sono stati
identificati coerentemente con la pianificazione dei singoli Paesi membri, secondo la relativa
documentazione fornita dai delegati di tali Paesi all'interno del Gruppo di Lavoro.
Le Project Fiches relative ai progetti prioritari sono allegate al presente rapporto. La seguente tabella
espone in maniera sintetica gli investimenti relativi ai progetti prioritari di breve termine.

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SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : WORKS


Albania former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Bulgaria
code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro) code project name value (Meuro)
AL-STP-01 Completion of the 10 MA-STP-01 Elimination of black spot 18 BU-STP- Completion of the 20
upgrading works on the and safety upgrading on 01 upgrading program of the
Rrogozhine Elbasan road Corridor VIII in former Gyueshevo-Sofia section
Yugoslav Republic of (project fiche
Macedonia Bulgaria 2 in att. 4)

AL-STP-02 Road safety upgrading of 26 MA-STP-02 Optimizing the road 2 BU-STP-02 Construction of the Pernik 40
Road Corridor VIII in maintenance service and Radomir bypasses
Albania efficiency in mountain
sections
AL-STP-03 Construction of Rrogozhine 15 MA-STP-03 Upgrading of the road 15 BU-STP-03 Road safety upgrading of 10
and Elbasan bypasses section Dlabocica-Kriva non motorway section of
Palanka Road Corridor VIII in
Bulgaria

AL-STP-04 Optimizing the road 2 MA-STP-04 Institution of a network of 5 BU-STP-04 Institution of a network of 3
maintenance service services to the drivers along services to the drivers along
(especially in mountain the existing road the existing "non highway"
sections) infrastructure of Corridor of Corridor VIII in Bulgaria
VIII in former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

AL-STP-05 Institution of a network of 5


services to the drivers along
the existing road
infrastructure of Corridor
VIII in Albania

TOTAL (MEuro) 58 40 73

SHORT TERM PRIORITY PROJECT : STUDIES


Albania - former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Bulgaria

code project name value (Meuro)

FS-STP-01 Comprehensive Feasibility Study of the medium-long term completion project of Road Corridor VIII 5

Projects in bold are already planned or ongoing

5) Conclusioni e Raccomandazioni

Conclusioni generali

La prima conclusione del presente Studio pu essere riassunta dal dato che, a differenza del Corridoio VIII
ferroviario, il Corridoio VIII stradale esiste gi ed percorribile lungo l'intero tracciato. L'ammontare degli
investimenti necessari ad aumentare l'attrattivit del Corridoio VIII stradale sensibilmente pi contenuto di
quello necessario per gli altri settori (ferroviario e portuale), e gli interventi possono essere efficacemente
portati a termine in tempi brevi.

Le criticit principali del Corridoio VIII sono state unanimemente identificate nelle cosiddette barriere non
materiali, che ne limitano l'accessibilit. Tali barriere includono l'efficienza dei porti, le procedure
transfrontaliere (che investono le procedure doganali e l'efficienza operativa), i servizi dedicati al trasporto
merci, alla sicurezza e alla protezione dei trasporti, ecc. Il risultato ottenuto dallo Studio che l'utilizzo del
Corridoio VIII stradale come asse di trasporto internazionale non tanto impedito da limitazioni infrastrutturali
quanto dalle criticit orizzontali esposte.
Lo sviluppo del traffico merci lungo il Corridoio VIII pu derivare non solo dai collegamenti transnazionali est-
ovest, ma anche da numerosi collegamenti con gli altri Corridoi della Regione, secondo i parametri dell'Asse
Transnazionale del Sud Est Europa. Tuttavia, ad oggi non esiste uno studio aggiornato sul traffico che prenda in
considerazione gli scenari in rapida evoluzione del sistema dei trasporti.
Per quanto concerne il tracciato entro i confini nazionali, gli investimenti seguono i criteri di priorit stabiliti dai
singoli Governi. Ad esempio, in Bulgaria il Corridoio VIII stradale costituisce l'asse principale ovest-est che
collega la capitale Sofia ai principali porti nazionali, Burgas e Varna. Di conseguenza il Corridoio VIII stradale
pi sviluppato ad est di Sofia. Tuttavia, la necessit di migliorare il collegamenti tra Sofia e Skopje
riconosciuta come un tema importante. In Albania e nella ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia la
situazione diversa, in quanto le direttrici nord-sud hanno attualmente eguale e in certi casi maggiore

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priorit delle direttrici est-ovest nella programmazione nazionale. Gli attuali investimenti e progetti seguono i
criteri di priorit stabiliti dai Paesi interessati.
Tali considerazioni hanno reso necessaria la definizione di un Quadro Generale Strategico che investa l'intero
percorso del Corridoio VIII, che dal Sud Italia-Sud Adriatico, attraverso Albania, ex Repubblica Jugoslava di
Macedonia e Bulgaria, raggiunga il Mar Nero e tenga in considerazione le singole priorit nazionali, dando
tuttavia una prospettiva transnazionale al lavoro di pianificazione.

RACCOMANDAZIONI
A seguito di tali conclusioni generali, il Gruppo di Lavoro Stradale del Corridoio VIII esprime le seguenti
raccomandazioni ai Governi dei Paesi del Corridoio VIII:

1. Procedere alla firma di un Trattato sulle Politiche dei Trasporti, in accordo con il quadro generale del
Trattato sulla Comunit dei Trasporti proposto dalla Commissione europea al Consiglio d'Europa, al fine
di migliorare l'attrattivit del Corridoio VIII Stradale. Tale accordo dovrebbe stabilire l'impegno dei Paesi
firmatari per arrivare ai seguenti risultati:
1.1. dare nuovo impulso a tutte le iniziative in corso mirate alla risoluzione delle menzionate
problematiche orizzontali, che inficiano l'attrattivit del corridoio stradale.
1.2 dare priorit ai progetti e alle iniziative che migliorino l'efficienza operativa e l'accessibilit ai porti
del Corridoio VIII, in quanto punti strategici del traffico intermodale delle merci.
1.3 dare priorit, all'interno delle Pianificazioni nazionali sui trasporti, ai progetti prioritari a breve termine
descritti nel punto 4, cos come stabiliti congiuntamente dal Gruppo di Lavoro, allo scopo di
facilitare i collegamenti ovest-est e garantire la manutenzione e i servizi lungo il percorso stradale;

2. Procedere all'adozione, in ottemperanza alle finalit descritte nel Trattato sulle Politiche dei Trasporti
gi citato, di una strategia comune di interventi immediati con lo scopo di migliorare l'attrattivit delle
attuali infrastrutture e avviare l'operativit del Corridoio in quanto asse stradale internazionale basata
sui seguenti punti:
2.1 Avviamento immediato dei Progetti Prioritari a Breve Termine, cos come elencati nel presente
Rapporto (cfr. Project Fiches specifiche allegate al Rapporto), allo scopo di migliorare l'attrattivit
del Corridoio VIII, e in particolare:
Opere cantierabili in situ;
Interventi sulle problematiche logistiche;
2.2 Procedere alla definizione immediata di una strategia condivisa a medio/lungo termine per il
completamento dell'intero Corridoio VIII definito come Infrastruttura Multinazionale Unitaria dal
Gruppo di Lavoro per mezzo di uno Studio Generale di Fattibilit sul Corridoio VIII che includa tutti gli
studi/progetti esistenti a livello nazionale e inter-regionale, aggiornandoli e completandoli. Come definito
nella specifica Project Fiches allegata al presente Rapporto, lo Studio Generale di Fattibilit include le
aree strategiche, definite e condivise dal Gruppo di Lavoro, di seguito specificate:
a. L'area albanese compresa tra Durazzo-Tirana-Elbasan-Rrogozhine, che di collegamento tra il
Corridoio VIII e il Porto di Durazzo. Quest'area incrocia il Corridoio VIII con l'Asse Nord-Sud e con la
strada Tirana-Kukes-Pristina.
b. Le aree transfrontaliere tra l'Albania e la ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia e tra quest'ultima e
la Bulgaria.
c. Potenziali integrazioni ed estensioni dell'attuale tracciato del Corridoio VIII stradale, come il
collegamento Struga-Bitola nella ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia, che collega il Corridoio VIII
al Corridoio Xd, e il collegamento centrale tra la ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia e la
Bulgaria, attraverso il tratto Veles-Delcevo-Blagoevgrad, che collega il Corridoio VIII al Corridoio IV.

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