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Annisa Jaturrahman (201620560211036)

Iqbal Alfian Rusydi (201620560211038)

The Process of Developing Assessment


Assessing for learning is a process of inquiry into what and how well
students learn over the progression of their studies and is driven by intellectual
curiosity about the efficacy of collective educational practices. Gottlieb (2006: 85)
define assessment as comprehensive process of planning, collecting, analyzing,
reporting and using information on students over time.
How to differenciate between testing, assessment, and evaluation? (Gottlieb:85-86):

Testing Assessment Evaluation


A systematic procedure A comprehensive process of A broad scope
of collecting a sample planning, collecting, involving a
of student behavior at analyzing, reporting, and methodological
one point in time. using information on process whereby
students over time. assesment
Assesment can include test information on
as well as projects, students or programs
anecdotal information, and is used to make
student self-reflection. evidence-based
decisions from
informed judgement.

There are four ways to categorize assessment instruments and procedures:


intention, purpose, interpretation, and administration.
- In terms of intention, an assessment can be a spontaneous comment
(informal) or it can be systematic (formal).
- In terms of purpose, an assessment can measure the product (summative)
or it can focus on the process of learning (formative).
- In terms of interpretation, an assessment can be used to establish the
relationship between students performance and their peers performance
(norm-referenced) or between students performance and a body of
knowledge to be mastered (criterion-referenced).
- Finally, in terms of administration, an assessment can be delivered at the
state or national level (large scale), or it can be limited to a classroom
(classroom-based).

In initiating the process of developing asseessment, Sukie (200), there are


some steps which should be considered as follow:
1. Determine the purpose of the assessment.
What should be the scope of the assessment. Ex; the scope on writing
assessment.
2. Establish vision and mission
Adjusting the assessment based on the vision and mission of institution
3. Identify programmatic goals that are directly related to the mission. These are
general expectations regarding program delivery.
Ex; The school wants their students to be able to speak English in daily
conversation, winning the debate competition.
4. Identify specific student learning outcomes.
Student Learning Outcomes: Specifiable activities, products, skills,
abilities, behaviors, attitudes, or pieces of knowledge that students attain as a
result of their involvement in a particular set of educational experiences.
Represent the most important competencies that all students should possess.

5. Define measures for each outcome.


Types of Measures:
Quantitativenumeric (e.g., test scores, placement rates, GPA, structured
surveys)
Qualitativedescribed by words rather than numbers (e.g., interviews, focus
groups, observations, rubrics)
Directrequire students to display knowledge or skill (e.g., tests,
performances, assignments)
Indirectsecond-hand evidence (e.g., surveys, course evaluations, journal
reflections)
6. Determine how measures will be evaluated.
Criterion-based benchmarkscompares student performance with a pre-
established standard.
Norm-referenced benchmarkscompares student performance with a
standardized norm or a group of peers.
Value-added approachcompares student performance at two points in
time to see if they have improved.
Longitudinal/historical approachcompares current students with prior
students

Based on Henning (2008), he described the process of assesment into 15


steps, they are as follows:
1) Define the Issue/Problem:
May be difficult task because the problem or issue may not be as
obvious as it may seem.
Reduce the issue into multiple issues to make it easier to manage.

2) Define the Goal Statement


Once you have defined the issue, you will need to decide what you
want to focus on
Write a clear statement(s) of what your goal(s) is in addressing the
issue.

For this step, just focus on a solution not how you are actually going to
solve the problem.

3) Align Assessment
Your issue and goal should be aligned with and support institution and
department missions and goals.
We often embark on projects that are not consistent with other missions
and goals.
Be able to complete the statement, this program/intervention supports
institution or department mission...

4) Identify stakeholders
Stakeholders have a part in your assessment.
They may support your project. They may help you implement the
assessment. They may have a vested interest in the results. They may
be helpful in implementing recommendations from the assessment.
Assessment and planning cannot be successful without the
involvement of stakeholders.
Identify who may have a question related to your program.
Identify which question(s) these stakeholders may have.
Determine which stakeholders and which questions will be included in
your assessment.

5) Identify theoretical or conceptual framework for foundation of goals


Theory or a conceptual framework provides a context for both
planning and assessment. It provides a guide as you begin to plan, but
is also helpful as you are interpreting assessment results. It should be
part of the process throughout.
Review literature
What literature is available to help you understand your determined
problem or issue?
Identify the theory/conceptual framework you will use
6) Identify/develop summative outcomes that would exist if goal was
reached
Backwards design
You need to begin by thinking about what you want to happen at the
end. What is your intended result of the interaction, program, or
service? What do you expect students to be able to do, know, or believe
at the end?
3 Types of Outcomes
o Operational outcomes: are outcomes that measure progress toward
a goal, but are not related to impact. Things such as the number of
programs or the number of students served are operational
outcomes.
o Learning outcomes: are the desired learning effect of a program,
activity, or intervention. A students being able to resolve a conflict
is an example of a learning outcome.
o Program outcomes: are the desired aggregate effect of a program,
activity, or intervention. An example of a program outcome is a
decrease in the number of students being found responsible for
alcohol violations.
o SWiBAT
One formula that is successful in developing learning outcomes is
the SWiBAT formula. SWiBAT stands for students will be able
to. You begin your outcome statement with this and then you add
an action verb and then a condition. For example, students will be
able to facilitate a hall government meeting as a result of
participating in the residence hall council training.
o SMART
Well-written outcomes have some defining characteristics. SMART
is a mnemonic device that can serve as a checklist. SMART
outcomes are specific, measureable, aggressive, but attainable,
results-oriented, and time-bound. If your outcome statements are
SMART, you will be more effective as you plan and your
assessment will be easier to implement.

7) Identify and measure the inputs that can be used to resolve the
program.
Inputs are the raw materials available and can include available budget
for a program or intervention, staff, facilities, etc.
It is helpful to identify the inputs as they will dictate what strategies
and action steps you can employ and they also may affect the extent to
which you can achieve your goals or outcomes.
8) Develop strategies anchored in theoretical/conceptual framework to
reach goal.
To assess well, there needs to be good planning.
Align strategies with goals
Keep in mind the theoretical/conceptual framework

9) Develop action steps anchored in your theoretical/conceptual


framework to implement the strategies
Create the to do list
Document the to do list
10) Develop and measure formative assessment for strategies and action
steps
Formative assessment is the assessment along the way. I also think
about this as assessment of the process or the assessment of the
strategies and action steps.
You will want to assess the strategies and action steps so you can learn
how effective they are in helping students reach the outcomes you have
identified.
Formative assessment can utilize the same methods as summative
assessment including tracking, surveys, focus groups, portfolios,
rubrics, etc.
11) Measure outcomes
Once you have the formative assessment of measuring the strategies
and action steps you need to perform summative assessment to
determine if the outcomes are reached.
Consider summative assessment before you begin.
Does outcome data already exist?
Collect data.
12) Make sense of results
Make sense of the outcome data
Your outcome data dont have value attached to it yet. Someone
needs to analyze and interpret the data and make sense of it
answering questions
Analysis
What type of analysis do you want to perform? Will frequencies
and
crosstabs answer your questions? Do you need to do more
sophisticated analysis such as correlation or regression? If so, do
you have the skills to do this or do you know someone who can
help. Are your results statistically significant? If so, are they
practically significant?
Keep in mind the theoretical/conceptual framework
It is important to keep in mind the theoretical/conceptual
framework because it will help you interpret the data.
Consider alternative hypotheses
It is helpful to also consider alternative hypotheses when
evaluating the data. Perhaps your outcome is alcohol use and you
have just implemented a new program.
13) Report, present findings
Identify the political aspects of your findings (anticipated or actual)
Identify who will receive the report (audience)
Decide how you will report the information (format)
Decide what to include in the report
Decide when the report will be disseminated (timing)
Consider what you can do to keep the report from being shelved

14) Review, reallocate, advocate for resources

Assessment isnt worthwhile unless changes occur. Reviewing,


reallocating, and advocating for resources are the ultimate goals. As a result of
the assessment you may decide to discontinue a program and put those
resources, be they time, money, or staff towards other things. If you make a
change in a program by simply changing strategies or action steps rather than
discontinuing a program or creating a new service, you are still reallocating
resources. Perhaps, you determine that you are reaching your goal and
outcomes and if you had more resources you could be even more effective
than you currently are, assessment may be an opportunity to advocate for
resources or an essential step for defending the current resources. While
assessment is about making improvements, in the political world of higher
education, assessment really boils down to use of resources.

15) . Retool program based on formative and summative evaluation

Now that you have the data you need to do something with it. It is time to
improve the program you assessed. You may decided to tweak your outcomes,
strategies, or action steps. You may even realize that you need to assess
differently. Once you have made your changes, get ready to keep in assessing.

Re-Cycle and continue the loop


Identify what to assess next.
This was discussed briefly in the implications section. Assessment
should never stop. We can always improve even what we have already
improved. Think about what is the next cycle of assessment.
The first option would be to replicate the study. You may realize a way
to improve this past assessment or you may just want to re-assess
residence hall council training with a different set of students and see if
you get the same results.
Now that you know that students did increase their meeting facilitation
skills, another option would be to try to understand how this happened.
What was most useful?
Another option could be to assess different types of leadership skills
aside from meeting facilitation.
Or you could.........................
Just dont stop assessing.
Reading Test
The Story of the Smart Parrot
A man in Puerto Rico had a wonderful parrot. There was no another parrot like
it. It was very, very smart. This parrot would say any word-except one. He would
not say the name of the town where he was born. The name of the town was
Catano. The man tried to teach the parrot to say Catano. But the bird would not
say the word. At first the man was very nice, but then he got angry. You are a
stupid bird! Why cant you say the word? Sat CAtano, or I will kill you! but the
parrot would not say it. Then the man got to so angry that the shouted over and
over, Say Catano, or Ill kill you! but the bird wouldnt talk.
One day after trying for many hours to make the bird say Catano, the man got
very angry. He picked up the bird and threw him into the chicken house. You are
more stupid than the chickens. Soon I will eat them, and I will eat you, too.
In the chicken house there are four old chickens. They were for Sundays dinner.
The man put the parrot in the chicken house and left.
The next day the man came back to the chicken house. He opened the door and
stopped. He was very surprised at what he saw!
He saw three dead chickens on the floor. The parrot was screaming at the fourth
chicken, Say Catano, or Ill kill you!

1. Where does the story take place?


A. London D. Jakarta
B. Puerto Rico E. Buenos Aires
C. Indonesia

2. What is the word that the parrot cannot say?


A. Catano D. Canato
B. Tacano E. Nacato
C. Nanaco

3. How often did the owner teach the bird how to say the word?
A. Always D. Many times
B. Everyday E. Every second
C. Every Minute

4. Which statement is true according to the text?


A. The parrot could say Catano
B. At last the parrot could say Catano
C. Catano was the name at the parrot
D. The man never got angry at the parrot
E. Every second the owner teach the bird

The government has just published a report which suggest that television
is partly responsible for the serious increase in crime over the last ten years. The
exposure of violence or pornography harmfully effects on children.
Many people who are alive today know what it is like to live in a world
without television. Television as we know is only about forty years old. Yet it is so
much a part of our lives that it seems as if it had always existed.
Some people think that the years before the invention of television were a
better time. They claim that families talked more and did more things together.
More books were read. People used their imaginations more fully. People got
more outdoor exercises.
But others disagree. They claim that television is a powerful educational
tool. It informs us of what is going on in the world, from a famine in Africa to a
local politics and fashion. It helps us understand how people live, work, and
struggle.
In 1961, Newton Minow, a government official, called prime-time
schedules a vast wasteland. Television is credited with being a great teacher,
but it is also blamed for the poor reading and writing skills of our population.
Television gets praised for helping us understand the people of the world. But it
has been accused of helping to destroy family life. Television keeps us informed
about the political issues of the day.
Experts will probably continue to argue about televisions value. But
everyone agrees that it is one of the most significant inventions of the twentieth
century.

5. The writer wants to tell ..


A. the development of television
B. the advantages of television program
C. how television destroys peoples life
D. how television improves peoples knowledge
E. the influence of television on peoples daily life

6. Many people claim that television is a powerful educational tool. From this
statement we know that they .. with the existence of television.
A. Love
B. Agree
C. Prefer
D. Satisfy
E. Choose
7. Which of the following is good for children in watching TV?
A. The children should watch the violence on TV
B. Children may watch TV whenever they like
C. There shouldnt be government censorship of TV program
D. Children should spend all their time to watch TV program
E. Children should be accompanied by their parents in watching TV

Speaking Test
A. CHOOSE THE RIGHT ANSWER.
1. Jack : May I borrow your dictionary?
John : ..
Jack : thank you very much.
a. Sure c. I hope so
b. Dont do it d. no, thanks.
2. Faizah : is your father a teacher?
Farida : . he is a lawyer.
a. No, he is not. c. yes, he is
b. I think so d. no, he is.
3. Winda : your brother was in Sydney last month. Wasnt he?
Ayu : yes, ...........
a. He wasnt c. he was
b. He is d. he does.
Complete the following conversation between student and the tourist in Botanical
Garden!
Student : good afternoon Mister. (4)?
Tourist : good afternoon. How do you do.
Student : I am from Junior High School of Kusuma Bangsa. May I make short
conversation (5)?
Tourist : with pleasure.
Students : by the way, (6). ?
Tourist : my name is Josh.(7) ?
Student : my name is Shilvia.And where..(8) Mr. Josh?
Tourist : France.
4. a. good afternoon c. yes, I am
b. how are you d. how do you do
5. a. with me c. with you
b for me d. from you
6. a. what are you doing?
b. what is your name?
c. where do you come from?
d. how are you?
7. a. where did you come from?
b. where does you come from?
c. where do you come from?
d. where are you come from?
8. Divia : what are you doing?
Ayu : I am a letter
a. Writes c. writed
b. Wrote d. writing
9. Dessy : what were you doing in the evening yesterday?
Murni : I .television.
a. Were doing c. was watched
b. Were watching d. was watching
10. Aldi : can I borrow your pen?
Akbar : I just have one.
a. Im sorry, I cant. c. ok
b. Yes, you can d. absolutely

11. Rahmat : by the way, do you know where does Mr. Endang Live?
Aldo : yes, I do. He ............ in Bogor.
a. Live c. life
b. Lives d. left
12. Yuli : Nice talking to you. See you.
Rani : . See you.
a. Nice talking to you c. good bye
b. Nice talking to you too. d. bye
Writing Test
Picture 2
Picture 1

1.1 Packing some stuffs 1.2 Going to camping area by car

Picture 4
Picture 3

1.3 Set up the tend 1.4 Cook some meals

Picture 5
1.5 Enjoying campfire

Please write a story based on the pictures above!

Camping

Last holiday, my family and and I went to camping .....................................

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