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Vs jIrX
Is R + jX Ir

Vs Vr Vr

(a) (b)

Fig. 4.4 Short-transmission line: (=) equivalent circuit, (>) phasor diagram.

The terms within the simple brackets is small as compared to unity. Using binomial
expansion and limiting only to second term,
Vs ~
Vr + IrR cos r + IrX sin r (4.5)
Here Vs is the sending end voltage corresponding to a particular load current and power
factor condition. It can be seen from the equivalent circuit of short line that the receiving end
voltage under no load Vr is the same as the sending end voltage under full load condition, i.e.,
Vr = Vs
Vs Vr
% regulation = 100
FG I R cos
r Ir X IJ 100
HV r
r +
sin r
K (4.6)

Ir R I X
or regulation per unit = cos r + r sin r
Vr Vr
= vr cos r + vx sin r (4.7)
where vr and vx are the per unit values of resistance and reactance of the line. It will be shown
later on in this chapter that in a four terminal passive network the voltage and current on the
receiving end and sending end are related by the following pair of equations:
Vs = AVr + BIr (4.8)
Is = CVr + DIr (4.9)
where A, B, C, D are called the constants of the network. The transmission line is also a four-
terminal network and it is now desired to find these constants for short transmission line.
Before these constants are determined it is desirable to understand what these constants
From equation (4.8),
Vr Ir = 0

This means A is the voltage impressed at the sending end per volt at the receiving end
when receiving end is open. It is dimensionless.