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Troubleshooting
SMCS - 1000

Introduction
Troubleshooting can be difficult. To make a repair to a problem, refer to the possible cause and the corrective
action. The most common problems are identified in this troubleshooting manual. The symptoms, causes, and
guidance for solving the problems are given.

The list of problems, causes, and corrections will only give an indication of the location of a possible
problem. There is also a list that shows some of the repairs that are required.

Sometimes additional repair work is required beyond the repair which is recommended. Frequently, a problem
does not exist in isolation. The problem can be a result of wear or of damage to several parts which operate
together as part of a system.

Service personnel may remember similar complaints which were corrected by a previous method of
troubleshooting. A similar complaint can have a different cause.

Get a good description of the problem from the operator and/or the person that owns the vehicle. Knowing the
details of the problem can save time. This will make the repair job faster and easier.

All possible problems and the probable causes cannot be listed. The technician must follow a logical process
of eliminating possible causes and of identifying the specific causes of the problems.

Troubleshooting The Fuel Injection Nozzles On The Engine


Note: Be careful when you are handling the fuel injection nozzles in order to prevent damage to the orifices,
the threads, and other surfaces. When a fuel injection nozzle is installed, make sure that all surfaces and
threads are clean.

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Only personnel that have the proper training should disassemble the fuel injection nozzles. Only personnel
that have the proper training should perform repairs to the fuel injection nozzle.

Replace the fuel injection nozzle if the fuel injection nozzle cannot be adjusted in order to operate correctly.

Refer to Specifications, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" for additional information.

The Engine is Difficult to Start or the Engine Runs Rough

Probable Cause

Table 1
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel injection nozzle does not seal


correctly in the cylinder head.

Make sure that the gaskets, the insert, and the


mating surface of the cylinder head are clean.
1. Check that the Fuel Injection Nozzle is
Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is
Sealed Correctly in the Cylinder Head
Fuel tightened to the correct torque in the threaded
Injection hole of the cylinder head.
A. Verify that the fuel injection nozzle is
Nozzle
sealed correctly in the cylinder head.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The fuel injection nozzle is sealed


correctly in the cylinder head.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is debris on the mounting


surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
2. Check for Debris on the Mating were left in the cylinder head for the fuel
Surface of the Cylinder Head with the injection nozzle.
Gaskets or the Insert
Remove any extra gaskets or debris.
A. Check for debris on the mating surface
of the cylinder head. Debris Verify that the problem is resolved.

B. Make sure that extra gaskets were Result: There is no debris on the mounting
removed from the threaded recess in the surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle. left in the cylinder head for the fuel injection
nozzle.

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Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: A high-pressure fuel line is leaking.

Repair or replace the high-pressure fuel line


3. Check the Connections of the High that is leaking.
Pressure Fuel Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel leak
A. Check for a damaged or leaking high-
pressure fuel line. Result: A high-pressure fuel line is not
leaking.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The correct fuel nozzles are not


installed.
4. Check that the Correct Fuel Nozzles
are Installed
Install the correct fuel nozzles.
Fuel
Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct
A. Verify that all fuel injection nozzles are Nozzle
replacement part.
the correct replacement parts for the engine.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The Engine Exhaust has too Much Black Smoke

Probable Cause

Table 2
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Debris on the Mating Surface Result: There is debris on the mounting surface
of the Cylinder Head with the Gaskets or of the cylinder head or extra gaskets were left in
the Insert the cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle.

A. Check for debris on the mating surface of Remove any extra gaskets or debris.
the cylinder head. Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
B. Make sure that extra gaskets were
removed from the threaded recess in the Result: There is no debris on the mounting
cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle. surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets left
in the cylinder head for the fuel injection

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nozzle.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Correct Operation of the Fuel


Nozzle Result: The fuel nozzle is not operating
properly.
A. Make sure that the components of the fuel
injection nozzle are tightened to the correct Replace the fuel nozzle.
torques.
Fuel
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Nozzle
B. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert
are positioned correctly. Result: The fuel nozzle is operating properly.

C. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle Proceed to Test Step 3.


tester in order to measure the pressure setting.

Result: The correct fuel nozzles are not


installed.
3. Check that the Correct Fuel Nozzles are
Installed
Install the correct fuel nozzles.
Fuel
Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct
A. Verify that all fuel injection nozzles are Nozzle
replacement part.
the correct replacement parts for the engine.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The Engine has Lost Power and the Engine Uses too Much Fuel

Probable Cause

Table 3
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel injection nozzle does not seal


1. Check that the Fuel Injection Nozzle is correctly in the cylinder head.
Sealed Correctly in the Cylinder Head
Fuel Make sure that the gaskets, the insert, and the
Injection mating surface of the cylinder head are clean.
A. Verify that the fuel injection nozzle is
Nozzle
sealed correctly in the cylinder head.
Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is
tightened to the correct torque in the threaded

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hole of the cylinder head.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The fuel injection nozzle is sealed


correctly in the cylinder head.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is debris on the mounting


surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
were left in the cylinder head for the fuel
2. Check for Debris on the Mating
injection nozzle.
Surface of the Cylinder Head with the
Gaskets or the Insert
Remove any extra gaskets or debris.
A. Check for debris on the mating surface
Verify that the problem is resolved.
of the cylinder head. Debris
Result: There is no debris on the mounting
B. Make sure that extra gaskets were
surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
removed from the threaded recess in the
left in the cylinder head for the fuel injection
cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle.
nozzle.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: A high-pressure fuel line is leaking.

Repair or replace the high-pressure fuel line


3. Check the Connections of the High that is leaking.
Pressure Fuel Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel leak
A. Check for a damaged or leaking high-
pressure fuel line. Result: A high-pressure fuel line is not
leaking.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check for Correct Operation of the Result: The fuel nozzle is not operating
Fuel Nozzle properly.
Fuel
A. Make sure that the components of the Nozzle Replace the fuel nozzle.
fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the

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correct torques.
Verify that the problem is resolved.
B. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert
are positioned correctly.
Result: The fuel nozzle is operating properly.
C. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle
Proceed to Test Step 5.
tester in order to measure the pressure
setting.

Result: The correct fuel nozzles are not


installed.

Install the correct fuel nozzles.


5. Check that the Correct Fuel Nozzles
are Installed Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct
Fuel replacement part.
A. Verify that that all fuel injection nozzles Nozzle
have the correct code for the engine. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The correct fuel nozzles are installed.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: A low-pressure fuel line is leaking.


6. Check the Connections of the Low
Pressure Fuel Line
Repair or replace the low-pressure fuel line
Fuel Leak that is leaking.
A. Check for a damaged or leaking low-
pressure fuel line.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The Engine is Misfiring, Running Rough, or Running Poorly

Probable Cause

Table 4
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check that the Fuel Injection Nozzle Result: The fuel injection nozzle does not
is Sealed Correctly in the Cylinder Fuel Injection seal correctly in the cylinder head.
Head Nozzle
Make sure that the gaskets, the insert, and

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the mating surface of the cylinder head are


clean.

Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is


tightened to the correct torque in the
threaded hole of the cylinder head.
A. Verify that the fuel injection nozzle is
sealed correctly in the cylinder head.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The fuel injection nozzle is sealed


correctly in the cylinder head.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is debris on the mounting


surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
were left in the cylinder head for the fuel
2. Check for Debris on the Mating
injection nozzle.
Surface of the Cylinder Head with the
Gaskets or the Insert
Remove any extra gaskets or debris.
A. Check for debris on the mating surface
Verify that the problem is resolved.
of the cylinder head. Debris
Result: There is no debris on the mounting
B. Make sure that extra gaskets were
surface of the cylinder head or extra gaskets
removed from the threaded recess in the
left in the cylinder head for the fuel
cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle.
injection nozzle.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: A high-pressure fuel line is leaking.

Repair or replace the high-pressure fuel line


3. Check the Connections of the High that is leaking.
Pressure Fuel Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel leak
A. Check for a leaking high-pressure fuel
line. Result: A high-pressure fuel line is not
leaking.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

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4. Check for Correct Operation of the


Fuel Nozzle Result: The fuel nozzle is not operating
properly.
A. Make sure that the components of the
fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the Replace the fuel nozzle.
correct torques.
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel Nozzle
B. Make sure that the gaskets and the
insert are positioned correctly. Result: The fuel nozzle is operating
properly.
C. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a
nozzle tester in order to measure the Proceed to Test Step 5.
pressure setting.

Result: The correct fuel nozzles are not


installed.

Install the correct fuel nozzles.


5. Check that the Correct Fuel Nozzles
Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct
are Installed
replacement part.
Fuel Nozzle
A. Verify that all fuel injection nozzles
Verify that the problem is resolved.
have the correct code for the engine.
Result: The correct fuel nozzles are
installed.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: A high-pressure fuel line is


restricted or damaged.

Repair or replace the high-pressure fuel line


6. Check for a Restriction in the High-
that is restricted or damaged.
pressure Fuel Line
High-pressure
fuel line Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for a damaged or restricted
restriction
high-pressure fuel line.
Result: A high-pressure fuel line is not
restricted or damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

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Result: The seat washer is not 2.0 mm


(0.08 inch) thick.
7. Check for the Correct Seat Washer
2.0 mm
Replace the seat washer with the correct
A. Verify that the seat washer is 2.0 mm (0.08 inch) seat
seat washer.
(0.08 inch) thick. washer
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Troubleshooting Fuel Injection Nozzles on a Nozzle Tester


Note: Be careful when you are handling the fuel injection nozzles in order to prevent damage to the orifices,
the threads, and other surfaces. When a fuel injection nozzle is installed, make sure that all surfaces and
threads are clean.

Only personnel that have the proper training should disassemble the fuel injection nozzles. Only personnel
that have the proper training should perform repairs to the fuel injection nozzles.

Replace the fuel injection nozzle if the fuel injection nozzle cannot be adjusted in order to operate correctly.

Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

Back Leakage

Table 5
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: There are fuel leaks.through the


threaded connection of the body and the
nozzle nut.

1. Check for Fuel Leaks through the Make sure that the threads are clean.
Threaded Connection of the Body and the Tighten the body to the correct torque.
Nozzle Nut
Fuel leaks Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for fuel leaks.through the threaded
connection of the body and the nozzle nut. Result: There are no fuel leaks.through the
threaded connection of the body and the
nozzle nut.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Debris or Damage on the Damage or Result: The valve has debris or is damaged.

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Orifices
Clean the surface of the orifices with
solvent. Replace the fuel injection nozzles if
A.Visually inspect the components of the
Debris corrosion exists.
valve for carbon pitting, for scoring, or for
other damage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The fuel injection nozzle does not inject fuel in the correct quantity or in the correct
pattern.

Probable Cause

Table 6
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The opening pressure is not correct.

1. Check the Setting for the Adjust the setting to the correct pressure.
Opening Pressure
Opening Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Test the setting of the opening pressure
pressure. Result: The opening pressure is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The fuel injection nozzle is stuck. Debris


or damage exists on the fuel injection nozzle.

2. Verify the Operation of the Fuel The fuel injection nozzle must be cleaned or
Injection Nozzle replaced.
Fuel injection
A.Verify that the fuel injection nozzle nozzle Verify that the problem is resolved.
is not stuck.
Result: The fuel injection nozzle is not stuck.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check for a Blockage or Result: The orifices are blocked or restricted.


Restriction in the Orifices Orifice
blockage The fuel injection nozzle must be cleaned or
A.Inspect the orifices for carbon replaced.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.


buildup.
Result: The orifices are not blocked or restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The fuel return passage is blocked or


restricted.
4. Check for a Blockage or
Restriction in the Fuel Return
Fuel return Clean the passage in order to remove any carbon
passage buildup or other debris.
A.Inspect the fuel return passage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Troubleshooting the Turbocharger


The engine lacks power.

Probable Cause

Table 7
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is dirty


or has restrictions.

The air filter element must be cleaned


1. Check for Restrictions in the Air
or replaced.
Filter Element
Air filter element Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter
element.
Result: The air filter element is not
dirty or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for a Restriction in the Tube Result: There is damage or a


between the Air Filter and the restriction to the tube between the air
Restriction/damage
Turbocharger filter and the turbocharger.

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Find the restriction and repair or


replace the component.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Check for damage or a restriction in the
tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: There is a leak or a restriction


to the tube between the intake
manifold and the turbocharger.
3. Check for an Air Leak or Restriction
Find the leak or restriction and repair
in the Tube between the Intake Manifold
or replace the component.
and the Turbocharger
Air leak or
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for a leak or a restriction in the restriction
tube between the intake manifold and the
Result: There is not a leak or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the
intake manifold and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: There is damage or a


restriction in the exhaust system
components.

The component must be repaired or


4. Check for Restriction in the Exhaust
replaced.
System
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in the
exhaust system components.
Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

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Result: The turbocharger is loose or


the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

5. Check for Proper Installation of the Correctly position the turbocharger


Turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The intake manifold has


cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

The intake manifold must be repaired


6. Inspect the Intake Manifold or replaced.

A. Inspect the intake manifold for cracks, Intake manifold Verify that the problem is resolved.
loose bolts, or a distorted flange.
Result: The intake manifold does not
have cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The exhaust manifold has


cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

The exhaust manifold must be


7. Inspect the Exhaust Manifold repaired or replaced.

A. Inspect the exhaust manifold for cracks, Exhaust manifold Verify that the problem is resolved.
loose bolts, or a distorted flange.
Result: The exhaust manifold does
not have cracks, loose bolts, or a
distorted flange.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

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Result: The turbine housing is


damaged or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be repaired


or the turbocharger must be replaced.
8. Inspect the Turbocharger
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbine housing for damage Restriction/damage
or a restriction. Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a
restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are


not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


9. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


10. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris
debris. Result: The compressor housing does
not contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


11. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor carbon build-up.

A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for carbon Carbon build-up Remove the carbon.
build-up.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbocharger rotor does


not have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The fuel injection pump is not


operating properly.

The fuel injection pump must be


repaired or replaced.
12. Inspect the Fuel Injection Pump
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify proper operation of the fuel Fuel injection pump
injection pump.
Result: The fuel injection pump is
operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The fuel injection nozzles


have wear or damage.

The fuel injection nozzles must be


repaired or replaced.
13. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the fuel injection nozzles for Damage/wear
wear or damage.
Result: The fuel injection nozzles do
not have wear or damage.

Proceed to Test Step 14.

Result: The intake and exhaust valves


are burned.

Replace the inlet valves and the


14. Inspect the Intake and Exhaust exhaust valves. Determine the cause
Valves of the damage to the valves.
Intake/exhaust
valves Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the intake and exhaust valves.

Result: The intake and exhaust valves


are not burned.

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Proceed to Test Step 15.

Result: The piston rings have wear.


15. Inspect the Piston Rings
Replace the piston rings.
Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine exhaust has excessive black smoke.

Probable Cause

Table 8
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is dirty or


has restrictions.

The air filter element must be cleaned


1. Check for Restrictions in the Air
or replaced.
Filter Element
Air filter element Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter
element.
Result: The air filter element is not
dirty or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


to the tube between the air filter and the
turbocharger.
2. Check for a Restriction in the Tube
between the Air Filter and the Find the restriction and repair or
Turbocharger replace the component.

Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the tube between the air filter and the
turbocharger. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The turbocharger is loose or


the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

3. Check for Proper Installation of the Correctly position the turbocharger and
Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The intake manifold has


cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

The intake manifold must be repaired


4. Inspect the Intake Manifold or replaced.

A. Inspect the intake manifold for cracks, Intake manifold Verify that the problem is resolved.
loose bolts, or a distorted flange.
Result: The intake manifold does not
have cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

5. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe The drain pipe must be repaired or
replaced.
A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions
restrictions. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil pipe does not


have restrictions.

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Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The turbocharger has


combustion gas or air leaks.

Replace the turbocharger.


6. Inspect the Turbocharger Seals
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for Leaks
combustion gas or air leaks.
Result: The turbocharger does not have
combustion gas or air leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are


not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


8. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris
debris. Result: The compressor housing does
not contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


9. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor carbon build-up.

A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for Carbon build-up Remove the carbon.
carbon build-up.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine exhaust has excessive blue smoke.

Probable Cause

Table 9
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is


dirty or has restrictions.

The air filter element must be


cleaned or replaced.
1. Check for Restrictions in the Air Filter
Element Verify that the problem is
Air filter element resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter element.
Result: The air filter element is
not dirty or does not have
restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The crankcase breather


has restrictions.

The crankcase breather (if


equipped), or the tubing must be
2. Check for Restrictions in the Crankcase
cleaned or replaced.
Breather
Restrictions
Verify that the problem is
A. Check the crankcase breather for
resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather
does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check for a Restriction in the Tube Result: There is damage or a


between the Air Filter and the Turbocharger Restriction/damage restriction to the tube between the

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air filter and the turbocharger.

Find the restriction and repair or


replace the component.

Verify that the problem is


A. Check for damage or a restriction in the resolved.
tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.
Result: There is not damage or a
restriction to the tube between the
air filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The turbocharger is loose


or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

Correctly position the


4. Check for Proper Installation of the turbocharger and tighten the
Turbocharger clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or the Turbocharger Verify that the problem is
clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are not resolved.
loose.
Result: The turbocharger is not
loose or the clamps and bolts on
the turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The intake manifold has


cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

5. Inspect the Intake Manifold The intake manifold must be


repaired or replaced.
A. Inspect the intake manifold for cracks, loose Intake manifold
bolts, or a distorted flange. Verify that the problem is
resolved.

Result: The intake manifold does


not have cracks, loose bolts, or a
distorted flange.

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Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

The drain pipe must be repaired or


replaced.
6. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe
Verify that the problem is
A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions
resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does
not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger has


combustion gas or air leaks.

Replace the turbocharger.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Seals
Verify that the problem is
A. Inspect the turbocharger for combustion gas Leaks resolved.
or air leaks.
Result: The turbocharger does not
have combustion gas or air leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The turbocharger bearings


are not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.

8. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings Verify that the problem is


Turbocharger resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings
are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

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Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

Clean the compressor housing.

9. Inspect the Compressor for Debris Verify that the problem is


resolved.
Debris
A. Inspect the compressor housing for debris.
Result: The compressor housing
does not contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


carbon build-up.

Remove the carbon.


10. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Verify that the problem is
resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for carbon Carbon build-up
build-up.
Result: The turbocharger rotor
does not have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The turbocharger has


excessive anti-corrosion fluid.

Clean the turbocharger in order to


remove the anti-corrosion fluid.
11. Inspect the Turbocharger for Fluid
Verify that the problem is
A. Inspect the turbocharger for excessive anti- resolved.
Anti-corrosion fluid
corrosion fluid. This condition only exists on a
new engine which has not been operated. Result: The turbocharger does not
have excessive anti-corrosion
fluid.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The high idle operates for


12. Verify the High Idle Speed an excessive time.
High idle
A. Verify the high idle speed of the engine. The fuel injection pump must be

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repaired or replaced.

Verify that the problem is


resolved.

Result: The high idle does not


operate for an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The turbocharger has a


restriction in the bearing housing.
13. Inspect the Turbocharger for a
The bearing housing must be
Restriction
repaired or the turbocharger must
Restriction be replaced.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a restriction in
the bearing housing.
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

The engine uses an excessive amount of engine oil.

Probable Cause

Table 10
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is dirty


or has restrictions.

The air filter element must be cleaned


1. Check for Restrictions in the Air
or replaced.
Filter Element
Air filter element Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter
element.
Result: The air filter element is not
dirty or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Restrictions in the Restrictions Result: The crankcase breather has
Crankcase Breather restrictions.

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The crankcase breather (if equipped),


or the tubing must be cleaned or
replaced.

A. Check the crankcase breather for Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather does
not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The turbocharger is loose or


the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

3. Check for Proper Installation of the Correctly position the turbocharger and
Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The incorrect type of engine


oil is being used.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


4. Check the Engine Oil quantity and type of engine oil.

A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct type of engine oil
is being used.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe Result: The engine oil pipe has
Restrictions restrictions.

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The drain pipe must be repaired or


replaced.

A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does not
have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

The drain pipe must be repaired or


6. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe replaced.

A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does not
have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbine housing is


damaged or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be repaired


or the turbocharger must be replaced.
7. Inspect the Turbocharger
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbine housing for damage Restriction/damage
or a restriction.
Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are


not OK.
8. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Turbocharger Replace the turbocharger.
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.

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Result: The turbocharger bearings are


OK.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The piston rings have wear.

Replace the piston rings.

9. Inspect the Piston Rings Verify that the problem is resolved.


Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear. Result: The piston rings do not have
wear.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.

The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
10. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not
have leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be


repaired or replaced.
11. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate
for an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger has a


12. Inspect the Turbocharger for a restriction in the bearing housing.
Restriction Restriction

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The bearing housing must be repaired


or the turbocharger must be replaced.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Excessive engine oil exists at the end of the turbine.

Probable Cause

Table 11
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The crankcase breather


has restrictions.

The crankcase breather (if


equipped), or the tubing must be
1. Check for Restrictions in the Crankcase
cleaned or replaced.
Breather
Restrictions Verify that the problem is
A. Check the crankcase breather for
resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather
does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a


restriction in the exhaust system
components.

The component must be repaired


2. Check for a Restriction in the Exhaust or replaced.
System
Verify that the problem is
Restriction/damage
A. Check for damage or a restriction in the resolved.
exhaust system components.
Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The turbocharger is loose


or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

Correctly position the


3. Check for Proper Installation of the turbocharger and tighten the
Turbocharger clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or the Turbocharger Verify that the problem is
clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are not resolved.
loose.
Result: The turbocharger is not
loose or the clamps and bolts on
the turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

The drain pipe must be repaired or


replaced.
4. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe
Verify that the problem is
A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions
resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does
not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The turbine housing is


damaged or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be


repaired or the turbocharger must
5. Inspect the Turbocharger
be replaced.
A. Inspect the turbine housing for damage or a Restriction/damage
Verify that the problem is
restriction.
resolved.

Result: The turbine housing is not


damaged or does not have a
restriction.

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Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The turbocharger bearings


are not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.

6. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings Verify that the problem is


Turbocharger resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings
are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger rotor


has carbon build-up.

Remove the carbon.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Verify that the problem is
resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for carbon Carbon build-up
build-up.
Result: The turbocharger rotor
does not have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The piston rings have


wear.

Replace the piston rings.

8. Inspect the Piston Rings Verify that the problem is


resolved.
Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear.
Result: The piston rings do not
have wear.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The turbocharger has


9. Inspect the Turbocharger for Fluid Anti-corrosion fluid excessive anti-corrosion fluid.

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Clean the turbocharger in order to


remove the anti-corrosion fluid.

Verify that the problem is


A. Inspect the turbocharger for excessive anti- resolved.
corrosion fluid. This condition only exists on a
new engine which has not been operated. Result: The turbocharger does not
have excessive anti-corrosion
fluid.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The high idle operates for


an excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be


repaired or replaced.
10. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is
High idle resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the engine.
Result: The high idle does not
operate for an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The turbocharger has a


restriction in the bearing housing.
11. Inspect the Turbocharger for a
The bearing housing must be
Restriction
repaired or the turbocharger must
Restriction be replaced.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a restriction in
the bearing housing.
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

Excessive engine oil exists at the compressor end of the turbocharger.

Probable Cause

Table 12
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

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Result: The air filter element is


dirty or has restrictions.

The air filter element must be


1. Check for Restrictions in the Air Filter
cleaned or replaced.
Element
Air filter element Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter
element.
Result: The air filter element is not
dirty or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The crankcase breather has


restrictions.

The crankcase breather (if


2. Check for Restrictions in the Crankcase equipped), or the tubing must be
Breather cleaned or replaced.
Restrictions
A. Check the crankcase breather for Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather
does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: There is damage or a


restriction to the tube between the
air filter and the turbocharger.
3. Check for a Restriction in the Tube
Find the restriction and repair or
between the Air Filter and the
replace the component.
Turbocharger
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in the
tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the
air filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

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Result: There is a leak or a


restriction to the tube between the
intake manifold and the
turbocharger.
4. Check for an Air Leak or Restriction in
Find the leak or restriction and
the Tube between the Intake Manifold and
repair or replace the component.
the Turbocharger
Air leak or
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for a leak or a restriction in the tube restriction
between the intake manifold and the
Result: There is not a leak or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the
intake manifold and the
turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The turbocharger is loose


or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are loose.

5. Check for Proper Installation of the Correctly position the turbocharger


Turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or the Fuel Nozzle Verify that the problem is resolved.
clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are not
loose. Result: The turbocharger is not
loose or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The turbocharger has


combustion gas or air leaks.

6. Inspect the Turbocharger Seals Replace the turbocharger.

A. Inspect the turbocharger for combustion Leaks Verify that the problem is resolved.
gas or air leaks.
Result: The turbocharger does not
have combustion gas or air leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

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Result: The turbocharger bearings


are not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings
are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


8. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Debris
A. Inspect the compressor housing for debris.
Result: The compressor housing
does not contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The piston rings have wear.

Replace the piston rings.

9. Inspect the Piston Rings Verify that the problem is resolved.


Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear. Result: The piston rings do not
have wear.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The turbocharger has


excessive anti-corrosion fluid.
10. Inspect the Turbocharger for Fluid
Clean the turbocharger in order to
A. Inspect the turbocharger for excessive anti- remove the anti-corrosion fluid.
Anti-corrosion fluid
corrosion fluid. This condition only exists on a
new engine which has not been operated. Verify that the problem is resolved.

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Result: The turbocharger does not


have excessive anti-corrosion fluid.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The high idle operates for


an excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be


repaired or replaced.
11. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
High idle
A. Verify the high idle speed of the engine.
Result: The high idle does not
operate for an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger has a


restriction in the bearing housing.
12. Inspect the Turbocharger for a
Restriction The bearing housing must be
repaired or the turbocharger must
Restriction
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a restriction in be replaced.
the bearing housing.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Engine oil exists in the exhaust manifold.

Probable Cause

Table 13
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The crankcase breather has


restrictions.
1. Check for Restrictions in the
Crankcase Breather The crankcase breather (if equipped), or
Restrictions the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.
A. Check the crankcase breather for
restrictions. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The crankcase breather does not

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have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


in the exhaust system components.

The component must be repaired or


2. Check for Restriction in the replaced.
Exhaust System
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction/damage
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the exhaust system components. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

The drain pipe must be repaired or


3. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe replaced.

A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does not
have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The turbine housing is damaged


or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be repaired or


4. Inspect the Turbocharger the turbocharger must be replaced.

A. Inspect the turbine housing for Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
damage or a restriction.
Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

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Result: The turbocharger bearings are


not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


5. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


6. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris
debris. Result: The compressor housing does
not contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


carbon build-up.

Remove the carbon.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for Carbon build-up
carbon build-up. Result: The turbocharger rotor does not
have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The piston rings have wear.

8. Inspect the Piston Rings Replace the piston rings.

Piston rings Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Inspect the piston rings for wear.

Result: The piston rings do not have

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wear.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be repaired


or replaced.
9. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate
for an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The turbocharger has a


restriction in the bearing housing.
10. Inspect the Turbocharger for a
Restriction
The bearing housing must be repaired or
Restriction the turbocharger must be replaced.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Lack of lubrication to the turbocharger

Probable Cause

Table 14
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
1. Check for Proper Installation of the loose.
Turbocharger
Correctly position the turbocharger and
A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbocharger is not loose or the


clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are not

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loose.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Turbocharger for Proper


Lubrication
Result: The components listed are not
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the operating properly.
turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.
Turbocharger
A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are operating
Engine oil pump properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 3.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The engine oil is dirty.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type


of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.
3. Inspect the Engine Oil
Engine Oil Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the engine oil.
Result: The engine oil is not dirty.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The incorrect type of engine oil is


being used.

4. Check the Engine Oil Drain the engine oil. Install the correct
quantity and type of engine oil.
A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil
oil is being used. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The correct type of engine oil is


being used.

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Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


5. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line replaced.

A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions Verify that the problem is resolved.
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


operation and settings.
6. Verify the Engine RPM
Engine RPM
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the engine RPM during start-up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be repaired or


replaced.
7. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.


8. Inspect the Oil Supply Line Leaks

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The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The piston rings have wear.

Replace the piston rings.


9. Inspect the Piston Rings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear.
Result: The piston rings do not have wear.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

The fuel injection pump must be repaired or


replaced.
10. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The turbocharger has a restriction in


the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired or the


11. Inspect the Turbocharger for a turbocharger must be replaced.
Restriction
Restriction Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing. Result: The turbocharger has a restriction in
the bearing housing.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

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Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check the
operation of the engine oil bypass valve in
12. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter the engine oil filter base. Replace the engine
oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not have a


restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

13. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
Engine
The component must be repaired or
operation
Compressor impeller of the turbocharger replaced.
Cooling system
Fuel injection pump Verify that the problem is resolved.
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

The inside of the intake manifold is wet.

Probable Cause

Table 15
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Restrictions in the Air Result: The air filter element is dirty
Filter Element or has restrictions.
Air filter element
A. Check the condition of the air filter The air filter element must be cleaned

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or replaced.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


element.
Result: The air filter element is not
dirty or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The crankcase breather has


restrictions.

The crankcase breather (if equipped),


2. Check for Restrictions in the or the tubing must be cleaned or
Crankcase Breather replaced.
Restrictions
A. Check the crankcase breather for Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather does
not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The air filter element is not


sealed properly.

Inspect the air filter element and the


3. Check for Proper Installation of the air supply line to the turbocharger for
Air Filter Element correct installation.
Air filter
A. Verify that the air filter element is Verify that the problem is resolved.
sealed properly.
Result: The air filter element is sealed
properly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check for a Restriction in the Tube Result: There is damage or a


between the Air Filter and the restriction to the tube between the air
Turbocharger Restriction/damage filter and the turbocharger.

A. Check for damage or a restriction in the Find the restriction and repair or

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replace the component.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: There is a leak or a restriction


to the tube between the intake
manifold and the turbocharger.
5. Check for an Air Leak or Restriction
Find the leak or restriction and repair
in the Tube between the Intake Manifold
or replace the component.
and the Turbocharger
Air leak or
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for a leak or a restriction in the restriction
tube between the intake manifold and the
Result: There is not a leak or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the
intake manifold and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: There is damage or a


restriction in the exhaust system
components.

The component must be repaired or


6. Check for Restriction in the Exhaust
replaced.
System
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in the
exhaust system components.
Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Check for Proper Installation of the Result: The turbocharger is loose or


Turbocharger Turbocharger the clamps and bolts on the

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turbocharger are loose.

Correctly position the turbocharger


and tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose or Verify that the problem is resolved.
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The exhaust manifold has


cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

The exhaust manifold must be


repaired or replaced.
8. Inspect the Exhaust Manifold
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the exhaust manifold for cracks, Exhaust manifold
loose bolts, or a distorted flange.
Result: The exhaust manifold does
not have cracks, loose bolts, or a
distorted flange.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The engine oil pipe has


restrictions.

The drain pipe must be repaired or


9. Inspect the Engine Oil Drain Pipe replaced.

A. Inspect the engine oil drain pipe for Restrictions Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The engine oil pipe does not
have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The turbine housing is


10. Inspect the Turbocharger damaged or has a restriction.
Restriction/damage

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The turbine housing must be repaired


or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Inspect the turbine housing for damage
or a restriction. Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a
restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The turbocharger has


combustion gas or air leaks.

Replace the turbocharger.


11. Inspect the Turbocharger Seals
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for combustion Leaks
gas or air leaks.
Result: The turbocharger does not
have combustion gas or air leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are


not OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


12. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The compressor housing


contains debris.

13. Inspect the Compressor for Debris Clean the compressor housing.

A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris Verify that the problem is resolved.
debris.
Result: The compressor housing does
not contain debris.

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Proceed to Test Step 14.

Result: The piston rings have wear.

Replace the piston rings.

14. Inspect the Piston Rings Verify that the problem is resolved.
Piston rings
A. Inspect the piston rings for wear. Result: The piston rings do not have
wear.

Proceed to Test Step 15.

Result: The turbocharger has a


restriction in the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired


or the turbocharger must be replaced.
15. Inspect the Turbocharger for a
Restriction
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a restriction
Result: The turbocharger does not
in the bearing housing.
have a restriction in the bearing
housing.

Proceed to Test Step 16.

Result: The air inlet heater has fuel


leaks.

Repair the leaks.


16. Inspect the Air Inlet Heater
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Test the air inlet heater for leakage.
Result: The air inlet heater does not
have fuel leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 17.

Result: The back plate of the


17. Inspect the Compressor compressor is cracked.
Compressor
A. Inspect the back plate of the The back plate of the compressor must

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be repaired or the turbocharger must


be replaced.
compressor.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Damaged compressor impeller of the turbocharger

Probable Cause

Table 16
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is not


sealed properly.

Inspect the air filter element and the air


1. Check for Proper Installation of supply line to the turbocharger for correct
the Air Filter Element installation.
Air filter
A. Verify that the air filter element is Verify that the problem is resolved.
sealed properly.
Result: The air filter element is sealed
properly.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


to the tube between the air filter and the
turbocharger.
2. Check for a Restriction in the Tube
Find the restriction and repair or replace
between the Air Filter and the
the component.
Turbocharger
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
loose.

3. Check for Proper Installation of Correctly position the turbocharger and


the Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose or
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check for Turbocharger for


Proper Lubrication
Result: The components listed are not
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the operating properly.
turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.
Turbocharger
A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are
Engine oil pump operating properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 5.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The incorrect oil is being used.

Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine


5. Check the Engine Oil oil filter. Install the correct type of engine
oil.
A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil
oil is being used. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The correct oil is being used.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

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Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
6. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not
restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are not


OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


7. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The compressor housing contains


debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


8. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris
debris. Result: The compressor housing does not
contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Verify the Engine RPM Result: The engine rpm increases too
rapidly when the engine is started.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start-
up. Check the fuel injection pump for correct
operation and settings.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine rpm does not increase


too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


operation and settings.
10. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.

The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
11. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger has a restriction


in the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired or


12. Inspect the Turbocharger for a the turbocharger must be replaced.
Restriction
Restriction Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing. Result: The turbocharger does not have a
restriction in the bearing housing.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

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Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check
the operation of the engine oil bypass
13. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace
the engine oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 14.

14. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for
operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
The component must be repaired or
Compressor impeller of the Engine operation
replaced.
turbocharger
Cooling system
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

Damage to the turbine

Probable Cause

Table 17
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Restriction in the Result: There is damage or a restriction


Exhaust System Restriction/damage in the exhaust system components.

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The component must be repaired or


replaced.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the exhaust system components. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
loose.

2. Check for Proper Installation of Correctly position the turbocharger and


the Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose or
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check for Turbocharger for


Proper Lubrication
Result: The components listed are not
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the operating properly.
turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.
Turbocharger
A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are
Engine oil pump operating properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 4.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

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Result: The engine oil is dirty.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil
4. Inspect the Engine Oil filter.
Engine Oil
A. Inspect the engine oil. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil is not dirty.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The incorrect oil is being used.

Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine


oil filter. Install the correct type of engine
5. Check the Engine Oil
oil.
A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil
Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct oil is being used.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
6. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not
restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbine housing is damaged


7. Inspect the Turbocharger or has a restriction.

A. Inspect the turbine housing for Restriction/damage The turbine housing must be repaired or
damage or a restriction. the turbocharger must be replaced.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbine housing is not


damaged or does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are not


OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


8. Inspect the Turbocharger Bearings
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Bearings
Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


carbon build-up.

Remove the carbon.


9. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for Carbon build-up
carbon build-up. Result: The turbocharger rotor does not
have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


10. Verify the Engine RPM operation and settings.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start- Verify that the problem is resolved.
up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

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Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


operation and settings.
11. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The fuel injection pump is not


operating correctly.

The fuel injection pump must be repaired


12. Inspect the Fuel Injection Pump or replaced.
for Proper Operation
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel pump
A. Test the fuel injection pump for
proper operation. Result: The fuel injection pump is
operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The inlet valves and the exhaust


valves are burned.

Replace the inlet valves and the exhaust


valves. Determine the cause of the
13. Inspect the Intake and Exhaust
damage to the valves.
Valves
Burned valves Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the intake and exhaust
valves.
Result: The inlet valves and the exhaust
valves are not burned.

Proceed to Test Step 14.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.


14. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
The supply line must be repaired or
Leaks replaced.
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The oil supply line does not have


leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 15.

Result: The turbocharger has a restriction


in the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired or


15. Inspect the Turbocharger for a the turbocharger must be replaced.
Restriction
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing. Result: The turbocharger has a restriction
in the bearing housing.

Proceed to Test Step 16.

Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check
the operation of the engine oil bypass
16. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace
the engine oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 17.

17. Correct Engine Operation


Result: The components listed are not
The engine may have stopped too soon operating properly.
from a high load condition.
The component must be repaired or
A. Check the following components for Engine operation
replaced.
correct operation or damage:
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Compressor impeller of the

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turbocharger
Cooling system
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

The rotating assembly of the turbocharger does not rotate freely.

Probable Cause

Table 18
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is not


sealed properly.

Inspect the air filter element and the air


1. Check for Proper Installation of supply line to the turbocharger for correct
the Air Filter Element installation.
Air filter
A. Verify that the air filter element is Verify that the problem is resolved.
sealed properly.
Result: The air filter element is sealed
properly.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


to the tube between the air filter and the
turbocharger.
2. Check for a Restriction in the Tube
Find the restriction and repair or replace
between the Air Filter and the
the component.
Turbocharger
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: There is damage or a restriction


in the exhaust system components.

The component must be repaired or


3. Check for Restriction in the replaced.
Exhaust System
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction/damage
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the exhaust system components. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
loose.

4. Check for Proper Installation of Correctly position the turbocharger and


the Turbocharger tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose Turbocharger Verify that the problem is resolved.
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose or
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Check for Turbocharger for


Result: The components listed are not
Proper Lubrication
operating properly.
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the
The component must be repaired or
turbocharger when the engine is started.
replaced.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger
when the engine is running. Turbocharger
Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
A. Check the following components for
Result: The components listed are
correct operation:
operating properly.
Engine oil pump
Proceed to Test Step 6.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter

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Viscosity of the engine oil


Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The incorrect type of engine oil is


being used.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


6. Check the Engine Oil quantity and type of engine oil.

A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct type of engine oil is
being used.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
7. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not
restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The engine oil is dirty.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil
8. Inspect the Engine Oil filter.
Engine Oil
A. Inspect the engine oil. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil is not dirty.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

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Result: The turbine housing is damaged


or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be repaired or


the turbocharger must be replaced.
9. Inspect the Turbocharger
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbine housing for Restriction/damage
damage or a restriction.
Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are not


OK.

Replace the turbocharger.


10. Inspect the Turbocharger
Bearings Verify that the problem is resolved.
Turbocharger
Bearings
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings. Result: The turbocharger bearings are
OK.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The compressor housing contains


debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


11. Inspect the Compressor for Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the compressor housing for Debris
debris. Result: The compressor housing does not
contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


carbon build-up.
12. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Remove the carbon.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for Carbon build-up
carbon build-up. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbocharger rotor does not

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have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


13. Verify the Engine RPM operation and settings.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start- Verify that the problem is resolved.
up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 14.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


operation and settings.
14. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 15.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.

The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
15. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 16.

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Result: The turbocharger has a restriction


in the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired or


16. Inspect the Turbocharger for a the turbocharger must be replaced.
Restriction
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing. Result: The turbocharger has a restriction
in the bearing housing.

Proceed to Test Step 17.

Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check
the operation of the engine oil bypass
17. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace
the engine oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 18.

18. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for
operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
The component must be repaired or
Compressor impeller of the Engine operation
replaced.
turbocharger
Cooling system
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

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Worn bearings, bearing bores, and journals

Probable Cause

Table 19
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: There is damage or a restriction


to the tube between the air filter and the
turbocharger.
1. Check for a Restriction in the Tube
Find the restriction and repair or replace
between the Air Filter and the
the component.
Turbocharger
Restriction/damage Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


in the exhaust system components.

The component must be repaired or


2. Check for Restriction in the replaced.
Exhaust System
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction/damage
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the exhaust system components. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check for Proper Installation of Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


the Turbocharger clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
loose.
A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose Turbocharger
or the clamps and bolts on the Correctly position the turbocharger and
turbocharger are not loose. tighten the clamps and bolts.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbocharger is not loose or


the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check for Turbocharger for


Proper Lubrication
Result: The components listed are not
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the operating properly.
turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.
Turbocharger
A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are
Engine oil pump operating properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 5.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The incorrect type of engine oil is


being used.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


5. Check the Engine Oil quantity and type of engine oil.

A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct type of engine oil is
being used.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions The oil supply line must be repaired or
engine oil pan for a restriction. replaced.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The oil supply line is not


restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The engine oil is dirty.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil
7. Inspect the Engine Oil filter.
Engine Oil
A. Inspect the engine oil. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil is not dirty.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


8. Verify the Engine RPM operation and settings.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start- Verify that the problem is resolved.
up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

9. Verify the High Idle Speed Check the fuel injection pump for correct
operation and settings.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The high idle does not operate for


an excessive time.

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Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.

The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
10. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check
the operation of the engine oil bypass
11. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace
the engine oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

12. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
The component must be repaired or
Engine operation
Compressor impeller of the replaced.
turbocharger
Cooling system Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash

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Fuel injection nozzles

The turbocharger makes excessive noise.

Probable Cause

Table 20
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air filter element is dirty or


has restrictions.

The air filter element must be cleaned or


1. Check for Restrictions in the Air
replaced.
Filter Element
Air filter element Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the condition of the air filter
element.
Result: The air filter element is not dirty
or does not have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The air filter element is not


sealed properly.

Inspect the air filter element and the air


2. Check for Proper Installation of supply line to the turbocharger for correct
the Air Filter Element installation.
Air filter
A. Verify that the air filter element is Verify that the problem is resolved.
sealed properly.
Result: The air filter element is sealed
properly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check for a Restriction in the Tube Result: There is damage or a restriction


between the Air Filter and the to the tube between the air filter and the
Turbocharger Restriction/damage turbocharger.

A. Check for damage or a restriction in Find the restriction and repair or replace

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the component.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


the tube between the air filter and the
Result: There is not damage or a
turbocharger.
restriction to the tube between the air
filter and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: There is a leak or a restriction to


the tube between the intake manifold and
the turbocharger.
4. Check for an Air Leak or
Restriction in the Tube between the Find the leak or restriction and repair or
Intake Manifold and the replace the component.
Turbocharger
Air leak or
Verify that the problem is resolved.
restriction
A. Check for a leak or a restriction in
the tube between the intake manifold Result: There is not a leak or a restriction
and the turbocharger. to the tube between the intake manifold
and the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: There is damage or a restriction


in the exhaust system components.

The component must be repaired or


5. Check for Restriction in the replaced.
Exhaust System
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction/damage
A. Check for damage or a restriction in
the exhaust system components. Result: There is not damage or a
restriction in the exhaust system
components.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Check for Proper Installation of Result: The turbocharger is loose or the


the Turbocharger Turbocharger clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are
loose.

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Correctly position the turbocharger and


tighten the clamps and bolts.

A. Verify that turbocharger is not loose Verify that the problem is resolved.
or the clamps and bolts on the
turbocharger are not loose. Result: The turbocharger is not loose or
the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger
are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The intake manifold has cracks,


loose bolts, or a distorted flange.

The intake manifold must be repaired or


replaced.
7. Inspect the Intake Manifold
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the intake manifold for Intake manifold
cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted flange.
Result: The intake manifold does not
have cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The exhaust manifold has cracks,


loose bolts, or a distorted flange.

The exhaust manifold must be repaired or


replaced.
8. Inspect the Exhaust Manifold
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the exhaust manifold for Exhaust manifold
cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted flange. Result: The exhaust manifold does not
have cracks, loose bolts, or a distorted
flange.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Check for Turbocharger for Result: The components listed are not
Proper Lubrication Turbocharger operating properly.
lubrication

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The flow of engine oil is delayed to the


turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.

A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are
Engine oil pump operating properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 10.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The incorrect oil is being used.

Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine


oil filter. Install the correct type of engine
10. Check the Engine Oil
oil.
A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil
Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct oil is being used.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
11. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not
restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are not


12. Inspect the Turbocharger OK.
Bearings Turbocharger
Bearings Replace the turbocharger.
A. Inspect the turbocharger bearings.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The turbocharger bearings are


OK.

Proceed to Test Step 13.

Result: The compressor housing contains


debris.

Clean the compressor housing.


13. Inspect the Compressor for
Debris
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Debris
A. Inspect the compressor housing for
Result: The compressor housing does not
debris.
contain debris.

Proceed to Test Step 14.

Result: The turbocharger rotor has


carbon build-up.

Remove the carbon.


14. Inspect the Turbocharger Rotor
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbocharger rotor for Carbon build-up
carbon build-up. Result: The turbocharger rotor does not
have carbon build-up.

Proceed to Test Step 15.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


15. Verify the Engine RPM operation and settings.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start- Verify that the problem is resolved.
up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 16.

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Result: The high idle operates for an


excessive time.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


operation and settings.
16. Verify the High Idle Speed
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Verify the high idle speed of the High idle
engine.
Result: The high idle does not operate for
an excessive time.

Proceed to Test Step 17.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.

The supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
17. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Leaks
A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 18.

Result: The turbocharger has a restriction


in the bearing housing.

The bearing housing must be repaired or


18. Inspect the Turbocharger for a the turbocharger must be replaced.
Restriction
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Restriction
A. Inspect the turbocharger for a
restriction in the bearing housing. Result: The turbocharger does not have a
restriction in the bearing housing.

Proceed to Test Step 19.

Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.
19. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter
Clean the engine oil filter base and the
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter housing for the engine oil filter. Check
restriction. the operation of the engine oil bypass
valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace

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the engine oil filter.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 20.

20. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for
operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
The component must be repaired or
Compressor impeller of the Engine operation
replaced.
turbocharger
Cooling system
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

Sludge or carbon deposits in the bearing housing

Probable Cause

Table 21
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The crankcase breather has


restrictions.

1. Check for Restrictions in the The crankcase breather (if equipped), or


Crankcase Breather the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.
Restrictions
A. Check the crankcase breather for Verify that the problem is resolved.
restrictions.
Result: The crankcase breather does not
have restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

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2. Check for Turbocharger for Proper


Lubrication
Result: The components listed are not
The flow of engine oil is delayed to the operating properly.
turbocharger when the engine is started.
Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger The component must be repaired or
when the engine is running. replaced.
Turbocharger
A. Check the following components for Verify that the problem is resolved.
lubrication
correct operation:
Result: The components listed are
Engine oil pump operating properly.
Engine oil bypass valve
Engine oil filter Proceed to Test Step 3.
Viscosity of the engine oil
Restrictions in oil lines

Result: The incorrect type of engine oil


is being used.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


3. Check the Engine Oil quantity and type of engine oil.

A. Verify that the correct type of engine Engine oil Verify that the problem is resolved.
oil is being used.
Result: The correct type of engine oil is
being used.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The engine oil is dirty.

Drain the engine oil. Install the correct


type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil
4. Inspect the Engine Oil filter.
Engine Oil
A. Inspect the engine oil. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil is not dirty.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

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Result: The oil supply line is restricted.

The oil supply line must be repaired or


replaced.
5. Check the Engine Oil Supply Line
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the oil supply line from the Restrictions
engine oil pan for a restriction.
Result: The oil supply line is not
restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The turbine housing is damaged


or has a restriction.

The turbine housing must be repaired or


the turbocharger must be replaced.
6. Inspect the Turbocharger
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the turbine housing for Restriction/damage
damage or a restriction.
Result: The turbine housing is not
damaged or does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The engine rpm increases too


rapidly when the engine is started.

Check the fuel injection pump for correct


7. Verify the Engine RPM operation and settings.
Engine RPM
A. Verify the engine RPM during start- Verify that the problem is resolved.
up.
Result: The engine rpm does not increase
too rapidly when the engine is started.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The oil supply line has leaks.


8. Inspect the Oil Supply Line
Leaks The supply line must be repaired or

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replaced.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Inspect the oil supply line for leaks.
Result: The oil supply line does not have
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The engine oil filter has a


restriction.

Clean the engine oil filter base and the


housing for the engine oil filter. Check
the operation of the engine oil bypass
9. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter valve in the engine oil filter base.
Replace the engine oil filter.
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for a Oil Filter
restriction. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter does not


have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Correct Engine Operation

The engine may have stopped too soon


from a high load condition.
Result: The components listed are not
A. Check the following components for
operating properly.
correct operation or damage:
The component must be repaired or
Compressor impeller of the Engine operation
replaced.
turbocharger
Cooling system
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel injection pump
Air/fuel ratio control
Valve lash
Fuel injection nozzles

Troubleshooting the Engine


When you are troubleshooting the engine, refer to the Specifications Module and the Systems Operation,

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Testing and Adjusting Module for additional information.

The engine will not start.

Probable Cause

Table 22
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine starting


procedure was incorrectly
followed.

Ensure that the engine starting


procedure is correctly
followed.
1. Interview the Operator
Starting
Verify that the problem is
A. Ensure the engine starting procedure was followed. procedures
resolved.

Result: The engine starting


procedure was correctly
followed.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The manual valve in


the fuel line is closed.

Open the valve.


2. Check the Fuel Shutoff Valve
Verify that the problem is
Fuel valve resolved.
A. Make sure the fuel shutoff valve is Open.
Result: The manual valve in
the fuel line is open.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check the Fuel Level Result: The fuel level is low


in the fuel tank.
Fuel level
A. Check the fuel level.
Fill the fuel tank with fuel.

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Remove the air from the fuel


system.

Verify that the problem is


resolved.

Result: The fuel level is not


low in the fuel tank.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The fuel contains


water, dirt, ice, or wax.

Replace the fuel filters.


Replace the fuel in the fuel
tank with clean fuel.
4. Check the Fuel Quality
Contamination Verify that the problem is
A. Check the fuel for contamination.
resolved.

Result: The fuel does not


contain water, dirt, ice, or wax.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: Engine cranking speed


is too slow.
5. Check the Engine Crank Speed
Make the necessary repairs.
A. Check the engine cranking speed.
Verify that the problem is
Conditions that cause low cranking speed: Crank Speed resolved.
1. The engine oil is too thick.
2. The connections of the battery cables to the starting Result: Engine cranking speed
motor are loose. is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Check the Engine Glow Plugs Result: The glow plugs for the
Engine Glow fuel injection pump do not
A. Inspect the cable connections and the electrical Plugs operate correctly.

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Make the necessary repairs.

Verify that the problem is


connections of the glow plugs and the electrical resolved.
components of the starting aid circuit. Test the glow
plugs for correct operation. Result: The glow plugs for the
fuel injection pump operate
correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The fuel shutoff


solenoid is not operating
correctly.

Replace a fuel shutoff solenoid


7. Check the Fuel Shutoff Solenoid that is suspect.

A. Ensure that the fuel shutoff solenoid operates Solenoid Verify that the problem is
correctly. resolved.

Result: The fuel shutoff


solenoid is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The operation of the


fuel transfer pump is not
correct.

Remove the fuel transfer pump


if the fuel pressure is too low.
8. Check the Operation of the Fuel Transfer Pump
The fuel transfer pump must
be repaired or replaced.
A. Check the fuel pressure when the engine is Fuel transfer
cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel pump
Verify that the problem is
Transfer Pump" topic for additional information.
resolved.

Result: The operation of the


fuel transfer pump is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

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Result: The fuel filter or the


fuel lines are restricted.

Replace the suspect


component.
9. Check the Fuel Filter
Fuel filter/fuel Verify that the problem is
A. Check the fuel filter and fuel lines for restrictions.
lines resolved.
Drain any water from the fuel filter.
Result: The fuel filter or the
fuel lines are not restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Check the Timing for the Fuel Injection Pump

A. Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust Result: The operation of the
the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to fuel injection pump is not
the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" correct.
topic for additional information.
The fuel injection pump must
B. Check the operation of the fuel rack linkage. be repaired or replaced.
Fuel injection
C. Make sure that the high-pressure fuel lines are Verify that the problem is
pump timing
connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct resolved.
order.
Result: The operation of the
D. Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel fuel injection pump is correct.
injection pump are tightened to the correct torque.
Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The Proceed to Test Step 11.
damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or
replaced.

Result: There is a problem


with the governor or the fuel
11. Inspect the Fuel Injection Linkage and the
injection linkage.
Governor
Governor and
Make the necessary repairs.
A. Inspect the governor and the fuel injection linkage fuel injection
for damage or the fuel injection linkage for incorrect linkage
Verify that the problem is
assembly in the timing gear case.
resolved.

Result: There is not a problem

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with the governor or the fuel


injection linkage.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

12. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles Result: A fuel injection nozzle
is not operating correctly.
A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum
misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut Replace the suspect fuel
on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut injection nozzle.
at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel Make sure that all of the fuel
line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does injection nozzles are the
not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection correct type for the engine.
nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection Test the pressure setting of the
nozzle for that cylinder. fuel injection nozzles. Refer to
Fuel Injection the Specifications Module,
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are Nozzles "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic
properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that for additional information.
the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the
threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection Verify that the problem is
nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that resolved.
the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the
fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the Result: The fuel injection
bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of nozzles are operating correctly.
debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports
do not contain extra gaskets. Proceed to Test Step 13.

13. Check the Cylinder Compression

A. Starting the engine may be difficult in warm


weather. The engine may not start in cold weather.
Low compression is most frequently caused by the
Result: The cylinders have
following conditions:
low compression.
Piston rings are worn or broken.
Cylinder Make the necessary repairs.
The piston height is incorrect.
compression
The piston is damaged.
Verify that the problem is
The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.
resolved.
The valve lash requires adjustment.
The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.
The engine timing is incorrect.
When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully
seated, gases leak past the valve head.

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The engine starts and the engine runs for a brief period of time and the engine stops.

Probable Cause

Table 23
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel filter or the fuel lines


are restricted.

Check the fuel lines and the fuel filter.


1. Inspect the Fuel System Replace the fuel filter. Drain any
water from the fuel filter.
A. Check the fuel filter or the fuel lines for
Fuel System
restrictions. Excess water can build up in the fuel Verify that the problem is resolved.
filter.
Result: The fuel filter or the fuel lines
are not restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The operation of the fuel


transfer pump is not correct.

Remove the fuel transfer pump if the


2. Check the Operation of the Fuel Transfer
fuel pressure is too low. The fuel
Pump
transfer pump must be repaired or
replaced.
A. Check the fuel pressure when the engine is Fuel transfer
cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, pump
Verify that the problem is resolved.
"Fuel Transfer Pump" topic for additional
information.
Result: The operation of the fuel
transfer pump is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The air inlet or the exhaust


3. Inspect the Air Inlet and Exhaust System system is restricted.
Air inlet and
A. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for exhaust Remove any restrictions.
restrictions.. system
Verify that the problem is resolved.

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Result: The air inlet or the exhaust


system is not restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: Air is in the fuel system.


4. Check for Air in the Fuel System
Find the air leak in the fuel system.
Air in the
A. Inspect the fuel system for air leaks in the Repair the fuel system.
fuel system
system.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine misfires or the engine runs rough.

Probable Cause

Table 24
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel pressure is


low.
1. Measure the Fuel Pressure
Make the necessary repairs.
A. Make sure that sufficient fuel is in the fuel tank.
Remove any air in the fuel system.
Verify that the problem is
Fuel Pressure resolved.
B. Look for leaks or suspect bends in the fuel line
between the fuel tank and the fuel transfer pump.
Result: The fuel pressure is
not low.
C. Check the outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: Air is in the fuel


system.

2. Check for Air in the Fuel System Find the air leak in the fuel
Air in the fuel system. Repair the fuel system.
A. Inspect the fuel system for air leaks in the system. system
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

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Result: Air is not in the fuel


system.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The valve lash is not


correct.

Adjust the valve lash.


3. Check the Valve Lash
Verify that the problem is
Valve lash resolved.
A. Check the engine valve lash.
Result: The valve lash is
correct.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Timing for the Fuel Injection Pump

A. Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust Result: The operation of the
the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to fuel injection pump is not
the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic correct.
for additional information.
The fuel injection pump must
B. Check the operation of the fuel rack linkage. be repaired or replaced.
Fuel injection
C. Make sure that the high-pressure fuel lines are Verify that the problem is
pump timing
connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct resolved.
order.
Result: The operation of the
D. Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel fuel injection pump is correct.
injection pump are tightened to the correct torque.
Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The Proceed to Test Step 5.
damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or
replaced.

5. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles Result: A fuel injection nozzle


is not operating correctly.
A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum Fuel Injection
misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut Nozzles Replace the suspect fuel
on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut injection nozzle.

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at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel Make sure that all of the fuel
line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does injection nozzles are the
not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection correct type for the engine.
nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection Test the pressure setting of the
nozzle for that cylinder. fuel injection nozzles. Refer to
the Specifications Module,
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic
properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that for additional information.
the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the
threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection Verify that the problem is
nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that resolved.
the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the
fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the Result: The fuel injection
bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of nozzles are operating correctly.
debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports
do not contain extra gaskets. Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The engine mounts are


not correctly tightened or the
engine mounts are not
mounted correctly.
6. Check the Engine Mounts
Repair or replace the suspect
A. Check the engine mounts for proper installation.
components.
B. Check the engine mounts for correct positioning.
Verify that the problem is
Engine mounts
resolved.
C. Check the bolts of the engine mounts for correct
tightening.
Result: The engine mounts are
correctly tightened and the
These conditions will cause a vibration.
engine mounts are mounted
correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The fuel contains


water, dirt, ice, or wax.
7. Check the Fuel Quality
Replace the fuel filters.
Contamination Replace the fuel in the fuel
A. Check the fuel for contamination.
tank with clean fuel.

Verify that the problem is


resolved.

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Result: The fuel does not


contain water, dirt, ice, or wax.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Check the Cylinder Compression

A. Starting the engine may be difficult in warm


weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Low
compression is most frequently caused by the
Result: The cylinders have
following conditions:
low compression.
Piston rings are worn or broken.
Cylinder Make the necessary repairs.
The piston height is incorrect.
compression
The piston is damaged.
Verify that the problem is
The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.
resolved.
The valve lash requires adjustment.
The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.
The engine timing is incorrect.
When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully
seated, gases leak past the valve head.

The engine runs evenly, but the engine loses power.

Probable Cause

Table 25
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Engine for Low Compression Result: The cylinders have low
compression.
A. Starting the engine may be difficult in warm
weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Repair or replace the engine
Low compression is most frequently caused by the component causing low
following conditions: compression.
Low
compression
Cylinder walls are worn or damaged. Verify that the problem is
Piston rings are worn or broken. resolved.
The piston height is incorrect.
The piston height is incorrect. Result: The cylinders do not
The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly. have low compression.
The valve lash requires adjustment.

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The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.


The engine timing is incorrect.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully
seated, gases leak past the valve head.

2. Check the Timing for the Fuel Injection Pump

A. Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust Result: The operation of the
the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to fuel injection pump is not
the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" correct.
topic for additional information.
The fuel injection pump must
B. Check the operation of the fuel rack linkage. be repaired or replaced.
Fuel injection
C. Make sure that the high-pressure fuel lines are Verify that the problem is
pump timing
connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct resolved.
order.
Result: The operation of the
D. Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel fuel injection pump is correct.
injection pump are tightened to the correct torque.
Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The Proceed to Test Step 3.
damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or
replaced.

Result: The valve lash is not


correct.

Adjust the valve lash.


3. Check the Valve Lash
Verify that the problem is
Valve lash resolved.
A. Check the engine valve lash.
Result: The valve lash is
correct.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The air filter element is


4. Check for Restrictions in the Air Filter Element dirty or has restrictions.
Air filter
A. Check the condition of the air filter element. element The air filter element must be
cleaned or replaced.

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Verify that the problem is


resolved.

Result: The air filter element is


not dirty or does not have
restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: Air is in the fuel


system.

Find the air leak in the fuel


system. Repair the fuel system.
5. Check for Air in the Fuel System
Air in the fuel Verify that the problem is
A. Inspect the fuel system for air leaks in the system. system resolved.

Result: Air is not in the fuel


system.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The fuel transfer pump


is not operating correctly.
6. Check the Fuel Transfer Pump for Proper
Operation The fuel transfer pump must be
repaired or replaced.
A. Check the fuel pressure when the engine is Install the fuel transfer pump
cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Fuel pressure with the lobe of the camshaft on
Transfer Pump" topic for additional information. minimum lift. Tighten the
Remove the fuel transfer pump if the fuel pressure is mounting bolts evenly.
too low.
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

The engine lacks power.

Probable Cause

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Table 26
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel quality does


not meet the engine
specifications.

Remove the fuel from the fuel


tank. Install a new fuel filter. Put
1. Test the Quality of the Fuel a good grade of clean fuel in the
fuel tank.
Fuel
A. Test the quality level of the fuel, make sure the fuel
quality
quality meets the engine specifications. Verify that the problem is
resolved.

Result: The fuel quality meets


the engine specifications.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The fuel pressure is low.


2. Measure the Fuel Pressure
Make the necessary repairs.
A. Make sure that sufficient fuel is in the fuel tank.
Remove any air in the fuel system. Verify that the problem is
Fuel resolved.
B. Look for leaks or suspect bends in the fuel line between Pressure
the fuel tank and the fuel transfer pump. Result: The fuel pressure is not
low.
C. Check the outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump.
Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: There is a problem with


the governor or the fuel injection
linkage.
3. Inspect the Fuel Injection Linkage and the Governor
Governor Make the necessary repairs.
A. Inspect the governor and the fuel injection linkage for and fuel
damage or the fuel injection linkage for incorrect injection Verify that the problem is
assembly in the timing gear case. linkage resolved.

Result: There is not a problem


with the governor or the fuel

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injection linkage.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The valve lash exceeds


the specification.

Adjust the valve lash. Refer to


the Specifications Module,
"Engine Design" topic for the
4. Measure the Valve Lash valve lash setting.
Valve lash
A. Measure the valve lash. Verify that the problem is
resolved.

Result: The valve lash is within


the specification.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Inspect the Operation of the Fuel Injection Pump

A. Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the


Result: The operation of the
timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the
fuel injection pump is not
Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for
correct.
additional information. The fuel injection pump must be
repaired or replaced.
Make the necessary repairs.
B. Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates Fuel
Verify that the problem is
correctly. Injection
resolved.
Pump
C. Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are
Result: The operation of the
connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.
fuel injection pump is correct.
D. Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection
Proceed to Test Step 6.
pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel
lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines
or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

6. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles Fuel Result: A fuel injection nozzle
Injection is not operating correctly.
A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum Nozzles

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misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on


the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a
time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is Replace the suspect fuel
loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the injection nozzle.
operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is Make sure that all of the fuel
probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that injection nozzles are the correct
cylinder. type for the engine. Test the
pressure setting of the fuel
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly injection nozzles. Refer to the
sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel Specifications Module, "Fuel
injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded Injection Nozzles" topic for
ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are additional information.
tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and
the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles Verify that the problem is
correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports resolved.
are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of
the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

The engine has excessive vibration.

Probable Cause

Table 27
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The bolts for the pulleys are loose or the


pulley is damaged.
1. Inspect the Engine Pulleys
Tighten the bolts. If the pulley is worn or
damaged, use new parts for replacement.
A. Inspect the engine pulleys for damage or
loose bolts.
Pulleys Verify that the problem is resolved.
Refer to the Specifications Module,
"Crankshaft Pulley" topic for additional
Result: The bolts for the pulleys are not loose or
information.
the pulley is not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the Engine Mounts Result: The engine mounts are loose, worn, or
suspect.
Engine
A. Inspect the engine mounts for loose
mounts
bolts or damage. Tighten all mounting bolts. Inspect the engine
mounts for wear or for damage. Use new parts

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for replacement.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine has excessive combustion noise.

Probable Cause

Table 28
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The fuel quality does not


meet the engine specifications.

Remove the fuel from the fuel


tank. Install a new fuel filter. Put
a good grade of clean fuel in the
1. Test the Quality of the Fuel
fuel tank.
Fuel
A. Test the quality level of the fuel, make sure the fuel
quality Verify that the problem is
quality meets the engine specifications.
resolved.

Result: The fuel quality meets


the engine specifications.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles Result: A fuel injection nozzle is


not operating correctly.
A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring
or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the Replace the suspect fuel
injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. injection nozzle.
Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is Make sure that all of the fuel
loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the injection nozzles are the correct
Fuel
operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is type for the engine. Test the
Injection
probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that pressure setting of the fuel
Nozzles
cylinder. injection nozzles. Refer to the
Specifications Module, "Fuel
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly Injection Nozzles" topic for
sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel additional information.
injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports.
Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to Verify that the problem is
the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat resolved.

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washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly.


Result: The fuel injection
Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean
nozzles are operating correctly.
and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the
threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.
Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The piston height is


incorrect.

To obtain the correct piston


3. Measure the Piston Height
height, the piston, the piston pin,
Piston
the bearings, or the connecting
A. Measure the engine piston height. height
rod should be replaced.

Verify that the problem is


resolved.

The engine has excessive valve compartment noise.

Probable Cause

Table 29
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: Valve springs or locks are broken.

Install new parts. Broken locks can cause the valve to


1. Inspect the Valve Springs slide into the cylinder. Major damage to the engine can
and Locks occur.
Valve springs
A. Inspect the valve springs and locks Verify that the problem is resolved.
and locks for damage.
Result: Valve springs or locks are not broken.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the Rocker Arms Result: The bolts and nuts, which hold the rocker arm
assembly, are loose.
Rocker arm
A. Inspect the rocker arm
assemblies Tighten the bolts or nuts. Refer to the Specifications
assemblies for damage.
Module, "Rocker Shaft" topic for additional

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information.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The bolts and nuts, which hold the rocker arm
assembly, are not loose.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The valve lash exceeds the specification.

3. Measure the Valve Lash Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Specifications
Module, "Engine Design" topic for the valve lash
Valve lash
A. Measure the valve lash. setting.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

Engine oil is in the cooling system.

Probable Cause

Table 30
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine oil cooler has leaks.

Replace the oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly


1. Inspect the Engine Oil Cooler Core
and Assembly, "Engine Oil Cooler - Remove"
and Disassembly and Assembly, "Engine Oil
A. Drain the coolant from the engine and the
Cooler - Install". Fit new seals between the oil
radiator. Drain the lubricating engine oil
cooler and the oil cooler cover.
from the engine oil cooler. Refer to the
Refill the crankcase with clean engine oil to
Operation and Maintenance Manual for more Engine Oil
the correct level. Refer to the Operation and
information. Cooler
Maintenance Manual for more information.
Core
B. Inspect the engine oil cooler core for
Verify that the problem is resolved.
leaks. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, "Cooling System - Inspect"
Result: The engine oil cooler does not have
for the correct procedure.
leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

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Result: The cylinder head gasket has faults or


signs of leakage.
2. Inspect the Cylinder Head Gasket
Replace the cylinder head gasket.
A. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, "Cylinder Head
Head Verify that the problem is resolved.
- Remove" for the correct procedure.
gasket
Result: The cylinder head gasket does not
B. Inspect the cylinder head gasket for faults
have faults or signs of leakage.
and any signs of leakage.
Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The cylinder head is not flat or has


cracks.
3. Inspect the Cylinder Head
Repair the cylinder head and/or replace the
A. Check the cylinder head for cracks. cylinder head.
Cylinder
B. Check the cylinder head for flatness. Verify that the problem is resolved.
head
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, "Cylinder Head - Inspect" for the Result: The cylinder head is flat and does not
correct procedure. have cracks.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The cylinder block has faults or signs


of leakage.

Replace the cylinder block. If signs of leakage


4. Inspect the Cylinder Block
are found, determine the cause of the leakage.
Cylinder Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
A. Inspect the top face of the cylinder block
block Adjusting, "Cylinder Block - Inspect" for the
for faults and signs of leakage.
correct procedure.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

After the Repair

A. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, "Cylinder Head - Install".

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B. Replenish the engine with clean engine oil to the correct level. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, "Engine Oil and Filter - Change" for more information.

C. Thoroughly flush the coolant system in order to remove all traces of the engine lubricating oil from the
coolant system. Fill the coolant system with coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
"Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change".

Engine knock occurs.

Probable Cause

Table 31
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The main bearings are


damaged.

Replace damaged parts.


1. Inspect the Main Bearings
Verify that the problem is
Main
A. Inspect the main bearings and the bearing surfaces of resolved.
Bearings
the crankshaft.
Result: The main bearings are
not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The crankshaft is


damaged.

Replace the crankshaft. Clean


the engine thoroughly.
2. Inspect the Crankshaft
Verify that the problem is
Crankshaft
A. Inspect the crankshaft for damage.. resolved.

Result: The crankshaft is not


damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The piston height is not


correct.

Replace the damaged


3. Inspect the Piston Height
component.
A. Check the piston height.
Piston Verify that the problem is
Height resolved.
B. Inspect the piston, the connecting rod, and the
crankshaft for wear. Check for correct installation.
Result: The piston height is
correct.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles

A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum


misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on
the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a Result: A fuel injection nozzle
time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is is not operating correctly.
loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the
operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is Replace the suspect fuel
probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that injection nozzle.
cylinder. Make sure that all of the fuel
injection nozzles are the correct
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly Fuel type for the engine. Test the
sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel Injection pressure setting of the fuel
injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded Nozzles injection nozzles. Refer to the
ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are Specifications Module, "Fuel
tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets Injection Nozzles" topic for
and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection additional information.
nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the
threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that Verify that the problem is
the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra resolved.
gaskets.

C. Ensure the projection of the fuel injection nozzles are


positioned correctly in the precombustion chamber.

The rocker arm has insufficient movement and the valve lash exceeds the specification.

Probable Cause

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Table 32
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: Lubrication of internal


engine components is
inadequate.

Make the necessary repairs.


1. Check the Lubrication of Internal Components
Verify that the problem is
A. Check lubrication of the valves. There must be a strong
Lubrication resolved.
flow of oil at high rpm. There must be a small flow of oil
at low rpm. Oil passages in the engine must be clean.
Result: Lubrication of internal
engine components is
adequate.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: Rocker arm parts are


worn.

If there is too much wear,


install new parts or rocker
arms. Adjust the valve lash.
2. Check the Rocker Arms for Wear or Damage
Damage or
Verify that the problem is
A.Visually inspect the rocker arms for wear or damage. wear
resolved.

Result: Rocker arm parts are


not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The end of the valve


stem is worn.

3. Inspect the Valve Stems Install new valves. Adjust the


Damage or valve lash.
A. Inspect the valve stems for wear. wear
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

Result:The end of the valve

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stem is not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The valve lash is not


correct.

Adjust the valve lash.


4. Check the Valve Lash
Verify that the problem is
Valve lash resolved.
A. Check the engine valve lash.
Result: The valve lash is
correct.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The pushrods are


worn.

If there is too much wear,


install new pushrods. Adjust
the valve lash.
5. Inspect the Engine Pushrods
Damage or
Verify that the problem is
A. Visually inspect the pushrods for wear or damage. wear
resolved.

Result: The pushrods are not


worn.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The valve lifters are


worn.

6. Inspect the Valve Lifters If there is too much wear,


Damage or install new valve lifters.
A. Visually inspect the valve lifters for wear or damage. wear Adjust the valve lash.

Verify that the problem is


resolved.

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Result: The valve lifters are


not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The components are


worn.
7. Inspect the Camshaft
Replace suspect parts. Adjust
A. Measure the valve lash. the valve lash.

B. Check for free movement of the valves. Damage or Verify that the problem is
wear resolved.
C. Check for bent valve stems.
Result: The components are
D. Check for wear on the valve lifters. not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The bolts and the nuts


that hold the rocker arm
8. Inspect the Rocker Arm Assembly assembly are loose.
Damage or
A. Visually inspect the rocker arms for wear, damage or Tighten the bolts and the nuts.
wear
loose bolts..
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

A cylinder head valve is loose.

Probable Cause

Table 33
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The valve keeper for the valve is broken.


1. Inspect the Valve Keepers
Valve Replace the valve keeper. Broken keepers can cause the
A. Inspect the engine valve valve to slide into the cylinder. Major engine damage can
keepers
keepers for damage. result.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The valve keeper for the valve is not broken.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The valve springs are broken or damaged.


2. Inspect the Valve Springs
Valve Install new valve springs.
A. Inspect the valve springs for
springs
damage..
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Oil condenses at the exhaust.

Probable Cause

Table 34
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The valve compartment contains too much oil.

Look at both ends of the rocker arm shaft. Be sure that


1. Inspect the Valve a plug is installed in each end.
Compartment
Valve Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the valve compartment
compartment for excessive oil.. Result: The valve compartment does not contain too
much oil.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The valve guides are worn.

Install new valve guides. Recondition the cylinder


2. Inspect the Valve Guides head.

A. Measure the timing of the Timing Verify that the problem is resolved.
fuel injection pump.
Result: The valve guides are not worn..

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The piston rings are worn.


3. Inspect the Engine Piston
Replace worn parts.
Rings
The piston rings are worn. Refer to the Specifications
Piston rings Module, "Pistons and Rings" topic for additional
A. Inspect the engine piston
information.
rings for wear.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The valve lash is less than the required specification.

Probable Cause

Table 35
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The valve seat or the face of the valve is


1. Inspect the Engine Valves worn.

A. Inspect the engine valve seats and Valves Adjust the valve lash.
valves.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Engine components have early wear.

Probable Cause

Table 36
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: Dirt is in the engine oil.

Remove the dirty engine oil. Install


1. Inspect the Engine Oil a new oil filter. Put clean oil in the
Oil engine.
A. Inspect the engine oil.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: Dirt is not in the engine oil.

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Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: Leaks exist in the air inlet


system.

The components must be repaired or


replaced.
2. Inspect the Air Inlet System
Air inlet
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect all gaskets and connections. system
Result: Leaks do not exist in the air
inlet system.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Inspect the Engine Oil for Fuel

A. Fuel leaks will cause high fuel consumption and


low engine oil pressure. Inspect the engine for the
Result: Fuel is in the engine oil.
following leaks:
Replace the damaged component.
Fuel leaks into the crankcase from the fuel transfer Fuel leak
pump.
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel leaks past the valve in a fuel injection nozzle.
The pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles is
too high.
The drive is broken on the fuel injection pump.

Coolant is in the engine oil.

Probable Cause

Table 37
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect the Cylinder Head Gasket Result: The cylinder head gasket is damaged.

A. Inspect the cylinder head gasket for Head gasket Install a new cylinder head gasket.
damage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

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Result: The cylinder head gasket is not


damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The cylinder head is cracked or


damaged.

Install a new cylinder head.


2. Inspect the Cylinder Head
Cylinder Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the cylinder head for damage. head
Result: The cylinder head is not cracked or
damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The cylinder block is cracked or


damaged.
3. Inspect the Cylinder Block
Cylinder
Install a new cylinder block.
A. Inspect the cylinder block for damage. block
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine exhaust has too much black smoke or too much gray smoke.

Probable Cause

Table 38
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Engine for Low Compression Result: The cylinders have low
compression.
A. Starting the engine may be difficult in warm weather.
The engine may not start in cold weather. Low Repair or replace the engine
compression is most frequently caused by the following Low component causing low
conditions: compression compression.

Cylinder walls are worn or damaged. Verify that the problem is


Piston rings are worn or broken. resolved.

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The piston height is incorrect.


The piston height is incorrect.
The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.
Result: The cylinders do not
The valve lash requires adjustment.
have low compression.
The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.
The engine timing is incorrect.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully seated,
gases leak past the valve head.

2. Inspect the Fuel Injection Nozzles Result: A fuel injection nozzle


is not operating correctly.
A. Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum
misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut Replace the suspect fuel
on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at injection nozzle.
a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut Make sure that all of the fuel
is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect injection nozzles are the correct
the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is type for the engine. Test the
probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that pressure setting of the fuel
cylinder. injection nozzles. Refer to the
Fuel Injection Specifications Module, "Fuel
B. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly Nozzles Injection Nozzles" topic for
sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel additional information.
injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded
ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are Verify that the problem is
tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets resolved.
and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection
nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the Result: The fuel injection
threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure nozzles are operating correctly.
that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra
gaskets. Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Inspect the Operation of the Fuel Injection Pump Result: The operation of the
fuel injection pump is not
A. Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust correct.
the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to
the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic Make the necessary repairs.
for additional information. The fuel injection pump must
Fuel Injection
be repaired or replaced. Verify that the problem is
Pump
resolved.
B. Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates
correctly. Result: The operation of the
fuel injection pump is correct.
C. Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are
connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct Proceed to Test Step 4.

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order.

D. Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel


injection pump are tightened to the correct torque.
Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The
damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or
replaced.

Result: There is a restriction in


the air inlet system.
4. Inspect the Air Inlet System
The air cleaner must be cleaned
Restriction or replaced.
A. Check the air cleaner for restrictions.
Verify that the problem is
resolved.

The engine exhaust has too much white smoke or too much blue smoke.

Probable Cause

Table 39
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine contains too much


engine oil.

Drain the excess engine oil from the


engine oil pan.
1. Check the Oil Level
Oil level Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the engine oil level.
Result: The engine does not contain too
much engine oil.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the Fuel Injection Pump Result: The timing of fuel injection pump
Timing is incorrect.
Timing
A. Check the fuel injection pump for the Adjust the timing. Refer to the

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Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection


Pump" topic for additional information.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


correct timing.
Result: The timing of fuel injection pump
is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The valve guides are worn.

Replace the valve guides.


3. Inspect the Engine Valve Guides
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Valve guides
A. Inspect the engine valve guides for wear.
Result: The valve guides are not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The piston rings are worn.

Replace worn parts.


The piston rings are worn. Refer to the
Specifications Module, "Pistons and
4. Inspect the Engine Piston Rings
Rings" topic for additional information.
Piston rings
A. Inspect the engine piston rings for wear.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The piston rings are not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The water temperature regulator


is suspect.
5. Operating Conditions
Replace the water temperature regulator.
A. If the engine consistently runs below the Operating
normal operating temperature, inspect the Temperature Verify that the problem is resolved.
water temperature regulator.
Result: The water temperature regulator
is not suspect.

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Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The breather hose or the vent hole


in the breather assembly is obstructed.
6. Inspect the Breather Hose or the Vent
Hole in the Breather Assembly
Clean the vent hole, the breather
Restrictions
assembly, and the breather hose.
A.Visually inspect the components.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine has low oil pressure.

Probable Cause

Table 40
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine oil level is low.

Fill the engine oil to the correct level.


1. Check the Oil Level
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Oil level
A. Check the engine oil level.
Result: The engine oil level is not low.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The engine oil filter is


restricted.

Install a new engine oil filter. Replace


the oil in the engine with clean engine
2. Inspect the Engine Oil Filter oil. Check the operation of the engine
Oil filter oil bypass valve for the engine oil
A. Inspect the engine oil filter for restrictions. filter.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The engine oil filter is not


restricted.

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Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Inspect the Engine Oil for Fuel

A. Fuel leaks will cause high fuel consumption Result: Fuel is in the engine oil.
and low engine oil pressure. Inspect the engine
for the following leaks: Replace the damaged component.

Fuel leaks into the crankcase from the fuel Verify that the problem is resolved.
Fuel leak
transfer pump.
Fuel leaks past the valve in a fuel injection Result: Fuel is not in the engine oil.
nozzle.
The pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles Proceed to Test Step 4.
is too high.
The drive is broken on the fuel injection pump.

Result: The clearance is not within


specifications.

Make the necessary repairs.


4. Inspect the Clearance of the Rocker Arm
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Measure the clearance.between the bore of the Clearance
rocker arm and the rocker shaft.
Result: The clearance is within
specifications.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The rocker assembly does not


have proper lubrication.

Replace parts which are worn. Refer to


5. Inspect the Rocker Assembly the Specifications Module, "Rocker
Shaft" topic for additional information.
A. Inspect the rocker assembly for proper Lubrication
lubrication. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The rocker assembly has


proper lubrication.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

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Result: The suction tube is loose or


damaged.

The suction tube must be repaired or


6. Inspect the Oil Pump Suction Tube replaced.

A. Inspect the oil pump suction tube for damage Suction tube Verify that the problem is resolved.
or a loose connection.
Result: The suction tube is not loose
or damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The engine oil bypass valve


does not operate correctly.

Clean the bypass valve. Replace the


bypass valve if the spring is broken or
7. Inspect the Oil Pump Bypass Valve
the plunger is damaged.
Oil pump
A. Inspect oil pump bypass valve for proper
bypass valve Verify that the problem is resolved.
operation.
Result: The engine oil bypass valve
operates correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The engine oil pump does not


8. Inspect the Engine Oil Pump operate correctly.

A. Inspect the engine oil pump for proper The components must be repaired or
operation. replaced.

B. Check the distance of the face of the cover of Oil pump Verify that the problem is resolved.
the oil pump above the face of the idler gear.
Refer to the Specifications Module, "Engine Oil Result: The engine oil pump operates
Pump" topic. Check the wear of the lobe on the correctly.
oil pump.
Proceed to Test Step 9.

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Result: The clearance is not within


specifications.

Replace the crankshaft or the


crankshaft bearings. Refer to the
9. Inspect the Crankshaft Specifications Module, "Crankshaft"
topic for additional information.
A. Measure the clearance between the crankshaft Clearance
and the crankshaft bearings. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The clearance is within


specifications.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The clearance is not within


specifications.
10. Inspect the Camshaft
Replace the camshaft or the camshaft
A. Measure the clearance between the camshaft Clearance
bearings.
and the camshaft bearings.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine oil pressure is too high.

Probable Cause

Table 41
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine oil bypass valve does


not open.
1. Inspect the Engine Oil Bypass Valve
Bypass The bypass valve must be cleaned or
A. Inspect the engine oil bypass valve for proper
valve replaced.
operation.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine uses too much engine oil.

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Probable Cause

Table 42
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The engine contains too much engine oil.

Drain the excess engine oil from the engine oil pan.
1. Check the Oil Level
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Oil level
A. Check the engine oil level.
Result: The engine does not contain too much engine oil.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The engine oil lines have leaks.

Find the source of the oil leaks. Repair the line or fitting.
2. Inspect the Engine
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the engine for oil Oil leaks
leaks.
Result: The engine oil lines do not have leaks.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The valve guides are worn.

3. Inspect the Engine Valve Replace the valve guides.


Guides
Valve Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the engine valve guides
guides for wear. Result: The valve guides are not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Inspect the Engine Piston Result: The piston rings are worn.
Rings
Piston Replace worn parts.
A. Inspect the engine piston rings The piston rings are worn. Refer to the Specifications Module,
rings for wear. "Pistons and Rings" topic for additional information.

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Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine overheats.

Probable Cause

Table 43
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The air flow through the radiator


is restricted.

Clean the exterior of the radiator in order


1. Inspect the Cooling System to remove all restrictions.

A. Check the air flow through the radiator for Restriction Verify that the problem is resolved.
a restriction.
Result: The air flow through the radiator
is not restricted.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The coolant level in the engine is


low.

Add coolant into the radiator to the correct


level.
2. Check the Coolant Level
Coolant Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the coolant level.
Result: The coolant level in the engine is
not low.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The coolant pressure cap is not


3. Inspect the Coolant Pressure Cap working properly.
Coolant
A. Test the operation of the pressure cap. Pressure Cap Replace the faulty pressure cap.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

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Result: The coolant pressure cap is


working properly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: Gases from combustion are in the


coolant.

Find the source of the entry of the gases


from combustion into the coolant system.
4. Inspect the Cooling System
Repair the source of the problem.
Cooling
A. Inspect the cooling system for gases from
System Verify that the problem is resolved.
combustion.
Result: Gases from combustion are not in
the coolant.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The water temperature regulator is


suspect.
5. Inspect the Water Temperarure
Regulator Replace the faulty water temperature
regulator.
A. Test the water temperature regulator for
correct operation. Regulator Verify that the problem is resolved.
Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting Module or the Specifications Result: The water temperature regulator is
Module for additional information. not suspect.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The water pump is suspect.

The water pump must be repaired or


6. Inspect the Water Pump replaced.
Water pump
A. Test the water pump for proper operation.. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The water pump is not suspect.

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Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The engine is operating with too


much load.

Reduce the load.


7. Operating Conditions
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the load the engine is operating Load
under.
Result: The engine is not operating with
too much load.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The timing of fuel injection pump


is incorrect.
8. Inspect the Fuel Injection Pump Timing
Adjust the timing. Refer to the
A. Check the fuel injection pump for the Timing Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection
correct timing. Pump" topic for additional information.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

The exhaust temperature is too high.

Probable Cause

Table 44
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: There is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust


system.
1. Inspect the Air Inlet and
Exhaust System Remove the restriction.

A. Inspect the air inlet and Restriction Verify that the problem is resolved.
exhaust system, look for a
restriction. Result: There is not a restriction in the air inlet or
exhaust system.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

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Result: The timing of the fuel injection pump is


incorrect.
2. Measure the Fuel Injection
Pump Timing
Adjust the timing of the fuel injection pump. Refer to the
Timing Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for
A. Measure the timing of the fuel
additional information.
injection pump.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The starting motor does not turn or the starting motor turns too slowly.

Probable Cause

Table 45
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The battery has a low charge.

Charge the battery. Replace a faulty battery. Clean all


cable terminals and battery posts. Apply the 1U-8267
Battery Saver and Cleaner on the cable clamps and to
1. Measure the Charge of the
battery posts. Tighten the cable clamps on the battery
Battery
Battery posts.
voltage
A. Measure the battery voltage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The battery does not have a low charge.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: A short circuit was found.

2. Inspect the Starting Motor Repair the short circuit.


Starting
A. Inspect the brushes for the Verify that the problem is resolved.
motor
starting motor. Inspect the brushes
brushes
for a short circuit. Result: A short circuit was not found.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

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Result: The ignition switch, the start relay, or the


starting motor solenoid are not operating properly.
3. Inspect the Ignition Switch,
Replace or repair the components that are not operating
the Start Relay, and the Starting
properly.
Motor Solenoid
Starter
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the ignition switch, the circuit
start relay, and the starting motor
Result: The ignition switch, the start relay, or the
solenoid for proper operation.
starting motor solenoid are operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Inspect the Starting Motor


Circuit
Result: An excessive voltage drop exists in the cables or
A. Inspect the starting motor across the terminals in the circuits for the starting motor.
circuit for a voltage drop.
Voltage
Replace the damaged parts.
drop
B. Inspect the battery cables and
battery terminals for loose Verify that the problem is resolved.
connections, corrosion, or other
damage.

The starting motor turns, but the pinion gear does not engage the flywheel ring gear.

Probable Cause

Table 46
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The overrunning clutch for the


pinion drive slips.

1. Inspect the Pinion Drive Replace the overrunning clutch.

A. Inspect the overrunning clutch for the Pinion drive Verify that the problem is resolved.
pinion drive.
Result: The overrunning clutch for the
pinion drive does not slip.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

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Result: The ring gear of the flywheel is


damaged.

Replace the flywheel.


2. Inspect the Flywheel Ring Gear
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Flywheel
A. Inspect the flywheel ring gear for damage..
Result: The ring gear of the flywheel is
not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The shift lever or the linkage is


damaged.

Replace the shift lever or the linkage.


3. Inspect the Shift Lever
Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the shift lever and linkage for Shift lever
damage.
Result: The shift lever or the linkage is not
damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The starting motor solenoid is not


operating properly.

Replace or repair the components that are


4. Inspect the Starting Motor Solenoid not operating properly.
Starter
A. Inspect the starting motor solenoid for Verify that the problem is resolved.
solenoid
proper operation.
Result: The starting motor solenoid is
operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Inspect the Armature or Idler Gear of Starting Result: The armature or idler gear of the
the Starting Motor motor starting motor is damaged.

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Replace the starting motor.


A. Inspect the armature or idler gear of the
starting motor for damage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The engine does not crank or the engine rotates slowly when the keyswitch is in the start
position.

Probable Cause

Table 47
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The battery has a low charge.

Charge the battery. Replace a faulty battery. Clean all


cable terminals and battery posts. Apply the 1U-8267
Battery Saver and Cleaner on the cable clamps and to
1. Measure the Charge of the
battery posts. Tighten the cable clamps on the battery
Battery
Battery posts.
voltage
A. Measure the battery voltage.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: The battery does not have a low charge.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The start relay is not operation properly.

Replace the start relay.


2. Inspect the Start Relay
Start Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Check the start relay for proper
relay
operation.
Result: The start relay is operation properly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Inspect the Starting Motor Result: An excessive voltage drop exists in the cables or
Circuit Voltage across the terminals in the circuits for the starting motor.
drop
A. Inspect the starting motor circuit Replace the damaged parts.

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for a voltage drop. Verify that the problem is resolved.

B. Inspect the battery cables and Result: An excessive voltage drop does not exist in the
battery terminals for loose cables or across the terminals in the circuits for the
connections, corrosion, or other starting motor.
damage.
Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The overrunning clutch for the pinion drive slips.


4. Inspect the Pinion Drive
Pinion Replace the overrunning clutch.
A. Inspect the overrunning clutch
drive
for the pinion drive.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The starting motor continues to run after the ignition switch is released.

Probable Cause

Table 48
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The ignition switch, the start relay,


1. Inspect the Ignition Switch, the Start or the starting motor solenoid are not
Relay, and the Starting Motor Solenoid operating properly.
Starter
A. Inspect the ignition switch, the start relay, Replace or repair the components that are not
circuit
and the starting motor solenoid for proper operating properly.
operation.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The pinion gear does not disengage after the engine starts to run.

Probable Cause

Table 49
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect the Return Spring of the Pinion Return Result: The return spring of the pinion
Solenoid Spring solenoid is damaged.

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Replace the return spring of the pinion


solenoid.

Verify that the problem is resolved.


A. Inspect the return spring of the pinion
solenoid for damage.
Result: The return spring of the pinion
solenoid is not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The shift lever or the linkage is


damaged.

Replace the shift lever or the linkage.


2. Inspect the Shift Lever
Shift Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the shift lever and linkage for
lever
damage.
Result: The shift lever or the linkage is not
damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The ignition switch, the start relay,


3. Inspect the Ignition Switch, the Start or the starting motor solenoid are not
Relay, and the Starting Motor Solenoid operating properly.
Starter
A. Inspect the ignition switch, the start relay, Replace or repair the components that are not
circuit
and the starting motor solenoid for proper operating properly.
operation.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

The alternator does not charge the battery or the alternator charge rate is slow or
irregular.

Probable Cause

Table 50
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect the Alternator Drive Drive belt Result: The drive belt for the alternator is loose.

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Belt
The drive belt must be adjusted or replaced.
A. Verify that the tension is
Verify that the problem is resolved.
correct on the drive belt.
Result: The drive belt for the alternator is not loose.
B. Inspect the drive belt for wear
and for damage.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The drive pulley for the alternator is loose or


worn.

Tighten the nuts of the pulley to the correct torque.


2. Inspect the Alternator Drive
Replace a damaged pulley.
Pulley
Drive pulley Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the pulley for wear or
for damage.
Result: The drive pulley for the alternator is not loose
or worn.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The electrical cables and connections in the


charging and starting circuits are loose or damaged.

Inspect all cables and connections. All connections


must be clean and tight. Apply the 1U-8267 Battery
3. Inspect the Electrical
Saver and Cleaner on the cable terminals and the
Connections
connections. Replace suspect parts.
Electrical
A. Inspect the electrical cables
connections Verify that the problem is resolved.
and connections in the charging
and starting circuits.
Result: The electrical cables and connections in the
charging and starting circuits are not loose or
damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Alternator for Result: One of the components is not operating
Proper Operation properly.
Alternator
A. Test the following alternator Replace the component that is not operating properly.

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components:

Regulator or the field winding


of the rotor Verify that the problem is resolved.
Brushes
Rectifier

The alternator charges the battery to a voltage that is too high.

Probable Cause

Table 51
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Alternator for Proper


Operation
Result: One of the components is not operating
properly.
A. Test the following alternator
components:
Replace the component that is not operating
Alternator
properly.
Regulator or the field winding of the
rotor
Verify that the problem is resolved.
Brushes
Rectifier

The alternator is noisy.

Probable Cause

Table 52
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Result: The drive belt for the alternator is loose.


1. Inspect the Alternator Drive Belt
The drive belt must be adjusted or replaced.
A. Verify that the tension is correct on
the drive belt. Verify that the problem is resolved.
Drive belt
B. Inspect the drive belt for wear and for Result: The drive belt for the alternator is not
damage. loose.

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Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The drive pulley for the alternator is


loose or worn.

Tighten the nuts of the pulley to the correct


2. Inspect the Alternator Drive Pulley torque. Replace a damaged pulley.

A. Inspect the pulley for wear or for Drive pulley Verify that the problem is resolved.
damage.
Result: The drive pulley for the alternator is not
loose or worn.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The drive belt and the drive pulley are


not in alignment.

Adjust the alignment.


3. Inspect the Belt Alignment
Belt Verify that the problem is resolved.
A. Inspect the alignment of the drive
alignment
pulley and drive belt.
Result: The drive belt and the drive pulley are in
alignment.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The bearings of the alternator are worn


4. Check the Alternator for Proper or damaged.
Operation
Alternator Replace the alternator.
A. Inspect the alternator bearings.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

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