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6.1 Permutations

## If event A happens in r ways and event B happens in s ways,

then the number of ways that event A happens followed by event B,
is r x s.

1. In how many ways can a man dress himself up from 4 2. Ann plans to travel from Banting to Kuala Lumpur via
different shirts and 3 different pairs of pants for a party. Klang. From Banting to Klang, she has the options to
Number of ways of choosing a shirt = travel by bus or taxi. From Klang to Kuala Lumpur, she
Number of ways choosing a pair of pants= has the options to travel by bus, taxi or train. Determine the
Total number of ways of dressing up = different combination of modes of transport Ann can use to
travel from Banting to Kuala Lumpur.

3. A restaurant offers the choice of a meat, a vegetable, a 4. A quiz consists of 10 true/false questions. How many
dessert and a drink for a lunch special. If there are 4 types different answer sheets are possible?
of meat, 3 vegetables, 5 desserts and 2 drinks available to
choose from, how many different lunch sets are available?

5. Rahim has 3 options of selecting a city to be visited from 6. There are 2 routes joining towns A and B and 5 routes
tour package A and 5 options from tour package B. If he joining towns B and C. Find the number of different ways
going to select a city from each package, in how many of travelling from town A to town C via town B.
different ways can this be done?

## 6.1.2 Permutations of n different objects

 Permutation is the number of ways of arranging the object where the order of arrangement is
important.

## n! = n ×(n −1) ×(n − 2) ×.... ×3×2×1

1. How many different ways can the alphabets in the word 2. How many different ways can 6 different paintings be
‘SUN’ be arranged? arranged in a row on a wall?

3. In how many different ways can 12 different books be 4. In how many different ways can all the letters in the word
arranged in a row on a shelf? ‘SMART’ be arranged without repetition?

5. In how many different ways can 7 students be seated in a 6. How many 4-dgit numbers can be formed using the digits
row for the photo session? 1, 2, 3 and 4 without repetition?

7. In how many ways can all the letters in the word 8. Using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, find the number
“FRIENDLY’ be arranged without repetition? of 9-digit numbers that can be formed without repetition.

9. There are 10 rings of different colours. In how many ways 10. Find the number of ways to arrange all the alphabets in the
can all the rings be arrange in a row? word “UNIVERSAL”
The number of permutations of n objects of which p of one type are alike, q of a second type are alike
n!
=
p! q!

1. Find the number of different arrangements of the letters of 2. Find the number of different arrangements of the letters of
the word BANANA. the word EVERMORE

3. Find the number of different arrangements of the letters of 4. Find the number of different arrangements of the letters of
the word ZOOLOGI the word MENTERI

5. In a row of 7 books, 3 are the same. Find the number of 6. How many 5-dgit numbers can be formed using the digits
different arrangements of boos that can be made. 1, 1, 3 ,4 and 5 without repetition?

7. How many 6-dgit numbers can be formed using the digits 8. How many 7-dgit numbers can be formed using the digits
1, 3, 3,5, 5 and 5 without repetition? 1, 2, ,4, 4, 4 ,5 and 5 without repetition?

## The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time is

n!
n
Pr =
( n − r )!

1. How many 3-digit codes can be formed by using the digits 2. How many different 5-letter arrangements can be made
1,2,3, …,8 without repetition? from the letters of the word “COMPUTER” without
repeating any of the letters?

3. There are 10 scouts in a group. In how many different 4. In how many different ways can 2 of the letters in the word
ways can 4 scouts in the group be arranged in a line? “WISDOM” be arranged without repetition?

5. How many 4-digit numbers can be formed using the digits 6. Find the number of 3-digit numbers that can be formed
1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 without repetition? from the digit 1,2,3, 4,5 and 6 if repetition of digits are not
allowed.

7. 20 students are vying for the 3 prizes offered in a Science 8. There are 10 different books in a shelf. How many ways
quiz. How many possible ways are there of awarding the can 4 of them be arranged in a row?
prizes to the top 3 winners?

9. State the number of ways to arrange 3 letters from the 10. How many 4-digit numbers can be formed using the digits
word “SMART” without repetition. 1 to 9 without repetition?
6.1.4 Permutations of n different objects for given conditions.
6.1.5 Permutations of n different objects taken r at a time for given conditions
1. How many 3-digit number greater than 200 can be formed 2. How many 5-digit even number can be formed from the
from the digits 1, 2 and 3 without repetition? digits 1, 2 , 3 ,4 and 5 without repetition?

## Number of arrangement = Number of arrangement =

3. How many 5-digit number greater than 30000 can be 4. How many 4-digit odd number can be formed from the
formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 without repetition? digits 2,3,5 and 7 without repetition?

## Number of arrangement = Number of arrangement =

5. Find the number of ways the letters from the word 6. Given 4 letters are chosen from the word “FAVOUR”, find
“SMILE” can be formed if the arrangements begin with a the number of arrangements that end with the vowel.
vowel?

Number of arrangement =
Number of arrangement =

7. How many 4-digit number less than 7000 can be formed 8. How many4-digit number greater than 4000 can be formed
from all the prime numbers between 1 and 10 without from all the prime numbers between 1 and 10 without
repetition? repetition?

Number of arrangement =
Number of arrangement =

9. How many 3-digit odd number can be formed from the 10. How many 3-digit even number can be formed from the
digits 1to 9 without repetition? digits 1, 2 , 3, 4 and 5 without repetition?

## Number of arrangement = Number of arrangement =

11. 5 boys and 3 girls are to be seated in a row. Calculate the 12. How many 5-digit number can be formed from the digits 1,
number of possible arrangements if the 5 boys have to be 2 ,3, 4 and 5 without repetition, if the digit 1 and 4 must be
seated together. arrange together??

## Number of arrangement = Number of arrangement =

13. 3 boys and 2 girls are to be seated in a row. Calculate the 14. All the letters from the word “MOTHER” are to be
number of possible arrangements arranged. Calculate the number of possible arrangements if
(a) if two boys have to be seated at the ends. the arrangement begins with the letter “K”
(b) If the two girls have to be seated together. (a) the letters O and E must be arranged side by side.

15. The diagram shows 5 letters and 3 digits. 16. The diagram shows five cards of different letters.

A B C D E 6 7 8 E
H B A T
A code is to be formed using those letters and digits. The code
must consists of 3 letters followed by 2 digits. How many codes (a) Find the number of possible arrangements, in arow, of
can be formed if no letter or digit is repeateed in each code? all the crds.
(SPM2003/1/22) (b) Find the number of these arrangement in which the
letters E and A are side by side..
(SPM2004/1/23)

17. Diagram shows seven letter cards. 18. Diagram shows six numbers cards.

U N I F O R M 3 5 6 7 8 9

A four-letter code is to be formed using four of these cards. A four –digit number is to be formed by using four of
Find these cards.
(a) the number of different four-letter codes that can be How many
formed, (a) different numbers can be formed?
(b) the number of different four-letter codes which end (b) different odd numbers can be formed? [4 marks]
with a consonant. [4 marks] (SPM2008/P1/23)
(SPM2006/P1/22)

19. Find the number of different arrangements of the letters of 20. Find how many different odd 4-digit numbers less than
the word MEXICO. Find the numbers of these 4000 can be made from the digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 if no digit
arrangements may be repeated.
(a) which begin with M, (“O” level N02/2/5)
(b) which have the letter X at one end and the letter C at
the other end.
(“O” level J03/2/7)
21. Calculate the number of different 6-digit numbers which 22. Calculate how many different 5-digit numbers can be
can be formed using the digits 0,1,2,3,4,5 without repetition formed from the 9 digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 used without
and assuming that a number cannot begin with 0. repetition. .In how many of these 5-digit numbers will the
(“O” level J02/1/6) digits 8 and 9 be adjacent.
(“O” level N96/2/17)

23. How many 4-letter codes can be formed using the letters in 24. How many 3-digit numbers that are greater than 400 can
the word 'GRACIOUS' without repetition such that the first be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 without
letter is a vowel? repetition?

25. How many 4-digit even numbers can be formed using the 26. Diagram shows 4 letters and 4 digits.
digits 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 without repetition?
A B C D 5 6 7 8

## A code is to be formed using those letters and digits. The code

must consists of 3 letters followed by 2 digits. How many
codes can be formed if no letter or digit is repeated in each
code ?

27. Diagram shows five cards of different letters. 28. Diagram shows seven letter cards.

R A J I N
U N I F O R M M
(a) Find the number of possible arrangements, in a row, of all
the cards. A five-letter code is to be formed using five of these cards.
(b) Find the number of these arrangements in which the letters Find
A and N are side by side. (a) the number of different five-letter codes that can be
formed,
(b) the number of different five-letter codes which end with a
consonant.

29. How many 5-digit numbers that are greater than 50000 can 30. How many 4-digit even numbers can be formed using the
be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 without any
without repetition? digit being repeated?
31. 2 girls and 8 boys are to be seated in a row of 5 chairs. Find 32. Diagram shows six numbered cards.
the number of ways they can be seated if no two persons of
the same sex are next to each other. 1 4 5 7 8 9 9
A four-digit number is to be formed by using four of these
cards.

How many
a) different numbers can be formed?
b) different odd numbers can be formed?