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Guidance with

Patience

To

Learn with Passion

PVELITE TRAINING PRESSURE VESSEL


DESIGN

Practice and make perfect

High structure integrity, safety and cost


optimized static equipment
PVElite Training Basic 1

Table of Content

Item Description Page

1. Chapter 1: Static equipment, piping and storage tank. 2- 3


Relevant Code and Standards. Design Software

2. Chapter 2: Pressure Vessel Design , 2.1 Design by Rules 4-7


or Formula, 2.2 Design by Analysis

3. Chapter 3: Types of loadings at Pressure Vessel 8-11

4. Chapter 4: Type of Stresses at Pressure Vessel 12-20

5. Chapter 5: Basic feature and Operation of PVElite 21-28

6. Chapter 6: Common Design Code for Pressure Vessel 29-31

7. Tutorial 1: Vertical Pressure

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Chapter 1 : Types of Equipment and Facilities,


Design codes and Application software

Chimney stack Horizontal


pressure vessel

Vertical
pressure vessel

Piping

Process column

Shell & Tube


Heat Exchanger
Air fin cooler

Above round
storage tank
Spherical
storage tank

Figure 1: Group of equipment and facilities at oil refinery plant

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A process plant ( Oil & Gas refinery, petrochemical, chemical and others) shall consists
of following equipment and facilities.

Code & Equipment or facilities detail Recommen


Standard ded
defector
software

Pressure ASME Sec VIII Process Vessels Trayed columns, reactors, PVElite ,
Vessel Div 1 or Div 2, packed columns Nozzle Pro,
PD5500, Drums and Miscellaneous Vessels Horizontal FEpipe
EN13445 and vertical vessels
Storage Vessels Bullet and spheres tanks

Storage API 650, API Cone roof tank ( Self supported and Supported)
Tank 620 ,API630 Dome roof tank
TANK
Flat roof tank
Floating roof tank (not in software yet)

Heat TEMA, Shell and Tube heat exchanger (Various Mech -


Exchanger PD5500,ASME configuration ) PVElite
UHX, ASME Hairpin Heat Exchanger
Thermal &
Appendix A Jacketed Pipe Heat Exchanger
flow- HTRI-
Xist, Xhep and
etc

Piping ASME B31.1 ( Power piping) CAESAR II


ASME B31.3 (Process piping)
ASME B31.4 (Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids)
ASME B31.5 ( Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components)
ASME B31.8 (Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems)

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Chapter 2 : Pressure Vessel Design


There are two types of mechanical design methods for pressure vessel , namely design
by formula (DBF) and design by analysis (DBA).

2.1 Design by Rule or Formula (DBF)


Design formula is governed by mandatory national code and standards to ensure safety
performance. Most the pressure vessels are designed based on the concept of Design by
Formulae (DBF), which involves relatively simple calculations to achieve the required
component thicknesses via simple formulae or diagrams and by usage of the concept of
the nominal design stress, also termed as allowable stress, allowable working stress, or
limiting stress intensity; pressure vessel design codes like ASME Div VIII Section 1 and
Section 2, PD 5500 and EN 13445 use the principle of thin wall structure membrane stress
for determining the minimum thickness of structure such as cylindrical shell , conical shell,
body flange and dish head thickness due to various loading conditions. The great benefit
of the DBF approach is still its simplicity, only in the recent past the formulae and
calculations in DBF have become more and more elaborate, pretending accuracy that is
often not there (Josef L. Zeman, 2004).

The basic idea of design by rule is that once the leading scantlings are fixed in this way
the designer simply obeys the rules laid down in the procedures for specified
components such as nozzles, dish head, shells, etc. The methodology or reasoning
behind the rules will not always be apparent as we shall see. However, this is the most
common approach used in all national design codes.

The design by rule approach has the great advantage of simplicity and being backed up
by the long experience of users in many cases. The greatest disadvantage is that the
approach cannot easily be extended either to different geometries or additional loadings
beyond the normal pressure cases, elastic plastic and plastic state. For example, ASME
VIII Div 1, the design rules and formulas consider mainly the loadings due to static
internal pressure and external pressure within elastic limit.

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2.1.1 Design by Rule or Formula (DBF) using PV Elite


Conventionally, most of the previous design of pressure vessel is done using spreadsheet
like Microsoft Excel to perform structural thickness calculation and analysis for pressure
vessel components. Nevertheless, this option can save some initial cost compare to
commercial design software like PVElite, but it will be comparatively non cost
effectiveness in the long run. This is obvious, when we compare PVElite to Microsoft
Excel formatted design spreadsheet in term of the quantity and quality of the
performance. Some of the points below are elaborate for getting better understanding
about the advantages of using PVElite in pressure vessel design.

PVElite is user friendly for both new and experienced user, where the input
menu is ready available in a systematic arrangement ( if spreadsheet is used, you
might enter the information to the wrong cell at spreadsheet that will cause a
wrong output or even damage the whole program due to your carelessness ).
User just enter the information as stated in the design datasheet and
specification. Furthermore, if the user are doubt about the input , just press
function key f1 to get technical advice from the help menu with useful statement,
diagram , graph and table relevant to design requirement or national standard
code ( if spreadsheet is used, you have to refer to the hard copy of design codes
which will spent time in searching for the details .)

PVElite is design oriented, where the features allow the user to maximize their
time to design or re-rating the pressure vessel to achieve cost- optimum design.
That mean, minimize the time spent in searching, confirming and entering the
design parameters for design calculation. To achieve this, PVElite performs
calculation base on various type of design codes and corresponding material code
with various addendum (ASME Sec VIII Div 1, Div 2 , PD5500 and EN13445), hence
designer will be able to change and compare the pressure vessel design base on
different standards easily . In addition, user can select various national codes for
external loadings due to wind and/or seismic forces (ASCE, UBC, NCB ,IS , GB and
etc.), nozzle loadings (WRC 107 , PD5500 Annex B and etc), and tubesheet design
(TEMA, ASME UHX, BS5500, ASME appendix A) Secondly, PVElite provides a good
traceability for the calculation results where a negative answer is alerted in red
warning , that the designer has the possibility to understand which are
parameters to be changed in order to get the checking. While, a positive answer
shows the result the degree of possible overdesign, in order to give the designer
the possibly of decreasing excess thickness when they are not needed.

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PVElite interfaces with others popular software packages for finite element
analysis (Nozzle-Pro), heat exchanger design (HTRI), pressure vessel drafting and
material take off (PV fabricator) and foundation design and drafting. PVElite
also shares a bi-directional link to COADEs CADWorx Equipment module. The
significant benefit of this feature is the designer will be able to convert the
preliminary design into drawings and MTO for cost estimation and proposal
purposes using PV fabricator. In addition, the changes made in the PVElite in
pressure vessel design will update the engineering drawing and bill of material
correspondently. The mathematical model of the pressure vessel in the graphic
form can be exported to Nozzle-Pro for meshing and generating finite element
model for stress analysis such as nozzle to shell intersection, dome to shell
intersection, skirt to shell and etc. After the heat and fluid flow analysis of heat
exchanger using HTRI software, some relevant information can be transfer to
PVElite for stress analysis for tubesheet, tube, tube to tubesheet joint and other
components. The nozzle loading from CAESAR II can be transfer to PVElite for
WRC 107 or annex B local stress analysis.

CodeCalc is an additional programs available within PVElite to analysis the


vessel components separately or things that havent be included in PVElite .
Typical cases would be full-jacketed vessel, non-circular vessel, Lifting lugs and
turnion design, API579 (Fitness For Service), large opening at shell, floating
head and etc.

2.2 Design by Analysis (DBA)


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Design by analysis (DBA) is mainly used to check the design of pressure vessel which is
operated under serve conditions like extreme high pressure, and extreme high or low
temperature where DBF can not be used due to it limitations in design calculation, data
and coverage (Design by Analysis, 2004). The design by analysis can be categorized into
two: design base on elastic analysis, and design base on plastic analysis. It is implemented
to avoid eight possible failure modes at pressure vessel by detail stress analysis as stated
as in ASME sec VIII Division 2 and subsequently BS 5500 Appendix A and EN13445-3
Annex B (Direct Route Method) and EN13445-3 Annex C (Elastic analysis & stress
Categorization). The failure modes considered are (base on ASME section VIII Div 2, Part
5) :-

All pressure vessels within the scope of this Division, irrespective of size
or pressure, shall be provided with protection against overpressure in
accordance with the requirements of this Part.
Protection Against Plastic Collapse these requirements apply to all
components where the thickness and configuration of the component is
established using design-by-analysis rules.
Protection Against Local Failure these requirements apply to all
components where the thickness and configuration of the component is
established using design-by-analysis rules. It is not necessary to evaluate
the local strain limit criterion if the component design is in accordance
with Part 4 (i.e. component wall thickness and weld detail per paragraph
4.2).
Protection Against Collapse From Buckling these requirements apply to
all components where the thickness and configuration of the component
is established using design-by-analysis rules and the applied loads result
in a compressive stress field.
Protection Against Failure From Cyclic Loading these requirements
apply to all components where the thickness and configuration of the
component is established using design-by-analysis rules and the applied
loads are cyclic. In addition, these requirements can also be used to
qualify a component for cyclic loading where the thickness and size of
the component are established using the design-by-rule
Requirements. Part 4.

PVElite can only dealt with requirements that are directly addressed by the code and
for cases where limitations prevent you from obtaining the necessary result, a viable
alternative would be to turn to FEA (finite element analysis). PVElite does have
interfaces with an FEA program termed Nozzle-Pro and this is beyond the scope of his
manual.

3.0 Type of loadings at Pressure Vessel


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All structure include pressure vessel are subjected to two basic types of loading: Steady or static
and unsteady (variable, cyclic or impact). Figure 3.1 shows loadings which are grouped into
steady and unsteady loads. Most of the pressure vessels encounter variable or cyclic loading,
may assumed to be statically load without introducing serious error. This is significantly stated in
the standard ( ASME Section VIII, Division 2, AD-160) that the fatigue analysis is required provided
the conditions of the cyclic loading are exceed the limits at the fatigue evaluation stage. These
limits is depend upon the number of cycle loads in term of fluctuate operating pressure and
temperature, as well as the degree of the cyclic load which is mainly due to the gap of maximum
and minimum operating pressure or temperature. Figure 3.2 shows types of general loads and
local loads at pressure vessel.
Internal pressure load is common for all the pressure vessel above, since all the static
equipment operates at certain elevated pressure and temperature due to chemical processes
and hydrostatic pressure of storage content ( ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Part UG20 and UG21,
2007). In addition, hydrotest pressure load is elevated at 30% from the vessel working pressure
at corroded or new condition as stated in ASME Division 1, Part UG99.
Despite the availability of vacuum valve, the external pressure is considered for pressure
vessel design in vacuum condition where the outlet nozzle is connected to pump. The
atmosphere pressure is sufficient to compressively deform a pressure vessel due to large volume
vessel with insufficient thickness and/or stiffener, furthermore metallic materials have relatively
low compressive strength compare to its tensile strength (ASME Section VIII Division 1, Part UG28,
2007).
External load like wind and seismic load is more critical for process vessels like process
columns and reactor. The deflection and vibration analysis of tall slender column (H/D>15) are
commonly checked to ensure the structural is not over deflected. In conjunction, the stresses
induced by wind and seismic loads are always combined with other stresses (i.e. longitudinal,
circumferential and shear stress) due to internal pressure, external pressure, and hydro test
pressure to ensure the possible combined stresses are not more than allowable stress (ASME
Section VIII Division 1, Part UG22-23, 2007).

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Types of loading

Steady load long-term Non steady loadsshort term


duration, continuous duration, variable

Pressure loads Internal or Shop and field hydrotest


external pressure (design,
operating, and hydrostatic
head of liquid) Dynamic/ impact load

Dead weight, vessel content Lifting and erection

Loadings due to attached Start up, shut down .


piping and equipment.

Loadings to and from vessel Transportation


support

Thermal load Head to skirt Thermal load short term


joint, piping expansion load during service or testing
at nozzle.

Wind load Earthquake, Vibration

Upset, emergency
Constant cyclic pressure or
thermal load

Figure 3.1: Types of Loading at pressure vessel


Categories of loading at
pressure vessel

General loads Load Local loads Load applied to a small


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Figure 3.2: Categories of Loading at pressure vessel

In addition to the above major analysis, nozzle opening reinforcement at shell is

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important to avoid mechanical failure due to internal pressure, external pressure and nozzle
loading due to external piping connection and other equipment likes reboiler due to various
forces and moment at nozzle to shell junctures (K.R.Wichman., A.G. Hoper., J.L.Mersho, 1979).
This concept is applicable to other attachments at the pressure vessel walls which have
rectangular, square or circular cross sectional area.
For horizontal supported pressure vessel, the distributed weight implement bending
load at the mid span of the pressure vessel and the saddle support. Furthermore, the
concentrated load at the horn of saddle and the tip of the wear plate. The above loads are
significant for large diameter and long horizontal pressure vessel. ( L.P. Zick, 1951)
Local stresses analysis is important for lifting lugs and turnion to ensure safe lift during the site
installation.
Fatigue analysis is performed for those pressure vessels which have severe and
significant cyclic loadings in the form of fluctuating pressure and temperature condition. These
cyclic loads would decrease the service life of a pressure vessel as stated in the S-N curve of
specific material. ( ASME Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 5)
Thermal loads is only concerned for DBF likes ASME Division for tube sheet design. ASME
Division 2, part 5 Design By Analysis Requirements (2007) checks the stresses induced by cyclic
thermal loads, and the ratcheting for pressure vessel components.

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4 Type of stresses at Pressure Vessel


Generally the design of pressure vessel is to decide the minimum thickness which will
fulfill the design requirement as per design code through DBF or DBA. The pressure
vessel components thickness are depend upon the stress(es) incurred at the material
due to internal pressure, external pressure and other external forces. It is not necessary
to find every stress but rather to know the governing stresses and how they related to
the pressure vessel and its respective parts, attachments, and supports. Hence, the
basic understand of the stresses at pressure vessel is importance for design and they
are further elaborated as below. Generally, there are three types of stresses:-

- General Primary Stress


- Secondary Stress
- Peak Stress

4.1 General Primary Stress


These stresses act over a full cross section of the vessel and they are produced by the imposed
loading (load-induced) and are necessary to satisfy the law of equilibrium. In addition, they are
the most hazardous of all types of stress.
The basic characteristic of primary stresses that it is not self limiting (i.e. they are not
reduced magnitude by the deformation they produced). Hence, the gross distortion or failure of
the structure will occur if its value substantially exceeds the yield stress . In the other word, if a
primary stress exceeds the yield strength of the material through entire thickness, the prevention
of failure is entirely dependent on the strain- hardening properties of the material or stress
distribution. Primary stress are generally due to internal or external pressure or produced by
sustained external forces and moment.
The primary stress is divided into two subcategories in ASME Sec VII-Div 2. They are
primary general membrane and primary general bending stresses. Primary general membrane
stress ,Pm. This stress occurs across the entire cross section of the vessel. It is remote from
discontinuities such as head-shell intersections, cone-cylinder- intersections, nozzles, and
supports. For instance, circumferential and longitudinal stress due to pressure; compressive and

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tensile axial stresses due to wind or seismic; longitudinal stress due to the bending of the
horizontal vessel over the saddles; membrane stress in the center of the flat head; membrane
stress in the nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to pressure or external loads and
axial compression due to the weight.

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Figure 3.3: General membrane stress at the pressure vessel parts

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Primary general bending stress, Pb. Primary bending stresses are due to sustained loads
and are capable of causing collapse of the vessel. There are relatively few areas where primary
bending occurs. For instance, bending stress in the center of the flat head or crown of a dished
head; bending stress in a shallow conical head and bending stress in the ligaments of closely
spaced openings.

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Local primary membrane stress, PL. Local It is a combination of two stresses, primary
membrane stress, Pm, plus secondary membrane stress, Qm which is produced from sustained
loads. These have been grouped together in order to limit the allowable stress for this particular
combination to a level lower than allowed for other primary and secondary stress application. It
was felt that local stress from sustained not self limiting loads presented a great enough hazard
for the combination to be classified as a primary stress. Examples of primary local membrane
stresses are primary membrane stress plus membrane stresses at local discontinuities (i.e. head
to shell juncture and nozzle to shell juncture), primary stress plus membrane stresses from local
sustained loads (i.e. platform and ladder support; piping and equipment attached to the nozzle).

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4.2 Secondary Stress


Secondary stress is developed when the deformation of a component due to the applied loads is
restrained by other components. It must satisfy an imposed strain pattern rather than being
equilibrium with an external load. Secondary stress is self-limiting (i.e. they are reduced
magnitude by the deformation they produced) in that local yielding can be redistribute the stress
to a tolerable magnitude without causing failure.
Secondary mean stresses are developed at the junctions of major components of a
pressure vessel. Secondary mean stresses are also produced by sustained loads rather than
internal or external pressure. Secondary stresses are strain-induced stresses.
Secondary stresses are divided into two additional groups, membranes and bending.
Examples of secondary membrane stress are axial stress at the juncture of the flange and the
hub of the nozzle; thermal stresses due to restricted expansion; membrane stress in the knuckle
area of the head and membrane stress due to local relenting (self-limiting) loads. Examples of
secondary bending stress, Qb are bending stress at a gross structural discontinuity (i.e. nozzle and
lugs); the non uniform portion of the stress distribution in a thick walled vessel due to internal
pressure; the stress variation of the radial stress due to internal pressure in thick- walled vessels;
discontinuity stresses at stiffening or support rings.

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4.3 Peak Stress


Peak stress is the highest stress in the region under consideration. The basic characteristic of
peak stress is that it causes no significant distortion and is objectionable mostly as sources of
fatigue failure. It applies to both sustained load and self- limiting load. Peak stress is additive to
primary and secondary stress present in the point of the stress concentration. Peak stress is only
significant in fatigue conditions or brittle materials. It is the sources of fatigue cracks and applies
to membrane, bending, and shear stress. Example are stress at the corner the discontinuity;
thermal stresses in a wall caused by the sudden change in the surface temperature; thermal
stresses in cladding or weld overlay; stress due to the notch effect .

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5 Basic features and operation of PV Elite


Generally, there are five major input processors in PVElite. There are

i) Heading
ii) Design Constraint
iii) General Input
iv) Load Cases
v) Seismic Data
vi) Wind Data

Figure 4.1: Input Processors for the Pressure Vessel design

Before the user start to enter the design parameters into the input processors as stated above ,
it is important to configure the settings at the start. The configuration is at the tools option
control utility processor as shown in figure 2.2.

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5.1 Configuration

Figure 4.2 : Configure the settings of PVElite behaves when analyzing a vessel

It is important to configure the settings at the start. From the tools option control utility
processor, options are given to customize how PVElite behaves when analyzing a vessel. The
settings are related to the pre and post processing of the design or analysis for pressure vessel.
Pre-processing is the settings of the design requirements before the analysis, likes alternative
rules in design of pressure vessel components (i.e. use ASME Code case2260/2261, 2286, 2004-
A06 Addenda for Division 2, pre-99 Addenda (Division 1 only) , Eigen solver and use OD as the
basis for shell radius for Zicks analysis) or the setting allowable value such as material database,
graph for determining MDMT and allowable tower deflection. In addition, post processing
involves filter or keep certain results or details to be appear in the report such as no MDMT, no
MAWP calculation, print equation and substitution. It is important for the user to be familiar to
the design standards, practice and client required specification before perform any setting in the
configuration section.

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5.2 Design/ Analysis Constraints

Figure 4.3: Design constraints for setting general design information for pressure vessel

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5.3 Design Data


The input screen is divided into two areas. They are design data and design modification. The
design data section is related to general design parameter like internal and external pressure
/temperature, hydrotest type and position, projection from to/ bottom for UG99-C . This
information is very common seen and indicated in the design data of vessel GA drawing and this
core information for pressure vessel design. The user can specific their client preferred MAWP,
MAPnc and hydrotest pressure, where these values will overwrite/ replace the calculated values.
Others inputs like construction type, special service, degree of radiography are just for
information only, it is reported in the report echo.

If the user check the box of Use Higher Longitudinal Stresses ?, PVElite will use higher allowable
longitudinal stress for combined stresses analysis . The ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1,
Paragraph UG-23(d) allow the allowable stress for the combination of earthquake loading, or
wind loading with other loadings to be increased by a factor of 1.2.

If the user check the box of Consider Vortex Shedding ?, PVElite will compute fatigue stresses
based on loads generated by wind flutter. In addition, the program will compute the number of
hours of safe operation remaining under the wind vibration conditions. This section is suitable
for high column design with h/d (overall high over the vessel diameter) equal or more than 15.
For low vertical vessel like drum, it is advisable not to check the box because the program will
generate extreme non logical high value which will cause overdesign for the structure.

If the user check the box of Is This a Heat Exchanger ?, PVElite will write out an ASCII text file
that contains the geometry and loading information for this particular vessel design.

If user check the box of Hydrotest allowable is 90% yield, PVElite will consider 90% of the
material yield stress for the hydrostatic test allowable. This will generate higher allowable stress
for hydrotest than the normal value which is 1.3 time the material minimum allowable stress.
( This applies only for Division 1 vessel design).

If user is designing a cylindrical ASME stack steel stack and wish to have PVElite analyze
allowable and stress combinations per ASME STS-2003(a), then check this box. (This applies for
Division 1 vessel design).

The 2009 version do not allow any modification of design code in this input screen, but it is
shown at the column for information. The reason of this new feature is to remind the designer
to select the design code at the earlier stage (Refer to figure 2.4).

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Figure 4.4: Selection of design code at New column and pull down menu

Any modification at design data will affect design of the whole pressure vessel and it components.
For example, the change of internal design pressure and temperature at this section will generate
global change for all the components of the pressure vessel at general input processor. In
addition, the change of design code for whole vessel is done by reselecting the required design
code at pull down menu. However, the user needs to reselect the material before running the
analysis.

5.4 Design Modification


Design modification provides the user with the option to intelligently design the vessel whenever
a specific section fails the code. The program will prompt a thickness that will be suitable for use
or a location (s) of stiffening rings so that the code requirement can be met. For the stiffening
rings, the program will allocation the ring(s) after run the analysis, where the program will ask
for user permission before the changes take place.

(Note: For most Advance users, the options included are usually not used.)

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5.5 Load Cases

Figure 4.5: Load cases for stress combination at pressure vessel

5.5.1 Stress Combination Load Cases


This input processor is used to deal with various combinations of loads that contribute
toward the membrane stress of the vessel at longitudinal direction. The calculated
maximum principle stresses based on different combination of loads will be compared
with the corresponding allowable stress.

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There can be as many as twenty cases, combining pressure loads, weight loads, and
moments in various ways. Generally, the load cases stated are more than adequate to
deal with all the combinations that the user are likely to encounter in both operational
and hydrotesting conditions.

A fairly complete set of load cases is included as a default:

The difference between wind loads and hydrotest wind loads is simply a ratio
(percentage) defined by the user. This percentage is specified in the Wind Data definition
of Global Data - usually about 33% (thus setting the hydrotest wind load at 33% of the
operating wind load). Likewise, the hydrotest earthquake load is a percentage of the
earthquake load; this percentage is defined in the Seismic Data definition of Global Data.
Some steps that are not applicable for horizontal vessels, such as natural frequency, will
not be printed. Also, if a vessel has no supports, then there will be no calculations that
involve wind or seismic loads.

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5.5.2 Nozzle Design Options


The nozzle design option dealt with the design criteria that determine the selection of
nozzle wall thickness and reinforcement pad. The top deals with design pressure that is
used to calculate the thickness (nozzle or clip) base on MAWP+ Static head to Bottom
Element, Design Pressure + Static head, Overall MAWP + Static head (governing Element),
MAWP + Static head to Nozzle (note: user must select either one for their vessels nozzle
design). The least of the boxes is optional for vessel design.

If the user checks the box of Consider MAPnc in Analysis , PVElite will check to see if
the nozzle is reinforced adequately using MAPnc generated during the internal pressure
calculation. When the area of replacement calculations are made for this case, cold
allowable stresses are used and the corrosion allowance is set to 0. Designing nozzles for
this case helps the vessel to comply with UG99 or appropriate (hydrotest) requirements.

If the user check the box of Modify Tr based on the Maximum Stress Ratio, PVElite will
looks at all of the defined load cases (combined stresses) and select the highest stress
ratio (actual stress/ allowable stress). It will then use this number as a multiplier on the
shell thickness. Thus the nozzle design is based on the precise loading at the bottom of
that shell course. The reason for the above work is to comply with ASME Section VIII
Division 1 paragraph UG-22 that deals with supplemental loadings. One factor in ASME
nozzle design is the required thickness of the shell (tr). Usually internal pressure (hoop
stress) governs. In some cases, such as when a nozzle is located on a shell course at the
bottom of a tall tower, longitudinal stresses will govern. In this case the shell required
thickness must be based on longitudinal stresses and not the hoop stress.

6 Common design Code for Pressure Vessel


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ASME Section VIII Div 1, Ed 2007, Ad 09

ASME Div 1 is the most common use standard for pressure vessel design, the following
are some of the common consideration in pressure vessel design.

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Tutorial (1) : Design for vertical pressure vessel

Tasks to be complete :

To determine the structural thicknesses of cylindrical shell and semi ellipse head due
to internal and hydrostatic pressure conditions.
Check shell thickness against hydrotest pressure.
MDMT checking for all pressure vessel components.
To determine the allowable external pressure of the structure and compare to the
actual external pressure load due to vacuum condition at pressure vessel.
Design skirt support and base ring design for vertical pressure vessel due to wind and
seismic load. (refer to PVElite database or handbook data if possible).
Nozzle reinforcement at dome shell due to shell opening, Nozzle minimum thickness.
Installation of internals trays and packing, platform and ladder, longitudinal. After
that determine the combined stresses condition at bottom structure. Do the
necessary correction, if there is a need.
Perform rigging analysis to check the shear stress and bending stress of the vertical
vessel during critical lifting position.

Learning Outcome:

After completion of this topic, student will be able to use PVelite for :
Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the design parameter
accordingly.
Obtaining an cost optimize design for pressure vessel components due to internal
pressure, external pressure, nozzle reinforcement , external loadings and skirt
support. (target :+-10% greater than actual load/stress/deflection rate)
(Note: Indicate the results with yellow highlight for printed copy and save a PVE. file
in CD for further evaluation)

Tutorial (1) : Vertical pressure vessel

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Design Parameter Variable


1) Vessel name / number Distillation column / WRG-100
2) Design Code & Addenda ASME Section VIII Division 1, Addendum 2007
3) Operating Pressure & Temperature 10 bar (internal), 300oC / -1 bar (vacuum), 300oC
4) Vessel Design Pressure & Temperature 15 bar (internal), 300oC/ -1 bar (vacuum), 300oC

5) Minimum Metal design Temperature MDMT = -25oC


6) Vessel dimension ( Inside Diameter (ID) x 3500 mm (diameter) x 30,000 mm (L)
Length tangent to tangent (L)) 2500 mm (diameter ) x 10,000 mm (L)
Conical sectional height (L) 1500 mm (L)
7) Design Liquid Level / 3500 mm from bottom TL / 0.85
content specific gravity
8) MAWP / MAP(N &C) ( ) N/mm2
9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/field) UG99(b), Shop ( )N/mm2
10) Heat treatment ( Applicable/ Not Applicable0
11) Joint Efficiency Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam ( spot RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam (spot RT)
circumferential seam ( spot RT)
11) Corrosion Allowance 3 mm for all parts
12) Material
- Cylindrical shell SA 516 GR70
- Dome end SA 516 GR70
- Nozzle SA 106 GR B
- Nozzle flange SA 105
- Bolting SA193/ SA194
- Skirt SA283 GRC
13) Weights Fabrication : ( ) tones
Empty: ( ) tones
Operating: ( ) tones
Test: ( ) tones
14) Wind load Wind Design Code: ASCE-93
Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor: 1
15) Seismic load Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%
Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.2
Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1

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PVElite Training Basic 34

2:1 Semielliptical Head, N


SF=50mm, min thk ( ) mm, 1

Nominal thk ( )mm.


(Indicate the shell thickness of the
shell section)

2,500 mm
10,000mm

Platform used open lattice


(lightest option).
1,500mm PL width = 1000 mm
Tray space =400mm, PL Height = 1200 mm
QTY = 10 trays , Clearance = 4
Holding height = 50 mm

4500 mm from 6th Platform Cage ladder , appx 10kg/m


0o to 180o

4500 mm from 5th Platform


180o to 0o

ID =3,500 mm
4500 mm from 4th Platform
0o to 180o

30,000mm
4500 mm from 3rd Platform
180o to 0o
CS ratchet ring 45lb/ft3
Volume = 43.3 m3
4500 mm from 2nd Platform
0o to 180o
Packing support
Height =50mm , weight =585 kg
4500 mm from 1st Platform
Elevation =6000 mm from lower TL..
180o to 0o
percentage of holding liquid =65%

M
5500 mm from ground 1
oo to 180o

2:1 Semielliptical Head,


SF=50mm, min thk ( ) mm,
5,000mm
Nominal thk ( )mm.
N
2

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PVElite Training Basic 35

Nozzle Detail

No Nozzle Dia x Sch X L Pound rating Orientation Elevation from


Description (#) lower SF
1. Inlet ( N1) 18 x sch 40 x ANSI, 600 from Top dish head 1
200L WNRF ,300# CL (120o)
3. Outlet (N2) 20 x sch 10 x ANSI, CL Bottom dish
250L WNRF,f150# head
4. Manhole (M1) 24 x 12thk x ANSI, 0o 5000 mm
300L WNRF 150#

Tutorial (2): Design for horizontal pressure vessel


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PVElite Training Basic 36

Tasks to be complete :

Internal pressure, hydrotest , external pressure calculation as practical 1.


Nozzle opening and reinforcement , Nozzle loading WRC 107 checking.
Longitudinal stresses at horizontal supported pressure vessel at the mid span and saddle
support during the operation and hydrotest respectively. Tangential stress at the shell at
saddle support, Circumferential compression at bottom of shell and in plane of saddle
and circumferential bending at horn of saddle. Corrective methods in reducing the stress
at horn of saddle add wear plate, increase the contact angle and support
width, move saddle toward the head, add stiffer ring at the saddle, add the
saddle support(s).
Design for the saddle support, base plate, rib plate, wed plate.

Learning Outcome:

After completion of this topic, student will be able to use PVelite for :
Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the design parameter accordingly.
Obtaining an cost optimize design for pressure vessel components due to internal pressure,
external pressure, horizontal supported conditions, nozzle reinforcement , nozzle loading,
external loadings and saddle support. (target :+-10% greater than actual
load/stress/deflection rate)
(Note: Indicate the results with yellow highlight for printed copy and save a PVE. file in CD
for further evaluation)

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PVElite Training Basic 37

Tutorial (2) : Horizontal pressure vessel

1) Vessel name / number Slug Catcher


2) Design Code & Addenda ASME Section VIII Division 1, latest Addendum
3) Operating Pressure & Temperature 3.5 bar (internal), 120oC / 1 bar (external),60oC

4) Vessel Design Pressure & 5.5 bar (internal), 120oC/ 1 bar (external), 60oC
Temperature
5) Minimum Metal design Temperature MDMT = -35oC
6) Vessel dimension ( Inside Diameter 4200 mm (diameter) x 18,000 mm (L)
(ID) x Length tangent to tangent (L))
7) Design Liquid Level / content specific 3800 mm from bottom / 1
gravity
8) MAWP / MAP(N &C) ( ) N/mm2
9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/filed) UG99(c), Shop ( )N/mm2
10) Heat treatment ( Applicable/ Not Applicable0
11) Joint Efficiency Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam ( spot RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam (spot RT)
circumferential seam ( spot RT)
11) Corrosion Allowance 0
12) Material
- Cylindrical shell SA 240 SS304
- Dome end SA 240 SS304
- Nozzle SA 312 TP304
- Nozzle flange SA 182 F304
- Bolting SA320 B8 with SA-194 B
- Saddle SA283 GRC
13) Weights Fabrication : ( ) tones
Empty: ( ) tones
Operating: ( ) tones
Test: ( ) tones
14) Wind load Wind Design Code: ASCE-93
Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor: 1
15) Seismic load Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%
Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.2
Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1

37
PVElite Training Basic 38

Nozzle Detail

No Nozzle Dia x Sch X L Pound rating Orientation distance from


Description (#) left SF
1. Inlet ( N1) 20 x sch 10 x ANSI, 0O 4500 mm
200L WNRF ,150#
3. Drain pipe (N2) 3 x sch 10 x ANSI, CL Boot dish head
250L WNRF,150#
4. Boot (B1) 30 x 12thk x ANSI, 0o 12,000 mm
3000L WNRF 150#

N
1

18,000 mm

3600 mm 4,200 mm

500 mm
B User estimated
1 the size,
12,000 mm thickness of the
saddle and its
2:1 Semielliptical Head,
components.
SF=50mm, min thk ( ) mm,
The distance
Nominal thk ( )mm.
N from saddle
2 centre line to
nearest head.

(Indicate the shell thickness of the shell section)

Nozzle Loading (WRC 107)

Dead Weight

No Nozzle Description P (N) VL (N) Vc (N) Mt(N/m) ML(N/m) Mc(N/m)


1. Inlet ( N1) 800 1200 1200 120 150 150
3. Drain pipe (N2) 300 500 500 50 60 60
4. Boot (B1) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Thermal

No Nozzle Description P (N) VL (N) Vc (N) Mt(N/m) ML(N/m) Mc(N/m)


1. Inlet ( N1) 1,800 2,400 2,400 2,600 3,000 3,000
3. Drain pipe (N2) 750 1,000 1,000 1,115 1,300 1,300
4. Boot (B1) NA NA NA NA NA NA

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PVElite Training Basic 39

Topic (3): Design of high wall thickness pressure vessel (t > 100 mm)

Sub-topic:
Dish head selection for high pressure operation.
Code case 2260 Alternative design rules for Ellipsoidal and Torispherical formed heads.
Saddle type nozzle/ insert plate for nozzle opening reinforcement, Support lugs design.

LOC: After completion of this topic, student will be able to


Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the design parameter accordingly.
Obtaining a cost optimize design for pressure vessel components due to high pressure operation.

Contents
1.0 Design of high wall thickness pressure vessel (t > 100 mm) ( Division 1 , 2 and PD5500)
3.1 Dish head selection for high pressure operation - semi
ellipse, torispherical, hemispherical formed head.

3.2 Nozzle design for thick wall pressure vessel.


3.2.1 Self- reinforcement nozzle design.
3.2.2 Saddle nozzle or insert plate design.

3.3 Change the previous design of ASME Div 1 to ASME Div


2 and PD 5500. Material nominal strength/ allowable
stress calculation - PD 5500 Annex K. ASME Section
VIII Div 1 and Div 2.

3.4 Support lugs design and local stress calculation


(WRC 107).

39
PVElite Training Basic 40
Tutorial (3): Heavy wall pressure vessel

1) Vessel name / number Inlet Gas Separator

2) Design Code & Addenda ASME Section VIII Division 1, Addendum 2007

3) Operating Pressure & Temperature 125 bar (internal), 120oC / NA(external)

4) Vessel Design Pressure & 138 bar (internal), 120oC/ NA (external)


Temperature
5) Minimum Metal design Temperature MDMT = -15oC
6) Vessel dimension ( Inside Diameter 2760 mm (diameter) x 7600 mm (L)
(ID) x Length tangent to tangent (L))
7) Design Liquid Level / content specific 2000 mm from bottom / 0.85
gravity
8) MAWP / MAP(N &C) TBA
9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/filed) TBA
10) Heat treatment As per ASME code
11) Joint Efficiency Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam (Full RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam ( Full RT)
11) Corrosion Allowance 0
12) Material
- Cylindrical shell SA 516 GR70N
- Dome end SA 516 GR 70N
- Nozzle SA 105
- Nozzle flange SA 105
- Bolting SA 193
- Support Lugs SA283 GRC
13) Weights Fabrication : tones
Empty: tones
Operating: tones
Test: tones
14) Wind load Wind Design Code: ASCE-93
Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor: 1
15) Seismic load Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%
Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.15
Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1

40