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Coiled Tubing Handbook

Nitrogen Pumping Equipment


Nitrogen Pumps and Vaporizer Systems

RIG/PLANT REFERENCE REFERENCE DESCRIPTION

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REVISION HISTORY

01
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CHANGE DESCRIPTION

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01 First issue
02

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 OVERVIEW AND FEATURES .......................................................................................... 6
1.1 Heat Recovery Design ............................................................................................ 6
1.2 Complete Unit Line ................................................................................................. 6
1.3 NP 1600 Quintaplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump ............................................... 6
1.5 NP 1000 Quintaplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump ............................................... 7
1.6 NP 400 Triplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump ....................................................... 9
1.7 NP 200 Triplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump ..................................................... 11
1.8 Skid Mounted Units............................................................................................... 12
1.8.1 180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pumping Unit Sound Proofed ZII DNV 2.7-3 .... 12
1.8.2 180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pumping Unit (Open Skid) Zone II / DNV .............. 15
1.8.3 90,000 - 180,000 - 270,000 scfh Skid Mounted Unit ZII DNV 2.7-3 ........ 18
1.8.4 The New Standard..................................................................................... 19
1.9 Merlin Nitrogen Vaporizer Automation System .................................................. 19
1.10 180,000 scfh Trailer mounted nitrogen pump with Merlin Control System ............ 20
1.11 180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pump and Vaporizer Systems .......................................... 21
1.12 Automated Pump, Tank and Data Acquisition Systems........................................ 21
1.13 Nitrogen/Fluid Combination pumping unit ............................................................. 22
1.13.1 840,000 scfh Chassis Mounted Unit ........................................................ 23
1.13.2 Down-to-Earth Engineering ..................................................................... 24
1.13.3 Latest Technology ................................................................................... 24
1.13.4 180,000 SCFH; 10,000 PSI working pressure .27
1.13.5 Performance and Precision ..................................................................... 25
1.13.6 Basic Design............................................................................................ 25
1.13.7 1,000,000 scfh Trailer Mounted Nitrogen Unit ......................................... 26
1.14 Boost Pump General Features ............................................................................. 26
1.15 Cryogenic Components Cold Ends .................................................................... 27
1.16 Nitrogen Pumping Unit Service Department ......................................................... 28
1.17 Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizer ............................................................................ 29
1.17.1 The Nitrogen pumping unit service department ....................................... 31
1.18 Liquid Nitrogen Storage Tanks ............................................................................. 33
1.18.1 Typical Offshore and Land Based ........................................................... 33
1.18.2 Typical 2,000 Gallon Offshore Tank ........................................................ 33
1.18.3 Offshore Tank with general piping and connections arrangement ........... 33
1.18.4 General Features..................................................................................... 34
1.18.5 Typical 4,000 Gallon Portable/Offshore Tank .......................................... 34
1.18.6 Typical Hydraulic Schematic.................................................................... 35

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1.19 Vaporization Process ............................................................................................ 36


1.19.1 Simple View of the Coolant Flow Path..................................................... 37
1.19.2 Water Pump (Coolant Pump)................................................................... 37
1.19.3 Vaporizer ................................................................................................. 37
1.19.4 Heat Exchangers ..................................................................................... 38
1.19.5 Water Plumbing Installation ..................................................................... 39
1.19.6 Typical Coolant Schematic ...................................................................... 40
1.19.7 Engine Heat Exchanger ........................................................................... 41
1.19.8 Exhaust Heat Recovery ........................................................................... 41
1.19.9 Power Control Valve and Back Pressure Valve ....................................... 41
1.19.10 Water Brake........................................................................................... 42
1.19.11 Typical Hydraulic Schematic.................................................................. 43
1.20 Nitrogen Tanks ..................................................................................................... 44
1.20.1 Hydra Rig Nitrogen Tank ....................................................................... 44
1.20.2 Acceptable Vacuum Levels ..................................................................... 45
1.20.3 Pressure Ratings ..................................................................................... 45
1.20.4 Filling the Tank ........................................................................................ 45
1.20.5 Nitrogen Tank .......................................................................................... 46
1.20.6 Saturated LN 2 .......................................................................................... 47
1.20.7 Inside a Nitrogen Tank ............................................................................ 48
1.21 Troubleshooting .................................................................................................... 48
1.22 Properties and Uses ............................................................................................. 52
2 NITROGEN ..................................................................................................................... 53
2.1 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 53
2.1.1 Example 1 E .............................................................................................. 53
2.1.2 Example 1 M ............................................................................................. 54
2.1.3 Example 2 E .............................................................................................. 54
2.1.4 Example 2 M ............................................................................................. 55
2.2 Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 56
2.3 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor ............................................................................ 57
2.3.1 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor (English) ................................................. 57
2.3.2 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor (Metric) ................................................... 57
2.4 Volume Factor - Low Pressure ............................................................................. 58
2.4.1 Volume Factor - Low Pressure (English) ................................................... 58
2.4.2 Volume Factor - Low Pressure (Metric) ..................................................... 58
2.4.3 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure ............................................................ 59
2.4.4 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure (English) ............................................. 59

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2.4.5 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure (Metric) ............................................... 59


2.5 Volume Factor - High Pressure............................................................................. 60
2.5.1 Volume Factor - High Pressure (English) .................................................. 60
2.5.2 Volume Factor - High Pressure (Metric) .................................................... 60
2.6 Volume Factor - High Temperature ...................................................................... 61
2.6.1 Volume Factor - High Temperature (English) ............................................ 61
2.6.2 Volume Factor - High Temperature (Metric) .............................................. 61
2.7 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen ......................................................... 62
2.7.1 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen (English)............................... 62
2.7.2 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen (Metric)................................. 62

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1 OVERVIEW AND FEATURES

1.1 Heat Recovery Design


Our patented heat recovery nitrogen pump and vaporizer system is an example
of the engineering excellence that has placed us at the forefront of nitrogen
pumping technology.
Unused engine horsepower and waste system heat are converted to usable heat
through the use of a dynamometer (water brake). Utilization of the dynamometer
eliminates the fired vaporizer and hydraulic engine loading systems of
conventional units, reducing fuel costs, maintenance and down time. The result is
a safe, dependable unit capable of operating under the most demanding oilfield
conditions.

1.2 Complete Unit Line


Units are available ranging from flow rates of 60,000 SCFH to 540,000 SCFH in
the patented heat recovery design. Truck and trailer mounted for land operation,
or skid mounted for combination land and offshore use. All units are available
with full certification where necessary, including DNV and BP200 certification, for
the demanding conditions required of equipment operating in the North Sea.

1.3 NP 1600 Quintaplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump


STANDARD UNIT OVERVIEW
The NOV Hydra Rig NP 1600 satisfies the market requirement for high pressure
pumping rates up to 1,828,000 scfh.
The unit is specifically designed to deliver high flow rates at high pressure while
providing exceptional low flow rate turndown.
The pump utilizes low friction roller bearings and a pressure feed lubrication system
for positive lubrication, insuring increased pump life over conventional pumps.

Standard Weights and Dimensions


Model NP 1600
Weight (lbs/kg) 5,000 / 2268
Length (in/cm) 70 / 178
Width (in/cm) 40.5 / 103
Height (in/cm) 39 / 99
Maximum RPM 900Stroke (in/cm) 2.25 / 5.72

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NP 1600 Pump Rate and Pressure Capability


Operation Characteristics at 90% Volumetric Efficiency and 900 RPM
Cold End Diameter in/mm 2.000 / 50.80 2.500 / 63.50 2.875 / 73.025 3.000 / 76.20 3.250 / 82.55

Maximum Flow, GPM / l/min 124 / 469 193 / 733 255 / 969 279 / 1055 327 / 1238

Maximum Flow, scfh / m/hour 692,000 / 19,600 1,082,000 / 30,600 1,431,000 / 40,500 1,558,000 / 44,100 1,828,000 / 51,700

Maximum Pressure, psi/MPA 15,000 / 103 15,000 / 103 11,200 / 77 10,000 / 69 8,800 / 61

ADVANTAGES:

1.4 NP 1000 Quintaplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump

NP 1000 Triplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump


STANDARD UNIT OVERVIEW
The NOV Hydra Rig NP 1000 satisfies the market requirement for high pressure
pumping rates up to 1,097,000 scfh. The unit is specifically designed to deliver high
flow rates at high pressure while providing exceptional low flow rate turndown.
The pump utilizes low friction roller bearings and a pressure feed lubrication system
for positive lubrication, insuring increased pump life over conventional pumps.
Specifications and Dimensions
Model NP 1000
Weight with Cold Ends and Lube Oil 2,550 / 1156.66
Length (in/cm) 37.25 / 94.62
Width (in/cm) 40.5 / 102.87
Height (in/cm) 21.94 / 55.73
Maximum RPM 900
Stroke (in/cm) 2.25 / 5.72

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NP 1000 Pump Rate and Pressure Capability


Operation Characteristics at 90% Volumetric Efficiency and 900 RPM
3.250 / 82.55
Cold End Diameter, in/mm 2.000 / 50.80 2.500 / 63.50 2.875 / 73.025 3.000 / 76.20

Maximum Flow, GPM / l/min 74 / 281 116 / 440 153 / 581 167 / 633 196 / 743

Maximum Flow, scfh / m/hour 415,200 / 11,700 649,000 / 18,400 858,000 / 24,300 935,000 / 26,500 1,097,000 / 31,000

8,800 / 61
Maximum Pressure, psi / MPA 15,000 / 103 15,000 / 103 11,200 / 77 10,000 / 69

ADVANTAGES:
This NOV Hydra Rig pump is not merely another version of the same design
that has been around for years, but rather the result of necessary product
advancements.

Durability
This new design approach starts by utilizing low friction roller bearings rather than
journal bearings. This greatly enhances durability particularly at low speeds where
other pumps using journal bearings are most vulnerable. This design also operates
at a much cooler temperature. This means less lube oil system requirements, which
saves weight without sacrificing unit durability.
Simplified Design
The unit is internally balanced so that an externally mounted counter balance does
not compromise the reliability of the pump. This enhancement also provides a much
smoother pump by balancing each cylinder rather than compensating from the end
of the shaft.
Enhanced Performance

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Maximum rod load is increased to 73,500 lbs. (versus 58,000 lbs. for competitive
offerings). This allows for nearly 27% increased working pressure without changing
to smaller cold ends.
Compatibility
The pump will accept existing cold ends and increase their capabilities.

1.5 NP 400 Triplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump


STANDARD UNIT OVERVIEW
The NOV Hydra Rig NP 400 satisfies the market requirement for high pressure
pumping rates up to 467,000 scfh. The unit is specifically designed to deliver high
flow rates at high pressure, while providing exceptional low flow rate turndown. The
pump utilizes low friction roller bearings and a pressure feed lubrication system for
positive lubrication, insuring increased pump life over conventional pumps.

Specifications and Dimensions


Model NP 400
Weight without Cold Ends and Gear Box (lbs./kg) 1,750 / 795
Length (in/cm) 35.0 / 88.9
Width (in/cm) 39.0 / 99.1
Height (in/cm) 21.0 / 53.3
Maximum RPM 900
Stroke (in/cm) 2.00 / 5.08

NP 400 Pump Rate and Pressure Capability


Operation Characteristics at 90% Volumetric Efficiency and 900 RPM

1.875 / 47.62 2.000 / 50.80 2.250 / 57.15


Cold End Diameter (in / cm)
Maximum Flow, GPM / l/min 64 / 244 73 / 278 93 / 352
Maximum Flow, SCFH / m/hr. 324,000 / 369,000 / 10,400 467,000 / 13,200
9,200

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NP 400 Pump Rate and Pressure Capability


Operation Characteristics at 90% Volumetric Efficiency and 900 RPM
Cold End Diameter (in / cm) 1.875 / 47.62 2.000 / 50.80 2.250 / 57.15
Maximum Flow, GPM / l/min 64 / 244 73 / 278 93 / 352
Maximum Flow, SCFH / 324,000 / 369,000 / 10,400 467,000 /
m/hr. 9,200 13,200
Maximum Pressure, PSI / 15,000 / 103 13,000 / 89.6 10,000 / 68.9
MPA

ADVANTAGES:
NOV Hydra Rigs NP 400 pump is a medium rate version of the NP 1000 Hydra Rig
pump that has proven its durability for years.
Durability
This new design approach starts by utilizing low friction roller bearings rather than
journal bearings. This greatly enhances durability particularly at low speeds where
other pumps using journal bearings are most vulnerable.
The NP 400 design also operates at a much cooler temperature.
Simplified Design
NOV Hydra Rigs pump is internally balanced on each cylinder for smooth pumping
operation.
Enhanced Performance
The maximum rod load is 42,000 lbs. This allows for 15,000 psi working pressure at
rates up to 324,000 scfh

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1.6 NP 200 Triplex High Pressure Nitrogen Pump


STANDARD UNIT OVERVIEW
The NOV Hydra Rig NP 200 satisfies the market requirement for high pressure
pumping rates up to 270,000 scfh. The unit is specifically designed to deliver flow
rates at high pressure while providing exceptional low flow rate turndown. The pump
utilizes low friction roller bearings and a pressure feed lubrication system for positive
lubrication, insuring increased pump life over conventional pumps.

Specifications and Dimensions


Model NP 200
Weight with Cold Ends and Lube Oil (lbs./kg) 1,750 / 793.79
Length (in/cm) 25.625 / 65.09
Width (in/cm) 39.625 / 100.65
Height (in/cm) 23.5 / 59.69
Maximum Rod Load (lb/kg) 21,500 / 9752.2
Maximum RPM 975
Stroke (in/cm) 1.375 / 3.49

NP 200 Pump Rate and Pressure Capability


Operation Characteristics at 90% Volumetric Efficiency and 975 RPM
Cold End Diameter, in / mm 1.250 / 31.75 1.625 / 41.275 2.000 / 50.80
Maximum Flow, GPM / l/min 19 / 73 32 / 123 49 / 186
Maximum Flow, scfh / m/hour 107,500 / 3040 181,600 / 5140 275,000 / 7780
Maximum Pressure, psi / MPA 15,000 / 103 10,000 / 69 6,000 / 41

ADVANTAGES:
Durability
The NP 200 Triplex Nitrogen pump is designed for durability. Low friction roller and
ball bearings are used rather than common journal bearings. This greatly enhances

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durability, particularly at low speeds where journal bearings are most vulnerable.
The design also operates at a wider temperature range and produces less heat in
the bearings. This means less lube oil system requirements for preheating and
cooling the lube oil.

Welded Steel Case


The welded steel case design allows strength where it is needed while reducing
excess weight. Steel construction gives ductility and allows repairs if damaged.
Compact Dimensions

The NP 200 is compact in size for minimal footprint when installed. Typical hydraulic
drive packaging enhances flexible installation of the nitrogen pump without drive
shafts to align.

Compatibility
Many cold end brands may be mounted to the NP 200 pump for flexibility in use.

1.7 Skid Mounted Units

1.7.1 180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pumping Unit Sound Proofed(ATEX) ZII DNV 2.7-3
GENERAL FEATURES:
A Skid Mounted and Sound proofed Liquid Nitrogen Pumping and Vaporizing
unit, Gross Weight : Estimate 13.50 Tons
L 5200 mm/205 x W 2438 mm/96 x H 2560 mm/100 approx.
Fuel Capacity : 375 Liters/100 US Gallons
System is designed and constructed to meet D.N.V. 2.7.1.and BS EN12079
approvals

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Fully sound proofed skid and four point lift frame complete with stainless steel
inlet and outlet attenuators
Walls and doors of sound proofed area constructed of corrugated steel for
extra strength and protection
Safety Non-slip material on all ladder rungs and a harness point at the top of
each ladder
Shot blasting to SA 2, zinc rich priming and paint finishing to NOV Hydra
Rig Specifications to customer color
Unit all fully tested prior to shipping

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION:
Certified by DNV
Equipment designed to meet, but not limited to, the requirements of 3G T3 2A
(Zone II), DNV 2.7-1, PED approval, C.E. marking PUWER and LOLER
Compliance
Engine conforms to BP 200 requirements for the protection of diesel engines
working in 3G T3 (Zone II) areas
Engine ATEX Zone II classified protection equipment for use in 3G T3 gas
group 2A areas up to 200C surface temperature at +50C ambient to include
exhaust gas heat exchanger, exhaust gas flame traps, air inlet shut down
valve and a Hydra Rig electronic engine protection system
Hydra Rig designed and built 1 x 2 x 6 centrifugal charge pump,
PED/DNV approved high pressure vaporizer and 1-5/8 cold end pumps DNV
approved, 10,000 psi working pressure, 180,000 scf/h flow
Power Unit: Detroit Series 60 500HP at 2100 RPM turbo charged and after
cooled. Engine compliant to USA flexibility scheme to allow Stage 2 emission
engine to operate in the USA or Canada

PERFORMANCE DATA:
Maximum Working Pressure: 690 Bar/10,000 psig
Hydrostatic Test Pressure: 1035 Bar/15,000 psig Maximum Flow Rate: 4700
NM3/Hr180,000 scf/h
Design Maximum Flow Rate Temperature: 20C / 70F Maximum
Simultaneous Flow Rate And Pressure: 4700 NM3/Hr/10,000 psig at 690 Bar/
180,000 scf/h
Design Ambient Temperature: 50C
Design Environment: Offshore/Marine/Desert

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS:


A local panel containing all instrumentation and controls for ease of operation
to meet ATEX, Zone II and CE marking regulations.
Gauges

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Engine controls
Start, Stop
Emergency Stop
Engine RPM
Oil Pressure
Air Pressure
Water Temperature
Engine Speed Control
Hour Meter
Nitrogen HP Pump and Discharge System
Hydraulic Charge
Hydraulic Charge Pressure
Digital Rate Display
Nitrogen Discharge Temperature
Discharge Control Valve
Pump Speed Control
Lubricating Oil Pressure and Temperature
Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Vaporizer Circuit Temperature

FUEL/AIR SHUTDOWN VALVES TO CLOSE AUTOMATICALLY ON:


Engine Over Speed
Emergency Stop
High Coolant Temperature
Low oil Pressure
High Exhaust Temperature
Low Hydraulic oil level

SPECIAL FEATURES:
The engine and cryogenics area to be fully enclosed and soundproofed, to a
sound level maximum of 80dba at any point one meter from skid with an
average below 78 dba
Engine to be equipped with an Ingersoll Rand air start system
Stainless steel engine air inlet, engine exhaust pipe work and silencer
Solder dipped radiator suitable for onshore use up to 50C
All cryogenic piping to be Stainless Steel type 316 or 304
Fuel and hydraulic tanks to be Stainless Steel
Stainless Steel floor in all areas exposed to possible cryogenic spillage
Cryogenic long stem ball valves for the liquid nitrogen circuit
Tempering line around nitrogen vaporizer to control the gaseous nitrogen
discharge temperature
Discharge relief valve set at 11,000 psi and a gas line check valve for unit

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Cryogenic suction, boost pump bypass and return fittings to be 1 CGA


Hydraulically operated discharge valve to be a 2 x 1 valve with a Danfoss
actuator
High pressure safety shut down system

1.7.2 HR-180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pumping Unit (Open Skid) Zone II / DNV

The NOV Hydra Rig open frame 180K Zone 2 nitrogen unit is a compact diesel engine
driven nitrogen unit, utilizing mechanical engines, the units are specifically designed for a
wide range of applications outside of Europe. Zone 2 safety engine protection package
including, basic shutdown system, exhaust gas cooler, air inlet flame trap, shut down valve
and exhaust spark arrester; maximum surface temperature is 200C The unit is capable of
up to 180,000 SCF/H at 10,000 psi, and is ideally suited to nitrogen stimulation with coiled
tubing, pipeline testing and pigging, purging and leak detection, and most land based and
offshore operations requiring nitrogen. The standard unit offers a cost effective, simple to
use and easy to maintain product that will give the operator a reliable and dependable unit,
while maintaining the necessary performance. Compact designed skid dimensions: 2438
mm wide to meet ISO8 for shipping
Choice of design temperatures from -20C up to
+60C
Choice of operating environment
SPECIFICATIONS:
Maximum working pressure: 690 Bar/10,000 psig
Maximum flow rate: 4700 NM3/Hr 180,000 scf/h**
Hydrostatic test pressure: 1035 Bar/15,000 psig
Design maximum flow rate temperature: 20C/ 70F

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Standard Design Ambient Temperatures up to +60C


Design Environments: Offshore/Onshore/Tropical/Desert
Gross weight (estimate): 8,500 kg *
Dimensions: L 4569 mm/ 179 x W 2438 mm/96 x H 2600 mm/102
Fuel Capacity: 375 Liters/100 US Gallons

STANDARD FEATURES:
Outer 4 point lift frame
Forklift pockets for yard handling
Unit all fully tested prior to shipping
Safety Non-slip material on all ladder rungs
Standard mechanical diesel engines: Detroit 8V92N rebuilt ** or Caterpillar 3406;
other engine options on request
Hydraulic heat load system
Hydra Rig NP200 power end
Hydra Rig 1.625 10,000 psi Cold Ends (DNV approved)
Hydra Rig 1.5 x 2.5 x 6 centrifugal boost pump
Hydra Rig 10,000 psi rated vaporizer pot. (DNV approved)
Heavy duty cooling system climate rated, 100% humidity
Pneumatic fail safe shutdown and engine protection system

SPECIAL STANDARD FEATURES ON EVERY UNIT:


Engine to be equipped with an Ingersoll Rand air start system
Engine air inlet, engine exhaust pipe work and silencer
Solder dipped radiator rated to design ambient temperature
All cryogenic piping to be Stainless Steel type 316 or 304
Stainless Steel floor in all areas exposed to possible cryogenic spillage
Cryogenic long stem ball valves for the liquid nitrogen circuit
Tempering line around nitrogen vaporizer to control the gaseous nitrogen discharge
temperature
Discharge relief valve set at 11,000 psi and a gas line check valve for unit
Cryogenic suction; return fittings to be 1" CGA (NIT150); other makes on request
High pressure safety shut down system
2 x 1 Fig-1502 discharge valve
* Detroit 8.5 kg * Caterpillar 9.5 kg
** Typical rates are 170K to 180K dependent on ambient conditions

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INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS:


A local panel containing all instrumentation and controls for ease of operation. Panels can
be side or end mounted. Standard panels include the following gauges and controls:
Engine controls
Start, Stop
Emergency Stop
Engine RPM
Oil Pressure
Air Pressure
Water Temperature
Engine Speed Control
Nitrogen HP Pump and Discharge System
Hydraulic Charge Pressure
Digital Rate Display
Nitrogen Discharge Temperature
Boost Pump Speed Control
Boost Pump Pressure Gauge
Lubricating Oil Pressure and Temperature
Vaporizer Circuit Temperature
Shutdown indicators

OPTIONAL FEATURES AVAILABLE ON REQUEST:


Hydraulically operated discharge valve to be a 2 x 1 valve with a Danfoss actuator
Stainless Steel Fuel and hydraulic tanks
Outer 4 point lift frame can be designed in accordance with DNV.2.7.1/ BS EN
12079
Certification by DNV or BV
Treating iron racks for long joints and Chicksans
Transfer hoses; choice of end connections available
Storage tubes for transfer hoses up to 10 ft. long
Boost pump bypass and/or second LN2 inlet
Upgrade to 15,000 psi working pressure at 90,000 scfh by changing cold ends and
PRV
OPP shut down connection

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FUEL/AIR SHUTDOWN VALVES TO CLOSE AUTOMATICALLY ON:


Engine Over Speed
Emergency Stop
High Coolant Temperature
Low Oil Pressure
Low Air Pressure

1.7.3 90,000 - 180,000 - 270,000 scfh Skid Mounted Unit ZII DNV 2.7-3
The Non-Fired Skid Mounted unit provides a self-contained unit that can be transported
offshore or other places inaccessible to traditional land based units. This unit is available with
maximum flow rates up to 270,000 scfh in a single engine configuration. Unit orientation: The
unit is a skid mounted, self-contained nitrogen pump and vaporizer system.

Rates and Pressures


Model Cold End Diameter (in / mm) Maximum Flow (scfm / m/hr.) Maximum Pressure (psi / mpa)
SK90 1.250 / 31.75 90,000 / 2,548 15,000 / 103
Sk180 1.625 / 41.275 180,000 / 5,097 10,000 / 69
SK270 1.250 / 31.75 270,000 / 7,645 10,000 / 69
1.625 / 41.275

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1.7.4 The New Standard


Leadership in an industry must be earned. By maintaining an ongoing research
and development effort, our Team has combined existing design with innovative
new technology to produce the new standards of the industry in Nitrogen
Pumping and Vaporization systems. These systems are efficient, dependable,
safe, and built to perform in the field year after year.

1.8 Merlin Nitrogen Vaporizer Automation System


NOV Hydra Rig has developed an Automated Discharge Temperature
Controller for NOV Hydra Rig's Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizers. The Merlin
Nitrogen Vaporizer Automation System has been developed to allow the operator
to input the desired discharge temperature on a touch screen HMI and let the
controller operate the vaporizer to control the discharge temperature, thus
allowing the operator to focus on rate and pressure control. The system is
available on the full range of models of NOV Hydra Rig Direct Fired Nitrogen
Vaporizers and can be included on new build units or retrofit onto existing units
with NOV Hydra Rig Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizers.

Special attention was given to the design of the operators control panel.
Operation of the unit has been simplified without reducing any of the systems
integrated control functions. With foresight gained from years of field experience,
the functional, accessible layout of all components contributes to the overall
efficiency, operator control, and maintenance.

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1.9 180,000 scfh Trailer mounted nitrogen pump with Merlin Control System

FEATURES
Automatically maintains operator preset discharge temperature
Automatic fuel and fan control improves vaporizer efficiency
Built in data acquisition system
Auto re-ignition on flame out
Built in self-diagnostics
Remote monitoring

BENEFITS
Reduces temperature variations during rate and/or pressure changes
Provides cleaner emissions and improved fuel efficiency
Provides data for job analysis and customer reports
System monitors for flame out and reacts quickly to maintain preset temperature
Pinpoints problem area and provides potential solutions
Safety warnings and system shutdown to protect critical components
Reduces costly repairs and downtime
Provides real time data to control center and/or office location.

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1.10 180,000 scfh Nitrogen Pump and Vaporizer Systems

1.11 Automated Pump, Tank and Data Acquisition Systems


Auto Tank Pressure Control, Auto Boost Pump Prime, Auto Boost Pump Control,
Data Acquisition System and Live Data Stream

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1.12 Nitrogen/Fluid Combination pumping unit


Options include Chemical additive system, Fluid tab divider, remote control and a selection of different
configuration of open top tanks.

The NOV Hydra Rig Nitrogen Fluid combination pumping unit is trailer mounted,
combination fluid and nitrogen pumping unit. The fluid sides of the unit consists of an
independent power unit, triplex pump and 10 barrel tank, (2) centrifugal and discharge
plumbing. The nitrogen side of the unit consists of independent power unit, Ln2 storage
tank, nitrogen boost pump, nitrogen triplex pump, water bath vaporizer, exhaust vaporizer
and discharge manifolding. Both nitrogen and fluid pump are controlled from a common,
climate controlled cabin on unit. Both nitrogen and fluid pump can be run independently or
simultaneously.
General
Climate controlled operators cabin
Maintenance friendly design
Drop deck design
Fluid system
10 bbl. Open top fluid tank
Capable of pressures up to 15,000 psi.
Capable of flow rates up to 12 gpm.(500 gpm)
Actuated valves allow for system control from operators cabin for both pumps.
Nitrogen system
Non-fired nitrogen vaporization system utilizing proprietary exhaust and water bath
vaporizers.
Liquid nitrogen storage tank
Capable of pressures up to 15,000 psi.
Capable of flow rates from 12,000 to 180,000 scfh.
Equipped with storage accommodations for treating iron

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1.12.1 840,000 scfh Chassis Mounted Unit


The unit provides a condensed footprint that makes it an excellent choice for hard to access
locations. This unit is ideal for Frac applications or any situation where a high flow rate is
required

Unit Orientation: The pumping unit is fabricated on a tractor chassis. The unit
consists of a tractor complete with a main engine, an auxiliary engine, a
transmission, a reduction/drop box, a triplex nitrogen pump, a nitrogen boost
pump, a direct fired vaporizer, hydraulics, a nitrogen storage tank and all
necessary piping and controls.

Pump Specifications
Cold End Size 2.0" 2.5" 2.875"
Maximum Rate (scfh) 415,200 648,720 857,940
Maximum Pressure (psi) 15,000 15,000 11,000

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CHASSIS:
Customer preference can be manufactured on any major brand of truck chassis

VAPORIZER SPECIFICATIONS:
Hydra Rig DF 840 vaporizer
Rated to 15,000 psi
Includes single dial vaporizer control for ease of operation
CONTROLS AND UNIT OPERATION:
Ground Control is standard
Merlin Vaporizer Automation control system available

1.12.2 Down-to-Earth Engineering


Down-to-earth oilfield engineering is what made Hydra Rig the worlds largest
manufacturer of coiled tubing equipment. And that same down-to-earth
engineering is at work for you in our nitrogen pumping systems.
No matter how they are used, these nitrogen pumping systems will meet the
toughest standards of oilfield performance, simply because they have more
oilfield tough in their design than any other system on the market.

1.12.3 Latest Technology


NOV offers the latest technology in both fired and non-fired designs (see figures
below).

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1.12.4 180,000 SCFH CHASSIS MOUNTED NITROGEN UNIT;


Unit orientation: The pumping unit is mounted on a tractor chassis complete with main engine,
transmission, reduction/drop box, triplex nitrogen pump, boost pump nonfired hot water bath
vaporizer an exhaust vaporizer, hydraulics, nitrogen storage tanks and all necessary piping and
controls.

Cold End Size (in /mm) 1.25/ 31.75 1.625 / 41.275


Maximum Rate (scfh / m3/hour) 90,000 / 2548 180,000 / 5097
Maximum Pressure (psi / mpa) 15,000 15,000

1.12.5 Performance and Precision


From the addition of field iron racks to the simple accessibility of its components,
oilfield engineering is evident in every aspect of the design and operation of
these units. The result is reliable performance dividends that the customer can
depend on. These are some of the good reasons how down-to-earth, oil field
engineering can benefit the customer.

1.12.6 Basic Design


The standard features of the Nitrogen Pump and Vaporizer Systems are also
available in trailer mounted units as well as skid and truck mounted. Standard
systems are available from 60,000 SCFH to 1,000,000 SCFH, in both fired and
heat recovery vaporization designs. Models NP600 and NP200 Nitrogen Triplex
Pumps utilize low friction roller bearings and a dry sump lubrication system to
operate at 0-900 RPM, significantly extending the systems range.

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1.12.7 1,000,000 scfh Trailer Mounted Nitrogen Unit


The NOV Hydra Rig 1,000,000 scfh Trailer Mounted unit provides a platform
for super high-rate flows. Its high volume capabilities allow for reduced equipment
requirements on large volume jobs. The chassis is made to order trailer based on
customer selected options. 1,000,000 scfh / 15,000 MAWP: Trailer mounted unit
employs a 1,000 HP engine, a 2,000 gallon nitrogen tank and NOV Hydra Rig's
1200K vaporizer. DF 1200 is capable of vaporizing up to 1,200,000 scfh.
Ground control station is shown with centralized controls for unit operation.

Pump Specifications
RATES AND PRESSURES @ 900 RPM
Cold End 2.00 / 50.80 2.52 / 64.00 2.875 / 3.00 / 76.20 3.25 / 82.55
Size (in / mm) 73.03
Maximum 415,200 / 659,400 / 858,200 / 934,200 / 1,096,380 /
Rate (scfh / 11,753 18,610 24,300 26,443 31,034
m/hr.)
Maximum 15,000 / 103 15,000 / 103 11,200 / 77 10,000 / 69 8,800 / 61
Pressure (psi
/ mpa)

VAPORIZER SPECIFICATIONS:
Model DF 1200 vaporizer
Rated to 15,000 PSI
Includes single dial vaporizer control for ease of operation

CONTROLS AND UNIT OPERATION:


Standard: Ground Control
Optional: Elevated control stand, climate controlled operators cabin
Merlin Vaporizer Automation control system available

UNIT ORIENTATION:
The pumping unit is fabricated on a drop deck trailer. The unit consists of a
trailer complete with a main engine, auxiliary engine, transmission, triplex
nitrogen pump, nitrogen boost pump, direct fired vaporizer, hydraulics,
nitrogen storage tank and all necessary piping and controls.

1.13 Boost Pump General Features


NOV Hydra Rig manufactures four boost pumps sized perfectly to meet the
supply requirements:
Range of cold ends from the low flow 1.25" through to high demand 3.25"
1.5" x 2.5" x 6" pump provides the necessary flow and pressure for outputs up to
540K scfh
2" x 3" x 6" pump provides the necessary flow and pressure for outputs up to
1000K scfh
2" x 4" x 6" pump provides the necessary flow and pressure for outputs up to
1000K scfh

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3" x 4" x 8.5" pump provides the necessary flow and pressure for high rate bulk
transfer or multiple unit supply
Installed on NOV Hydra Rig equipment and also compatible with other
manufacturers worldwide
Design of our boost encompasses the reliability of field proven components
together with unique concepts
Double Lip Seal and Replaceable Sleeve together ensure the operator a
reliable, user friendly pump
Easy to maintain in the field without any need for special tools, which minimizes
downtime and reduces repair costs
Especially effective when used with Hydra Rig power ends and cold ends,
providing a total cryogenic package for most nitrogen pumping applications.

1.14 Cryogenic Components Cold Ends

NOV Hydra Rig offers a range of cryogenic cold ends specifically designed to
complement our NP200 power end (Triplex). The units are also compatible with
most other leading manufacturers' power ends using a 1.38" stroke. In addition to
the NP200 cold end range, NOV Hydra Rig offers a range of larger cryogenic cold
ends specifically designed for use with NP1000/16000 Power Ends. These units are
also compatible with most other leading manufacturers' power ends using 2.00" and
2.25" stroke. Large cryogenic cold ends used for high flow and pressure

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applications, such as nitrified fracturing, foam cement and pipeline pigging. NOV
Hydra Rig offers cold ends for the NP1000/16000 in a range of sizes from 1," to 3.5",
output flows from 360,000 scfh to 420,000 scfh and working pressure from 7,000 psi
to 15,000 psi. All NOV Hydra Rig cold ends are available with DNV approval and
designed to comply with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (P.E.D.).

1.15 Nitrogen Pumping Unit Service Department

With the addition of a service truck and trailer (below and above right), the NOV
Hydra Rig facility at Duncan, Oklahoma (above left) now offers field service at
customer locations. Services offered include repair or rebuild of vaporizers, pumps,
and other nitrogen equipment, repair of hydraulic systems, etc.

OVERVIEW:
The NOV Hydra Rig Nitrogen Division occupies a 54,000-sq. ft. facility in
Duncan, Oklahoma. This division of National Oilwell Varco specializes in the
manufacture and rebuild of both fired and heat recovery nitrogen pumping
equipment as well as combination fluid and nitrogen pumpers used for coiled tubing
support.
The NOV Hydra Rig Nitrogen Division manufactures an extensive line of nitrogen
pumping equipment for oilfield and industrial service. Nitrogen vaporizers designed
and manufactured include heated water nitrogen vaporizers, exhaust-to-nitrogen
vaporizers and diesel fired nitrogen vaporizers. High pressure pumps specifically
designed by the Nitrogen Division are manufactured in 200, 400, 1000 and 1600
horsepower sizes. All nitrogen pumps are capable of 15,000 PSI when equipped
with suitable cold ends.

One major objective is to provide "best-in-class" nitrogen pumping equipment to the


industry. Nitrogen pumping equipment is only as reliable as the components used in
its manufacture. That is the primary reason that NOV Hydra Rig designs and
manufactures the majority of its cryogenic components internally.

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This operational model also offers our customers one point of responsibility one
phone call for spares parts, technical support, and maintenance.

QUALITY COMMITMENT:
The Nitrogen Division in Duncan, Oklahoma has built a reputation of providing top
quality equipment to our customers' worldwide. Certified in-house Quality Assurance
programs follow the products before, during and after construction. NOV Hydra Rig
has proven that it stands behind that equipment with qualified engineering, technical,
and service support, gaining a reputation envied by our competitors. The ability to
meet our customers' needs with both standard and specialized equipment has kept
our product line innovative and expanding. It is this commitment to our customers'
success that keeps NOV Hydra Rig at the leading edge.

SERVICE:
The Nitrogen Division builds and services, liquid nitrogen pump and vaporization
systems as well as cryogenic components such as high pressure pumps, cold ends,
boost pumps and vaporizers. The service department offers hydraulic trouble
shooting and repair of systems along with field training on nitrogen equipment and
operation. NOV Hydra Rig also offer in-house training at our facility on nitrogen
equipment and operation.

Services Offered
Repair or rebuild vaporizers, nitrogen boost pumps and cold ends
Repair of hydraulic systems
Hydraulic trouble shooting
Field training on nitrogen equipment and operation
Customer in house training on nitrogen equipment and operation

1.16 Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizer

These units have been in production at the NOV Hydra Rig facility in Duncan,
Oklahoma since 1999. Compact design and exceptional performance are the key to
market acceptance of our Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizers. The same technology is
embodied in all NOV Hydra Rig direct fired vaporizers, enabling us to apply new
innovations across the product line, rather than being platform specific. Our line of
Direct Fired Nitrogen Vaporizers satisfies the Market Requirement for Vaporization
rates up to 1,200,000 scfh.

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STANDARD FEATURES: Protects heat exchanger from over


Proprietary diesel-fired burner assembly temperature
Propane assisted ignition system Burns clean; tested to CAB standard
Integrated fuel/fan controls for simplified High Air Flow Design
unit operation Uses ambient heat to improve efficiency
Easy to maintain: Fan Speed Sensor
Hinged Fan Assembly for easy access Quenches flame
Single Igniter for simplicity Single Combustion Chamber
12 volt system Single Flame Detector
Reduced component count Inherent Flame Relight design
Stainless steel construction Four (4) viewports
Quench Air System Flame sensor
More uniform temperature increases Two (2) Temperature Sensors
vaporizer efficiency Standard 15,000 psi Heat Exchanger

OPTIONS:
Fuel pre-heater system
Flameout indicator

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1.16.1 The Nitrogen pumping unit service department

OVERVIEW:
The NOV Hydra Rig Nitrogen Division occupies a 54,000-sq. ft. facility in Duncan,
Oklahoma. This division of National Oilwell Varco specializes in the manufacture and
rebuild of both fired and heat recovery nitrogen pumping equipment as well as combination
fluid and nitrogen pumpers used for coiled tubing support.
The NOV Hydra Rig Nitrogen Division manufactures an extensive line of nitrogen pumping
equipment for oilfield and industrial service. Nitrogen vaporizers designed and
manufactured include heated water nitrogen vaporizers, exhaust-to-nitrogen vaporizers and
diesel fired nitrogen vaporizers. High pressure pumps specifically designed by the Nitrogen
Division are manufactured in 200, 400, 1000 and 1600 horsepower sizes. All nitrogen
pumps are capable of 15,000 PSI when equipped with suitable cold ends.

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One major objective is to provide "best-in-class" nitrogen pumping equipment to the


industry. Nitrogen pumping equipment is only as reliable as the components used in its
manufacture. That is the primary reason that NOV Hydra Rig designs and manufactures
the majority of its cryogenic components internally.
This operational model also offers our customers one point of responsibility one phone
call for spares parts, technical support, and maintenance.
QUALITY COMMITMENT:
The Nitrogen Division in Duncan, Oklahoma has built a reputation of providing top quality
equipment to our customers' worldwide. Certified in-house Quality Assurance programs
follow the products before, during and after construction. NOV Hydra Rig has proven that it
stands behind that equipment with qualified engineering, technical, and service support,
gaining a reputation envied by our competitors. The ability to meet our customers' needs
with both standard and specialized equipment has kept our product line innovative and
expanding. It is this commitment to our customers' success that keeps NOV Hydra Rig at
the leading edge.
SERVICE:
The Nitrogen Division builds and services, liquid nitrogen pump and vaporization systems
as well as cryogenic components such as high pressure pumps, cold ends, boost pumps
and vaporizers. The service department offers hydraulic trouble shooting and repair of
systems along with field training on nitrogen equipment and operation. NOV Hydra Rig also
offer in-house training at our facility on nitrogen equipment and operation.
Services Offered
Repair or rebuild vaporizers, nitrogen boost pumps and cold ends
Repair of hydraulic systems
Hydraulic trouble shooting
Field training on nitrogen equipment and operation
Customer in house training on nitrogen equipment and operation

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1.17 Liquid Nitrogen Storage Tanks

1.17.1 Typical Offshore and Land Based


LN 2 storage tanks are offered for both offshore and land operation. LN 2 tanks are in operation
around the world and are specifically designed for oilfield service.

1.17.2 Typical 2,000 Gallon Offshore Tank


Protective lift frame; front and rear fill connections; ISO corner locks; 4 leg
sling assembly

1.17.3 Offshore Tank with general piping and connections arrangement

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1.17.4 General Features


Nominal 2,000 US gallon capacity
43 PSI maximum working pressure
Super Insulation
Service temperature -320F

1.17.5 Typical 4,000 Gallon Portable/Offshore Tank


Protective lift frame; topside access ladders; front and rear fill
connections; ISO corner locks

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1.17.6 Typical Hydraulic Schematic

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1.18 Vaporization Process


Heat generated by the unit (engine water, hydraulic oil, and lube oil) is
transferred to a coolant mixture via the following:
Lube heat exchanger
Hydraulic heat exchanger
Engine heat exchanger
On larger units (360k or bigger), an optional exhaust heat recovery is also
utilized. However, these are not found on the 90k and 180k units.
And finally, some heat is generated by a water brake (commonly referred to as
the "dyno" or dynamometer). The water brake consists of friction plates (rotors
and stators). As the coolant mixture passes through these friction plates, it
becomes hotter.
The coolant mixture is a mixture of water and glycol. A larger percentage of
water is used in desert locations where freezing is not a problem. Please note
that the ratio of water to glycol will affect the performance of the unit. If you alter
this ratio, your unit will perform differently. This is because water transfers heat
better than glycol. The glycol is required to prevent components from rusting and
the water from freezing.
The heat from the coolant mixture must now be transferred to the nitrogen. This
takes place at the heat exchanger commonly referred to as the vaporizer.
Consider the coolant tank as the starting point while tracking the coolant mixture
around the unit. The coolant mixture is taken from the tank, into the water pump
to be pumped to the vaporizer (entering in a "heated" state but leaving in a much
"cooler" state). Next, the coolant mixture flows through the lube, hydraulic, and
engine heat exchangers. From there, fluid can be diverted to the water brake
(during operations) and finally back to the coolant tank.

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1.18.1 Simple View of the Coolant Flow Path

1.18.2 Water Pump (Coolant Pump)


The Water Pump is a positive displacement vane pump which propels the
coolant mixture through the coolant circuit.

1.18.3 Vaporizer
The Vaporizer is the only point where heat is transferred to the nitrogen. Liquid
nitrogen enters the vaporizer (at approximately -320F) through a piece of
stainless tubing. Inside the vaporizer, the tubing is coiled tightly together so that
a large amount of tubing is inside. Nitrogen exits the vaporizer in a gaseous
state (maximum approximately 120F).
Also entering the vaporizer is the coolant mixture which floods the vaporizer and
flows around the tubing bundle at a pressure of 80 to 150 psig.
The gaseous N 2 temperature is controlled by:
Liquid N 2 flow rate through the triplex cold ends
Inlet coolant mixture temperature and flow rate This coolant loop
temperature is manually controlled to maintain a steady input to the vaporizer
between 100 to 140F (maximum 180F)

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This discharge gas is normally measured in SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per
Minute) or SCMM (Standard Cubic Meters per Minute) and shown on the control
panel as the Pump Rate. This "nitrogen discharge rate" is a calculated figure
using a magnetic pickup reading from the triplex (measuring the number of
strokes) multiplied by an efficiency factor (e.g., 87%), and displayed in SCFM or
SCMM. Note: There is no flow meter to monitor the exact amount of gas being
pumped into the well.

1.18.4 Heat Exchangers


There are two basic types of heat exchangers utilized:
Shell and tube heat exchanger (on new units)
Plate heat exchanger (on older units).
Both function virtually the same. A heat exchanger normally has two isolated
fluid paths. As two different temperature fluids flow through these paths, the
higher temperature fluid gives up heat to the fluid at the lower temperature.
In the shell and tube type heat exchanger, the colder fluid flows through a tube.
This tube is tightly wrapped inside the shell. The warmer fluid enters the shell
and surrounds the tube. Consequently, the fluid inside the tube becomes
warmer.

1.18.4.1 Lube Heat Exchanger


When the coolant mixture leaves the vaporizer, it passes through the lube heat
exchanger. The coolant mixture is cooler than the lubrication oil passing by it.
Consequently, a percentage of the heat from the lubrication oil is transferred into
the coolant mixture. Its main purpose is to control the lube oil tank temperature.
In cold weather, a reverse heat exchange is possible; the coolant loop (warmed
by use of the water brake) transfers heat to the lube oil. This is desirable
because it allows the unit to warm up faster, thus being able to start operations
sooner.

1.18.4.2 Hydraulic Heat Exchanger


After leaving the lube heat exchanger, the coolant mixture enters the hydraulic
heat exchanger. This allows the coolant mixture to absorb additional heat
created from the hydraulic circuit. However, the hydraulic heat exchanger's main
purpose is to control the hydraulic tank temperature.
In cold weather, a reverse heat exchange is possible; the coolant mixture
(containing fluid warmed by use of the water brake) transfers heat into the
hydraulic oil. This is desirable because it allows a cold unit to warm up faster,
thus starting operations sooner.

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1.18.5 Water Plumbing Installation

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1.18.6 Typical Coolant Schematic

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1.18.7 Engine Heat Exchanger


The Engine Heat Exchanger is not the radiator.
After leaving the hydraulic heat exchanger, the coolant mixture enters the engine
heat exchanger. This allows the coolant mixture to absorb additional heat
created by the engine "cooling" system (radiator water). It also helps control the
engine temperature. The amount of heat transfer varies depending on the
horsepower draw or the engine load.
If the engine has to work hard, it will generate more heat in the radiator system.
This heat is transferred to the coolant mixture and transferred again to heat the
LN 2 to a gas.
For example, the engine is capable of producing 540 horsepower. If you are
pumping at maximum rate and 1,000 psi discharge pressure, you may only use
200 horsepower to drive the triplex. Little heat is created by the engine.
Therefore, the water brake will have to be used.
However, if you are pumping at maximum rate and 10,000 psi discharge
pressure, you may use 350 horsepower to drive the triplex. More heat is created
by the engine. Consequently, the water brake is used less or not at all.

1.18.8 Exhaust Heat Recovery


Exhaust Heat Recovery is optional on larger units.
Some larger nitrogen units (360,000 SCFH and larger) may use water cooled
manifolds or an exhaust heat exchanger or both. By use of secondary or direct
heat exchangers, the exhaust heat is transferred into the coolant fluid.

1.18.9 Power Control Valve and Back Pressure Valve


The "Back Pressure Valve" is set at Hydra Rig for maximum performance and
should not be adjusted. It is set to the required pressure to feed the water brake
via the "Power Control Valve." It also allows the coolant mixture to go directly
back to the coolant tank.
Coolant mixture going to the water brake is controlled by the "Power Control
Valve." If the "Power Control Valve" is closed, the water brake is still lubricated
with the coolant mixture through the "Bleed Water" line.
Remember, the water pump (or coolant pump) is a positive displacement vane
pump. If it is running and both valves are closed, something will fail.

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1.18.10 Water Brake


Hydra Rig commonly refers to the water brake as the "dynamometer," "dyno," or
"hydromatic brake." These terms are often used interchangeably.
The water brake consists of "friction plates" or rotors and stators. When the
engine is running, the rotors are always turning. The speed of the rotors is
controlled by the speed of the engine. However, the operator should not adjust
the engine rpm up and down but rather open and close the "Power Control
Valve" to control the heat of the coolant mixture.

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1.18.11 Typical Hydraulic Schematic

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1.19 Nitrogen Tanks


Nitrogen tanks consist of two tanks (a stainless steel inner and carbon steel outer
tank). The tank piping is made of stainless steel while the fittings are made of
cast bronze.
Insulation is placed between the two tanks to keep the inner vessel as cold as
possible. The insulation is either perlite or super-insulated material. You will find
old tanks that used perlite. New tanks are manufactured with the super-insulated
material (40 layers of fiber paper and aluminum).
A vacuum is pulled between the tanks to get rid of all the air. Air will transfer
heat. The vacuum level can be checked at any time using a special electronic
gauge which measures in microns. The vacuum is pulled by connecting a
vacuum machine to the evacuation valve on the front of the tank.

1.19.1 Hydra Rig Nitrogen Tank

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1.19.2 Acceptable Vacuum Levels


Perlite-Insulated Tanks
o 200 microns or less while cold (with LN 2 in the tank),
o 800 microns or less while warm (without LN 2 in the tank)
Super-Insulated Tanks
o 50 microns or less while cold (with LN 2 in the tank)
o 200 microns or less while warm (without LN 2 in the tank)
Low pressure tanks will typically lose about 0.75% of LN 2 per day.

1.19.3 Pressure Ratings


Most inner vessels are not designed to withstand external pressure (i.e., 2 psi
may be enough to collapse the inner vessel). The inner vessel is made of
stainless steel. It is pressure tested to 1 times working pressure.
During a job, a common low pressure tank pressure should be maintained at
approximately 30 psig. This can be monitored by using the pressure gauge
labelled "TANK PRESSURE". The main pop-off attached to the tank is set by
Hydra Rig at 43 psig. There are also two burst discs valves (one is optional)
attached to the tank which are set at 53 psig as an added safety feature. These
burst discs are made of aluminum and plastic. While transporting the tank, the
road relief valve is used. It is set at 15 psig.
The small curved relief valves on the fill, fill/drain, and recirculation lines are set
at 200 psi.

1.19.4 Filling the Tank


How full do you fill the tank? Connect your N 2 supply to one of the fill lines,
open the trycock, and begin filling the N 2 tank. Stop filling the tank when LN 2
comes out of the trycock. When this happens, the tank is approximately 95% full.
This leaves room for gas expansion.
A gauge on the tank labelled TANK CONTENTS will show the amount of LN 2 in
the tank measured in "inches of water." A chart is placed on the tank to convert
this measurement to gallons. To use this gauge correctly, the three small valves
below the gauge (Equalizer Valve, Liquid Valve, and Gas Valve) should all be
open.

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1.19.5 Nitrogen Tank

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1.19.6 Saturated LN2


While sitting idle, the LN 2 in a tank will gradually absorb heat and generate
pressures up to the relief valve setting. This will slightly increase the temperature
of the LN 2, causing vapor to coexist within the LN 2 . As the tank becomes hotter,
the pressure increases, the LN 2 becomes hotter, and more LN 2 changes to a
gas. This gas remains trapped within the LN 2 -referred to as saturated nitrogen.
Saturated nitrogen means that gas and liquid are in equilibrium at a certain
pressure and temperature; it may be a lot of gas or it may be a little gas
depending on the pressure and temperature.
There is another reason the LN 2 becomes hotter in the tank. Heat is introduced
into the LN 2 while it is being circulated with the boost pump (due to friction and
piping in direct contact with the atmosphere). Consequently, even more LN 2
changes into a gaseous state. Actually, the warmer gas coexists within the
colder LN 2 ; this is what we refer to as "hot LN 2 ."
When the "hot LN 2 " is recirculated back into the top of the tank, you may hear
someone say that "air bubbles enter the tank." It is not air, but nitrogen gas
entering the tank.
The saturated LN 2 will create problems trying to keep the boost pump and cold
ends primed. You will have to blow down the tank (vent all the gas off), and then
pressure up the tank again to get rid of the vapor trapped in the LN 2 . The
illustration below may help you understand.
"Boiling nitrogen" or "LN 2 boiling" refers to the condition when the surrounding
area is warmer than the LN 2 . While the LN 2 tries to cool the surrounding area it
looks like a pot of water boiling on the stove.

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1.19.7 Inside a Nitrogen Tank

1.20 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting

(A) Engine Starter Not Turning Over


Probable Cause Remedy
No Air Pressure Check system air pressure
Faulty Start Button Insure start valve is pressurizing diaphragm valve
Check Diaphragm Valve Remove air pilot line and push start button. If good air pressure and volume
(Dump Valve to Starter) to be comes through pilot line, re-install pilot line. Remove supply hose to starter,
sure it is opening and deliver- push start button. If diaphragm valve opens and discharges large air
ing air supply to starter volume, the valve is all right
If you are sure starter is getting good air volume and pressure, but starter
Starter seized
will not turn, remove and repair or replace as necessary.

(B) Engine Cranks But Will Not Start


Probable Cause Remedy
Slow cranking speed Refer to A
Using starting aid (ether) below 15F. Check engine manual to be certain
Low ambient temperature
ether starting is approved
Check fuel tank level, fuel filters, fuel lines, valves, supply and return, and
Engine not getting fuel
fuel pump
Check Normal Kill cylinder to
Repair or remove and replace normal kill cylinder
see if it is stuck in Kill position
Throttle linkage binding Check linkage and make adjustments as necessary
Poor quality fuel, incorrect fuel
Drain fuel, change filters, and replace fuel
or water in fuel
Improper oil viscosity Drain oil, change filters, and replace oil
Check the Emergency Kill
Flapper to see if it is in closed Reset Emergency Kill Flapper.
position.

(C) Engine Misfiring


Probable Cause Remedy
Poor quality fuel Drain fuel, change filters, and replace fuel
Air in fuel system Check for air in fuel system mainly on suction side of fuel pump.
Broken or leaking fuel lines Check for fuel leaks and replace defective parts
Restrictions in fuel lines Check fuel flow. Replace fuel lines as necessary
Low fuel pressure Check fuel level and kinks in fuel lines. Change fuel filters
Defective fuel injectors or
Contact authorized engine repair representative
pump

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(D) Engine Stalls


Probable Cause Remedy
Fuel tank vent plugged Check tank vent and repair as necessary
Low fuel supply Refer to C, Item 5
High parasitic loading (e.g.,
LN 2 pump hydraulic pump Check for engine loading during starting
speed control.)

(E) Erratic Engine Speed


Probable Cause Remedy
Air leaks in fuel suction line Check for air leaks and repair as necessary
Throttle linkage loose Check throttle linkage
Engine governor problems Contact authorized repair representative

(F) Low Power


Probable Cause Remedy
Restrictions in air intake sys- Check air pressure in air inlet manifold. Replace air filter and make
tem, clogged air filter necessary repairs to air system
Poor fuel quality Refer to B, Item 6
Damaged or restrictions in
Check linkage, adjust or replace if necessary
throttle linkage
Emergency Kill Flapper par-
Check Flapper, reset or repair as necessary
tially closed
Normal Kill cylinder partially
Reset cylinder or Repair as needed
extended

(G) Engine Over-Heating


Probable Cause Remedy
Coolant level low Determine cause, replace defective parts and replace coolant
Expansion tank cap Replace expansion cap
Defective thermostat Replace thermostat
Defective coolant pump Replace coolant pump
Fan not engaging fully (full
Inspect fan speed. Repair as necessary
RPM) or turning

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(H) Low Engine Oil Pressure


Probable Cause Remedy
Coolant level low Determine cause, replace defective parts and replace coolant
Expansion tank cap Replace expansion cap
Defective thermostat Replace thermostat
Defective coolant pump Replace coolant pump
Fan not engaging fully (full
Inspect fan speed. Repair as necessary
RPM) or turning
Oil leakage, low level Check for leaks and repair as necessary
Incorrect oil viscosity Drain oil, change filters and replace oil
Defective oil gauge Replace oil gauge
Clogged oil filter Replace oil and filters
Defective oil pump Contact authorized repair representative

(I) Oil In Coolant


Probable Cause Remedy
Defective oil coolant core or
Contact authorized repair representative
seals
Blown head gasket Contact authorized repair representative

(J) Coolant in Oil


Probable Cause Remedy
Defective oil coolant core or
Contact authorized repair representative
seals
Blown head gasket Contact authorized repair representative
Defective coolant pump Contact authorized repair representative
Cylinder sleeve seals failure Contact authorized repair representative

(K) Low Flow Rate To Unit From LN 2 Tank


Probable Cause Remedy
Low tank pressure Increase tank pressure
Supply valve not fully open Open valve fully on LN 2 tank and skid
Return valve closed or partially
Open valve fully on LN 2 tank and skid
closed
Suction strainer on LN2 tank
Clean or replace strainer
clogged
Suction strainer on skid
Clean or replace strainer
clogged
Clogged piping or transfer
Inspect piping and hoses to insure free flow
hoses

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(L) Moisture In Stem Packing


Probable Cause Remedy
Moisture in Stem Packing Thaw valve and dry out packing

(M) Boost Pump Will Not Turn


Probable Cause Remedy
Hydraulic valve closed at boost
Open valve
pump
Turn the shaft coupling with a pipe wrench. Do not use excessive force. If
Locked up from ice formation
pump will not turn, thaw out and dry out pump
Suction valve to hydraulic
Open valve
pump closed
Disconnect motor supply hose. Plug hose and cap motor. Test pump
Defective hydraulic pump pressure if pump does not build pressure. Check system relief valve. If relief
valve is all right, remove and replace pump

(N) Triplex Pump Will Not Rotate


Probable Cause Remedy
Over pressure shutdown is
Reset to operating position
active or tripped
No hydraulic charge pump Check flushing valve by plugging off outlet flushing valve. If pressure is
pressure good, remove flushing valve and repair or replace as required
Check pump drive coupling to
insure drive components are Replace damaged or broken drive coupling
not slipping off input shaft
Check main system pressure. Remove Triplex dump drive coupling. Attempt to rotate Triplex. If hydraulic
If pressure rises above motor and reduction gear box rotate, the Triplex is locked up. If the motor
required to drive Triplex, one of and reduction gear box do not turn, remove motor from the gear box and
the following is locked up: attempt to rotate motor. If the hydraulic motor rotates, the gear box should
Hydraulic drive motor, Reduc- be repaired or replaced. If the hydraulic motor does not turn, repair or
tion gear box or Triplex pump replace the hydraulic motor

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(O) Water Brake Will Not Build Heat In The Coolant Circuit
Probable Cause Remedy
Check hydraulic drive system. If hydraulic system is turning pump, but pump
Coolant pump is not operating
is not building pressure, repair or replace coolant pump
Check return filter for blockage. Check lines for obstructions. Check back
Coolant pressure too high and
pressure system for closed gate valve or malfunctioning back pressure relief
coolant flow output low
valve
Open water brake load valve enough to reduce RPM of engine by 200 RPM.
Water brake inlet valve is not
If it is not possible to reduce engine RPM by 200 RPM, remove water brake
supplying the water brake
supply hose and measure supply flow at maximum engine RPM. Flow must
properly
be 25 GPM to generate full load at the water brake
After checking all of the above,
Contact Hydra Rig Customer Service Department for technical support
unit will not perform

1.21 Properties and Uses


For properties and uses of Nitrogen, please see the General Information section
of this handbook.

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2 NITROGEN

2.1 Calculations
The density of nitrogen at a given temperature and pressure is:

Once the constants and unit conversions are included, this equation can be
written for English units as:

In metric units it can be written as:

These densities are the "volume factors" in the following tables. Note that both of
these densities express the weight or mass as a "standard" volume. Standard
conditions are defined as atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia or 1 atm) and 60 F or
15 C. SCF stands for standard cubic feet and scm or sm stands for standard
cubic meters. The Pressure vs. Depth for a Well Filled with Nitrogen graphs were
based upon a surface temperature of 70 F (21C) and a gradient of 1.6 F per
100 ft. (2.92 C per 100 meters). Variations in the well temperature from these
values make relatively small changes in the pressures. The following examples
show how the graphs in this section can be used to solve nitrogen problems.

2.1.1 Example 1 E
How much nitrogen is required to fill a 12,500 ft. reel of 2" OD X 0.156" wall CT
to 3,500 psia at an average temperature of 75 F?
1. From the Coiled Tubing Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this size 2.768 bbls/1,000 ft.
2. Multiply this value by 12.5 thousand feet to obtain a total volume of 34.6 bbls
3. Using the Volume Factor - Medium Pressure graph, read the volume factor as
1,200 SCF/bbl.
4. Multiply the volume of the reel by the volume factor to obtain 41,520 SCF.
This is the amount of nitrogen needed.

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2.1.2 Example 1 M
How much nitrogen is required to fill a 3,810 m reel of 50.8mm OD X 3.962mm
wall CT to 24,100 kPa at an average temperature of 24 C?
1. From the Coiled Tubing Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this size 1.4438 liters/m which is the same as 1.4438 m/1,000m.
2. Multiply this value by 3.81 thousand meters to obtain a total volume of 5.5m
3. Using the Volume Factor - Medium Pressure graph, read the volume factor as
221 scm/m.
4. Multiply the volume of the reel by the volume factor to obtain 1,215 scm. This
is the amount of nitrogen needed.

2.1.3 Example 2 E
The same reel of CT as Example 1 E is being used to place nitrogen in a well.
The CT will be run to 7,500 ft. Nitrogen will be pumped until the pressure at the
end of the CT reaches 3,500 psia, filling both the well tubular, which is 3.5" 12.95
lb/ft. EU tubing and the CT.
1. From the Tubing Sizes, Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this size tubing as 7.35 bbls/1,000 ft.
2. Multiply this value by the depth of 7.5 thousand feet to obtain a well volume of
55.125 bbls.
3. From the Coiled Tubing Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this coiled tubing size as 2.768 bbls/1,000 ft. and the external
displacement as 3.886 bbls/1,000 ft.
4. Multiply these values by 7.5 thousand feet to obtain an internal volume of
20.76 bbls and the external displacement as 29.145 bbls.
5. The total volume in the well to be filled with nitrogen is 55.125 - 29.145 +
20.76 = 46.74 bbls.
6. From the Pressure vs. Depth for a Well Filled with Nitrogen graph, find the
point where the pressure is 3,500 psia at 7,500 ft. of depth. Follow the curves
upward to read an approximate surface pressure of 2,750 psia.
7. The average pressure is (3,500 + 2,750)/2 = 3,125 psia.
8. The estimated bottom hole temperature is 70 F + 1.6 * 75 hundred feet =
190 F. The average temperature is (190 + 70)/2 = 130 F.
9. The Volume Factor for this average temperature and pressure is
approximately 950 scf/bbl.
10. Multiplying this volume factor by the well volume from step 5 yields a nitrogen
requirement of 44,400 scf.

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11. For the remaining 5,000 ft. of CT on the reel assume the pressure will be the
same as the wellhead pressure which is 2,750 psia, and the temperature is
75 F. Using the Volume Factor - Medium Pressure graph, read the volume
factor as 990 scf/bbl. The volume of this section of the coiled tubing is 2.768
* 5 thousand feet = 13.84 bbls.
12. Multiply the volume of this section by the volume factor to obtain 13,700 scf.
13. The total nitrogen required is 13,700 + 44,400 = 58,100 scf.

2.1.4 Example 2 M
The same reel of CT as Example 1 M is being used to place nitrogen in a well.
The CT will be run to 2,285 m. Nitrogen will be pumped until the pressure at the
end of the CT reaches 24,100 kPa, filling both the well tubular, which is 88.9mm
19.27 kg/m EU tubing and the CT.
1. From the Tubing Sizes, Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this size tubing as 3.832 liters/m which is the same as 3.832 m
per 1,000 meters.
2. Multiply this value by the depth of 2.285 thousand meters to obtain a well
volume of 8.756 m.
3. From the Coiled Tubing Volumes and Displacements table in the Pipe Sizes,
Volumes and Displacements section of this handbook, read the internal
volume for this coiled tubing size as 1.4438 liters/m and the external
displacement as 2.0268 liters/m.
4. Multiply these values by 2.285 thousand meters to obtain an internal volume
of 3.3 m and the external displacement as 4.631 m.
5. The total volume in the well to be filled with nitrogen is 8.756 - 4.631 + 3.3 =
7.425 m.
6. From the Pressure vs. Depth for a Well Filled with Nitrogen graph, find the
point where the pressure is 24,100 kPa at 2,285 m of depth. Follow the
curves upward to read an approximate surface pressure of approximately
19,000 kPa.
7. The average pressure is (24,100 + 19,000)/2 = 21,550 kPa.
8. The estimated bottom hole temperature is 21C + 2.92 * 2.2.85 hundred
meters = 88C. The average temperature is (88 + 21)/2 = 55C.
9. The Volume Factor for this average temperature and pressure is
approximately 170 sm/m.
10. Multiplying this volume factor by the well volume from step 5 yields a nitrogen
requirement of 1,262 sm.

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11. For the remaining 1,525 m of CT on the reel assume the pressure will be the
same as the wellhead pressure which is 1,900 kPa, and the temperature is
24 C. Using the Volume Factor - Medium Pressure graph, read the volume
factor as 175 sm/m. The volume of this section of the coiled tubing is
1.4438 * 1.525 thousand meters = 2.2 sm/m.
12. Multiply the volume of this section by the volume factor to obtain 385 sm.
13. The total nitrogen required is 385 + 1,262 = 1,647 sm.

2.2 Nomenclature
M = molecular weight of Nitrogen = 28.0134
P = absolute pressure (psi for English units, kPa for metric units)
R = gas constant (1545 ft. /lb/lb mole R - for English units, 0.08206 atm-
liters/gm mole K)
T = absolute temperature (F + 460 for English units, C + 273 for metric
units)
Z = compressibility factor from the following Nitrogen Compressibility Factor
curves
= density in weight or standard volume per unit volume

Note: For properties and uses of Nitrogen, please see the General Section of this
handbook.

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2.3 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor

2.3.1 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor (English)

2.3.2 Nitrogen Compressibility Factor (Metric)

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2.4 Volume Factor - Low Pressure

2.4.1 Volume Factor - Low Pressure (English)

2.4.2 Volume Factor - Low Pressure (Metric)

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2.4.3 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure

2.4.4 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure (English)

2.4.5 Volume Factor - Medium Pressure (Metric)

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2.5 Volume Factor - High Pressure

2.5.1 Volume Factor - High Pressure (English)

2.5.2 Volume Factor - High Pressure (Metric)

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2.6 Volume Factor - High Temperature

2.6.1 Volume Factor - High Temperature (English)

2.6.2 Volume Factor - High Temperature (Metric)

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2.7 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen

2.7.1 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen (English)

2.7.2 Pressure vs. Depth for Well Full of Nitrogen (Metric)

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