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CONCEPT STATEMENT:

Up until this point, students are expected to know general characteristics of atoms and the subatomic particles
including how different number of electrons can change the charge of the whole atom, protons define the identify
of elements (atomic number) and also possess a positive charge, and that neutrons do not have a charge but do
effect mass number and different isotopes of an element. In order to communicate the concepts of chemical
bonding correctly, it is important to describe further specialized characteristics of electrons energy levels and
electron configuration. Though using the Bohr model to demonstrate instruction based on energy levels and
electron configuration is not ideal due to how it is shown, it is an important first step in allowing for students to
become acclimated with viewing electrons, their behavior, and their organization differently.
LESSON OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to...
Describe how electrons are organized on atoms using a model
Explain what ions are by using knowledge of charge, and natural uncharged elements
STANDARDS ADDRESSED:

BIO.A.2.2.1: describe the parts of an atom IOT differentiate between elements


BIO 3.2.10.A1: Predict properties of elements using trends of the periodic table

RESOURCES/MATERIALS, SUPPLIES, HANDOUTS:


Filter paper/paper circles (sizes 9, 15, 20, 28) one of each size per group
Activity worksheet class set, provided
Colored Beads (red, black, & yellow) 20 each/group
Periodic Table class set
ADVANCED PREPARATION:
Priortoteachingthislesson,theinstructorshouldobtainandprepareallrelevantmaterials.Filterpapersshouldbetaped
toeachotherstartingwiththelargest(28)andattachingeachsmallerpaperinsuccessionwithtape.Labeleachfilter
paperwiththenumberofenergyleveltheyrepresent(9is1 stenergylevel,etc.).Also,theinstructorshouldprepare
whichelementstheywouldliketoexploreintheactivity.Itwouldbebesttoavoidusingtransitionmetalsbecauseofthe
differentwaythattheyorganizetheirelectrons,andalsotoavoidusingelementsbeyondperiod4ontheperiodictableso
thatexcessmaterialswouldnotneedtobeusedinthelesson.
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS:
Though the students are not manipulating objects that are chemically or physically hazardous, proper lab safety
needs to be followed. Concern for safety arises not from standard lab procedures, but because of issues that can
occur as a result of having many different materials at the students disposal for them to use. Students should be
keeping their hands to themselves and ensure that they are each receiving equal opportunity with using the
materials at their stations. Students should also be keeping track of their materials, and to make sure that they end
the class with the same number of pennies that they started. The instructor should enforce proper behavioral
expectations for students such as ensuring that students do not throw materials or draw on desks.

Type of Student Grouping: 4 students per group


Background Information for Teachers:

It is imperative for teachers to not only know correct information regarding subatomic particles and their roles
within an atom/element, but it is also important for instructors to be well informed with contemporary models of
electrons as well as how they are described in science. A majority of periodic tables describe mass number, and
atomic number each piece of information being associated with interpreting the number of subatomic particles in
an average atom of a given element. It is also important to understand that the Bohr model used in the majority of
schools at the early stages of scientific learning is good to visualize quantity of electrons, but not their behavior and
location within the atom. Using energy levels is helpful for students to see how many electrons occupy the general
space of an energy level and some students will see that the outer shell of most elements contains a maximum
of 2 for elements that are within groups 1 and 2, and 8 electrons maximum for elements on groups 13 and on (If
not including transition metals). It is not necessary to mention chemical bonding, reactions, or valence electrons at
this time but it is interesting to point out and should not be stifled if students come to this realization themselves.

New Terms to Understand:


Energy Level
o Scientific Definition: The possible locations around an atom where electrons having specific
energy values (quantum number) may be found
o Recommended Definition based on content level: Different sections around an atom that
electrons live on. Each energy level has a set number of electrons that can be there.

Electron Configuration
o Scientific Definition:the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular
orbitals
o Recommended Definition based on content level: A set of letters and numbers that describe
information about the general location, and the number of electrons that are typically found within
an element
ENGAGEMENT (Est. Time: 5
Minutes)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions

Initiate the lesson by asking What are the different parts of Anticipated Responses:
students what the parts of an an address? Street
address are. As students why it You may notice that we Number
is important to include your full normally write addresses in a Apartment
address, as well as to have it in specific order why do you City
that order. think it is important to write
addresses this way?

Show an example of an address It is important to write addresses this


on the board (possibly the way because they go from smallest to
address of the school) and state Take a look at this example of largest
that different parts of an an address on the board. We
address tells us different things know that different parts of a
about where a person might complete address tell us
live. different things about where They write it in a hierarchy
someone lives.

Connect the discussion about


information shown in an We know that it is important to include
address with electron every part of an address because each
configuration and how the two part tells us some different information
things are related. Though about where somebody may live.
students are not required to Anticipated Responses:
know what the electron Did you know that electrons have No
configuration completely something that is a lot like an address Its called an electron
describes about electron that they use with elements called an configuration
structure on an atom, use this electron configuration? I know it has orbitals in it
information to frame directions I know it talks about energy
for the activity. Show the Here is an example of the electron levels
electron configuration of a configuration of [Element] lets take a
specific atom on the board as look at the different types of
the instructor asks the students information that can be interpreted
to find the element symbol on from it:
their periodic table. Tell Show and label an electron Students are expected to copy this
students that this number configuration for a chosen information (and labels) from the
describes the location and element but do not include the board and onto the worksheet
number of electrons within an orbital letters accompanying this lesson.
atom of that element. Some students may be familiar
with orbitals, but do not talk
Briefly explain what about them until that content is
information is described from covered
an electron configuration,
without describing anything
about orbitals for now. Then,
give the students directions on
how to complete the activity. There are three different sources of
ENGAGEMENT (Est. Time: 5
Minutes)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions
Label and describe what each information that are shown in an
part of the electron electron configuration: the first
configuration means without number, a letter, and a smaller number.
talking about orbital letters at We are not going to worry about what
this moment. the letter means for now but we can
look at what everything the other
pieces of information: The first number
tells us what energy level the electron
lives on, and the third smaller number
tells us how many electrons live on that
level.
Give the students a brief 1. We are going to be building
orientation of the goal of the elements using the papers at
activity and the materials being your workstations and the
used: colored beads
2. There are circular papers on
your station - these represent
your atom and each energy
level is indicated on the papers
3. There are also beads at your
station these represent your
subatomic particles that you
will use to complete the activity

Then, tell students the 1. Use your periodic table to find


directions for the activity: out the electron configuration
and other information for each
element on your worksheet
2. Then, use the information we
know about the electron
configuration to fill out the
table and create a model of
each electron
3. You must complete your whole
table for each element. After
you complete each element,
you are required to draw what
each of your diagrams look like

TRANSITION
TRANSITION
After explaining the directions, allow for students to ask any clarifying questions based on the materials or activity
directions. If no students do not have any questions, allow them to start the activity and circulate around the room
to assist individual groups. If a presentation is being used, it may be useful to post a slide detailing what each part
of the electron configuration describes about the electrons on an atom.

EXPLORATION (Est. Time:


20-25 minutes)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions

At this time, students should be Write a list of probing questions that Include possible student answers. What
working in their groups to correspond to the activity in the left should they say? What might they say?
create a model for each of the column. What questions might you ask (Research students commonly held
assigned elements, individually in response to what the students might ideas about these concepts before
drawing it on their worksheets, say or do? hand)
and filling out the table with all
of the missing information.

As students continue to work,


move around the room to
address any student questions
or misconceptions.

It is also possible for a varying


amount of student pre-
conceptions about electrons,
configurations, energy levels,
and orbitals. Make sure that
each student is working
together and explaining their
ideas so that everyone can
participate.

As students are finishing up


the activity, be mindful of how
much time is left in the session.
Depending on the number of
students that finished the
activity, there may be time
remaining to de-brief the
activity and ask a few probing
questions

(This concludes Fridays


portion of the lesson)
TRANSITION

What will you say or do to make a clear and smooth transition from the Exploration section to the Explanation
section?

EXPLANATION (Est. Time:


_____)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions

Describe the actions of the Write a list of probing questions that Include possible student answers.
teacher(s) and students. What correspond to the activity in the left What should they say? What might
will the teacher be doing or column. What questions might you ask they say? (Research students
saying during this part of the in response to what the students might commonly held ideas about these
lesson? What will students be say or do? concepts before hand)
doing?

Describe one event per row,


and add rows to this table as
needed.

[Episode 1]
Teacher:

Student(s):

[Episode 2]
Teacher:

Student(s):
Please copy and paste more.

TRANSITION

What will you say or do to make a clear and smooth transition from the Explanation section to the Elaboration
section?
ELABORATION (Est. Time:
_____)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions

Describe the actions of the Write a list of probing questions that Include possible student answers.
teacher(s) and students. What correspond to the activity in the left What should they say? What might
will the teacher be doing or column. What questions might you ask they say? (Research students
saying during this part of the in response to what the students might commonly held ideas about these
lesson? What will students be say or do? concepts before hand)
doing?

Describe one event per row,


and add rows to this table as
needed.

[Episode 1]
Teacher:

Student(s):

[Episode 2]
Teacher:

Student(s):
Please copy and paste more.

TRANSITION

What will you say or do to make a clear and smooth transition into the Evaluation section?
EVALUATION (Est. Time:
_____)
Probing Questions (Questions that Anticipated Student Responses (to a
Teacher and Student Activity
make student thinking visible) few questions), Misconceptions

Describe the actions of the Write a list of probing questions that Include possible student answers.
teacher(s) and students. What correspond to the activity in the left What should they say? What might
will the teacher be doing or column. What questions might you ask they say? (Research students
saying during this part of the in response to what the students might commonly held ideas about these
lesson? What will students be say or do? concepts before hand)
doing?

Describe one event per row,


and add rows to this table as
needed.

[Episode 1]
Teacher:

Student(s):

[Episode 2]
Teacher:

Student(s):
Please copy and paste more.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS:
BIOStudent#:________ Name:______________________________ Date:_____________
BIOUnit2.2Bonding&ChemicalReactions
ElectronStructureActivity

PreactivityQuestions:
1. Electrons have their own type of address
calledan______________________________________________
2. Please label each part of the electrons address and state what it means:

1s12s22p2
Directions:
1. For each of the following elements, use the circular paper and the colored beads at your desk to design an
atomic model that places each electron in the correct energy level and contains the correct number of subatomic
particles. Once you finish each element, draw a picture of what your model looked like including the proper
location of each electron. Be sure to label your electrons, protons, neutrons and each of your three energy
levels:

a).Oxygen:

b).Magnesium:(youarenotrequiredtodrawandlabeleachprotonandneutron,butyoumustindicatethe
electronconfigurationofthisatomaccordingtoyourperiodictable):
c).Neon:

d).Phosphorus(youarenotrequiredtodrawandlabeleachprotonandneutron,butyoumustindicatethe
electronconfigurationofthisatomaccordingtoyourperiodictable):

2. Complete the table for each of the four elements

Elemen #of #of #of Electron #of #of #of


t Proton Neutron Electrons Configuratio Electrons Electrons Electrons
Symbol s s n in1st in2nd in3rd
Energy Energy Energy
Level Level Level
a).Oxygen

b).
Magnesiu 1s22s22p63s2
m
c).Neon
d).
Phosphorus 30 1s22s22p6
3s23p3