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Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It

encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world, particularly of its
languages, and literature (Ancient Greek and Classical Latin) but also it
encompasses the study of Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and
archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and
Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the
humanities and a necessary part of a rounded education. The study of
Classics has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education.

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Middle Ages
2.2 Renaissance
2.3 Neoclassicism
2.4 19th century Bust of Homer, the ancient Greek epic
2.5 20th century to present poet
3 Sub-disciplines
3.1 Philology
3.2 Archaeology
3.3 Art history
3.4 Ancient history
3.5 Philosophy
3.6 Reception studies
4 Classical Greece
4.1 Language
4.2 Literature
4.3 Mythology and religion
4.4 Philosophy
5 Classical Rome
5.1 Language
5.2 Literature
5.3 History
6 Legacy of the classical world
7 See also
8 References
9 Works cited
10 Further reading
11 External links

The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of
citizens". The word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the
2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality.[1] For
example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers.[2] By the 6th century
AD, the word had acquired a second meaning, referring to pupils at a school.[1] Thus the two modern meanings
of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as
part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use.[1]
Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, classics and education were tightly intertwined;

according to Jan Ziolkowski, there is no era in history in which the link
was tighter.[3] Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier
classical models,[4] and Latin continued to be the language of
scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between
literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the

While Latin was hugely influential, however, Greek was barely studied,
and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation.[5] The
works of even major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names
continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the
Middle Ages.[5] Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there
were other differences between the classical canon known today and the
works valued in the Middle Ages. Catullus, for instance, was almost
entirely unknown in the medieval period.[5] The popularity of different
authors also waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius,
popular during the Carolingian period, was barely read in the twelfth
century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true.[5] The Roman poet Catullus was virtually
unknown during the medieval period, in
Renaissance contrast to his modern popularity.

The Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature

and ancient history,[6] as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin.[7] From the 14th century, first in Italy and
then increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study
and imitation of classical antiquity",[6] developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing
a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western
Europe.[7] This reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch (13041374) and Boccaccio (13131375) who
commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems.[8] This humanist educational reform spread
from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, and in countries that became Protestant such
as England, Germany, and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New
Testament in the original language.[9]


The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history which is most associated
with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models.[10] Classical models were so highly
prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, and these "improved"
versions were performed throughout the 18th century.[11]

From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became increasingly important relative to that of
Latin.[12] In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a
shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G.E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic
achievement".[13] In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century. The
poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during
his time at Rugby School.[14]

19th century

The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, and the value of a classical education, decline,[15]
The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, and the value of a classical education, decline,[15]
especially in the US, where the subject was often criticised for its elitism.[16] By the 19th century, little new
literature was still being written in Latin a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century and a
command of Latin declined in importance.[9] Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century
onwards began to increasingly de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin.[12] In the
United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical
skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity.[17] In the
same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge,
though it would not be finally abolished for another 50 years.[18]

Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in
decline in the 19th century, the discipline was rapidly evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was
becoming more systematic and scientific, especially with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and
beginning of the 19th century.[19] Its scope was also broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient
history and classical archaeology began to be seen as part of Classics, rather than separate disciplines.[17]

20th century to pr esent

During the 20th century, the study of classics became less common. In England, for instance, Oxford and
Cambridge universities stopped requiring students to have qualifications in Greek in 1920,[18] and in Latin at
the end of the 1950s.[20] When the National Curriculum was introduced in England, Wales, and Northern
Ireland in 1988, it did not mention the classics.[20] By 2003, only about 10% of state schools in Britain offered
any classical subjects to their students at all.[21]

However, the study of classics has not declined as fast elsewhere in Europe. In 2009, a review of Meeting the
Challenge, a collection of conference papers about the teaching of Latin in Europe, noted that though there is
opposition to the teaching of Latin in Italy, it is nonetheless still compulsory in most secondary schools.[22] The
same can be said in the case of France or Greece, too. Indeed, Ancient Greek is one of the compulsory subjects
in Greek secondary education, whereas in France, Latin is one of the optional subjects that can be chosen in a
majority of middle schools and high schools. Ancient Greek is also still being taucght, but not as much as

One of the most notable characteristics of the modern study of Classics is the diversity of the field. Although
traditionally focused on ancient Greece and Rome, the study now encompasses the entire ancient
Mediterranean world, thus expanding the studies to Northern Africa as well as parts of the Middle East.


Philology is the study of language preserved in written sources; classical philology is thus concerned with
understanding any texts from the classical period written in the classical languages of Latin and Greek.[23] The
roots of classical philology lie in the Renaissance, as humanist intellectuals attempted to return to the Latin of
the classical period, especially of Cicero,[24] and as scholars attempted to produce more accurate editions of
ancient texts.[25] Some of the principles of philology still used today developed during this period. For instance,
the observation that if a manuscript could be shown to be a copy of an earlier extant manuscript, then it
provides no further evidence of the original text, was made as early as 1489 by Angelo Poliziano.[26] Other
philological tools took longer to be developed: the first statement, for instance, of the principle that a more
difficult reading should be preferred over a simpler one, was in 1697 by Jean Le Clerc.[27]

The modern discipline of classical philology began in Germany at the turn of the nineteenth century.[19] It was
during this period that scientific principles of philology began to be put together into a coherent whole,[28] in
order to provide a set of rules by which scholars could determine which manuscripts were most accurate.[29]
This "new philology", as it was known, centred around the construction
of a genealogy of manuscripts, with which a hypothetical common
ancestor, closer to the original text than any existing manuscript, could
be reconstructed.[30]


Classical archaeology is the oldest branch of archaeology,[31] with its

roots going back to J.J. Winckelmann's work on Herculaneum in the
1760s.[32] It was not until the last decades of the 19th century, however,
that classical archaeology became part of the tradition of Western
classical scholarship.[32] It was included as part of Cambridge
University's Classical Tripos for the first time after the reforms of the
1880s, though it did not become part of Oxford's Greats until much
later.[18] The eighteenth-century classicist
Friedrich August Wolf was the author of
The second half of the 19th century saw Schliemann's excavations of Prolegomena to Homer, one of the first
Troy and Mycenae; the first excavations at Olympia and Delos; and great works of classical philology.
Arthur Evans' work in Crete, particularly on Knossos.[33] This period
also saw the foundation of important archaeological associations (e.g.
the Archaeological Institute of America in 1879),[34] including many
foreign archaeological institutes in Athens and Rome (the American
School of Classical Studies at Athens in 1881, British School at Athens
in 1886, American Academy in Rome in 1895, and British School at
Rome in 1900).[35]

More recently, classical archaeology has taken little part in the

theoretical changes in the rest of the discipline,[36] largely ignoring the
popularity of "New Archaeology", which emphasised the development
of general laws derived from studying material culture, in the 1960s.[37]
New Archaeology is still criticized by traditional minded scholars of
classical archaeology despite a wide acceptance of its basic

Art history
Schliemann and Drpfeld's excavation at
Some art historians focus their study on the development of art in the Mycenae was one of the earliest
classical world. Indeed, the art and architecture of Ancient Rome and excavations in the field of classical
Greece is very well regarded and remains at the heart of much of our art archaeology.
today. For example, Ancient Greek architecture gave us the Classical
Orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The Parthenon is still the
architectural symbol of the classical world.

Greek sculpture is well known and we know the names of several Ancient Greek artists: for example, Phidias.

Ancient history

With philology, archaeology, and art history, scholars seek understanding of the history and culture of a
civilisation, through critical study of the extant literary and physical artefacts, in order to compose and establish
a continual historic narrative of the Ancient World and its peoples. The task is difficult due to a dearth of
physical evidence: for example, Sparta was a leading Greek city-state, yet little evidence of it survives to study,
and what is available comes from Athens, Sparta's principal rival; likewise, the Roman Empire destroyed most
evidence (cultural artefacts) of earlier, conquered civilizations, such as that of the Etruscans.

The English word "philosophy" comes from the Greek word , meaning "love of wisdom", probably
coined by Pythagoras. Along with the word itself, the discipline of philosophy as we know it today has its roots
in ancient Greek thought, and according to Martin West "philosophy as we understand it is a Greek
creation".[39] Ancient philosophy was traditionally divided into three branches: logic, physics, and ethics.[40]
However, not all of the works of ancient philosophers fit neatly into one of these three branches. For instance,
Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics have been traditionally classified in the West as "ethics", but in the Arabic
world were grouped with logic; in reality, they do not fit neatly into either category.[40]

From the last decade of the eighteenth century, scholars of ancient philosophy began to study the discipline
historically.[41] Previously, works on ancient philosophy had been unconcerned with chronological sequence
and with reconstructing the reasoning of ancient thinkers; with what Wolfgang-Ranier Mann calls "New
Philosophy", this changed.[42]

Reception studies

A relatively recent new discipline within the classics is "reception studies",[43] which developed in the 1960s at
the University of Konstanz.[44] Reception studies is concerned with how students of classical texts have
understood and interpreted them.[44] As such, reception studies is interested in a two-way interaction between
reader and text,[45] taking place within a historical context.[46]

Though the idea of an "aesthetics of reception" was first put forward by Hans Robert Jauss in 1967, the
principles of reception theory go back much earlier than this.[45] As early as 1920, T.S. Eliot wrote that "the
past [is] altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past";[47] Charles Martindale describes
this as a "cardinal principle" for many versions of modern reception theory.[45]

Classical Greece
Ancient Greece was the civilization belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the Archaic period,
beginning in the eighth century BC, to the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC.
The Classical period, during the fifth and fourth centuries BC, has traditionally been considered the height of
Greek civilisation.[48] The Classical period of Greek history is generally considered to have begun with the first
and second Persian invasions of Greece at the start of the Greco-Persian wars,[49] and to have ended with the
death of Alexander the Great.

Classical Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many
parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe; thus Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal
culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization.


Ancient Greek is the historical stage in the development of the Greek language spanning the Archaic (c. 8th to
6th centuries BC), Classical (c. 5th to 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic (c. 3rd century BC to 6th century AD)
periods of ancient Greece and the ancient world. It is predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek.
Its Hellenistic phase is known as Koine ("common") or Biblical Greek, and its late period mutates
imperceptibly into Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its
earlier form it closely resembles Classical Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classical and earlier
periods included several regional dialects.

Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of classical Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers.
It has contributed many words to the vocabulary of English and many other European languages, and has been
a standard subject of study in Western educational institutions since the Renaissance. Latinized forms of
Ancient Greek roots are used in many of the scientific names of species and in other scientific terminology.

The earliest surviving works of Greek literature are epic poetry.

Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are the earliest to survive to us today,
probably composed in the eighth century BC.[50] These early epics
were oral compositions, created without the use of writing.[51] Around
the same time that the Homeric epics were composed, the Greek
alphabet was introduced; the earliest surviving inscriptions date from
around 750 BC.[52]

European drama was invented in ancient Greece. Traditionally this was Map showing the regional dialects of
attributed to Thespis, around the middle of the sixth century BC,[53] Greek during the Classical period
though the earliest surviving work of Greek drama is Aeschylus'
tragedy The Persians, which dates to 472 BC.[54] Early Greek tragedy
was performed by a chorus and two actors, but by the end of Aeschylus' life, a third actor had been introduced,
either by him or by Sophocles.[54] The last surviving Greek tragedies are the Bacchae of Euripides and
Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus, both from the end of the fifth century BC.[55]

Surviving Greek comedy begins later than tragedy; the earliest surviving work, Aristophanes' Acharnians,
comes from 425 BC.[56] However, comedy dates back as early as 486 BC, when the Dionysia added a
competition for comedy to the much earlier competition for tragedy.[56] The comedy of the fifth century is
known as Old Comedy, and it comes down to us solely in the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, along
with a few fragments.[56] Sixty years after the end of Aristophanes' career, the next author of comedies to have
any substantial body of work survive is Menander, whose style is known as New Comedy.[57]

Two historians flourished during Greece's classical age: Herodotus and Thucydides. Herodotus is commonly
called the father of history, and his "History" contains the first truly literary use of prose in Western literature.
Of the two, Thucydides was the more careful historian. His critical use of sources, inclusion of documents, and
laborious research made his History of the Peloponnesian War a significant influence on later generations of
historians. The greatest achievement of the 4th century was in philosophy. There were many Greek
philosophers, but three names tower above the rest: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. These have had a profound
influence on Western society.

Mythology and religion

Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and
heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They
were a part of religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to the myths and study them in an attempt to
throw light on the religious and political institutions of Ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain
understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Greek religion encompassed the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in ancient Greece in the form of both
popular public religion and cult practices. These different groups varied enough for it to be possible to speak of
Greek religions or "cults" in the plural, though most of them shared similarities. Also, the Greek religion
extended out of Greece and out to neighbouring islands.

Many Greek people recognized the major gods and goddesses: Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Apollo, Artemis,
Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Athena, Hermes, Demeter, Hestia and Hera; though philosophies such
as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism used language that seems to posit a transcendent single deity.
Different cities often worshipped the same deities, sometimes with epithets that distinguished them and
specified their local nature.

The earliest surviving philosophy from ancient Greece dates back to the
6th century BC, when according to Aristotle Thales of Miletus was
considered to have been the first Greek philosopher.[58] Other
influential pre-Socratic philosophers include Pythagoras and Heraclitus.
The most famous and significant figures in classical Athenian
philosophy, from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BC, are Socrates, his
student Plato, and Aristotle, who studied at Plato's Academy before
founding his own school, known as the Lyceum. Later Greek schools of
philosophy, including the Cynics, Stoics, and Epicureans, continued to
be influential after the Roman annexation of Greece, and into the post-
Classical world.

Greek philosophy dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including

political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, and logic, as well as
disciplines which are not today thought of as part of philosophy, such as
biology and rhetoric.
So influential was Socrates to classical
Classical Rome philosophy that earlier philosophers are
today known as pre-Socratics.


The language of ancient Rome was Latin, a member of the Italic family
of languages. The earliest surviving inscription in Latin comes from the
7th century BC, on a brooch from Palestrina. Latin from between this
point and the early 1st century BC is known as Old Latin. Most
surviving Latin literature is Classical Latin, from the 1st century BC to
the 2nd century AD. Latin then evolved into Late Latin, in use during
the late antique period. Late Latin survived long after the end of
classical antiquity, and was finally replaced by written Romance
The Praeneste fibula is believed to bear
languages around the 9th century AD. Along with literary forms of
the oldest known Latin inscription. The
Latin, there existed various vernacular dialects, generally known as
inscription means "Manius made me for
Vulgar Latin, in use throughout antiquity. These are mainly preserved in Numerius".
sources such as graffiti and the Vindolanda tablets.


The earliest surviving Latin authors, writing in Old Latin, include the playwrights Plautus and Terence. Much
of the best known and most highly thought of Latin literature comes from the classical period, with poets such
as Virgil, Horace, and Ovid; historians such as Julius Caesar and Tacitus; orators such as Cicero; and
philosophers such as Seneca the Younger and Lucretius. Late Latin authors include many Christian writers such
as Lactantius, Tertullian and Ambrose; non-Christian authors, such as the historian Ammianus Marcellinus, are
also preserved.


According to legend, the city of Rome was founded in 753 BC;[59] in reality, there had been a settlement on the
site since around 1000 BC, when the Palatine Hill was settled.[60] The city was originally ruled by kings, first
Roman, and then Etruscan according to Roman tradition, the first Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus,
ruled from 616 BC.[61] Over the course of the 6th century BC, the city expanded its influence over the entirety
of Latium.[62] Around the end of the 6th century traditionally in 510 BC the kings of Rome were driven out,
and the city became a republic.[63]

Around 387 BC, Rome was sacked by the Gauls following the Battle of the Allia.[64] It soon recovered from
Around 387 BC, Rome was sacked by the Gauls following the Battle of the Allia.[64] It soon recovered from
this humiliating defeat, however, and in 381 the inhabitants of Tusculum in Latium were made Roman citizens.
This was the first time Roman citizenship was extended in this way.[65] Rome went on to expand its area of
influence, until by 269 the entirety of the Italian peninsula was under Roman rule.[66] Soon afterwards, in 264,
the First Punic War began; it lasted until 241.[67] The Second Punic War began in 218, and by the end of that
year, the Carthaginian general Hannibal had invaded Italy.[68] The war saw Rome's worst defeat to that point at
Cannae; the largest army Rome had yet put into the field was wiped out, and one of the two consuls leading it
was killed.[69] However, Rome continued to fight, annexing much of Spain[70] and eventually defeating
Carthage, ending her position as a major power and securing Roman preeminence in the Western

Legacy of the classical world

The classical languages of the Ancient Mediterranean world influenced every European language, imparting to
each a learned vocabulary of international application. Thus, Latin grew from a highly developed cultural
product of the Golden and Silver eras of Latin literature to become the international lingua franca in matters
diplomatic, scientific, philosophic and religious, until the 17th century. Long before this, Latin had evolved into
the Romance languages and Ancient Greek into Modern Greek and its dialects. In the specialised science and
technology vocabularies, the influence of Latin and Greek is notable. Ecclesiastical Latin, the Roman Catholic
Church's official language, remains a living legacy of the classical world in the contemporary world.

Latin had an impact far beyond the classical world. It continued to be the pre-eminent language for serious
writings in Europe long after the fall of the Roman empire.[72] The modern Romance languages such as
French, Spanish, and Italian all derive from Latin.[73] Latin is still seen as a foundational aspect of European

The legacy of the classical world is not confined to the influence of classical languages. The Roman empire
was taken as a model by later European empires, such as the Spanish and British empires.[75] Classical art has
been taken as a model in later periods medieval Romanesque architecture[76] and Enlightenment-era
neoclassical literature[10] were both influenced by classical models, to take but two examples, while Joyce's
Ulysses is one of the most influential works of twentieth century literature.[77]

See also
Classical tradition
Outline of classical studies
Outline of ancient Greece
Outline of ancient Rome

1. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 17 11. Kaminski 2007, p. 65
2. Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, 19.8.15. 12. Kristeller 1978, p. 591
3. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 19 13. Kaminski 2007, p. 69
4. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 21 14. Stray 1996, p. 79
5. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 22 15. Becker 2001, p. 309
6. Kristeller 1978, p. 586 16. Becker 2001, p. 313
7. Kristeller 1978, p. 587 17. Stray 1996, p. 81
8. Pade, M. (2007). The Reception of Plutarch's 18. Stray 1996, p. 83
Lives in Fifteenth-Century Italy. Copenhagen: 19. Rommel 2001, p. 169
Museum Tusculanum 20. Stray 1996, p. 85
9. Kristeller 1978, p. 590 21. Cook 2003
10. Kaminski 2007, p. 57 22. Balbo 2009
23. Mackay 1997 48. Shapiro 2007, p. 3
24. Shorey 1906, p. 179 49. Shapiro 2007, p. 2
25. Mann 1996, p. 172 50. Kirk 1985, p. 47
26. Mann 1996, pp. 17374 51. Kirk 1985, p. 43
27. Mann 1996, p. 174 52. Kirk 1985, p. 45
28. Mann 1996, pp. 17475 53. Winnington-Ingram et al. 1985, p. 259
29. Mann 1996, p. 173 54. Winnington-Ingram et al. 1985, p. 258
30. Mann 1996, p. 175 55. Winnington-Ingram et al. 1985, pp. 33940
31. Dyson 1993, p. 205 56. Handley 1985, p. 355
32. Renfrew 1980, p. 288 57. Handley 1985, p. 356
33. Renfrew 1980, p. 287 58. Aristotle, Metaphysics Alpha, 983b18.
34. Stray 2010, p. 5 59. Grant 1978, p. 11
35. Stray 2010, pp. 45 60. Grant 1978, p. 10
36. Dyson 1993, p. 204 61. Grant 1978, pp. 2122
37. Dyson 1993, p. 196 62. Grant 1978, p. 28
38. Darvil, Timothy. "New Archaeology" (http://w 63. Grant 1978, p. 31 64. Grant 1978, p. 44
edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780199534043.001.00 65. Grant 1978, p. 46
01/acref-9780199534043-e-2752). Oxford 66. Grant 1978, p. 79
Reference. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 67. Grant 1978, pp. 8385
2016-07-16. 68. Grant 1978, pp. 9899
39. West 2001, p. 140 69. Grant 1978, p. 101
40. Mann 1996, p. 178 70. Grant 1978, p. 104
41. Mann 1996, p. 180 71. Grant 1978, p. 106
42. Mann 1996, pp. 18081 72. Ostler 2009, pp. xixii
43. Bulwer 2005, p. 13 73. Ostler 2009, p. 161
44. Kallendorf 2007, p. 2 74. Ostler 2009, p. xiii
45. Martindale 2007, p. 298 75. Ostler 2009, p. xii
46. Martindale 2007, p. 301 76. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 26
47. Eliot 1920, p. 45 77. Martindale 2007, p. 310

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Further reading

Beard, Mary; Henderson, John (2000). Classics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780192853851.
Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, eds. (2012). Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.). Oxford and
New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199545568.


Chadwick, John (2014). The Decipherment of Linear B (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9781107691766.

Greek history

Osborne, Robin (2009). Greece in the Making 1200479 BC (2 ed.). London: Routledge.
ISBN 9780415469920.
Hornblower, Simon (2011). The Greek World 479323 BC (4 ed.). London: Routledge.
ISBN 9780415602921.
Shipley, Graham (2000). The Greek World After Alexander 32330 BC. London: Routledge.
ISBN 9780415046183.

Roman history

Cornell, T. J. (1995). The Beginnings of Rome. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415015967.

Crawford, M. (1993). The Roman Republic (2 ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
ISBN 9780006862505.
Millar, F. (2002). Rome, the Greek World, and the East: The Roman Republic and the Augustan
Revolution. 1. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807849903.
Brown, Peter (1989). The World of Late Antiquity 150750. New York: W. W. Norton.
ISBN 9780393958034.

Whitmarsh, Tim (2004). Ancient Greek Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745627915.


Irwin, Terence (1988). Classical Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192891778.
Shields, Christopher (2012). Ancient Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction (2 ed.). London:
Routledge. ISBN 9780415896603.
Julia, Annas (2000). Ancient Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780192853578.

Art and archaeology

Boardman, John (1996). Greek Art (4 ed.). Thames & Hudson. ISBN 9780500202920.

External links
Classical Resources on Internet at the Department of Classical Philology, University of Tartu.
Electronic Resources for Classicists by the University of California, Irvine.
Illustrated History of the Roman Empire
The Perseus Digital Library
The Alpheios Project

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