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Items Definitions Terms

1 Its fundamental purpose is to transfer information from one place to another. Electronic Communication

2 The transmission, reception, and processing of information be tween two or Electronic Communication
more locations using electronic circuits.

3 Electronic Communications Time Line

1830: American Scientist and professor Joseph Henry transmitted the first
practical electrical signal.
1837: Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented the telegraph.
1843: Alexander Bain invented the facsimile.
1861: Johann Phillip Reis completed the first nonworking telephone.
1864: James Clerk Maxwell released his paper Dynamic Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field, which concluded that light electricity, and magnetism
were related.
1865: Dr. Mahlon Loomis became the first person to communicate wireless
through the Earths atmosphere.
1866: First transatlantic telegraph cable was installed
1876: Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson Invented the telephone.
1877: Thomas Alva Edison invents the phonograph.
1880: Heinrich Hertz discovers electromagnetic waves.
1887: Heinrich Hertz discovers radio waves. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi
demonstrates wireless radio wave propagation.
1888: Heinrich Hertz detects and produces radio waves. Heinrich Hertz
conclusively proved Maxwells prediction that electricity can travel in waves
through the Earths atmosphere.
1894: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi builds his first radio equipment, a device
that rings a bell from 30 ft. away.
1895: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi discovered ground wave propagation.
1898: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi established the first radio link between
England and France.
1900: American Scientist Reginald A. Fessenden the worlds first radio
broadcast using continuous waves.
1901: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from
Cornwall, to Newfoundland. Reginald A. Fessenden transmits the Worlds first
radio broadcast using continuous waves. First successful transatlantic
transmission of radio signal.
1903: Valdemar Poulsen patents an arc transmission that generates continuous
wave transmission 100-kHz signal that is receivable 150 miles away.
1904: First radio transmission of music at Graz, Austria.
1905: Marchese Guglielmo Marconi invents the directional radio antenna.
1906: Reginald A. Fessenden invents amplitude modulation (AM). First radio
program of voice and music broadcasted in the United States by Reginald
Fessenden. Lee DeFrorest invents triode (three-electrode) vacuum tube.
1907: Reginald Fessenden invents a high- frequency Electric generator that
produces radio waves with a frequency of 100 kHz.
1908: General Electric develops a 100-kHz, 2-kW alternator for radio
1910: The Radio Act of 1910 is the first concurrence of government regulation
of radio technology and services.
1912: The Radio Act of 1912 in the United States brought order to the radio
bands by requiring station and operators licenses and assigning blocks of the
frequency spectrum to the existing users.
1913: The cascade-tuning radio receiver and the heterodyne receiver are
1914: Major Edwin Armstrong develops the superheterodyne radio receiver.
1915: Vacuum-tube radio transmitters introduced.
1919: Shortwave radio is developed.
1920: Radio Station KDKA broadcasts the first regular licensed radio
transmission out of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1921: Radio Corporation of America (RCA) begins operating Radio Central on
Long Island. The American Radio League establishes contact via shortwave
radio with Paul Godley in Scotland, proving that shortwave radio can be used
for long distance communications.
1923: Vladimir Zworykin invents and demonstrates television.
1927: A temporary five- member Federal Radio Commission agency was
created in the United States.
1928: Radio station WRNY in New York City begins broadcasting television
1931: Major Edwin Armstrong patents wide- band frequency modulation (FM).
1934: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) created to regulate
telephone, radio, and television broadcasting.
1935: Commercial FM radio broadcasting begins with monophonic
1937: Alec H. Reeves invents binary coded pulse-code modulation. (PCM)
1939: National Broadcasting Company (NBC) demonstrates television
broadcasting. First use of two-way radio communications using walkie-talkies.
1941: Columbia University Radio Club opens the first regularly scheduled FM
radio station.
1945: Television is born. FM moved from its original home of 42 MHz to 50
MHz to 88 MHz to 108 MHz to make room.
1946: The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) inaugurated
the first mobile telephone system for the public called MTS (Mobile Telephone
1948: John Von Neumann created the first store program electronic digital
computer. Bell Telephone Laboratories unveiled the transistor, a joint venture
of scientist William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain.
1951: First transcontinental microwave system began operation.
1952: Sony Corporation offers a miniature transistor radio, one of the first mass
produced consumer AM/FM radios.
1953: RCA and MBC broadcast first color television transmission.
1954: The number of radio stations in the world exceeds the number of
newspapers printed daily.
1954: Texas Instruments becomes the first company to commercially produce
silicon transistors.
1956: First transatlantic telephone cable systems began carrying calls.
1957: Russia launches the worlds first satellite. (Sputnik)
1958: Kilby and Noyce develop first integrated circuits. NASA launched the
United States first satellite.
1961: FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting, which spurs the development of
FM. Citizens band (CB) radio first used.
1962: U.S. radio stations begin broadcasting stereophonic sound.
1963: T1 (transmission 1) digital carrier systems introduced.
1965: First commercial communications satellite launched.
1970: High-definition television (HDTV) introduced in Japan.
1977: First commercial use of optical fiber cables.
1983: Cellular telephone networks introduced in the United States.
1999: HDTV standards implemented in the United States.
1999: Digital Television (DTV) transmission began in the United States.

4 Are time-varying voltages or currents that are continuously changing such as analog signals
sine and cosine waves.

5 Is sometimes referred to as a power loss. Attenuation

6 Is sometimes referred to as a ____________ , If Pout = Pin, the absolute power Unity Power Gain
gain is 1, and the dB power gain is 0 dB.

7 Are voltages or currents that change in discrete steps or level s. digital signals
8 In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson were the first to Telephone
successfully transfer human conversation over a crude metallic- wire
communications systems using this device.

9 The first commercial radio broadcasting station in 1920 that broadcasted KDKA
amplitude modulated signals in Pittsburgh.

10 Is a logarithmic unit that can be used to measure ratio. Decibel ( dB )

11 Is a unit of measurement used to indicate the ratio of a power level with dBm
respect to a fixed reference level (1mW).

12 One-tenth of a decibel. Bel

13 A collection of one or more electronic devices or circuits that converts the Transmitter
original source information to a form more suitable for transmission over a
particular transmission medium.

14 Provides a means of transporting signals between a transmitter and a receiver. Transmission Medium

15 A collection of electronic devices and circuits that accepts the transmitted Receiver
signals for the transmission medium and then converts those signals back to
their original form.
16 Is any unwanted electrical signals that interfere with the information signal. System Noise

17 Because it is often impractical to propagate information signals over standard Carrier

transmission media, it is often necessary to modulate the source information
onto a higher-frequency analog signal called a ______.

18 The process of changing one or more properties of the analog carrier in Modulation
proportion with the information signal.
19 A system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog form (a Analog Communication
continuously varying signals such as a sine wave). System

20 A true digital system where digital pulses (discrete levels such as +5V and Digital Transmission
ground) are transferred between two or more points in a communications

21 The transmittal of digitally modulated analog carriers between two or more digital radio
points in a communications system.
22 A modulation technique where the information signal is analog and the Amplitude Modulation (
amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. AM )

23 A modulation technique where the information signal is analog and the Frequency Modulation (
frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. FM )

24 A modulation technique where the information signal is analog and the phase Phase Modulation
(q) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal.
25 A modulation technique where the information signal is digital and that Amplitude Shift Keying (
amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. ASK )

26 A modulation technique where the information signal is digital and the Frequency Shift Keying (
frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. FSK )
27 A modulation technique where the information signal is digital and the phase Phase Shift Keying
(q) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal.
( PSK )

28 A modulation technique where both the amplitude and the phase of the carrier Quadrature Amplitude
are varied proportional to the information signal. Modulation
( QAM )
29 Modulation is performed in a transmitter by a circuit called ________. Modulator

30 The reverse process of modulation and converts the modulated carrier back to Demodulation
the original information.

31 Demodulation is performed in a receiver by a circuit called _______. Demodulator

32 2 Reasons why modulation is necessary in electronic communications :

1. It is extremely difficult to radiate low-frequency signals from an antenna in
the form of electromagnetic energy.
2. Information signals often occupy the same frequency band and, if signals
from two or more sources are transmitted at the same time, they woul d
interfere with each other.

33 A specific band of frequencies allocated a particular service. Channel

34 Process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to another location in Frequency Translation

the total frequency spectrum.
35 The purpose of an electronic communications system is to communicate Stations
information between two or more locations commonly called _____________ .

36 The number of times a periodic motion, such as a sine wave of voltage or Frequency
current, occurs in a given period of time.

37 Each complete alternation of the waveform. Cycle

38 Is an international agency in control of allocating frequencies and services International
within the overall frequency spectrum. Telecommunications
Union ( ITU)

39 In the United States, assigns frequencies and communications services for free - Federal Communications
space radio propagation. Commission ( FCC )

41 Are signals in the 30Hz to 300Hz range and include ac power distribution signals Extremely Low
(60Hz) and low frequency telemetry signals.
Frequencies ( ELF )

42 Are signals in the 300Hz to 3000Hz range and include frequencies generally Voice Frequencies
associated with human speech.
( VF )

43 Are signals in the 3kHz to 30kHz range which include the upper end of the Very Low Frequencies
human hearing range.
( VLF )

44 Are signals in the 30kHz to 300kHz range and are used primarily for marine and Low Frequencies
aeronautical navigation.
( LF )

45 Are signals in the 300kHz to 3MHz range and are used primarily for commercial Medium Frequencies
AM radio broadcasting (535kHz-1605kHz).
( MF )
46 Are signals in the 3MHz to 30MHz range and are often referred to as short High Frequencies
waves. Used for most two-way radio communications.
( HF )

47 Are signals in the 30MHz to 300MHz range and are used for mobile radio, Very High Frequencies
marine and aeronautical communications, commercial FM broadcasting (88 to
108 MHz) and commercial TV broadcasting of Ch 2 to 13 (54MHz to 216MHz). ( VHF )

48 Are signals in the 300MHz to 3GHz range and are used by commercial television Ultrahigh Frequencies
broadcasting of channels 14 to 83, land mobile communications services,
cellular telephones, certain radar and navigation systems, and microwave and ( UHF )
satellite radio systems.

49 Are signals in the 3GHz to 30GHz range and include the majority of the Super High Frequencies
frequencies used for microwave and satellite radio communications systems.
( SHF )
50 Are signals in the 30GHz to 300GHz range and are seldom used for radio Extremely High
communications except in very sophisticated, expensive, and specialized Frequencies
( EHF )

51 Are signals in the 0.3THz to 300THz range and are not generally referred to as Infrared
radio waves. Used in heat seeking guidance systems, electronic photography,
and astronomy.
52 Includes electromagnetic frequencies that fall within the visible range of Visible Light
humans (0.3PHz to 3PHz).

53 Used for optical fiber systems. Light-wave


54 The length that one cycle of an electromagnetic wave occupies in space (i.e., Wavelength
the distance between similar points in a repetitive wave).

56 Radio transmitter classifications according to bandwidth, modulation scheme, Emission Classifications

and type of information.

The first symbol is a letter that designates the type of modulation of the main
The second symbol is a number that identifies the type of emission.
The third symbol is another letter that describes the type of information
being transmitted.
58 The two most significant limitations on the performance of a communications Noise and Bandwidth
system are ________and ________.

59 The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the Bandwidth

60 The bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference between the Passband

highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to pass through it.
61 A highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate Information Theory
information through electronic communications systems.

62 The measure of how much information can be propagated through a Information Capacity
communications system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time.

63 The most basic digital symbol used to represent information. Binary Digit / Bit

64 The number of bits transmitted during one second and is expressed in bits per Bit Rate
second (bps).

65 In 1928, R. Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful Hartleys Law

relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information capacity.
I Bxt
66 In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon published a paper in the Bell System Shannon limit for
Technical Journal relating the information capacity of a communications information capacity
channel to bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

67 Any undesirable electrical energy that falls within the passband of the signal. Electrical Noise
68 Noise present regardless of whether there is a signal present or not. Uncorrelated Noise

69 Noise that is generated outside the device or circuit. External Noise

70 Noise that is naturally occurring electrical disturbances that originate within Atmospheric Noise
Earths atmosphere.

71 Atmospheric noise is commonly called ____________. Static Electricity

72 Noise consists of electrical signals that originate from outside Earths Extraterrestrial Noise
atmosphere and is sometimes called deep-space noise.

73 Extraterrestrial noise is sometimes called ____________. Deep-Space Noise

74 Noise generated directly from the suns heat. Solar Noise

75 Noise sources that are continuously distributed throughout the galaxies. Cosmic Noise
76 Noise that is produced by mankind. Man-made Noise

77 Electrical interference generated within a device or circuit. Internal Noise

78 Noise caused by the random arrival of carriers (holes and electrons) at the Shot Noise
output element of an electronic device.

79 Any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from the input to the Transit-time Noise
output of a device produces an irregular, random variations.
80 Associated with the rapid and random movement of electrons within a Thermal Noise
conductor due to thermal agitation.


Thermal Noise, because it is temperature dependent;
Brownian Noise, after its discoverer;
Johnson Noise, after the man who related Brownian particle movement of
electron movement;
White Noise, because the random movement is at all frequencies;
82 Johnson proved that thermal noise power is proportional to the product of Noise Power
bandwidth and temperature.

83 A form of internal noise that is correlated (mutually related) to the signal and Correlated Noise
cannot be present in a circuit unless there is a signal. no signal, no noise!
84 Occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are produced through nonlinear Harmonic Distortion
amplification (nonlinear mixing).

85 The generation of unwanted sum and difference frequencies produced when Inter-modulation
two or more signals mix in a nonlinear device. Distortion

86 The original signal and also called the fundamental frequency. First Harmonic

87 A frequency two times the original signal frequency. Second Harmonic

88 A frequency three times the original signal frequency. Third Harmonic

89 Another name for harmonic distortion. Amplitude Distortion

90 Characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration in the total noise Impulse Noise


92 A form of external noise and as the name implies it means to disturb or detract Interference

93 Noise produced when information signals from one source produce Electrical interference
frequencies that fall outside their allocated bandwidth and interfere with
information signals from another source.

94 The ratio of the signal power level to the noise power level. Signal-to-Noise Power
Ratio ( S/N )
95 Figures of merit used to indicate how much the signal - to-noise ratio Noise Factor ( F )
deteriorates as a signal passes through a circuit or series of circuits
Noise Figure ( NF )



NF ( dB ) = 10 log F

98 A convenient parameter often used rather than noise figure in low noise, Equivalent Noise
sophisticated VHF, UHF, microwave, and satellite radio receivers. It indicates Temperature
the reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio a signal undergoes as it propagates
through a receiver. ( Te )
Te = T ( F 1 )


Items Definitions Terms

1 Electrical signals of which amplitude changes continuously with respect to time with no Analog Signals
breaks or discontinuities.

2 Electrical signals that are described as discrete; their amplitude maintains constant level Digital Signals
for a prescribed period of time and then it changes to another level with respect to time
with no breaks or discontinuities.

3 Digital signal with only two levels possible. Binary Signal

4 Digital signal with four levels possible. Quaternary

5 Is the mathematical analysis of the frequency, bandwidth, and voltage level of a signal? Signal Analysis

6 A signal that repeats at a uniform rate. Periodic Wave

7 A description of signal with respect to time. Time-domain


8 A time-domain instrument that shows signal waveforms. Oscilloscope

9 The display on the cathode ray tube (CRT) that shows the shape and instantaneous Signal
magnitude of the signal with respect to time. Waveform
10 A description of signal with respect to its frequency. Frequency
11 A frequency-domain instrument that shows amplitude-versus-frequency plot. Spectrum

12 Any repetitive wave that is comprised of more than one harmonically related sine or Nonsinusoidal /
cosine wave.
Complex Wave

13 A mathematical series developed in 1826 by French physicist and mathematician Baron Fourier Series
Jean Fourier used to analyze complex periodic wave.

14 A mathematical tool that allows us to move back and forth between the time and Fourier Series
frequency domains. It is used in signal analysis to represent the sinusoidal components of
nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms.

15 Waveform comprised of an average dc component and a series of harmonically related Periodic

sine or cosine wave. Waveform

16 Is the integral multiple of the fundamental frequency? Harmonic

17 Is the first harmonic and is equal to the frequency (repetition rate) of the waveform. Fundamental

18 If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about the vertical axis, it is said to have axes, even function
or mirror, symmetry and is called an ________.

19 If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about a line midway between the vertical axis odd function
and the negative horizontal axis and passing through the coordinate origin, it is said to
have point, or skew, symmetry is called an ______.

20 If a periodic voltage waveform is such that the waveform for the first half cycle repeats half-wave
itself except with the opposite sign for the second half cycle, it is said to have ________. symmetry

21 The ________ of a waveform consists of all the frequencies contained in the waveform frequency
and their respective amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain. spectrum

22 The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information. Bandwidth of
It is also the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will an
allow to pass through it.

23 The ratio of the active time of the pulse to the period of the waveform. Duty Cycle

24 The rate at which energy is dissipated, delivered, or used, and is a function of the square Electrical Power
of the voltage or current
25 A fourier transform where a time-domain signal is sampled at discrete times. Discrete Fourier

26 A new algorithm of fourier transform developed by Cooley and Tukey in 1965 where the Fast Fourier
computing time is proportional to n log 2n rather than n 2. Transform

27 The process of combining two or more signals Mixing

28 Occurs when two or more signals combine in a linear device, such as a passive network or Linear Summing
a small-signal amplifier. Also called linear mixing.

29 An amplifier where the output is simply the original input signal amplified by its gain. Linear Amplifier
30 Occurs when two or more signals are combined in a nonlinear device such as a diode or Nonlinear
large-signal amplifier. Mixing

31 Undesired generation of multiples or harmonics of that frequency. Harmonic

32 Desired generation of multiples or harmonics of that frequency. Frequency

33 The sum and difference of the two original frequencies. Cross Products

34 The generation of any unwanted cross-product frequency when two or more frequencies Intermodulation
are mixed in a nonlinear device. Distortion
35 Desired cross products produced by mixing in a nonlinear device. Modulation


Items Definitions Terms

1 This word means to fluctuate between two states or conditions. Oscillate

2 A device that produces oscillations or generates repetitive waveform. Converts a dc input Oscillator
voltage to an ac output voltage.
3 A self-sustaining oscillator where the changes in the waveform are continuous and Free-running
repetitive; they occur at a periodic rate. Oscillator

4 Are oscillators that are not self-sustaining requiring an external input signal or trigger to Triggered or
produce a change in the output waveform? One-shot

5 An amplifier with a feedback loop or path for energy to propagate from the output back to Feedback
the input.

6 According to this criterion, for a feedback circuit to sustain oscillations, the net voltage gain Barkhausen
around the feedback loop must be unity or greater, and the net phase shift around the loop Criterion
must be a positive integer multiple of 360.
7 Is a positive feedback where the positive means that its phase aids the oscillation process Regenerative
and does not necessarily indicate a positive or negative polarity? Feedback

8 Is a negative feedback and supplies a feedback signal that inhibits oscillations from Degenerative
occurring. Feedback

9 Is an untuned RC phase shift oscillator that uses both positive and negative feedback? The Wien-bridge
oscillator that Hewlett and Packard used in their original signal generator design. Oscillator
10 Added to the circuit to compensate for imbalances in the bridge and variations in Automatic Gain
component values due to heat. Control
( AGC )

11 Are oscillator circuits that utilize LC tank circuits for the frequency determining LC Oscillators
12 An LC oscillator that uses a tapped coil. Hartley

13 The operation of this oscillator is very similar to that of Hartley except that a capacitive Colpitts
divider is used instead of a tapped coil. Oscillator
14 An oscillator circuit identical to the Colpitts except with the addition of a small capacitor Cs Clapp
placed in series with L1. Oscillator

15 The ability of an oscillator to remain at a fixed frequency. Frequency


16 Frequency stability affected predominantly by fluctuations in dc operating voltages. Short-term

17 Frequency stability which is a function of component aging and changes in the ambient Long-term
temperature and humidity. Stability

18 Feedback oscillator circuits where a crystal is used for the frequency determining Crystal
component. Oscillator

19 The study of the form, structure, properties, and classifications of crystals. It deals with Crystallography
lattices, bonding, and behavior of slices of crystal material that have been cut at various
angles with respect to the crystals axes.
20 The _______ occurs when oscillating mechanical stresses applied across a crystal lattice Piezoelectric
structure generate electrical oscillations and vice versa. Effect

21 In this mode the oscillator is tuned at the third, fifth, seventh, or even the ninth harmonic Overtone
of the crystals fundamental frequency.

22 The direction of frequency change is the same as the temperature change. Positive

23 The change in frequency is in the direction opposite to the temperature change. Negative
24 Is almost a perfect zero-coefficient crystal from freezing to boiling but is useful only at GT-cut Crystal
frequencies below a few hundred kilohertz.

25 A crystal oscillator circuit that has very good frequency stability and reasonably simple Discrete Pierce
circuitry. Oscillator

26 A crystal oscillator circuit that has low cost and simple digital interfacing capabilities. IC-based Pierce
27 A crystal oscillator circuit that has best frequency stability. RLC Half-bridge

28 Consists of a crystal-controlled oscillator and a voltage-variable component such as a Crystal

varactor diode. Oscillator

29 A specially constructed diode whose internal capacitance is enhanced when reversed Varactor Diode
biased, and by varying the reverse-bias voltage, the capacitance of the diode can be or Varicap
30 An oscillator circuit that generates well-defined, stable waveforms that can be externally Waveform
modulated or swept over a given frequency range. Generator

31 A monolithic function generator integrated circuit manufactured by EXAR Corporation XR-2206

capable of producing high quality sine, square, triangle, rap, and pulse waveforms with
both a high degree of stability and accuracy.

32 A free-running oscillator with a stable frequency of oscillation that depends on an external Voltage
timing capacitance, timing resistance, and control voltage. Controlled
33 A monolithic voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated circuit featuring excellent XR-2207
frequency stability and a wide tuning range. The circuit provides simultaneous triangle- and
square wave outputs over a frequency range of from 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz.

34 A monolithic variable-frequency oscillator circuit featuring excellent temperature stability XR-2209

and a wide linear sweep range.

35 A closed-loop feedback control system in which either the frequency or the phase of the Phase Locked
feedback signal is the parameter of interest rather than the magnitude of the signals Loop
voltage or current.
( PLL )

36 The VCOs output frequency when the PLL is not locked. Preset/Natural
Free Running

37 The voltage produced by the phase comparator that is proportional to the difference in Error Voltage
frequency between the two signals.

38 The PLL state when there is no external input frequency or the feedback loop is open. Free-Running

39 The state when the PLL is in the process of acquiring frequency lock. Capture State

40 The state when the VCO output frequency is locked onto (equal to) the frequency of the Lock State
external input signal.

41 The time required to achieve lock. Acquisition

42 The band of frequencies centered around the VCO natural frequency where the PLL can Capture Range
initially establish or acquire frequency lock with an external input signal from an unlocked
condition. Also known as acquisition range.

43 The capture range expressed as a peak value. Pull-in Range

44 The band of frequencies centered around the VCO natural frequency over which a PLL can Lock Range
maintain frequency lock with an external input signal. Also known as tracking range.
45 The lock range expressed as a peak value. Hold-in Range

46 An oscillator with a stable frequency of oscillation that depends on an external bias voltage. Voltage-
47 Sometimes called a phase detector which is a nonlinear device with two input signals: an Phase
external input frequency and the VCO output signal. Comparator

48 The difference in phase between an external input frequency and the VCO output signal. Phase Error
49 The product of the individual gains or transfer functions around the loop for the PLL. Loop Gain

50 An ultra stable monolithic phase-locked-loop system designed by EXAR Corporation for a XR-215
wide variety of applications in both analog and digital communications systems. Can
operate over a relatively wide frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 35 MHz.

51 PLL that are used to track digital pulses rather than analog signals, such as in clock recovery Digital PLL
52 This word means to form an entity by combining parts or elements. Synthesize

53 Are used to generate many output frequencies through the addition, subtraction, Frequency
multiplication, and division, of a smaller number of fixed frequency sources. Synthesizer

54 A method of frequency synthesis where multiple output frequencies are generated by Direct
mixing the outputs from two or more crystal-controlled frequency sources or by dividing or Frequency
multiplying the output frequency from a single-crystal oscillator.

55 A method of frequency synthesis where a feedback-controlled divider/multiplier such as Indirect

PLL is used to generate multiple output frequencies. Frequency

56 The minimum frequency separation between output frequencies for a synthesizer. Resolution
57 An advanced dual-modulus low-power, ECL prescaler manufactured by Signetics Company. NE/SA701
The maximum input signal frequency is 1.2 GHz for cellular and other land mobile

58 A bipolar, single-chip frequency synthesizer manufactured in SUBILO-N technology TSA6057/T

(components laterally separated by oxide). It performs all the tuning functions of a PLL
radio-tuning system. Also manufactured bySignetics.


Items Definitions Terms

1 The process of impressing low-frequency information signals onto a high-frequency carrier Modulation

2 The reverse process of modulation where the received si gnals are transformed back to their Demodulation
original form.
3 The process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in Amplitude
proportion with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. Modulation

4 Frequencies that are high enough to be efficiently radiated by the antenna and propagated Radio
through free space. Frequencies

5 The modulated output waveform from an AM modulator is? AM Envelope

6 Sometimes called conventional AM or simply AM. AM DSBFC

7 The band of frequencies between fc fm (max) and fc. Lower

8 Any frequency within the lower sideband is called. Lower Side

9 The band of frequencies between fc and fc + fm(max) Upper


10 Any frequency within the upper sideband is called? Upper Side

11 The term used to describe the amount of amplitude change (modulation) present in an AM Coefficient of
waveform signal. Modulation

12 The coefficient of modulation stated as a percentage. Percent


13 The maximum percent modulation that can be imposed without causing excessive 100%
14 The _______ in a transmitter where modulation occurs determines whether the circuit is a Location
low or a high-level transmitter.

15 The modulation takes place prior to the output element of the final stage of the transmitter. Low-Level

16 The modulation takes place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is High-Level
at its maximum amplitude. Modulation

17 The amplitude of the output signal depends on the amplitude of the input carrier and the Emitter
voltage gain of the amplifier. Modulation

18 A class C modulator capable of nonlinear mixing and the modulating signal is applied directly Collector
to the collector. Modulator

19 Used to translate the low-frequency intelligence signals to radio-frequency signals that can Up-converter
be efficiently radiated from an antenna and propagated through free space.

20 Are used for observing the modulation characteristics of AM transmitters. Trapezoidal


21 A form of amplitude distortion introduced when the positive and negative alternations in the Carrier Shift
AM modulated signal are not equal (nonsymmetrical modulation).

22 Complex waveforms comprised of two or more frequencies. Nonsinusoidal


23 Are complex waves made up of two or more harmonically related sine waves and include Complex
square, rectangular, and triangular waves. Repetitive

24 A form of AM where signals from two separate information sources modulate the same Quadrature
carrier frequency at the same time without interfering with each other. The information Amplitude
sources modulate the same carrier after it has been separated into two carrier signals that
are 90 out of phase with each other. Modulation
( QAM )


Items Definitions Terms

1 The reverse process of AM modulation. AM

2 The first stage of the receiver of which primary functions are detecting, band limiting, and RF Section
amplifying the received.

3 This section down-converts the received RF frequencies to intermediate frequencies (IFs). Mixer /
4 This section primary functions are amplification and selectivity. IF Section

5 This section demodulates the AM wave and converts it to the original information signal. AM Detector

6 This section amplifies the recovered information. Comprises several cascaded audio Audio Section
amplifiers and one or more speakers.

7 A receiver parameter that is used to measure the ability of the receiver to accept a given Selectivity
band of frequencies and reject all others.

8 The ratio of the bandwidth 60dB below maximum signal level and bandwidth 3dB below Shape Factor
maximum signal level.

9 The most prevalent form of noise and is directly proportional to bandwidth. Thermal Noise

10 Noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing the Bandwidth. Bandwidth

11 The corresponding reduction in the noise figure due to the reduction in bandwidth Noise Figure
expressed mathematically in dB. Improvement

12 The ________ of a receiver is the minimum RF signal level that can be detected at the input Sensitivity
to the receiver and still produce a usable demodulated information signal. Also known as
receiver threshold.

13 Defined as the difference in decibels between the minimum input level necessary to Dynamic Range
discern a signal and the input level that will overdrive the receiver and produce distortion.
14 Defined as the output power when the RF amplifier response is 1 dB less than the ideal 1-dB
linear-gain response. Compression

15 A measure of the ability of a communication system to produce, at the output of the Fidelity
receiver, an exact replica of the original source information.

16 Any frequency, phase, or amplitude variations that are present in the demodulated Distortion
waveform that were not in the original information signal.

17 The total phase shift encountered by a signal and can generally be tolerated as long as all Absolute Phase
frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay. Shift
18 Occurs when different frequencies undergo different phase shifts and ay have a Differential
detrimental effect on a complex waveform. Phase Shift

19 Defined as the ratio of the power transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the Insertion Loss
power transferred to a load without the filter.
( IL )

20 A hypothetical value that cannot be directly measured. A parameter that is used in low - Equivalent
noise, sophisticated radio receivers rather than noise figure. Noise
21 The frequencies generated in the receiver and used for demodulation are synchronized to Coherent /
oscillator frequencies generated in the transmitter. Synchronous

22 Either no frequencies are generated in the receiver or the frequencies used for Noncoherent /
demodulation are completely independent from the transmitters carrier frequency. Asynchronous

23 One of the earliest types of AM receivers and are probably the simplest designed radio Tuned Radio
receivers available today. Frequency
24 A phenomenon at radio frequencies where current flow is limited to the outermost area of Skin Effect
a conductor.

25 A technique where TRF receivers instability can be reduced somewhat by tuning each Stagger Tuning
amplifier to a slightly different frequency, slightly above or below the desired center

26 Means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency Heterodyne
to another using nonlinear mixing.

27 A broad tuned bandpass filter with an adjustable center frequency that is tuned to desired Preselector
carrier frequency.

28 The most common intermediate frequency used in AM broadcast-band receivers is 455 kHz

29 Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters and is often called IF strip. IF Section
30 Refer to frequencies that are used within a transmitter or receiver that fall somewhere Intermediate
between the radio frequencies and the original source information frequencies. Frequency

31 Means that the two adjustments are mechanically tied together so that a single adjustment Gang Tuning
will change the center frequency of the preselector and, at the same time, change the local
oscillator frequency.

32 When the local oscillator is tuned above the RF it is? High-side

Injection /

33 When the local oscillator is tuned below the RF it is? Low-side

Injection /
34 The side frequencies undergo a sideband reversal during the heterodyning process called? Sideband

35 The ability of the local oscillator in a receiver to oscillate above or below the selected radio Tracking
frequency carrier by an amount equal to the intermediate frequency throughout the entire
radio frequency band.

36 The difference between the actual oscillator frequency and the desired frequency. Tracking Error

37 Any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that, if allowed to enter a Image
receiver and mix with the local oscillator, will produce a cross-product frequency that is Frequency
equal to the intermediate frequency.

38 A numerical measure of the ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency. Image-
Rejection Ratio

39 Occurs when a receiver picks up the same station at two nearby points on the receiver Double
tuning dial. Spotting

40 A high-gain, low-noise, tuned amplifier that, when used, is the first active stage RF Amplifier
encountered by the received signal.

41 High-performance microwave receivers require a ________ as the input stage of the RF Low-noise
section to optimize their noise figure. Amplifier ( LNA

42 A FET with a metal-semiconductor junction at the gate of the device, called a Schottky MEsa
barrier. Semiconductor
43 A wideband, unconditionally stable, low-power, dual-gain linear integrated-circuit RF NE / SA5200
amplifier manufactured by Signetics Corporation.

44 This section purpose is to down-convert the incoming radio frequencies to intermediate Mixer /
frequencies proportional to bandwidth. Converter

45 The difference between the level of the IF output with an RF input signal to the level of the Conversion
IF output with an IF input signal. Gain
46 A configuration where the mixer excites itself by feeding energy back to the local oscillator Self-excited
tank circuit to sustain oscillations noise figure. Mixer

47 A low-power VHF monolithic double-balanced mixer with input amplifier, on-board NE / SA602A
oscillator, and voltage regulator.

48 Are relatively high-gain amplifiers that are very similar to RF amplifiers, except that IF Intermediate
amplifiers operate over a relatively narrow, fixed frequency band. Frequency
( IF ) Amplifier

49 The most common technique used for coupling where the voltage that is applied to the Inductive or
primary windings of a transformer is transferred to the secondary windings. Transformer
50 Ability of a coil to induce a voltage within its windings. Inductance

51 Ability of one coil to induce a voltage in another coil. Mutual

52 The ratio of the secondary flux to the primary flux. Coefficient of

53 The transfer of flux from the primary to the secondary windings and is directly proportional Flux Linkage
to the coefficient of coupling.

54 The point where the reflected resistance is equal to the primary resistance an d the Q of Critical
the primary tank circuit is halved and the bandwidth doubled. Coupling
55 Is caused by the reactive element of the reflected impedance being significant enough to Double Peaking
change the resonant frequency of the primary tuned circuit.

56 The coefficient of coupling approximately 50% greater than the critical value yields a good Optimum
compromise between flat response and steep skirts. Coupling

57 IF transformers come as specially designed tuned circuits in groundable metal packages IF Cans
called _______.
58 A differential cascoded amplifier designed for use in communications and industrial CA3028A
equipment as an IF or RF amplifier at frequencies from dc to 120 MHz.

59 The function of this circuit is to demodulate the AM signal and recover or reproduce the AM Detector
original source information.

60 A simple noncoherent AM demodulator using a diode. Also called as diode, shape, or Peak Detector
envelope detector.

61 A distortion in the detection process where the RC time constant is too short, the output Rectifier
waveform resembles a half-wave rectified signal. Distortion

62 A distortion in the detection process where the RC time constant is too long, the slope of Diagonal
the output waveform cannot follow the trailing slope of the envelope. Clipping

63 A circuit that compensates for minor variations in the received RF signal. Automatic Gain
( AGC )

64 It prevents the AGC feedback voltage from reaching the RF or IF amplifiers until the RF level Delayed AGC
exceeds a predetermined magnitude.

65 Is similar to conventional AGC except that the receive signal is monitored closer to the Forward AGC
front end of the receiver and the correction voltage is fed forward to the IF amplifiers.
66 Its purpose is to quiet a receiver in the absence of a received signal. Squelch Circuit

67 Are used to remove sporadic, high-amplitude noise transients of short duration, such as Limiters /
impulse noise in the audio section of a receiver.
68 A method of measuring signal strength relative to noise strength where an RF carrier Signal-to-
modulated 30% by a 1-kHz tone is applied to the input of the receiver. Notched Noise
69 A National Semiconductor Corporation linear integrated circuit AM radio chip that has an LM1820
onboard RF amplifier, mixer, local oscillator, and IF amplifier stages. An LIC audio amplifier,
such as the LM386, and a speaker are necessary to complete a functional receiver.

70 This receivers would need only two external components: a volume control and a station PLL Receivers
tuning control.

71 The ratio of the demodulated signal level at the output of the receiver (audio) to the RF Net Receiver
signal level at the input to the receiver, or the difference between the audio signal level in Gain
dBm and the RF signal level in dBm.

72 Includes all the gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from the transmitter System Gain
output stage to the output of the detector in the receiver and includes antenna gain and
transmission line and propagation losses.


Items Definitions Terms

1 A form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is transmitted at full power but only AM Single-
one of the sidebands is transmitted. sideband Full
Carrier ( SSBFC
2 A form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is totally suppressed and one of the AM Single-
sidebands removed. sideband
Carrier ( SSBSC

3 A form of amplitude modulation in which one sideband is totally removed and the carrier AM Single-
voltage is reduced to approximately 10% of its unmodulated amplitude. Sometimes called sideband
single-sideband reinserted carrier. Reduced
Carrier ( SSBRC

4 It is the reinserted carrier in SSBRC for demodulation purposes. Pilot Carrier

5 A form of amplitude modulation in which a single carrier frequency is independently AM

modulated by two different modulating signals. Independent
Sideband ( ISB )

6 A form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one complete sideband are AM Vestigial
transmitted, but only part of the second sideband is transmitted. Sideband ( VSB

7 ________ is the picture portion of a commercial television broadcasting signal. VSB System

8 Are obvious advantages of single-sideband suppressed- and reduced- carrier transmission Bandwidth
over conventional double- sideband full-carrier transmission? Conservation
and Power
9 This ratio determines the degree of intelligibility of a received signal. Signal-to-Noise

10 With double-sideband transmission, the two sidebands and carrier may propagate through Selective
the transmission media by different paths and therefore, experience different transmission Fading
impairments. This condition is called ________.

11 A condition in double-sideband transmission where one sideband is significantly Sideband

attenuated. Fading

12 A form of selective fading where there is a reduction of the carrier level of a 100% - Carrier-
modulated wave that will make the carrier voltage less than the vector sum of the two Amplitude
sidebands. Fading

13 A condition where the relative positions of the carrier and sideband vectors of the received Carrier or
signal change, causing a decided change in the shape of the envelope, causing a severely Sideband Phase
distorted demodulated signal. Shift

14 A product modulator where the output signal is the product of the modulating signal and AM Modulator
the carrier.

15 Modulator circuits that inherently remove the carrier during the modulation proce ss. DSBSC
16 A circuit that produces a double-sideband suppressed-carrier signal. Balanced

17 A balanced modulator that is constructed with diodes and transformers. Sometimes called Balanced Ring
balanced lattice modulator. Modulator

18 The small carrier component that is always present in the output signal of a balanced Carrier Leak
19 The operation of this balanced modulator as the balanced ring modulator is completely Balanced
dependent on the switching action of diodes D1 through D4 under the influence of the Bridge
carrier and modulating signal voltages. Modulator

20 A double-balanced modulator/demodulator that produces an output signal that is LM1497 / 1596

proportional to the product of its input signals. Balanced
Modulator IC

21 The circuit where the carrier is reinserted. Linear Summer

22 Three methods for single-sideband generation. Filter, Phase-
Shift, and Third

23 Types of single-sideband filters. Crystal Lattice,

Saw Filters
24 A mechanically resonant transducer that receives electrical energy, converts it to Mechanical
mechanical vibrations, and then converts the vibrations back to electrical energy at its Filter
25 Filters that use acoustic energy rather than electro-mechanical energy to provide excellent Surface
performance for precise bandpass filtering. Acoustic Wave

26 Reflected energy that cancels and attenuates the incident wave energy. Heterodyne
27 Reflected energy that aids the incident wave energy. Constructive

28 A transducer which launches the acoustic wave in only one direction. Unidirectional

29 Any difference between the transmit and receive local oscillator frequencies produces a frequency
_______ in the demodulated information signal. offset error
30 Fifty hertz or more offset is distinguishable by a normal listener as a _______. tonal variation

31 A narrowband PLL that tracks the pilot carrier in the composite SSBRC receiver signal and Carrier
uses the recovered carrier to generate coherent local oscillator frequencies in the Recovery
synthesizer. Circuit

32 An SSB receiver that uses a PLL carrier recovery circuit and a frequency synthesizer to Multichannel
produce coherent local and beat frequency oscillator frequencies. Pilto Carrier
33 Systems that provide narrowband voice communications for land-mobile services with Amplitude-
nearly the quality achieved with FM systems and do it using less than one -third the Compandoring
bandwidth. Single-
Sideband (

34 The process of combining transmissions from more than one source and transmitting them Multiplexing
over a common facility, such as metallic or optical fiber cable or a radio-frequency channel.
35 A transmission that can be used to combine hundreds or even thousands of narrowband Single-
channels into single, composite wideband channel without the channels interfering with Sideband
each other. Suppressed-

36 Single-sideband transmitters are rated in ________ and ________. Peak Envelope

Power ( PEP ) &
Peak Envelope
Voltage ( PEV )


Items Definitions Terms

1 Two forms of angle modulation. FM and PM

2 Angle modulation was first introduced in the year ________ as an alternative to 1931
amplitude modulation.
3 He developed the first successful FM radio system in 1936, and in July 1939, the Major E. H.
first regularly scheduled broad-casting of FM signals began in Alphine, New Armstrong
Jersey. Also developed the superheterodyne receiver.

4 A modulation that results whenever the phase angle () of a sinusoidal wave is Angle Modulation
varied with respect to time.

5 Varying the frequency of a constant-amplitude carrier directly proportional to the Direct Frequency
amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the Modulation ( FM )
modulating signal.

6 Varying the phase of a constant-amplitude carrier directly proportional to the Direct Phase
amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the Modulation ( PM )
modulating signal.
7 The relative angular displacement (shift) of the carrier phase in radians in respect Phase Deviation ( )
to the reference phase.

8 The relative displacement of the carrier frequency in hertz in respect to its Frequency Deviation
unmodulated value. (F )

9 The original unmodulated carrier frequency in the resultant angle-modulated Carrier Rests
waveform. Frequency
10 The instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a given instant of time Instantaneous Phase
and indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with respect to its Deviation
reference phase.

11 The precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time. Instantaneous Phase

12 The instantaneous change in frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first Instantaneous
time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation. Frequency Deviation
13 The precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as Instantaneous
the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase. Frequency

14 Are the outputversus-input transfer functions for the modulators, which give Deviation Sensitivities
the relationship between what output parameter changes in respect to specified
changes in the input signal.

15 Is called the modulation index or sometimes index of modulation. Peak Phase

16 The change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a Frequency Deviation
modulating-signal frequency.

17 The peak-to-peak frequency deviation (2f). Carrier Swing

18 The ratio of the frequency deviation actually produced to the maximum Percent Modulation
frequency deviation allowed by law stated in percent form.
19 A circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is Phase Modulator
proportional to the modulating signal.

20 A circuit which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is Frequency Modulator
proportional to the integral of the modulating signal.

21 ________ of the first kind for several values of modulation index provides the Bessel Function
number of side frequency pairs and their corresponding magnitude.
22 A side frequency is not considered significant unless it has amplitude equal to or 1%
greater than ____ of the unmodulated carrier amplitude.

23 The modulation index is less than 1. Low-index Case

24 The modulation index is greater than 10. High-index Case

25 Modulation indices greater than 1 and less than 10. Medium Index

26 Low-index FM systems are sometimes called? Narrowband FM

27 A rule which is an approximation and gives transmission bandwidths that are Carsons Rule
slightly narrower than the bandwidths. It defines a bandwidth that incl udes
approximately 98% of the total power in the modulated wave.
28 The worst-case modulation index and is equal to the maximum peak frequency Deviation Ratio ( DR )
deviation divided by the maximum modulating-signal frequency.

29 The FCC has assigned the commercial FM broadcast service a _______ band of 20 MHz
frequencies that extends from 88 MHz to 108 MHZ.

30 The 20MHz band is divided into 100, ________ wide channels beginning at 88.1 200 kHz
31 To provide high-quality, reliable music, the maximum frequency deviation 75 kHz ; 15 kHz
allowed is _______ with a maximum modulating-signal frequency of _______.

32 The highest side frequencies from one channel are allowed to spill over into Adjacent Channel
adjacent channels, producing an interference known as _______. Interference

33 A _______ wide guard band is usually on either side of each assigned channel. 200 kHz
34 The noise voltage at the output of an FM demodulator increases linearly with FM Noise Triangle
frequency. This is called ______.

35 The high-frequency modulating signals are emphasized or boosted in amplitude Pre-emphasis

in the transmitter prior to performing modulation.

36 The reciprocal of pre-emphasis that restores the original amplitude-versus- De-emphasis

frequency characteristics to the information signals.
37 A circuit that provides a constant increase in the amplitude of the modulating Pre-emphasis
signal with an increase in frequency. Network

38 When the frequency of the carrier is modulated by the information signal, Direct FM ( Indirect
_______ results. PM )

39 When the phase of the carrier is modulated by the information signal, _______ Direct PM ( Indirect
results. FM )

40 Angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is varied directly by the Direct FM
modulating signal.

41 Three common methods for producing direct frequency modulation. Varactor Diode, FM
Reactance, Linear IC

42 Direct frequency modulator used for low-index Applications, such as two-way Varactor Diode Direct
mobile radio. FM Modulator
43 A direct FM modulator using a JFET as the active device. FM Reactance

44 A complete FM modulator on a single 8-pin DIP integrated circuit chip. MC1376

45 Can generate a direct FM output waveform that is relatively stable, accurate, and Linear IC VCO and
directly proportional to the input modulating signal. Function Generators

46 Angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is deviated indirectly by Direct PM
the modulating signal.

47 Two common methods for producing direct phase modulation. Varactor Diode and
Transistor Direct PM
48 The process of up-converting the frequency of the modulated carrier after Frequency Up-
modulation has been performed. Conversion

49 Two basic methods of performing frequency up-conversion. Heterodyning and


50 An up-conversion method where a low-frequency modulated carrier can either Heterodyne Method
be up- or down-converted to a different location in the frequency spectrum
without changing its modulation properties.

51 An up-conversion method where the modulation properties of a carrier can be Multiplication

increased at the same time that the carrier frequency is up-converted. Method

52 Transmitters that produce an output waveform in which the frequency deviation Direct FM
is directly proportional to the modulating signal. Transmitters

53 A circuit that compares the frequency of the non-crystal carrier oscillator to a Automatic Frequency
crystal reference oscillator and then produces a correction voltage proportional
to the difference between the frequencies. Control
( AFC )

54 A frequency-selective device whose output voltage is proportional to the Frequency

difference between the input frequency and its resonant frequency. Discriminator

55 A voltage added to the modulating signal to automatically adjust the master dc Correction Voltage
oscillators center frequency to compensate for the low-frequency drift.

56 A ________ preceded by a differentiator generates a PM waveform. FM Modulator

57 Transmitters that produce an output waveform in which phase deviation is Indirect FM
directly proportional to the modulating signal. Transmitters

58 Probably the most significant advantage of angle modulation transmission over Noise Immunity
amplitude modulation transmission.

59 Allows a receiver to differentiate between two signals received with the same Capture Effect

Items Definitions Terms

1 In this receivers, the voltage at the output of the audio detector is directly FM Receivers
proportional to the frequency deviation at its input.

2 In this receivers, the voltage at the output of the audio detector is directly PM Receivers
proportional to the phase deviation at its input.

3 The circuits used to demodulate FM and PM signals are both described under the FM Receivers
heading ________.

4 A modulation where the information is impressed onto the carrier in the form of Angle Modulation
frequency or phase variations.

5 A method used to remove amplitude variations caused by noise from the composite Limiting
waveform simply by clipping the peaks of the envelop prior to detection.

6 The section that rejects the image frequency in FM receivers. Pre-selector

7 The section that establishes the signal-to-noise ratio and noise figure in FM RF Amplifier

8 The section that down-converts RF to IF. Mixer / Converter

9 The section that provide most of the gain and selectivity. IF Amplifiers

10 The section that removes the information from the modulated wave. Detector
11 The envelope (peak) detector common to AM receivers is replaced in FM receivers Limiter, Frequency
by a ________, ________, and ________. Discriminator and De-
emphasis Network

12 The circuit that extracts the information from the modulated wave. Frequency

13 Are frequency-dependent circuits designed to produce an output voltage that is FM Demodulators

proportional to the instantaneous frequency at its input.

14 Circuits used for demodulating FM signals. Slope Detector,

Discriminator, Ratio
Detector, PLL
Demodulator, and
Quadrature Detector

15 Circuits that convert FM to AM and then demodulate the AM envelope with Tuned-Circuit
conventional peak detectors. Frequency

16 A tuned-circuit frequency discriminator that has the most nonlinear voltage-versus- Slope Detector
frequency characteristics and, therefore, is seldom used.

17 Is simply two single-ended slope detectors connected in parallel and fed 180 out of Balanced Slope
phase. Detector
18 Sometimes called a phase shift discriminator that is a tuned-circuit frequency Foster-Seeley
discriminator whose operation is very similar to that of a balanced slope detector.

19 The typical voltage-versus-frequency response curve for a Foster-Seeley S-curve

20 An FM demodulator that is relatively immune to amplitude variations in its input Ratio Detector

21 This FM demodulator requires no tuned circuits and automatically compensates for PLL FM Demodulator
changes in the carrier frequency due to instability in the transmit oscillator.

22 Sometimes called a coincidence detector that extracts the original information Quadrature FM
signal from the composite IF waveform by multiplying two quadrature (90 out of
phase) signals.
23 Special circuits that removes the unwanted amplitude variations since with FM, the Limiters
information is contained in frequency variations.

24 The limiter circuit produces a constant-amplitude output for all input signals above a Threshold, Quieting,
prescribed minimum input level, which is often called the ________. or Capture Level

25 The improvement in the S/N ratio when the peaks of the signal have the limiter so FM Thresholding, FM
far into saturation that the weaker noise is totally eliminated. Quieting, or FM
Capture Effect
26 The inherent ability of FM to diminish the effects of interfering signals. Also, the Capture Effect
ability to differentiate between two signals received at the same frequency.

27 Is the minimum dB difference in signal strength between two received signals Capture Ratio of an
necessary for the capture effect to suppress the weaker signal. FM Receiver

28 An improved monolithic low-power FM IF system manufactured by Signetics NE/SA614A

Corporation. It is a high gain, high frequency device that offers low-power
consumption and excellent input sensitivity at 455 kHz.

29 A multiplier cell similar to a mixer stage, but instead of mixing two different Quadrature Detector
frequencies, it mixes two signals with the same frequencies but with different

30 A low-voltage, high-performance monolithic FM IF system similar to the NE/SA614A NE/SA616

except with the addition of a mixer/oscillator circuit.
31 A monolithic integrated-circuit FM radio system manufactured by Signetics TDA7000
Corporation for monolithic FM portable radios. A complete FM radio receiver on a
single integrated-circuit chip.

32 A circuit that is used to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) by compressing Frequency-Locked-
the IF frequency swing (deviation). Loop

33 With this transmission, the information signal is spatially divided into two 50-Hz to Stereophonic
15-kHz audio channels (a left and a right). Transmission
34 Used to broadcast uninterrupted music to private subscribers, such as department Subsidiary
stores, restaurants, and medical offices equipped with special receivers; Sometimes Communications
cordially refer to as Authorization ( SCA )
elevator music
35 The process of placing two or more independent channels next to each other in the Frequency Division
frequency domain (stacking the channels), and then modulating a single high- Multiplexing ( FDM )
frequency carrier with the combined signal.

36 The primary audio channel remained at 50 Hz to 15 kHz, while an additional SCA 60 kHz To 74 kHz
channel is frequency translated to the _______ passband.

37 The SCA subcarrier may be AM single- or double-sideband transmission or FM with a 7 kHz

maximum modulating-signal frequency of _______.

38 The frequency of the pilot carrier of FM stereo transmission. 19 kHz

39 When the phase of the carrier is modulated by the information signal, _______ Direct PM
( Indirect FM )

40 A monolithic FM stereo demodulator that uses PLL techniques to derive the right XR-1310
and left audio channels from the composite stereo signal.

41 Half-duplex, one-to-many radio communications with no dial tone. Two-Way Mobile


42 Provides 26.96 to 27.41 MHz public, non-commercial radio service for either Class D Citizens Band (
personal or business use utilizing push-to-talk AM DSBFC and AM SSBFC. CB ) Radio

43 Cover a broad-frequency band from 1.8 MHz to above 300 MHz. Designed for Amateur ( HAM )
personal use without pecuniary interest. Radio

44 Provides 2.8 MHz to 457 MHz. ABS disseminates information for the purposes of air Aeronautical
navigation and air-to-ground communications utilizing conventional AM and various Broadcasting Service (
forms of AM SSB in the HF, MF, and VHF frequency bands. ABS )

45 Full-duplex, on-to-one radio telephone communications. Mobile Telephone


46 Provides worldwide telecommunication service using handheld telephones that Personal

communicate with each other through low earth-orbit satellite repeaters Communications
incorporating QPSK modulation and both FDMA and TDMA. Satellite Service (
47 Is used extensively for public safety mobile communications, such as police and fire Two-Way FM Radio
departments and emergency medical services. Communications

48 The maximum frequency deviation for two-way FM transmitters is typically 5 kHz ; 3 kHz
________, and the maximum modulating-signal frequency is ________.

49 Transmissions are initiated by closing a ________ switch, which turns on the Push-To-Talk ( PTT )
transmitter and shuts off the receiver.
50 It was used as early as 1921 when the Detroit Police Department used a mobile Mobile Radio
radio system that operated at a frequency close to 2 MHz.

51 It was used rather than a simple mechanical switch to reduce the static noise Electronic
associated with contact bounce in mechanical switches.

52 Transmitters equipped with ________ are automatically keyed each time the Voice-
operator speaks into the microphone, regardless of whether the PTT button is Operated Transmitter
depressed. ( VOX )

Items Definitions Terms

1 Is the transmission, reception, and processing of information with the use of Electronic
electronic circuits.

2 Is defined as knowledge or intelligence that is communicated between two or Information

more points.
3 Is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals (carriers) between two or Digital Modulation
more points in a communication system.

4 System involving the transmission of digital pulses. Digital Transmission

5 The information signal is digital and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied Amplitude Shift Keying
proportional to the information signal. ( ASK )

6 The information signal is digital and the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied Frequency Shift Keying
proportional to the information signal. ( FSK )

7 The information signal is digital and the phase () of the carrier is varied Phase Shift Keying (
proportional to the information signal. PSK )

8 A modulation where both the amplitude and the phase are varied proportional Quadrature Amplitude
to the information signal. Modulation ( QAM )

9 Performs level conversion and then codes the incoming data into groups of bits Pre-coder
that modulate an analog carrier.
10 Is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate Information Theory
information through electronic communications systems.

11 Is a measure of how much information can be propagated through a Information Capacity

communications system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time.

12 The most basic digital symbol used to represent information. Binary Digit / Bit
13 In 1928, _________ of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful R. Hartley
relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information capacity.

14 In 1948, mathematician _________ (also of Bell Telephone Laboratories) Claude E. Shannon

published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal relating the information
capacity of a communications channel to bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

15 Simply represents a digit that corresponds to the number of conditions, levels, M

or combinations possible for a given number of binary variables.
16 Refers to the rate of change of a digital information signal, which is usually Bit Rate

17 Refers to the rate of change of a signal on a transmission medium after encoding Baud
and modulation have occurred.
18 Sometimes called a symbol and could be encoded as a change in the amplitude, Signaling Element
frequency, or phase.

19 The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal. Nyquist Bandwidth

20 According to ________, binary digital signals can be propagated through an ideal H. Nyquist
noiseless transmission medium at a rate equal to two time the bandwidth of the

21 The carrier is either on or off which is why amplitude- shift keying is On-Off Keying
sometimes referred to as ________.

22 A logic 1 frequency (f m) for FSK. Mark

23 A logic 0 frequency (f s ) for FSK. Space

24 The mark and space frequencies are separated from the mark and space Peak Frequency
frequencies are separated from the carrier frequency by the _________ and Deviation (f)
from each of by 2 f.

25 _______ is the peak frequency deviation of the carrier and is equal to the f
difference between the carrier rest frequency and either the mark or space
26 A type of FSK detection wherein there is no frequency involved in the Noncoherent Detection
demodulation process that is synchronized either in phase, frequency, or both
with the incoming FSK signal.

27 A type of FSK detection wherein the incoming FSK signal is multiplied by a Coherent Detection
recovered carrier signal that has exact same frequency and phase as the
transmitter reference.

28 Is binary FSK except the mark and space frequencies are synchronized with the Continuous-Phase FSK (
input binary bit rate. CP-FSK )

29 A signal state-space diagram, is similar to a phasor diagram except that the Constellation Diagram
entire phasor is not drawn. Only the relative positions of the peaks of the
phasors are shown.

30 Is a product modulator; the output signal is the product of the two input signals. Balanced Modulator

31 Detect and regenerates a carrier signal that is both frequency and phase Coherent Carrier
coherent with the original transmit carrier. Recovery Circuit

32 Also known as quadrature PSK that is another form of angle -modulated, Quaternary PSK ( QPSK
constant-amplitude digital modulation. )

33 A group of two bits. Dibit

34 It modulates the carrier that is in phase with the reference oscillator. I Bit
35 It modulates the carrier that is 90 out of phase or in quadrature with reference Q Bit

36 Is two BPSK modulators combined in parallel. QPSK Modulator

37 The highest fundamental frequency present at the data input to the I or the Q 1/4
balanced modulator is equal to _______ of the input data rate.
38 The fastest output rate of change (baud) is also equal to ________ of the input 1/2
bit rate.

39 The outputs of the product detectors are fed to the ________, here they are Bit Combining Circuit
converted from parallel I and Q data channels to a single binary output data

40 Is a modified for of QPSK where the bit waveforms on the I and Q channels are Offset QPSK
offset or shifted in phase from each other by one-half of a bit time.
41 The advantage of OQPSK is the _________ that must be imparted during Limited Phase Shift

42 With ________, three bits are encoded, forming tribits and producing eight 8 PSK
different output phases.

43 Group of 3 bits. Tribit

44 Also known as maximum distance code used to reduce the number of Gray Code
transmission errors.

45 Converts the I/C and Q/C bit pairs to serial, Q, and C output data streams. Parallel-to-Serial
Logic Circuit
46 Group of 4 bits. Quadbits

47 16-PSK can undergo only a _______ phase shift during transmission and still 11.25
retain its integrity.

48 Is an M-ary encoding technique where M = 8. The output signal from this 8 QAM
modulator is not a constant-amplitude signal.

49 The process of introducing transitions (pulses) into the binary signal using a Scrambling
prescribed algorithm.

50 It uses the same algorithm for scrambling to remove the transitions. Descrambler

51 Is an alternative form of digital modulation where the binary input is contained Differential Phase-Shift
in the difference between two successive signalling elements rather than the Keying ( DPSK )
absolute phase.

52 Data transmission rates in excess of 56 kbps can be achieved, over standard Trellis Code
telephone circuits using an encoding technique called ________. Modulation ( TCM )
53 __________ at IBM Zuerich Research Laboratory developed TCM, which involves Dr. Ungerboeck
using convolutional (tree codes, which combines encoding and modulation to
reduce the probability of error, thus improving the bit error performance.

54 Defines the manner in which signal-state transitions are allowed to occur, and Trellis Coding
transitions that do not follow this pattern are interpreted in the receiver as
transmission errors.
55 The distance between symbols on the constellation of the TCM coding scheme Euclidean Distance
on standard QAM.

56 Is the ratio of the average carrier power (the combined power of the carrier and Carrier-To-Noise Power
its associated sidebands) to the thermal noise power. Ratio
57 Is simply the energy of a single bit of information. Energy Per Bit

58 The phase relationship between signalling elements for BPSK (i.e., 180 out of Antipodal Signaling
phase) is the optimum signalling format, referred to as ________.
59 Two types of FSK systems. Noncoherent (
Asynchronous ) And
Coherant ( Synchonous

60 The transmitter and receiver are not frequency or phase synchronized. Noncoherent FSK

61 Local receiver reference signals are in frequency and phase lock with the Coherent FSK
transmitted signals.


Items Definitions Terms

1 Is the transmittal of digital signals between two or more points in a Digital Transmission
communications system.

2 _________ developed the first digital transmission system for the purpose of AT&T
carrying digitally encoded analog signals, such as human voice, over metallic wire
cables between telephone offices.
3 The primary advantage of digital transmission over analog transmission. Noise Immunity

4 Digital signals are also better suited than analog signals for processing and Multiplexing
combining using a technique called _____.

5 Is the processing of analog signals using digital methods and includes bandlimiting Digital Signal
the signal with filters, amplitude equalization, and phase shifting. Processing ( DSP )
6 Digital transmission systems are more resistant to analog systems to additive noise Signal Regeneration
because they use ________ rather than signal amplification.

7 Consist essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting Pulse Modulation
those samples into discrete pulses and transporting the pulses from a source to a
destination over a physical transmission medium.

8 The four predominant methods of pulse modulation. PWM, PPM, PAM

and PCM
9 Sometimes called pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse length modulation Pulse Width
(PLM), as the width (active portion of the duty cycle) of a constant amplitude pulse Modulation ( PWM )
is varied proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is

10 The position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed time slot is varied Pulse Position
according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. Modulation ( PPM )
11 The amplitude of a constant-width, constant-position pulse is varied according to Pulse Amplitude
the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. Modulation
12 The analog signal is sampled and then converted to a serial n-bit binary code for Pulse Code
transmission. Modulation ( PCM )

13 __________ is credited with inventing PCM in 1937 while working for AT&T at its Alex H. Reeves
Paris laboratories.
14 A circuit that periodically samples the analog input signal and converts those Sample-and-Hold
samples to a multilevel PAM signal. Circuit

15 The transmission line ________ are placed at prescribed distances to regenerate Repeaters
the digital pulses.

16 An integrated circuit that performs the PCM encoding and decoding functions. Codec ( Coder /
Decoder )
17 The function of a _________ in a PCM transmitter is to periodically sample the Sampling Circuit
continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a series of
constant-amplitude pulses that can more easily be converted to binary PCM code.

18 The sampling process alters the frequency spectrum and introduces an error called Aperture Error

19 The ________ of the capacitor is called the A/D conversion time because it is Storage Time
during this time that the ADC converts the sample voltage to a PCM code.
20 If the input to the ADC is changing while it is performing the conversion, _______ Aperture Distortion

21 _________ theorem establishes the minimum sampling rate (f s ) that can be used Nyquist Sampling
for a given PCM system.

22 The binary codes used for PCM are _________, where n may be any positive N-Bit Codes
integer greater than 1.
23 The sign bit in a sign-magnitude code. Most Significant Bit (

24 Is the process of converting an infinite number of possibilities to a finite number of Quantization

conditions. Is the process of rounding off the amplitudes of flat-top samples to a
manageable number of levels.

25 A type of code where the codes on the bottom half of the table are a mirror image Folded Binary Code
of the codes on the top half, except for the sign bit.

26 The magnitude difference between adjacent steps. Quantization

Interval or Quantum

27 If the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval, Overload Distortion
________ (also called peak limiting) occurs.

28 Any round-off errors in the transmitted signal are reproduced when the code is Quantization Error
converted back to analog in the receiver. (Qe ) Quantization
Noise (Qn)

29 Is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude Dynamic Ratio
(other than 0V) that can be decoded by the digital-to-analog converter in the
30 During times when there is no analog input signal, the only input to the PAM Idle Channel Noise
sampler is random, thermal noise also called as __________, that is converted to a
PAM sample just as if it were a signal.

31 A way to reduce idle channel noise wherein the first quantization interval is made Midtread
larger in amplitude than the rest of the steps. Quantization

32 Is the process of compressing and then expanding. Companding

33 Two methods of companding: -Law and A-law


34 Involves compression in the transmitter after the input sample has been converted Digital Companding
to a linear PCM code and then expansion in the receiver prior to PCM decoding.
35 When digitizing speech signals only, special voice encoders/decoders called Vacoders
_______ are often used

36 A _________ coder extracts the most significant portions of speech information Linear Predictive
directly from the time waveform rather than from the frequency spectrum as with
the channel and formant vocoders.

37 _________ modulation uses a single-bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission Delta
of analog signals.
38 Two problems associated with delta modulation that do not occur with Slope Overload and
conventional PCM. Granular Subdivision

39 With ________, the difference in the amplitude of two successive samples is Differential PCM (
transmitted rather than the actual sample. DPCM )

40 The secondary lobes are called __________. Ringing test

41 _________ causes crosstalk between channels that occupy adjacent time slots in a Inter symbol
time-division-multiplexed carrier system. interference ( ISI )

42 Special filters called _________ are inserted in the transmission path to equalize Equalizers
the distortion for all frequencies, creating uniform transmission medium reducing
transmission impairments.

43 A ________ is simply the superposition of a series of harmonically related sine Pulse Modulation
waves with specific amplitude and phase relationships.
44 The decision levels for the regenerator are represented by Crosshairs

45 The _______ has an effect on the symbol timing (clock) recovery circuit and, if Jitter
excessive, may significantly degrade the performance of cascaded regenerative


Items Definitions Terms

1 Transmission of information from one or more source To one or more destination over the Multiplexing
same transmission medium (facility).
2 Unsophisticated form of multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from Space-Division
different sources of different cables that are contained within the same trench.

3 Considered as transmission medium. Trench

4 Form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where to date channels (the I and Q) modulate QPSK
the same carrier frequency that has been shifted 90 in phase.

5 Modulates a sine wave carrier. I Channel Bits

6 Modulates a cosine wave carrier. Q Channel

7 Three most predominant methods of multiplexing signals. Time-Division


8 Transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same but not on the same time. Time-Division

9 Most prevalent encoding technique used for TDM digital signals. PCM

10 Use an 8-kHz sample rate and an eight-bit PCM code, which produces a 64 kbps PCM line DS-O Channel
11 Simply an electronically controlled digital switch with two inputs and one outputs. Multiplexer

12 One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits). TDM Frame

13 Time it takes to transmit one TDM frame. Frame Time

14 A communications system that uses digital pulses rather than analog signals to encode Digital Carrier
information. System
15 Specifies a digital carrier system using PCM encoded analog signals. TI or

16 Voice band channel bandwidth. 300 Hz to 3000


17 Special conditioned cables. TI Lines

18 Used to maintain frame and sample synchronization between TDM transmitter & receiver. Framing Bit

19 PCM encoders & decoders with a seven-bit magnitude. Digital Channel


20 Supervision between telephone offices, such as on hook, off hook, dial pulsing, and so Signaling
21 Only seven-bit resolution. Signaling
22 Consist of 24 193 bit frames, totaling 4632 bits, of which 24 are framing bits. Extended
Super Frame

23 Used for an error detection code. CRC-6 ( Cyclic

Checking )

24 Signaling bit in frame 6. A Bit

25 Signaling bit in frame 12. B Bit

26 Signaling bit in frame 18. C Bit

27 Signaling bit in frame 24. D Bit

28 Digital interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network. Data Service
Unit / Channel
Service Unit
29 Upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher level. Multiplexers /

30 Provides a convenient place to make patchable inter connects and perform routine Digital Cross
maintenance & trouble shooting. Connect

31 Provides frequency shifting for the master group signals. Signal

32 Low quality video transmission for use between non-dedicated subscribers. Picturephone

33 Identify when transitions occur in the data and whether that transition is from a 1 to a 0 or Three-Bit Code
vice versa.

34 First bit of the code. Address Bit

35 Converting standard logic levels. Digital Line


36 Involves the transmission of only a single nonzero voltage level. Unipolar

37 Two nonzero voltages are involved ( a positive voltage for a logic 1 and an equal -magnitude Bipolar
negative voltage for a logic 0 or vice versa).

38 Categorize the type of transmission. Duty Cycle

39 Maintained the entire bit time. Non-return to

40 Less than 100% of the bit time. Return to Zero

41 Produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum DC Wandering
discrimination between received 1s & 0s.

42 Popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component for clock recovery Digital Biphase
and does not cause dc wandering.

43 Uses one cycle of a square wave at 0 phase to represent a logic 1 and one cycle of a Biphase
square wave at 180 phase to represent a logic 0.
44 Used for encoding SMPTE(Society of Motion Picture and Tele vision Engineers) time -code Biphase M
data for recording on videotapes.

45 Commonly called the Manchester Code and specified in IEEE standard 802.3 for Ethernet Biphase L
local area networks.
46 Forms of delay-modulated codes where a logic 1 condition produces a transition in the Miller Codes
middle of the clock pulse, and a logic 0 produces no transition at the end of the clock
intervals unless followed by another logic 0.

47 Used for the transmission of PCM-encoded time-division multiplexed digital signals. T Carriers

48 Filters and shapes the incoming digital signal and raise its power level so that the Amplifier /
regenerator circuit can make a pulse-no pulse decision.

49 Recovery circuit reproduces the cocking information from the received data and provides Timing Clock
the proper timing information to the regenerator so that samples can be made at the
optimum time, minimizing the chance of an error occurring.
50 A threshold detector that compares the sampled voltage received to a reference level and Regenerative
determines whether the bit is a logic 1 or a logic 0. Repeater

51 Different version of T carriers used in Europe. E-Lines

52 Used for frame alignment pattern and for an alarm channel. Time Slot 0

53 Digital carrier frame synchronization. Added-Digit

code framing

54 Methods of Interleaving PCM transmissions: Bit Interleaving


55 Used more often for the transmission of data when they are called asynchronous TDM, Statistical
intelligent TDM, or simply stat muxs. Time-Division

56 Large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the telecommunications industry for CODEC
private branch exchanges.

57 Three functions of codec. Analog

Encoding /

58 Used to gate the PCM word onto the PCM highway when an external buffer is used to drive Time Slot
the line. Strobe Buffer
59 Data are input and output for a single channel in a short burst. Burst Mode

60 Allows for a flexible data input and output clock frequency. Variable-Data-

61 Data from the PCM highway are clock into the codec on the next eight consecutive Shift Register
negative transitions of DCLKR. Mode

62 Multiple sources that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are each converted Frequency
to a different frequency. Division

63 Process is accomplished without synchronization between stations. Stacking

64 AT&Ts communications network is subdivided into 2: Short Haul;

Long Haul

65 Basic building block of the FDM Hierarchy. Message


66 Separate signals with different wavelengths in a manner similar to the way fi lters separate Demultiplexers
electrical signals of different frequencies. /

67 Similar to regular multiplexers and demultiplexers except they are located at intermediate Add / Drop
points in the system. Multiplexers /
68 Direct signals of a particular wavelength to a specific destination while not separating all WDM Routers
the wavelengths present on the cable.

69 Enable more efficient utilization of the transmission capabilities of optical fibers by WDM Couplers
permitting different wavelengths to be combined and separated.

70 Three basic types of WDM couplers: Diffraction

Grating ; Prism
; Dichroic Filter
71 Multiplexing system similar to conventional time division multiplexing. Synchronous

72 Has a 51.84-Mbps synchronous frame structure. STS-1

73 Second level of SONET multiplexing. OC-48