Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

# Q.5: Describe various units of Babbage's analytical engine.

Babbage' analytical Engine consi ts of five unit . Wh i hare as fo llo\
TORE
This part wa t tore the numbers fed t the ma hi.ne and al o tho e number
that wt: re generated during the process of problem lving along with th
in tructions.
MILL
Th i w.. th Arithmetic un it which had to perfi rm all the Arithmetic
pc.:rati n autumatical Iy by rotation f gears and wheel .
0 TROL
Thi s uni t \ as to supervi c all the other unit and di r ct their \\ rk ing. The
thcr task assigned to this unit was to transfer the numb r and instructions from the
tor to the mill and vie versa. by r tati n of gear an " h I .

INPUT
The in put unit f the analytica l engine had to _upply data and in tructi n
th store. he input med ia was in the fo rm of punched card . www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
OUTPUT www.ratta.pk
The output unit had to display the results of calculation . www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
ST!. )IU: ~ www.ratta.pk
---- I www.ratta.pk

## l\l' l ~ r l.' ~ T .,_ ~ '

uNT R(.L IVUT Nil
IL -- ____ _J
I

- --- ----,
I

\ HLL I

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 1 of 11 www.office.com.pk

Q.6: Name various parts used in the first electromechani~al calculator.
The following parts have been used in electromechanical calculators.
1. Gears 2. Levers 3. Relays ~

## Q.7: Describe basic features of third generations of computers ..

BASICS FEATURES OF THIRD GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
Though transistors were clearly an improvement over the vacuum tube, they
sti 11 generated a great deal of heat, which damaged the comp1:1ter's sensitive internal
parts. The quartz rock eliminated this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer with Texas
Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. The , IC combined three
electronic components onto a small silicort disc, which was made from quartz.
Scientists later managed to fit even more components on a single chip, called a
semiconductor. As a result. computers became ever smaller as more components were
squeezed onto the chip.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation
computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system,
which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central
program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible
to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
The third generation of computers began in 1967 with the delivery of IBM with its
360 line of computers. These used integrated circuits in the hardware.
In the third generation of computers, more' than one user could . work with the
computer at the same time, whereas the l'irst and generation of computers worked on
a one-to-one basis.
Almost all computers introduced after 1960 were said to be third generation
computers. A good example of third generation was IBM 370.
I l l.#

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 2 of 11 www.office.com.pk

Q.8: Name one model of each generation of computer.
MODELS OF EACH GENERATION OF COMPUTER
First generation
ENI AC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) in 1943
EDS AC (Electronic Delayed Storage Automatic Computer) in 1949
UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic Computer) in 1951
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Y~riab l e Automatic Computer) in 1952
Second generation
IBM 700 series
IBM 1400 series
IBM 1600 series
Honey well 400 series
Honey well 80q series
lCL J 300 series
GE 200, GE 635 and GE 645 (General Electronic Corporation)
Third generation
IBM 360 series
PDP 8 series .
lC L 1900
Fourth generation
IBM 3033
IBM 4300
Honey well 60 series
NCR 8500 series
CYB ER 205 series
Sharp PC-121 I

## Q.9: Describe the basic difference between an analog and a digital

computer.
Difference between an analog computer and -a digital computer
Analog Computers Digital Computers
1. Accept data in continuous or I . Accepts data in the form of digits.
physical form. 2. Represent it in terms of discrete
2. Represent it in a suitable form on numbers and processes numbers using
an indicator and perform scientific various arithmetic and logic operations.
operations. 3. Digital compute~ quantities are
3. Analog represent physical counted rather than measured.
quantities like speed, weight, temperature 4. Digital computers are capable to
etc. do computation at a fast rate and can

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 3 of 11 www.office.com.pk

I 4. Analog computers are fast in store large data or inform ati on.
I proces ing but not ve ry accurate. 5. They are easy to program and are
5. They can be used in industries to ge.neral purpose in use.
control variou s processes.

## Q.10: Describe some of the features of: .. ~

(a) A Microcomputer (b) A Supercomputer
Main features of microcomputer and super computers are a ~ Ilows:
A) MICROCOMPUTER
A microcomputer is relatively inex pensive computer that i rapidly being
used in all application areas. Microcomputers were introduced in 1970 s as a result f
the development of microprocessor. A f11icroprocessor is a semiconduct r large- ca le
integrated (LSI) or very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit ha ving pr cessing
capabilities. Examples of microcomputers are IBM PC, AT PS/2 and Apple
Macintosh TRS-80.

Disk drive
;,
.
. \

Floppy disk

Laser printer ~

..... =-~:fl

CD-ROM/
.__ Modt>m

## GD- ROM drive , ~ Mouse

Fig: Microcomputer
B) SUPERCOMPUTER
Supercomputers are th e largest fastest and mo t expen ive computer
deve loped in 1980s to handle complicated problems. These ha c cxtraord inar
amounts of computing power required ~y large organizations scientific laboratori .

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 4 of 11 www.office.com.pk

aerospace centers, large industrial units, research laboratories, etc. Examples are
CRAY -1 and CRA Y-2 computers and control data cvBER 205 supercomputers.

www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
Q.11: What is the Internet? Describe its i.mportance in society. www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
www.ratta.pk
THE INTERNET
The Internet is a system of worldwide computer networks that enables the
Internet users to exchange information. Computers can be hooked to telephones
through modems so that data can be sent and received over telephone lines.
Telecommunication provides several new ways to communicate via computers.
INTERNET AND SOCIETY
Internet is an impo'rtant and fast tool of exchanging information from national
level to international level. With the passage of time more and more countries joined
Internet to share its rich resources. Today, the Internet is a global web of nearly one
million computer networks, at least 50 '!1illion computers and 200 million people
around the world. The Internet hosts are connected to the Internet round the clock;
Thousands more join this global network each month.
The Internet provides many services tt) million of people. Through Internet
you can access thousands of databases and talk with experts worldwide on any
subject. You can find jobs, get solution of your technical problems sell products and
conduct research. Internet has now become the need of most of us because of the vast
array of information and activities possible with it.

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 5 of 11 www.office.com.pk

.
life.
ol lowing are some advantages and disadvantages of computer in our Ii fe :
Computers make us more productive in We are also facing pr blems ari ing from
1nany of our jobs. the use of computers. The e are :
I. In education they can help us for 1. Unemployment due to automation
better understanding faster learn in~ and 2. Wastage of time and energy in
broaden our thinking. useless computer acti vities
2. In hospitals we have better 3. Data security
diagnosis, proper treatment and better 4. Personal privacy and
healthcare. 5. Computer crimes .
3. In business, they are used to
record stocks of raw material as well as
finished products, making - customer's
bill. analyzing sales of various products
etc.
4. In banks, they are used for day-
to-day processin of customer s accounts
.and payments.
5. 1n manufacturing, they provide
ways to develop a representation of the
product and to test it in a v~riety of
si1nulated environments.
Technology is a tool that is neutral between good and eviI. We have u ed it fo r
both. We have untested technologies of tremendous power in our ha nds. It is too ea rl y
to tell wh.ether they will be used to bu'ild or to destroy.

## Q.13: List some reasons for the use of computers in banks.

Many people today use computers to help them manage their fi nance . Some
use personal finance sofnvare to balance their checkbook, pay bill s, track per nal
income and .expenses, track investments, and ev aluate financial plans. Most of these
packages offer a variety of onlif)e services. For example you can track investments
online, compare insurance rates from leading insurance compani es, and d online
banking. With onlinc banking ~ you transfer money electronically from yo ur a count
to a payee's account or download monthly transactions from the Web ri 5ht int you r
computer.
Many financial institutions offer Web-based onl ine bankin g. The di ffe rence
between these Web sites and personal finance software 1s all you r acco unt
Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 6 of 11 www.office.com.pk
inf rm ti n i st red on the bank's computer. The ad antage is you can access your
inf rrnati n from anywhere in the world .

a
.14: Describe some features of computerized supermarket checkout
system.
Modern t res are quickly incorporating computer system for a number of
rea on . Firstly the e ysterns allow the bil Iing of item to be done at great speed. The
accept credit card , allowing customer to purchase good without cash .
The items at store are marked with 'Bar Code' . This .is called as "Universal
Pr duct ion Code". This is a sequence of lines which i read by a "Bar Code Reader' .
The price of the item is stored in this code and these are automatically added to the
bi 11. The computer generated the receipt and the customer pays the bi Us .
The computer along with generating the bill ~I o updates the inventory list.
This allows the tore manager to see that which item are , hort and in more demand.
Marketing experts can also use this informalion.
I I

I
J 12 4 67890 ~
Fig: Universal Production ode

## .15: What is UPC?

The blac k and white bar code printed on m.ost of the products offered for sale
in the supermarket is called Universal Production Code (UPC). This code is the key
to computer controlled supermarket checkout. The com.puter uses this code through
optical sens<:x to determine producf s name and price. The customer has an accurate
detail d receipt at the checkout counter terminal.

## .16: What is meant by CAI?

Answ r: -~ \
CAI (Computer Assisted fnstructions) is a system of individualized
in tructions that u es a program presented by a computer as the learning medium It
doe not in olve t aching about con1puters but rather.us~g computers ~s an aid in the
cla r rn instruction f a particular subject rnat;ter. Th~re: are four major types of
'1 . - ,,
_/\ ! y.itcms : ;~

## l . Ori l I :ind Practice

2. utorial
Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 7 of 11 www.office.com.pk
3. Dialog

## -.. Q.17: Briefly define computer science education.

Co1nputer science is composed of man y broad disciplines, including artificial
intel Iigence and software engineering. Today universities and colleges offer various
types of con1puter science diploma and degree coursed. During the past few years'
co1nputer science has also been introduced at SSC and HSSC levels throughout the
country. Government is taking serious measure to promote cornputer Iiteracy in the
country. Large numbers of government and private institutions are engaged in
computer education.

## Q.18: List some reasons of using computers in hospitals.

Due to the following reasons computers are used in the hospitals.
I. Keeps complete track record of patient personal information.
2. Stores patient history about their physician diagnosing, disease,
symptoms, treatment, vaccination and the side effects of those
medicines.
3. Helps doctors in recurring the patient, while having its history stored in
a computer in a second.
4. Helps the administration in patient care and rnedical research.
5. Helps the administration in controlling inventory of drugs, billing, and
payroll of employees working in a hospital and also for accounting
purpose.
6.. Keeps complete track record of drugs supplies and distribution from
main stores to different departments of hospitals.
7. Monitors 'the true cost for patients staying in hospital for treat1nent from
8. Monitor patients continuously by various scanning units linked with a
computer from operation theatre to the recovery room and the ward.

## Q.19: What is. meant by CMI?

CM I means con1puter management instructions. In a cornputer~managed
instruction (CMI) system, instead of teaching the students directly, the computer
assigns a student to read certain book, Iisten certain tape, attend certain lecture and so
on On completing the assignment, the student returns to the computer for testing and
f rther assignment. A CM I system has the following objectives:
I. The collection and processing of student s information
2. Instructional infonnation

## Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 8 of 11 www.office.com.pk

. 3. Passing of this information to the teacher in ummarized form so that it
can be used to help the tudent. 1 he use of computer to guide the
stud nt acco rding to hi s choice and place duri ng the process during the
planned se ri es of alte rnati ve learning experiences

## A compu te r progra m is a set of detailed , step-by-step instructions that tell a

computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task . A com puter program is a set of
in tructi ns in a , equence , wh ich tells the computer what to da The program, written
to lve a pecific pr blem. in. tructs the computer system t perform mathematical
cal ul ati n input data and tore data, display results on a visual display device.

## : Why machine and assembly language are called low-level

languages? www.ratta.pk
The set of binary instructi \.1n c 'des, which is directly understood by the CPU,
i ~ called machine language. Machi ne ::ind assembly languages are called low level
language becau e they are machin dependant. Both machine lang~age assembly
lan guugc are lo'vv le el language because they are closely resembles the machine
cod fa computer rather than th language of a problem. They translate instruction
from s urce to object.

## Q.22: What do you understand by Mnemonic code? Write down some of

the . Mnemonic codes along with the operations assigned to these
codes .
The se l of biilary in struction codes, which is directly understood by the CPU,
j ~ called mach ine language. Both machine language and assembly language are low
leve l languages beca use they are closely resembl es the mach ine code of a computer
rather than the language of a problem. Letters and sym bols are called mnemonic.
odes, which substi tute all operation and codes of the machine lan guage. Mnemonic
codes are used in Assemb ly language .
In tructions Operation Code Mnemonic Code
'top process ing 000 000 '
HLT
Ac.lo the number in memory t
th number in (!ccumulator.
lultipl y nu mbe r in memory to
000 I 00 MUL
the numb ~ r in accumu lator.
Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 9 of 11 www.office.com.pk
Q.23: What are high level programming languages? How they differ
from Assembly language?
HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
High-level languages are more suitable for human use than machine languages
and enable the programn1er to write instructions easily using EngJish words and
fa1niliar mathematical symbols. These symbolic languages are called high-level
languages. These high-level languages consist of simple English sentences, which are
very to understand and memorize for human being.
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE .
Both the machine and assembly languages are called low-level languages. An
assembly language is one step higher than the rnachine language in human
readability. A machine l~nguage consists of totally of numbers and is almost
impossible for humans to read. lh an assembly language, some of these numbers are
replaced by human readable symbols called language for humans and almost of the
same efficiency as machine language for computer operations. An assembly language
is a combination of mne1nonic operation codes and symbolic codes for address.
Assembly language is very efficient but it requires good skills for
progra1nming. A program written in an assembly language is translated into a
1nachine language before computer can understand and execute it. A computer
prograrn, which translates an assembly language program into its equivalent machine
language, is cal led assernbler.
A progra1n can be written in a much shorter time and much precisely when a
high level language is used. A program written in a high level language can be
executed in any computer system , which has a compiler for that programming
lan_guage.

## Q.24: Write short notes on the following: -

(a) BASIC (b) PASCAL (c) FORTRAN
A) BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
John Kemeny and Thon1as Kurtz developed BASIC in 1964 for beginners.
BASIC is a very simple language to use and understand. It uses si1nple English
words. Even a person with a little knowledge of computer programming can learn it
and uti Iize it for business and scientific purpose. It is a powerful language that has
grasped rnillions of users. The biggest problem with it is that it has no standard
version and different manufacturers have modified it into different versions.
Visit Ratta.pk for more notes Page 10 of 11 www.office.com.pk
B) PASCAL
'
/\ rn:nch mathematician Blaise Pascal introduced a programming language by
the name or l'ASCAL. It is a highly structute<l programming language. It was
d~vl'l o rcd in 1970' s after the concept of structured programming.
c) FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)
ll \Va developed in 1957 for IBM computers to solve mathematical. scientilic
and engineering prublcms. lt was one of the first languages to introduce the concept
of '" Modular Programming". It has been revised so many times.

## Q.25: What is a compiler? How it differs from an interpreter?

COl\tlPILER
;\ compiler is complex system software that automatically converts a
program written in some high-level language into an equivalent low-level machine
language. The computer or the language processor converts the entire program into
machine code before execution. A program written by a programmer in a language
other than machine language is called a source program. The output from a compiler
or an assembler, which consists of machine language instructions, is called the object
program .
INTERPRETER
An interpreter is another type of translator that converts each statement of a
program written in a high-level language into machine code and execute it before
translating the next statement of the source program . It d itTers from a compiler that
translates the cntiie source program into object program without undergoing its
exccut ion.