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722866-12-38E AID: 57384|9/16/2017

(a)

In statistics, an independent variable is the variable which is changed in an experiment to


observe the effect on the dependent variable.

In this case, there are two independent variable. First is What participants were told
regarding the consequences of high level of TAA having two levels Healthy
consequences and Unhealthy consequences. The second independent variable is
Timing of the recording of the participants perception of the accuracy of the TAA test
having two levels, prior and after taking the TAA test.

And the dependent variable is the accuracy of the TAA test.

(b)

According to given information, there are two independent variables and one scale
dependent variable. Also the samples are collected from the same group of participants.
Therefore a Two-Way within-groups ANOVA would be used to analyse given data.

More specifically, since each independent variable has two levels, therefore a 22 within-
groups ANOVA would be used to analyse given data.

(c)

Since this is a 22 within-groups ANOVA, that means each of the two independent variable
have 2 levels.
Therefore the number of cells in this research design = 22 = 4.

(d)

The table showing the cell means, marginal means and the grand mean can be constructed
as:

Before TAA After TAA Marginal Means


Unhealthy 6.60 5.60 6.1
Healthy 6.90 7.30 7.1
Marginal Means 6.75 6.45 6.6

Clearly the grand mean in the table is 6.6.

(e)

There appears to be a main effect of whether participants were told a high TAA level was
associated with healthy or unhealthy consequences. Overall, those told that it was
associated with healthy consequences perceived the TAA test to be more accurate, on
average, than did those told it was associated with unhealthy consequences.

(f)

Bar graph depicting the main effect of test outcome is given below:

(g)

The main effect is misleading on its own because, based on the cell means, the effect of
test outcome appears to depend only, or primarily, on whether perception was assessed
before or after the TAA test.

(h)

Based on the cell means, there does appear to be an interaction. When perceptions of the
TAA test were taken after the test, those told that high levels were associated with healthy
consequences perceived the test to be more accurate, on average, than did those told high
levels were associated with unhealthy consequences. Having been told the outcome of the
test, these participants were motivated to believe in the tests accuracy to different degrees.
But for those whose perceptions were assessed prior to the TAA test, there does not appear
to be much of an effect of the outcome of the test on perceptions of the test. Not knowing
the outcome, they had no motivation toward a certain perception of accuracy.

(i)
The bar graph of the interaction with lines to show the pattern of the interaction is given
as:

(j)

The interaction is quantitative because the direction of the effect of when the perception is
assessed does not switch depending on whether participants were told that high TAA levels
were associated with healthy or unhealthy consequences. The healthy group had higher
means regardless of timing.

(k)

The cell mean for the participants who had a healthy test outcome and who completed the
dependent measure prior to the TAA test has been changed from 6.90 to 4.20 so that this
is now a qualitative interaction. Note that the value of changed mean may be different from
person to person. New cell means are shown below:

Before TAA After TAA


Unhealthy 6.60 5.60
Healthy 4.20 7.30

(l)

The bar graph of the interaction with lines to show the pattern of the interaction is given
as:

(m)

The cell mean for the participants who had a healthy test outcome and who completed the
dependent measure prior to the TAA test has been changed from 6.90 to 8.30 so that there
is no interaction. New cell means are shown below:

Before TAA After TAA


Unhealthy 6.60 5.60
Healthy 8.30 7.30

(n)

The bar graph of the interaction with lines to show that there is no pattern of the interaction
is given as: